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Process management:

Process management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, techniques and systems to define,
visualize, measure, control, report and improve processes with the goal to
meet customer requirements profitably.


Lean manufacturing or lean production, often simply, "Lean," is a production practice that
considers the expenditure of resources for any goal other than the creation of value for the end
customer to be wasteful, and thus a target for elimination. Working from the perspective of the
customer who consumes a product or service, "value" is defined as any action or process that a
customer would be willing to pay for. Basically, lean is centered on preserving value with less work.
Lean manufacturing is a generic Process Management philosophy derived mostly from the Toyota
Production System (TPS) (hence the term Toyotism is also prevalent) and identified as "Lean" only in
the 1990s.It is renowned for its focus on reduction of the original Toyota seven wastes to improve
overall customer value, but there are varying perspectives on how this is best achieved. The steady
growth of Toyota, from a small company to the world's largest automaker,has focused attention on
how it has achieved this.

Lean manufacturing is a variation on the theme of efficiency based on optimizing flow; it is a present-
day instance of the recurring theme in human history toward increasing efficiency, decreasing waste,
and using empirical methods to decide what matters, rather than uncritically accepting pre-existing
ideas. In the larger narrative that also includes such ideas as the folk wisdom of thrift, time and motion
study, Taylorism, the Efficiency Movement, and Fordism. Lean manufacturing is often seen as a more
refined version of earlier efficiency efforts, building upon the work of earlier leaders such
as Taylor or Ford, and learning from their mistakes.

A decision-making process surrounds any design, whether it is architectural, graphic, or something
abstract, like a business model. The ultimate goal of every design process, however, is to meet the
desires needs of the client and end user. This requires the establishment of a standard objective in
addition to project criteria. Additional steps are added to the process in order to achieve design

Designs can be idea-led, technology-led, market-led, demand-led or design-led.

The Design Process
1. Identify a Need. Identify a Need or Purpose in a given situation.
2. Design Brief. Produce a short Design Brief.
3. Tasks Schedule. List all major areas of work and allocate times and deadlines.
4. Analysis of Brief. Look at the Brief and produce a list of research questions.
5. Research. Identify and collate information only relevant to the Analysis of Brief.
6. Specification. Produce a list of design requirements found from research relevant to the Brief.
7. Generate Ideas. Generate a range of different possible solutions satisfying the Specification.
8. Choose Solution. Produce a solution to the Brief using the Specification and your Generated Ideas.
9. Develop Solution. Generate details necessary to make the solution.
10. Make Solution. Produce the solution.
11. Test Solution. Test your solution against the Brief and Specification.
12. Modify Solution. List modifications to improve the solution's effectiveness.
13. Evaluation. Evaluate the project against the Brief and Specification, giving recommendations.

Business Process Reengineering is the analysis and design of workflows and processes within an
organization. A business process is a set of logically related tasks performed to achieve a defined
business outcome. Re-engineering is the basis for many recent developments in management.
Business Process Reengineering (BPR) is basically the fundamental rethinking and radical re-design,
made to an organizations existing resources. It is more than just business improvising.

Business Process Reengineering is also known as Business Process

Redesign, Business Transformation, or Business Process Change Management

Design process at the

Ford Motor Company
This resource has been developed by Ford and the Design Museum Education Department and

examines the design process used by Ford. It show a car is developed from the original concept

to the finished product. We also look at the changes in the design process brought about by computer

modelling. We aim to show that car design is not just about styling, but also about engineering,

testing and evaluating.The pack includes 3 projects suitable for KS3 and KS4 Resistant Materials,
A/AS level Design & Technology and GNVQ Engineering/ Manufacturing students.

Reason for Redesigning:

There are many reasons for continually redesigning new cars. For example:

• Advances in technology in the fields of mechanical, electrical and productionengineering.

• Newly identified markets, such as for small fuel-efficient urban vehicles

• Changes of style to appeal to the consumer’s changing taste

For these reasons all vehicles need to be continually assessed - for their technology, aesthetics and
cost-effectiveness - in order to becompetitive in the world market place and meetthe requirements of
the potential customer.In Europe, designing and testing takes place at Dunton in Essex, Merkenich
near Cologne in Germany and at the Lommel test facility in Belgium. Here vehicles and diesel and
petrol engines are designed and developed.Sophisticated laboratories and simulators atDunton and
Merkenich test engine emissions,vehicle durability and safety.

The team
The concept for a car is developed from the outset by a multi-disciplinary team which will include
specialists from Marketing, Research and Development (R&D), Design, Component and System
Engineering and Manufacturing. Each of these different functions works simultaneously on different
aspects of the product once the concept is agreed. Co-coordinating this effort will be the Programmed
Office who over-sees product planning.

Identifying a need
No matter how successful a vehicle is, the time may eventually arrive when market research and user
evaluation may call for a rethink. Typically in this case, Marketing will recommend a change to the
Programme Office, who will set the process in motion.

Changes fall into 3 categories:

1 Freshening

A superficial revision such as bumper or instrument panel redesign. This does not usually affect the
major manufacturing processes involved other than the realignment of drill holes, wiring, etc.

2 Sheet metal
A more fundamental change involving, as the title suggests, changes in the design and manufacture
of the sheet metal parts of the car body. When this kind of changeis indicated, the team will try to
retain the ‘platform’ or underbody of the car, as changing this is expensive.

• The Ford Fiesta is an example of a car which has undergone both ‘freshening’ and ‘sheet metal’

Ford fiesta before steel matel


Ford fiesta after steel metal


3 New model

This involves designing the car from scratch in response to a perceived user need.

• The Focus and the new Mondeo are examplesof recent new models for which totally new designs
and platforms were used.

Initial ideas

- developing a concept Once the concept has been agreed, a rough outline is provided to the Design
Studio, who will produce ideas using a software program called Paintbox. Very little freehand
sketching is done.The best ideas are selected and developed usingclay models and Computer Aided
Design (CAD).

