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CHAPTER 1

OVERVIEW

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1.1 INTRODUCTION

Our major area of work is on PLC program logic control in order to create a
machine capable to move both in horizontal and vertical direction thus providing a more
susceptible motion to travel and for various other purposes.

Our major area of work is to create a suitable logic in order to make the motors
in the lift to move the cabin in both directions and to realize its logic practically in the
kit as per the necessary realization by providing shafts and also the motors and a cabin
to make a miniaturized version.

1.2 PROBLEM OUTLINE

There are a few scenarios where an elevator like this one could be used. For
instance in case of high security buildings only a few personnel have access to certain
floors. It could also be used at storage facilities. They could have multi layered storage
areas, building up instead of out increasing the volume of storage area. A person could
access their belongings and only theirs, instead of having free reign of where they want
to go. This would help prevent burglary, and maybe even corporate espionage, by
limiting a person’s access. This type of elevator design would also open up many
different types of building designs. Today buildings can be connected by skywalks, but
with this design they can be connected with an elevator as well.

1.3 OBJECTIVE

Our major aim of the project is to create a more susceptible methodology of


travel in a building and a more advanced version, of its predecessor which will be
capable to move in both motion capabilities, horizontal and vertical motion.

1.4 METHODOLOGY

My proposal is to design and build an elevator system that will not only go up
and down but also go left and right. The controls will be PLC based and the elevator

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will be moved by two motor and cable systems. The PLC based system will consist of
three parts a switching network, a motor driver circuit and a Main logical board.

1.5 ORGANIZATION OF THESIS

Chapter 1 is the introduction to the idea behind creating a two dimensional


elevator and the basic problems and ideas to overcome them. Chapter 2 introduces to
the basic lift and its working also about its history. Chapter 3 is the ideology behind the
designing of the lift and the tools to be used in order to make it. Chapter 4 is the design
approach and implementation of the two dimensional lift and its working. Chapter 5 is
the uses of the one dimensional elevator and how it can also be used in the case of the
two dimensional elevator. Chapter 6 presents the conclusion and the future scope of our
work.

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CHAPTER 2

BASIC LIFT AND ITS WORKING

2.1 INTRODUCTION TO LIFT

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In the 1800s, new iron and steel production processes revolutionized the world
of construction. With sturdy metal beams as their building blocks, architects and
engineers could erect monumental skyscrapers hundreds of feet in the air. But these
towers would have been basically unusable if it weren't for another technological
innovation that came along around the same time. Modern elevators are the crucial
element that makes it practical to live and work dozens of stories above ground.

Figure 2.1: basic lift

The elevator was first invented in 1880 by Werner von Siemens. Basic elevator
can be explained by the following definition: An elevator or lift is a vertical transport
vehicle that efficiently moves people or goods between floors of a building.

They are generally powered by electric motors that either drive traction cables and
counterweight systems, or pump hydraulic fluid to raise a cylindrical piston. There are
many types of elevators based on their action of working. Their design is very simple i.e.
Lifts began as simple rope or chain hoists.

A lift is essentially a platform that is either pulled or pushed up by a mechanical


means. A modern day lift consists of a cab mounted on a platform within an enclosed
space called a shaft or sometimes a "hoist way". In the past, lift drive mechanisms were
powered by steam and water hydraulic pistons. In a "traction" lift, cars are pulled up by

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means of rolling steel ropes over a deeply grooved pulley, commonly called a sheave in
the industry. The weight of the car is balanced with a counterweight. Sometimes two lifts
always move synchronously in opposite directions, and they are each other's
counterweight. The friction between the ropes and the pulley furnishes the traction which
gives this type of lift its name for example Hydraulic lifts, shaft lifts etc.

2.2 DESIGN VERSIONS OF THE LIFT

Lifts are a candidate for mass customization. There are economies to be made
from mass production of the components, but each building comes with its own
requirements like different number of floors, dimensions of the well and usage patterns.

Hydraulic elevator systems lift a car using a hydraulic ram, a fluid-driven piston
mounted inside a cylinder. The cylinder is connected to a fluid-pumping system
(typically, hydraulic systems like this use oil, but other incompressible fluids would also
work). The hydraulic system has three parts:

• A tank (the fluid reservoir)

• A pump, powered by an electric motor

• A valve between the cylinder and the reservoir.

The pump forces fluid from the tank into a pipe leading to the cylinder. When
the valve is opened, the pressurized fluid will take the path of least resistance and return
to the fluid reservoir. But when the valve is closed, the pressurized fluid has nowhere to
go except into the cylinder. As the fluid collects in the cylinder, it pushes the piston up,
lifting the elevator car.