Using an electronic pen on a pressure-sensitive pad, this system offers an array of drafting techniques
from thin pencil lines to airbrushing.Corrections can be edited on-screen.

The 3D system creates mathematical surface models that can be rotated on screen for evaluation
from various angles and perspectives.The mathematical framework for 3D CAD is based on
engineering information allowing the designer to produce a realistic visualisation of the final design.
From these a computer numerically controlled (CNC) milling machine cuts out a 3D model from clay,
synthetic wood or foam.

User evaluation
A series of single 3D CAD renderings can be linked to construct animations. These can be enhanced
by ‘video compositing’ (placing in a realistic setting) and high definition imaging,creating
representations that can be projected full size on to a large format screen. This process allows the
design to be evaluated by members of the public at an early stage in the design process.

• Using this system, market research on the Puma was conducted in 4 European cities in one

• Ford has more animation capacity than Walt Disney had for ‘Toy Story’.Ford Fiesta after ‘sheet
metal’ change

Designing and modelling

Once agreement has been reached on the design based on these early tests, computer simulations
and mock-ups, a 3D model must be made. Ford’s seven design studios world-wide are linked
together, allowing engineers to build virtual 3D prototypes using a system called C3P,which is
explained below. The data can be sent to an automated milling machine anywhere in the world to
create a clay model.

Clay models
Traditionally, these are made by technicians and consist of a steel armature covered by foam blocks
that are then covered in clay. Marketing will then show the models to focus groups of users, alongside
competitors’ products and current Ford models, to find out how users respond to the new design.

CAD technology means that a designer can rework a clay model instantaneously. This reduces
development time greatly compared with traditional hand-modelling techniques, and enables ‘rapid
prototyping’ to take place.Traditional methods meant that a new design, from initial idea to clay model,
would take a dozen people 12 weeks. Now one designer can produce a fully animated design in
under 3 weeks. The final design is milled out into a full-size clay model, using CAD data, on the 5-axis
mills at Dunton or Merkenich. This full-size model is then used for internal reviews with the senior
management, having the knowledge and comments from market research clinics, supporting
engineering studies and business projections.

Ergonomic testing
Ergonomic testing is one of a number of specialised studies that support design development. Aided
by a sophisticated computer system called RAMSIS, Ford engineers are able to simulate how human
shapes will interact with the vehicle design. This was a key tool in the early stages of the development
of the Focus and the new Mondeo, allowing engineers to test their theories, refine them and test them
again, without having to build time resource consuming prototypes.

Mock-up devices, known as ‘bucks’, are also brought in at this stage to verify theories developed
using digital tools:

The adjustable package buck is a car-like device that can be programmed to simulate a proposed
design. The height of the seats, the width of the doors, the amount of headroom and legroom, the
location of the steering wheel, pedals and interior and exterior mirrors can all be specified individually
and the buck reshaped accordingly.

The driveable buck simulates the vehicle in operation and is particularly useful in testing visibility
for manoeuvres such as parking.

The eyepoint vehicle buck is equipped with the same roof and pillar design as the planned
production vehicle. It provides a means to demonstrate to engineers how persons of differing heights
will see out of the vehicle.

Bodysuits are also worn by engineers, to simulate different human conditions, and allow designs
to be adapted to meet their needs better. The Third Age Suit consists of an all-in-one outfit
incorporating padding and elasticated binding to stiffen and restrict body movement around the wrists,
knees, neck and torso. Restrictive gloves and goggles to simulate deteriorating eyesight give the
wearer an understanding of the needs of olderpeople. A similar suit simulates the restricted
movements of a woman in late pregnancy.

• The taller profile of the Focus is the direct result of research using the Third Age Suit
Once Design, Engineering, Marketing and Manufacturing have agreed on a final design,the
Programme Office will issue it as a product specification which covers every system in the vehicle
(e.g. body style, engine, interior trim,chassis, electronics, etc). A timing plan with gateways, or
decision points, sets interim targets for completion of engineering development and manufacture.

Development of final design

Production of the prototype Designers and component, system and production engineers now work
simultaneously to develop and produce the vehicle prototype, a one-off version of the final design.
Some components and systems are ‘contracted out’ to other specialist companies (eg. seats, brakes).
Before the prototype is produced, ComputerAided Engineering (CAE) is used to ‘validate’components.
This means using computer aided technology to ensure that parts will fit together; it can even test
clearances on-screen by rotating nuts and bolts where they will be fitted to ensure that there will be
room to tighten them. Simultaneously with prototype-build Computer Aided Manufacturer (CAM) is
being used to design and develop the production processes.

This combines a collection of computer-based tools in one operating environment. In other words, it
incorporates CAD, CAE and CAM along with a product information database (PIM).It enables
engineers to design and develop the engineering properties of a component, create a virtual model of
its operation in the vehicle and simulate its manufacturing and assembly processes. Ford engineers
anywhere in the world can work on the same component simultaneously as any change is
automatically shared. Use of this system means that many prototypes - and the time and resources to
create them - can be erased from the product development phase.

• Thanks to C3P, the new Mondeo was taken from ‘Appearance Approval’ to ‘Job One’ in just 24
months - a reduction of 13 months off the development time. No paper drawings were used;
everything was created on computer.

Development, testing and evaluation of prototypes

Even with major advances in computing technology, ‘real world’ evaluation is still needed.Prototypes
must be tested over special surfaces and in realistic challenging conditions to ensure that they reach
the expected standards.Engineers do not wait for the prototype to be completed before testing and
evaluating. Vehicles are complex and it makes sense to test systems separately before assembling
the complete car.

Much evaluation of prototypes can be done on testing rigs; for example, engine mounts are
tested on a multi-axis simulator table (MAST), a shaking table which can be programmed to simulate
a variety of difficult road surfaces. Systems and components
undergoing these kinds of durability tests - engine mounts, suspension, brakes, steering -are
characteristically tested to 150,000 miles.Testing rigs are highly sophisticated; a new

Not all testing rigs are expensive or complicated;keys, locks, hinges and catches all have to
betested too, and these rigs, though equally effective,have more of a ‘Blue Peter’appearance,
featuring simple mechanisms, flexible wire and bungee cord.MAST at Dunton cost $3 million.