When the car approaches the correct floor, the control system sends a signal to the
electric motor to gradually shut off the pump. With the pump off, there is no more fluid
flowing into the cylinder, but the fluid that is already in the cylinder cannot escape (it
can't flow backward through the pump, and the valve is still closed). The piston rests on
the fluid, and the car stays where it is.

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Hydraulic lift use the principles of hydraulics (in the sense of hydraulic power) to
pressurize an above ground or in-ground piston to raise and lower the car. Roped
Hydraulics use a combination of both ropes and hydraulic power to raise and lower cars.
Recent innovations include permanent earth magnet motors, machine room-less rail
mounted gearless machines, and microprocessor controls. For buildings of much over
seven stories, traction lift must be employed instead. Hydraulic lifts are usually slower
than traction lifts.

Roped Elevator is the most popular elevator design is the roped elevator. In roped
elevators, the car is raised and lowered by traction steel ropes rather than pushed from
below. The ropes are attached to the elevator car, and looped around a sheave. A sheave
is just a pulley with grooves around the circumference. The sheave grips the hoist ropes,
so when you rotate the sheave, the ropes move too. The sheave is connected to an electric
motor. When the motor turns one way, the sheave raises the elevator, when the motor
turns the other way, the sheave lowers the elevator. In gearless elevators, the motor
rotates the sheaves directly. In geared elevators, the motor turns a gear train that rotates
the sheave. Typically, the sheave, the motor and the control system are all housed in a
machine room above the elevator shaft. The ropes that lift the car are also connected to a
counterweight, which hangs on the other side of the sheave.

The counterweight weighs about the same as the car filled to 40-percent capacity.
In other words, when the car is 40 percent full (an average amount), the counterweight
and the car are perfectly balanced.

The purpose of this balance is to conserve energy. With equal loads on each side
of the sheave, it only takes a little bit of force to tip the balance one way or the other.
Basically, the motor only has to overcome friction, the weight on the other side does most
of the work. To put it another way, the balance maintains a near constant potential energy
level in the system as a whole. Using up the potential energy in the elevator car (letting it
descend to the ground) builds up the potential energy in the weight (the weight raises to
the top of the shaft). The same thing happens in reverse when the elevator goes up. The
system is just like a see-saw that has an equally heavy kid on each end.

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Both the elevator car and the counterweight ride on guide rails along the sides of
the elevator shaft. The rails keep the car and counterweight from swaying back and forth,
and they also work with the safety system to stop the car in an emergency.

Roped elevators are much more versatile than hydraulic elevators, as well as more
efficient.

Figure 2.2: Roped elevators Figure 2.3: Hydraulic elevators

2.3 SAFETY SYSTEMS: A MAJOR CONCERN IN ITS WORKING

The first line of defense is the rope system itself. Each elevator rope is made from
several lengths of steel material wound around one another. With this sturdy structure,
one rope can support the weight of the elevator car and the counterweight on its own. But
elevators are built with multiple ropes (between four and eight, typically). In the unlikely
event that one of the ropes snaps, the rest will hold the elevator up.

Even if all of the ropes were to break, or the sheave system was to release them, it
is unlikely that an elevator car would fall to the bottom of the shaft. Roped elevator cars
have built-in braking systems, or safeties, that grab onto the rail when the car moves too
fast.

2.3.1 SAFETY SYSTEMS: SAFETIES

Safeties are activated by a governor when the elevator moves too quickly. Most
governor systems are built around a sheave positioned at the top of the elevator shaft. The

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governor rope is looped around the governor sheave and another weighted sheave at the
bottom of the shaft. The rope is also connected to the elevator car, so it moves when the
car goes up or down. As the car speeds up, so does the governor.

As the rotary movement of the governor builds up, centrifugal force moves the
flyweights outward, pushing against the spring. If the elevator car falls fast enough, the
centrifugal force will be strong enough to push the ends of the flyweights all the way to
the outer edges of the governor. Spinning in this position, the hooked ends of the
flyweights catch hold of ratchets mounted to a stationary cylinder surrounding the
sheave. This works to stop the governor.

In case the lift cable breaks there are safety systems that follow a particular wedge
system in order to make the lift to stop in mid air, the linkage pulls up on a wedge-shaped
safety, which sits in a stationary wedge guide. As the wedge moves up, it is pushed into
the guide rails by the slanted surface of the guide. This gradually brings the elevator car
to a stop. This is about the major functions of the simpler version of the elevator the same
procedure is followed for the case of two dimensional lift also and the functions remains
the same also.