Not all testing rigs are expensive or complicated;keys, locks, hinges and catches all have to be
tested too, and these rigs, though equally effective,have more of a ‘Blue Peter’appearance, featuring
simple mechanisms, flexible wire and bungee cord.

Power train Development Laboratory

Here all powertrain related systems can be brought together. Engines, transmissions, driveshafts and
related components such as fuel injector systems and oil pumps can be tested under computer
control 24 hours a day.

Trim - Tints, textures and aroma

Interior and exterior surface colour and trim are chosen by specialist designers based closely on
information from the marketing department.As well as complementing the overall design of the car,
the design team will investigate new yarn and weave technology and will explore new ‘reach’ or
fashionable colours which may change during the production life of the car.

Attention to detail is illustrated by the ‘Aroma Sensing’ team where odours from combinations of
materials under hot or humid conditions may prove unacceptable. Detecting and addressing these
problems was formerly done by people with a well-developed sense of smell. Gas analysis of smells
was subsequently found to be more reliable, and nowadays Ford use electronic noses in their
production plants to anticipate problems.

Finished prototype tests

Once each system has been rigorously tested the car is assembled and a new series of tests are
conducted on the finished prototype:

Road load data collection involves setting up a car with an in-board computer to monitor performance
under a variety of road conditions.This data is also used to operate the road simulation rigs, as
discussed previously, giving high repeatability and also reducing development time.

Environmental testing is carried out to ensure that vehicles operate under all climatic conditions.

• Ford have recently opened a multi-million pound four storey environmental test laboratory in which
vehicles can be tested for response to temperatures of -40 to +55 degrees C, directional wind speed
of225kph, pressure up to 12000 feet altitude,humidity and hot road conditions.

Emissions testing is conducted on the same vehicle every 5000 miles. Between tests the car is
put in the mileage accumulation facility to be driven by a robot.
• It would take sixty-eight Ford Focus cars today to produce the same amount of pollution emitted by
one Ford Escort in 1968.

• It would take sixty-eight Ford Focus cars today to produce the same amount of pollution emitted by
one Ford Escort in 1968.

Designing Noise
Noise Vibration and Harshness is monitored on both Ford and competitors’ cars. Acoustic engineering
is not just minimising unwelcome noise, such as engine rattle, but involves the design of particular
sounds to satisfy customer needs and expectations about the sound a gear change or a light switch
should make. These will differ according to the type of car and the potential customers.

• On the Ford Focus at least twenty sounds were specially designed to suit the perceived
market.Crash testing uses the Crash Test Dummy team to simulate impacts using computer-aided
engineering. The dummies are packed with sophisticated electronics and take several hours to
calibrate before each test. There is also a Head Impact Test Facility involving a robot arm fitted with a
nitrogen-powered launcher which fires a dummy head at various locations in the car interior.

• Calculations for a crash simulation take Ford’s 16-processor Triton computer 15 minutes. The same
calculations would take a home PC 15 weeks, a calculator 67,000 years and a person with a pen and

paper 68,000,000 years.

• In 1985 a crash simulation cost £35,000. By 1997 it cost £120. Today it costs about £8.

The computer and test rig have in some instances superceded test driving simulations. However,
prototypes are still driven in a wide range of road and weather conditions and left in salt baths and
high temperatures.

• The Focus was tested by 2,500 Ford employees before its launch. Test driving was done mainly at
night; bodywork disguises were used during the day to keep the design secret.

Crash test dummy

The engine and the car body are produced on separate production lines. Each is matched with
components for an individual customer’s order. The complex task of coordinating the arrival of
components at exactly the right time and place (called Just In Time) is made possible by
sophisticated computer programs. Thus every car on the production line is different, and no parts are
stock-piled awaiting assembly.

The engine

An engine begins life as a rough casting from an outside supplier. This engine block and the pistons,
crankshaft and camshaft are then machined to match each other exactly. Gaskets are applied by
machine in a liquid form, looking rather like black toothpaste, and then the cylinder head, manifold and
electrical parts are added. Whilst much of the engine assembly is by machine or by robot, many
operations still need to be done by hand.

Once the engine is complete it is connected to fuel, oil and water and tested by computer.

The body
The body is constructed of sheet steel, which is delivered to the plant in rolls 1 kilometre long.The
same computer-aided processes that enable designers to produce models from their 2D designs can
also transform clay models into dies to stamp doors, wings, and other sheet metal parts. This is done
in the Press Shop.Huge tri-axis and tandem presses can produce nearly 1000 parts an hour.The parts
are then moved to the Body Shop where they are assembled into a body shell.Parts travel on pallets
and form ‘production islands’ to construct the larger body parts.Production is fully automated, with
4,000 welds in every vehicle, almost all of which are done by robots.

Once the body is assembled it is united with the underbody. Like the engine, each body is destined for
a particular customer, and computers identify the body sides and roof which match each underbody
by Testing
A selection of the day’s output is measured against the manufacturing specification; there is no
margin of error.

At this stage on the production line, many seats and bumpers. These arrive on separate assembly
lines or from suppliers. Just In Time also operates here, enabling suppliers to link directly to
production control at the plant via an on-line computer system. Many thousands of components are
delivered daily directly to the assembly station where they will be fitted.

Once complete, the body shell is cleaned, de-greased, phosphate-coated and immersed in electro-
static primer. PVC sealant and wax is then applied to specific areas of the underbody by robots.
Automatic spraying produces a high quality finish; spray guns spin hundreds of times a minute to
adjust distance and angle, and seven coats of paint are applied.Difficult corners, however, are still
sprayed by hand.

Vehicle shells then proceed to the Final Assembly Line, where they are fitted with electrical and
mechanical systems (engine, suspension, transmission), and are glazed using polyurethane

Once in place electrical circuits such as airbags,screen wash and wipe and illumination are
tested.After wheels, trim and badges have been added,vehicles undergo final checks before
deliverymeans of bar codes.

f you ever wondered how marketing sees the customer here is a little snippet from the
Ford Performance Vehicles marketing plan.


S.A.A.R. went up slightly in October to 10.46 million units, but now that we are so close
to year end, even if we assume November and December, S.A.A.R. at 10 million unit rate,
the 2009 average will only be 10 million. Out of that 10 million average, 3 million are
total imports.

Capacity planning is the process of determining the production capacity needed by an
organization to meet changing demands for itsproducts.[1] In the context of capacity planning,
"capacity" is the maximum amount of work that an organization is capable of completing in a
given period of time. The phrase is also used in business computing as a synonym
for Capacity Management


Capacity is calculated: (number of machines or workers) × (number of shifts) × (utilization) ×

The broad classes of capacity planning are lead strategy, lag strategy, and match strategy.

 Capacity Cushion strategy is adding capacity in anticipation of an increase

in demand. Lead strategy is an aggressive strategy with the goal of luring customers
away from the company's competitors. The possible disadvantage to this strategy is that
it often results in excess inventory, which is costly and often wasteful.
 Expansionist strategy refers to adding capacity only after the organization is
running at full capacity or beyond due to increase in demand (North Carolina State
University, 2006). This is a more conservative strategy. It decreases the risk of waste,
but it may result in the loss of possible customers.
 Match strategy is adding capacity in small amounts in response to changing
demand in the market. This is a more moderate strategy.

In the context of systems engineering, capacity planning is used during system design and
system performance monitoring.

Capacity planning is long-term decision that establishes a firms' overall level of resources. It
extends over time horizon long enough to obtain resources. Capacity decisions affect the
production lead time, customer responsiveness, operating cost and company ability to
compete. Inadequate capacity planning can lead to the loss of the customer and business.
Excess capacity can drain the company's resources and prevent investments into more
lucrative ventures. The question of when capacity should be increased and by how much are
the critical decisions.

Production capacity has always been one of the most important strategic variables for the major
automobile companies. Decisions by individual companies concerning the overall level of capacity,
the type of facility (e.g., the level of flexibility), and the location of that capacity. In this paper, we
describe a model developed for General Motors to aid in making decisions about capacity for four of
their auto lines. The model incorporates elements of scenario planning, integer programming, and risk
Ford Motor Company:

A Fortune 7 Company, and a global automotive industry leader based in Dearborn,

Michigan, manufactures and distributes automobiles in 200 markets across six

At Ford Motor Company, we are dedicated to designing, manufacturing and selling

high quality vehicles that meet the diverse needs of our customers. We believe our
employees and the different perspectives that they bring to the business are the
driving force behind our success. Come discover a company that is focused on the
quality of our vehicles, the environment, the community and the world in which we

Ford Business Services Center:

FBSC is a 100% subsidiary of Ford Motor Company, that provides value-added
Services to Ford affiliates worldwide in the areas of Accounting, Finance and
Operations Support Services.

Finance has a presence in nearly every Ford plant, division, operation and major
subsidiary around the world. Serving as integral members of the Company's
management team, we are leaders in Ford's global decisionmaking. Working with
our cross-functional partners in Product Development, Manufacturing, Purchasing,
Marketing Sales & Service and Ford Credit, we help to plan, build, market and sell
Ford Products around the world and ensure that we do it profitably

Aggregate planning (AP) in business is defined as the process of development,
analytics and maintenance of a schedule for the business' overall operations. It is
usually medium range in nature, lasting anywhere from three to 18 months. The planned
output levels, targeted sales and intended inventory levels are taken into account while
preparing an aggregate plan. An efficient aggregate plan should do away with day-to-
day scheduling.
1. A good aggregate plan must attempt to match the demand for a product/service
and its supply by ascertaining the required quantities and timings. The plan must
consider a horizon with scope for intermittent updating. That is, the demand and
supply both must be able to be influenced, with changes in production rates,
inventories and workforce levels.
There are two types of aggregate plans used by businesses: production
aggregate plans and staffing aggregate plans. The production plan prepares a
managerial report for the said period with respect to production rates, inventories
and customer specifications. The staffing plan details out the staff sizes and labor
2. The main objective is to minimize total cost across the planned period. To
achieve this, inventory and investment, changes in workforce and production
rates should be minimized. Also, customer satisfaction and utilization of the plant
and equipment should be maximized.
3. There are three main types of AP strategies that businesses worldwide use.
There are active strategies, passive strategies and mixed strategies. Each has its
advantages and drawbacks.
Active Strategies
4. By following this method, the business attempts to grip demand fluctuations by
stressing demand management. For this, the management uses pricing
strategies and develops products that are counter-cyclical.
Passive Strategies
5. This method attempts to handle demand fluctuations by stressing supply and
capacity. The businesses that use this strategy build and draw from inventories
and have mutual agreements with other firms in the same line of business. These
strategies account for backlogs and stock-outs and allow the business to vary
use of labor through overtime and/or idle time.
Mixed Strategies
6. Businesses using these strategies use a mix of active and passive strategies.
Firms that use this methodology use experience, preset rules and conditions,
managerial instinct and insight. More often than not, these strategies involve the
use of computers for graphical interpretation and spreadsheet analysis. There is
a major drawback to this. Though many solutions are possible, the optimal one is
rarely found.