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CHAPTER 3

TWO DIMENSIONAL LIFT

3.1IDEOLOGY

Two dimensional lift is similar to the case of one dimensional lift where it
involves all the actions such as electrical, mechanical, electronic and etc. Its
functioning is also the same in this version as of the earlier one. The circuit design

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remains simple for the two dimensional lift and it can be designed in many ways
such as below:

• FPGA(field programmable gate array)

• VLSI(very large scale integration)

• Using microprocessor Interfacing

• Using discrete components

But the main function remains the same in all cases, we use limit switches to
indicate the position of the switches and movement of the lift box the schematic
movement of the lift can be represent by below figure:

Fig 3.1: schematic diagram

The above schematic gives a clear view of the necessary operation that is to be
performed by the lift both in horizontal and vertical operation. It consists of shafts as
shown in order to allow free movement of the lift cabinet, and also the motors. There
are two motors present one is for vertical and the other for horizontal motion.

For example, let us consider there are two switches and four limiting points Lt1,
Lt2, Lt3, and Lt4.As shown in the below figure Lt3and Lt4 represent points for
horizontal motion while Lt1 and Lt2 are for vertical motion.
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While the switches are for starting the motion, the motion can be decided
according to the requirements in this case we have used only three destination points as
shown in below figure:

Figure 3.2: Switch movement procedure

3.2 CONTROL SYSTM LOGIC CIRCUIT

There are two main switches Sw1 and Sw2. And also there are four limit
switches to operate the lift in that direction only until that point, so we can say that the lift
operation can be drawn as a control system with inputs and outputs as given in below
figure:

Figure 3.3: operational switching network

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Where the limit switches are Lt1, Lt2 and Lt4 and there are two main switches
Sw1, and Sw2, whereas the outputs are M1p, M1n, M2n and M2p which are responsible
for movement of the lift function in respective directions that M1 represents the motor for
vertical motion and M2 represents horizontal motion.

The p, n represent for positive and negative rotation to be performed by the motor
and the movement in the shaft. The two dimensional lift has to operate with limit
switches and also requires two motors for the distinguished movement features. And we
have to now obtain a device which will set a particular value of positive voltage to the
motor till it reaches the destination and then we must reset once it does so and also we
require a circuit that can provide a high voltage when required by pressing the switch, the
perfect set of devices that can do so are the S-R flip flop.

In order to perform motion as per the required stages we must make sure that the
shafts or the lift cabin work such that they press the limit switches upon reaching a point
press the limit switches in order to set the destination.

In order to perform motion as per the required stages we must make sure that the shafts or
the lift cabin work such that they press the limit switches upon reaching a point press the
limit switches in order to set the destination.

3.3 TOOLS USED IN DESIGNING

3.3.1 CHANGEOVER SWITCH

These switches are used such as to just set or reset the flip flop device and should
not continue to stay on they must be only used to trigger the flip flop.

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Figure 3.4: change over switches

3.3.2 LIMIT SWITCHES

These switches are switched on the lift box or any object pressing it or the switch
is activated manually as shown in the above operation as shown as the elevator box
reaches its destination the switch is touched and this value is used to activate another
device.

3.3.3 CD4013-BC

The CD 4013 dual D type flip flop is a monolithic complementary MOS (CMOS)
integrated circuit constructed with p and n channel enhancement mode transistors. Each
flip flop has independent data, set, reset and clock inputs and Q, and QI outputs. These
devices can be used for shift register applications and by connecting Q output to data for
counter and toggle applications. The logic level represent at D input is transferred to the
Q output during positive going transition of the clock pulse. Setting and resetting is
independent of the clock and is accomplished by high level on the set or reset line
respectively.

• Wide supply voltage range: 3V to 15V

• High noise immunity: 0.45Vdd (type)

• Low power TTL: Fan out of 2 driving 74L, Compatibility: or 1 driving 74LS

Applications: Automotive, Data terminals, Instrumentation, Medical electronics, Alarm


system, Industrial electronics, remote metering, Computers and etc.

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Figure 3.5: 4013 functional details

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4013 contains two independent d-type flip flops with asynchronous set/reset
inputs. Whenever the set or reset pins go high, the appropriate output is expressed
immediately on the outputs. When the set and reset are low the output shows the data at
the input at the time of the last low to high clock transmission.

3.3.4 BC 4013 DUO SR FLIP FLOP

Logic type sequential

Function family flip-flop

Description dual D-type flip-flop with synchronous set-reset

Pins 4

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Figure 3.6: functional diagrams

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Figure 3.7:quad gates

3.3.5 TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT

The transistor amp circuit is a very simple amplifier of common collector


configuration which provides a high voltage and output current when the resistor value of
Rb is about 1kΩ or less so that required output can be obtained in case of our circuit the
output of each of the four flip flops must be connected to this circuit in order to obtain the
required voltage for the motor output. This voltage is then capable to drive the motor the
transistor used in this case is Sl100 and we connect a resistance of 1 KΩ

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And a resistance of 10KΩ to Rc, thus we are able to drive the motor at saturation
condition.