Ford aggregate production

The linear decision rule for aggregate planning is based on the assumption that
production costs are linear. A production plan is that. How do you reset oil light on
Ford five hundred?. Aggregate Production Planning for ETI; Cross-Brand and Cross-
Retailer Effects of Pricing for FMCG; 2001. Ford-Otosan: Modes of sharing
information with suppliers (1) mrp – materials requirements planning. (2). (1) Ford
Production system – mass production. and shipping. Global buffers allow us to
aggregate. Kempsford Quarry Proposed extension Aggregate Industries UK. The
planning application will be submitted to. This area will be returned to agricultural
production. logistics model for Frito-Lay: coordinating aggregate-level production.
FLNA faces complex outbound logistics planning issues.. Ford uses OR to make
urgent sourcing decisions in a. SKU's) o Span of volume APS : Application Planning
Software T-Ford given time period o maximum output rate of an operation •
Aggregate Planning (6-12 months) • Master production.

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Ford Motor Company General Information


Manufactures and distributes automobiles on six continents, strong presence in all 50 states.

Employs approximately 224,000 people and operates 90 plants worldwide.

Brands include Ford, Lincoln, Mercury, Volvo, Mazda and Ford Motor Credit Company.

U.S. Ford Employees, Retirees and Dependents: More than 535,000.

U.S. Ford Dealership Employees: More than 175,000.

Indirect U.S. Jobs Supported: More than 575,000.
Economic Impact

U.S. Research and Development Investments (2005-07): $22.7 billion total.

U.S. Goods and Services Purchased: More than $40 billion/ year.

U.S. Supplier Facilities: More than 7,000.

Ford Vehicles on U.S. Roads: 48 million.
Setting Ford Apart

Leveraging global portfolio to deliver six new world-class small and mid-size vehicles, starting in

Ford, Lincoln, Mercury lineup to be almost completely upgraded by end of 2010.
2009 Ford F-150, which is now on sale.
2010 Ford Fusion, Mercury Milan, Lincoln MKZ sedans, on sale in spring 2009.
2010 Ford Fusion Hybrid and Mercury Milan Hybrid on sale in spring 2009, doubling
vehicle production and the hybrid lineup.
New Ford Mustang – coupe, convertible, and glass-roof models – in spring 2009.
New Ford Taurus sedan – with EcoBoost engine/advanced safety/convenience
technologies – in mid-2009.
New European Transit Connect small multi-purpose van in mid-2009.
New Lincoln seven-passenger crossover – with EcoBoost engine – in mid-2009.
New European Ford Fiesta, in both four- and five-door versions, in early 2010.
New European Ford Focus, in both four- and five-door versions, in 2010.
New Mercury small car in 2010.
Next-generation Ford Explorer – with unibody, EcoBoost, up to 25 percent better fuel
economy – in 2010.

Increasing car and crossover products to 60 percent of Ford’s lineup, versus 30 percent in 2006.

Ford plans to be the best or among the best in fuel economy with every new product in its

Hybrid vehicle production and lineup to double in 2009.

EcoBoost V-6 engines, Ford’s new engine technology that provides 20 percent better fuel
economy with 15 percent fewer CO2 emissions, introduced on several vehicles in 2009,
beginning with Lincoln MKS, Ford Taurus, Ford Flex.Four-cylinder EcoBoost engines will debut
in 2010.Ford will offer EcoBoost on more than 80 percent of its North American lineup by the
end of 2012.

Ford to double capacity for North American four-cylinder engines to more than 1 million units
by 2011.

Planning Layout

A planning layout is a tool for providing data records from an InfoCube for manual planning or data
The data records of an InfoCube can be seen as comprising characteristics that form the key, with key
figures forming the data part of the records (see Star Schema). Planning level characteristics and
key figures are assigned to the header, lead column, and data column area in a planning layout. At
runtime for manual planning the key figure values of the data records for every combination of
characteristic values are presented in the header in a matrix spanning the lead columns and data

A planning layout consists of a header area and the lead and data columns. All characteristics of the
planning level have to be distributed to the areas of the planning layout. The planning layout also has
to contain at least one key figure.

Header area
The header area only contains characteristics. The values of the characteristics in the header area lie
within the selection permitted in the planning level or planning package. SAP recommends you
include characteristics in the header area that do not vary greatly.
You can also structure a planning layout without a header area. Normally this is only useful if you are
only using a few characteristics and only a few combinations can be formed from the characteristic

Data columns
The underlying structure of the data columns is always fixed: The columns are created individually in
the layout builder. Which key figure and which characteristic values are to be contained in the column
are determined at that point. Each planning layout must have at least one data column.
To keep the number of the planning layout as low as possible, data columns can be parameterized:
You can use a variable for a characteristic value or identify a data column for a characteristic
as dynamic.
In this case the final structure of the data column is only determined at runtime: The system replaces
variables and generates, from a dynamic column, as many columns as there are values according to
the selection made in the master data. Only then is data from the InfoCube read and structured
according to the structure of the planning layout. In this way the data columns for the planning layout
always have a fixed structure (at runtime).
You can only use a characteristic in a data column if the selection for this characteristic is already
determined in the planning level. This restriction does not apply to a dynamic characteristic in the data

Lead columns
Planning layouts can be divided into two basic classes:
• Those rows that appear at runtime and are not determined in the planning layout. The planning
layout only describes which characteristics are to be used in the lead columns. The
combination of characteristic values results from the data selected from the InfoCube. Lead
columns of this kind are called Simple Lead Columns.
• As with data columns, you want to define each individual row in the planning layout. In this
case the layout has just one lead column. You can determine which key figure and which
characteristic values you want to use for each row on an individual basis. Here you have the
same formatting options as in the data columns. As in the data columns, you can use a key
figure and a characteristic value together. Therefore this lead column is also called a Complex
Lead Column.
The key figures can either be used in the data columns or in the individually defined rows of a lead
column. Each planning layout must contain at least one lead column.

In manufacturing, facility layout consists of configuring the plant site with lines,
buildings, major facilities, work areas, aisles, and other pertinent features such as
department boundaries. While facility layout for services may be similar to that for
manufacturing, it also may be somewhat different—as is the case with offices,
retailers, and warehouses. Because of its relative permanence, facility layout
probably is one of the most crucial elements affecting efficiency. An efficient layout
can reduce unnecessary material handling, help to keep costs low, and maintain
product flow through the facility.

Firms in the upper left-hand corner of the product-process matrix have a process
structure known as a jumbled flow or a disconnected or intermittent line flow. Upper-
left firms generally have a process layout. Firms in the lower right-hand corner of the
product-process matrix can have a line or continuous flow. Firms in the lower-right
part of the matrix generally have a product layout. Other types of layouts include
fixed-position, combination, cellular, and certain types of service layouts.


Process layouts are found primarily in job shops, or firms that produce customized,
low-volume products that may require different processing requirements and
sequences of operations. Process layouts are facility configurations in which
operations of a similar nature or function are grouped together. As such, they
occasionally are referred to as functional layouts. Their purpose is to process goods
or provide services that involve a variety of processing requirements. A
manufacturing example would be a machine shop. A machine shop generally has
separate departments where general-purpose machines are grouped together by
function (e.g., milling, grinding, drilling, hydraulic presses, and lathes). Therefore,
facilities that are configured according to individual functions or processes have a
process layout. This type of layout gives the firm the flexibility needed to handle a
variety of routes and process requirements. Services that utilize process layouts
include hospitals, banks, auto repair, libraries, and universities.

Improving process layouts involves the minimization of transportation cost, distance,

or time. To accomplish this some firms use what is known as a Muther grid, where
subjective information is summarized on a grid displaying various combinations of
department, work group, or machine pairs. Each combination (pair), represented by
an intersection on the grid, is assigned a letter indicating the importance of the
closeness of the two (A = absolutely necessary; E = very important; I = important; O
= ordinary importance; U = unimportant; X = undesirable). Importance generally is
based on the shared use of facilities, equipment, workers or records, work flow,
communication requirements, or safety requirements. The departments and other
elements are then assigned to clusters in order of importance.

Advantages of process layouts include:

• Flexibility. The firm has the ability to handle a variety of processing

• Cost. Sometimes, the general-purpose equipment utilized may be less costly
to purchase and less costly and easier to maintain than specialized
• Motivation. Employees in this type of layout will probably be able to perform a
variety of tasks on multiple machines, as opposed to the boredom of
performing a repetitive task on an assembly line. A process layout also allows
the employer to use some type of individual incentive system.
• System protection. Since there are multiple machines available, process
layouts are not particularly vulnerable to equipment failures.

Disadvantages of process layouts include:

• Utilization. Equipment utilization rates in process layout are frequently very

low, because machine usage is dependent upon a variety of output
• Cost. If batch processing is used, in-process inventory costs could be high.
Lower volume means higher per-unit costs. More specialized attention is
necessary for both products and customers. Setups are more frequent, hence
higher setup costs. Material handling is slower and more inefficient. The span
of supervision is small due to job complexities (routing, setups, etc.), so
supervisory costs are higher. Additionally, in this type of layout accounting,
inventory control, and purchasing usually are highly involved.
• Confusion. Constantly changing schedules and routings make juggling
process requirements more difficult.


Product layouts are found in flow shops (repetitive assembly and process or
continuous flow industries). Flow shops produce high-volume, highly standardized
products that require highly standardized, repetitive processes. In a product layout,
resources are arranged sequentially, based on the routing of the products. In theory,
this sequential layout allows the entire process to be laid out in a straight line, which
at times may be totally dedicated to the production of only one product or product
version. The flow of the line can then be subdivided so that labor and equipment are
utilized smoothly throughout the operation.
Two types of lines are used in product layouts: paced and unpaced. Paced lines can
use some sort of conveyor that moves output along at a continuous rate so that
workers can perform operations on the product as it goes by. For longer operating
times, the worker may have to walk alongside the work as it moves until he or she is
finished and can walk back to the workstation to begin working on another part (this
essentially is how automobile manufacturing works).

On an unpaced line, workers build up queues between workstations to allow a

variable work pace. However, this type of line does not work well with large, bulky
products because too much storage space may be required. Also, it is difficult to
balance an extreme variety of output rates without significant idle time. A technique
known as assembly-line balancing can be used to group the individual tasks
performed into workstations so that there will be a reasonable balance of work
among the workstations.

Product layout efficiency is often enhanced through the use of line balancing. Line
balancing is the assignment of tasks to workstations in such a way that workstations
have approximately equal time requirements. This minimizes the amount of time that
some workstations are idle, due to waiting on parts from an upstream process or to
avoid building up an inventory queue in front of a downstream process.

Advantages of product layouts include:

• Output. Product layouts can generate a large volume of products in a short

• Cost. Unit cost is low as a result of the high volume. Labor specialization
results in reduced training time and cost. A wider span of supervision also
reduces labor costs. Accounting, purchasing, and inventory control are
routine. Because routing is fixed, less attention is required.
• Utilization. There is a high degree of labor and equipment utilization.

Disadvantages of product layouts include:

• Motivation. The system's inherent division of labor can result in dull, repetitive
jobs that can prove to be quite stressful. Also, assembly-line layouts make it
very hard to administer individual incentive plans.
• Flexibility. Product layouts are inflexible and cannot easily respond to required
system changes—especially changes in product or process design.
• System protection. The system is at risk from equipment breakdown,
absenteeism, and downtime due to preventive maintenance.


Many situations call for a mixture of the three main layout types. These mixtures are
commonly called combination or hybrid layouts. For example, one firm may utilize a
process layout for the majority of its process along with an assembly in one area.
Alternatively, a firm may utilize a fixed-position layout for the assembly of its final
product, but use assembly lines to produce the components and subassemblies that
make up the final product (e.g., aircraft).


Cellular manufacturing is a type of layout where machines are grouped according to

the process requirements for a set of similar items (part families) that require similar
processing. These groups are called cells. Therefore, a cellular layout is an
equipment layout configured to support cellular manufacturing.

Processes are grouped into cells using a technique known as group technology
(GT). Group technology involves identifying parts with similar design characteristics
(size, shape, and function) and similar process characteristics (type of processing
required, available machinery that performs this type of process, and processing

Workers in cellular layouts are cross-trained so that they can operate all the
equipment within the cell and take responsibility for its output. Sometimes the cells
feed into an assembly line that produces the final product. In some cases a cell is
formed by dedicating certain equipment to the production of a family of parts without
actually moving the equipment into a physical cell (these are called virtual or nominal
cells). In this way, the firm avoids the burden of rearranging its current layout.
However, physical cells are more common.

An automated version of cellular manufacturing is the flexible manufacturing system

(FMS). With an FMS, a computer controls the transfer of parts to the various
processes, enabling manufacturers to achieve some of the benefits of product
layouts while maintaining the flexibility of small batch production.

Some of the advantages of cellular manufacturing include:

• Cost. Cellular manufacturing provides for faster processing time, less material
handling, less work-in-process inventory, and reduced setup time, all of which
reduce costs.
• Flexibility. Cellular manufacturing allows for the production of small batches,
which provides some degree of increased flexibility. This aspect is greatly
enhanced with FMSs.
• Motivation. Since workers are cross-trained to run every machine in the cell,
boredom is less of a factor. Also, since workers are responsible for their cells'
output, more autonomy and job ownership is present.

Special Tools Needed to Install Ford 2.0/2.3L Duratec Crankshaft Pulley Some 2001-2007 vehicles
equipped with a Ford 2.0L or 2.3L Duratec engine may exhibit no start, loss of engine timing or a
scraping noise in the crankshaft pulley at the front of engine. These engines, excluding 2.0L SPi and
Zetec engines, may be damaged if the crankshaft pulley bolt is loosened incorrectly during service.
The crankshaft pulley bolt also retains the crankshaft cam drive sprocket which is NOT keyed to the
crankshaft, so valve timing may shift if the crankshaft pulley bolt is loosened. If this occurs, the pistons
may contact and damage the valves.
Before ANY repairs are made that require loosening or removal of the crankshaft pulley bolt, the
engine’s valve timing .MUST be locked by using the special service tools detailed here. Do not
attempt to start the engine without verifying engine cam timing.
1) Crankshaft Timing Peg (ESST Number 303-507) is 2-1/8˝ (54 mm).
2) Camshaft Alignment Plate (ESST Number 303-465).
3) Holding Fixture (ESST Number205-126).
4) Adaptor (ESST 205-072-02).
Inspect the crankshaft pulley for rubber protruding from the pulley loose pulse wheel, or bent tabs on
pulse wheel touching the engine front cover.Replace damaged crankshaft pulley with appropriate
service kit for respective vehicle line. Revised Ford 3.0L Oil Pan Gasket Identification and

A service oil pan gasket and a new service oil pan gasket kit (p/n 2U7Z-6710-AA) has been released
for all Ford 3.0L-2V “Vulcan” engines built from 1986-2001. The revised gasket eliminates the need to
attach the gasket to the block using contact adhesive, eliminating gasket creep during installation.
Slightly longer fasteners have also been released and packaged in the kit. The old bolts must be
replaced with the new ones.
The new gasket is installed by simply placing it on the oil pan (not gluing it to the block). The bolts still
must be torque twice during installation and once after the engine has reached operating temperature.
The torque value for the bolts has not changed and is the same as listed in service manuals. With the
revised Oil Pan Gasket Kit follow this installation procedure.
1. Remove the oil pan and discard the old gasket and fasteners.
2. Clean and inspect both the oil pan and the engine block mounting surface.Carefully and thoroughly
remove all traces of the old RTV sealant from the oil pan and engine block. Refer to the Workshop
Manual for the correct metal surface cleaner.
3. Apply beads of Silicone Gasket and Sealant (p/n F7AZ-19554-EA or equiva Circle 114 for more
information Inspect the crank 2.0/2.3L shaft pulley for rubber protruding from pulley, loose pulse
wheel or bent tabs on pulse wheel touching the front cover. Apply beads of silicone gasket and
sealant to the front cover and rear bearing capto-block parting lines of the revised oil pan gasket for
Ford 3.0L engines.
4. Install the gasket on the oil pan, being
careful not to damage the plastic tabs.
5. Install the oil pan to the engine block
with the new bolts packaged in the service
kit. Hand tighten the fasteners. Note: The
two corner bolts near the front of the
engine are a different length.
6. Tighten the 4 corner bolts first to 106
in.lbs. (12 Nm)
7. Tighten the remaining 14 bolts from
back to front (alternating from side to side)
to 106 in.lbs. (12 Nm).
8. Check all the bolts by retightening to
the same torque specs in the appropriate
model year Service Work Shop Manual
and discard the old gasket and fasteners.
9. Finish installing the oil pan with appropriate fasteners.
10. Refill engine with oil, start engine and allow it to reach operating temperature. The cooling fan
should cycle at least one time. Stop the engine and retighten (torque) all the oil pan bolts to 106 in.lbs.
(12 Nm).
11. Inspect for oil leaks. Revised TTY Head Bolt Kit and Torque Procedures for 88-95 5.0L Engines
In 1992, the cylinder head bolts used on the 5.0L engines were changed to TorqueTo - Y i e l d
(TTY) style.Depending on the build date of the engine, the 1992 model year engines came with either
TTY bolts or standard torque, nota combination of the two. In 1993, TTY bolts were used on all 5.0L

The two types of bolts that are used are physically different as seen. The standard torque bolt is a
non-flanged hex head bolt. The torque to yield bolt is a flanged head bolt. Both types of bolts may be
used on any of the 5.0L engines however they must all be the same style on each cylinder head.
Do not mix and match. The TTY cylinder head bolts are available only in a packaged kit (F3ZZ-6065-
E). The kit contains the following:
• (5) 7/16-14x3.94 bolts
• (5) 7/16-14x2.49 bolts
• (1) 3/8-16x7/16-3.93 stud
• (1) Instruction sheet (I.S. #6605)
Some applications use various quantities
of studs for fastening items to the cylinder
Torque Specifications:
For the non-flanged standard hex head
bolts, tighten in two (2) steps as follows:
1)Tighten all bolts in sequence (see
Figure 4) to 55-65 ft.lbs. (75-88 Nm).
2) Tighten all bolts in sequence (see
Figure 4) to 65-72 ft.lbs. (88-98 Nm).
For all Torque-To-Yield hex head bolts,
tighten in three (3) steps as follows:
1) Tighten all bolts in sequence (see
Figure 4) to 25-35 ft.lbs. (34-47 Nm).
2) Tighten all bolts in sequence (see
Figure 4) to 45-55 ft.lbs. (61-75 Nm).
3) Tighten all bolts in sequence (see
Figure 4) an additional 1/4 turn (85-95
Note: When the cylinder head bolts
have been tightened following these procedures, it is not necessary to retighten the bolts after
extended operation. However, used TTY bolts must be replaced with new bolts. Do not reuse TTY
Identifying Differences Between Ford 351 Windsor and Cleveland Engines . One problem you may
encounter when building Ford Windsor/Cleveland 351 (5.8L) cubic inch engines is interchanging
or installing parts for the wrong engine. This is often caused by the lack of informa- 16 ENGINE
BUILDERS TECH SOLUTIONS GUIDE | February 2010 Circle 116 for more information
F O R D .Cylinder head torque sequence for flanged and non-flanged TTY head bolts on 1988-1995
Ford 5.0L engines.
Two types of head bolts for 5.0L engines.
1. Valve cover is held in place by 6 bolts.
2. Radiator hose connects to water neck on the front of the intake manifold.
The 351 Cleveland's radiator hose attaches to the radiator and connects directly into the front of the
engine block. It makes a 90° bend from the radiator to the engine block.

Cleveland 351 V8 Engine:

1. Valve cover is held in place by 8 bolts.
2. Radiator hose is a 90° hose that connects directly to the top front of the engine block. The
distributors are also different as well. The 351W has a smaller 1.245˝ diameter distributor gear, and
the 351C has a larger 1.418˝ diameter distributor gear .Each engine has a 5/16˝ oildrive at the bottom
of the shaft and a 1.557˝ diameter housing, measuring
directly above or below the O-ring area.
Tech Tip courtesy of CARDONE.
6.0L Diesel Cylinder Head Variations
May Affect Interchangeability
Ford has released information on a
cylinder head gasket caution for 2003-
’07 Ford 6.0L VIN P diesel engines.
According to Ford’s TSB 06-24-4,
some 2003-’07 vehicles equipped with a
6.0L engine may require the cylinder head
to be replaced, while design changes can
affect interchangeability between model
years and service of 2003-’07 6.0L
According to the bulletin, the manufacturer for this engine used two separate facilities. And, while both
locations built engines with the same design data, three cylinder head variations have been used.
There are serial number dates to help determinewhich cylinder heads were used. The cylinder head
gasket and locatingdowels also changed in the 2006 model year to accommodate the increase in the
dowel size from 18 mm to 20 mm. Using the wrong head gasket for the application will lead to engine
damage. The revised dowel hole was made to accommodate the larger head bolts to be used in the
new 6.4L diesel engine and was commonized for manufacturing purposes. The injector clamp design
and associated cylinder head casting support area also were modified on the changeover date in
early 2006.
The cylinder head and block dowel hole sizes must be measured to determine the correct cylinder
head gasket kit to be used. If there is a difference in dowel hole size between the head and block, a
special “stepped dowel” (p/n 6C3Z-6B041-B) is available to accommodate proper assembly .Ford
notes that the cylinder head gasket and injector clamp versions are not interchangeable; they must be
used with the corresponding cylinder head versions. Refer to Ford’s charts to determine the correct
application. TSG

Time Studies :
The Just-in-Time (JIT) approach attempts to reduce costs and improve workflow by
carefully scheduling material to arrive where needed at the proper time. Consequently,
costs of inventories can be substantially reduced and the use of space can be conserved.
In some cases this approach can contribute to an improved quality of the product.

What is not well known is Ford’s contributions to the JIT system, that is widely-known
to be developed by Taichi Ohno, of Toyota. Below is an article that explicates Ford’s
contributions to JIT. This article was originally published Peter Peterson in
Management Decision, 2002, Vol. 40, Iss. 1/2; pg. 82, 7 pgs.

Just-in-time (JIT) production methods were popularized by the excellent results

achieved by Japanese industry. When it became evident during the 1970s that the
Japanese were gaining markets previously dominated by Americans, there was
considerable interest in learning how Japanese industry operates. Then, during the early
1980s, Toyota’s highly effective JIT production system had a particular appeal to
Americans who were trying to understand Japanese production methods. While Taichi
Ohno, creator of Toyota’s production system, credits Henry Ford as the originator, it is
now known that Ernest Kanzler, one of Ford’s subordinates, played a major role in
developing JIT production methods. This article reports Ford’s and Kanzler’s
contributions and explores the possible influence that Frederick W. Taylor may have had
on the development of this approach at the Ford Motor Company.

About Ford Motor Company's Quality

Ford has made significant strides in reducing defects. Earlier this year, the Ford brand was among the
top 10 brands in the industry in J.D. Power and Associates 2009 Initial Quality Study (IQS). initial
vehicle quality for the first time in RDA Group's Global Quality Research System (GQRS). The Ford
brand has also received far more “Recommended Buys” (70 percent) than its domestic competition,
according to Consumer Reports 2009 Annual Auto.

About Ford Motor Company

Ford Motor Company, a global automotive industry leader based in Dearborn, Mich., manufactures or
distributes automobiles across six continents. With about 205,000 employees and about 90 plants
worldwide, the company's brands include Ford, Lincoln, Mercury and Volvo. The company provides
financial services through Ford Motor Credit Company.