Figure 3.8: transistor amplifier circuit

3.3.6 RELAY CIRUIT DEVICE

The relay circuit is very simple and uses two single pole and double throw switch
the single pole double throw switch consists of two throws that is two output possibilities
and a single input. A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control
of another electrical circuit. In the original form, the switch is operated by an
electromagnet to open or close one or many sets of contacts. Because a relay is able to
control an output circuit of higher power than the input circuit, it can be considered to be,
in a broad sense, a form of an electrical amplifier.

Figure 3.9: Simple electromechanical relay and Small relay as used in Electronics

It consists of a coil of wire surrounding a soft iron core, an iron yoke, which
provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, a moveable iron armature, and a set, or
sets, of contacts; two in the relay pictured. The armature is hinged to the yoke and

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mechanically linked to a moving contact or contacts. It is held in place by a spring so that
when the relay is de-energized there is an air gap in the magnetic circuit. In this
condition, one of the two sets of contacts in the relay pictured is closed, and the other set
is open. This ensures continuity of the circuit between the moving contacts on the
armature, and the circuit track on the Printed Circuit Board (PCB) via the yoke, which is
soldered to the PCB.

When an electric current is passed through the coil, the resulting magnetic field
attracts the armature and the consequent movement of the movable contact or contacts
either makes or breaks a connection with a fixed contact. If the set of contacts was closed
when the relay was de-energized, then the movement opens the contacts and breaks the
connection, and vice versa if the contacts were open. When the current to the coil is
switched off, the armature is returned by a force, approximately half as strong as the
magnetic force, to its relaxed position. Most relays are manufactured to operate quickly.

3.3.7 RELAY CIRCUIT BOX

The below circuit uses two four relays in this case sugar cube relays, to them we
give the inputs of M1p, M2p, M1n & M2n being the respective inputs for the motors.
They represent the polarities and the direction in which the motor rotates for example
M1p represents M1 motor to rotate in a positive direction. Thus we can now design the
driver circuit for using as a connection to the motor and the interface, the driver circuit is
made of both the relay and the transistor amp circuit connected together, as shown below
as given above we use G5le sugar-cube relays.

3.3.8 G5LE BASIC SPECIFICATIONS

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CHAPTER 4

IMPLEMENTATION-DESIGN APPROACH

4.1 DESIGN APPROACH

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The basic design is to implement the logic that is when one switch is pressed, the
cabin must move upwards (motor 1 in positive direction) and then immediately upon
reaching the top the motor must be stopped and the cabin must move sideways to another
position (motor 2 in positive direction) And then move downwards once it has reached
both the motors must be shut down. Thus using the above requirements we can make a
suitable logic flow of the circuit as shown below, this must now be realized using
respective integrated IC’s as were referred to earlier in the third CD 4013,4071 & 4081.

Figure 4.1: schematic logical diagram1

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Figure 4.1: schematic logic diagram

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OPERATION

Thus we obtain a fully functional circuit for a two dimensional elevator using
above given tools, there working is as given below

Pb1 is a switch which is manually operated and thus gives a high input when
pressed, in this case when pb1 is pressed it activates flip-flop(a), and also gives a high to
the first OR gate which in turn sets the flip flop (c), providing current for upwards
motion. This moves the cabin unto the position Lt2. Lt2 is then used for resetting flip-
flop(c) & also the output of the flip-flop(a) {high} and Switch Ls2 is given to an AND
gate which is giving a output high, thus setting flip-flop(d) providing the current for Left
side motion until position ls4.

Upon doing so the switch is activated , this is used to reset flip flop (d) & then the
output of this switch is given to a AND gate and the other input being flip flop (a) high
output, then given a two input OR gate where the other is also a AND gate of inputs flip
flop (b) high output and also Ls3, for this case when ls4 is high and Flip flop output of (a)
is also high so the output from the OR gate is also high, thus this sets the flip-flop (f) thus
moving it till Lt1.When this happens the output, of f is used to reset both flip flop (a) &
(b).

Pb2 is a switch which is manually operated and thus gives a high input when
pressed, in this case when pb2 is pressed it activates flip-flop(b), and also gives a high to
the first OR gate which in turn sets the flip flop (c), providing current for upwards
motion.

This moves the cabin unto the position Lt2. Lt2 is then used for resetting flip-
flop(c) & also the output of the flip-flops(b) {high} and Switch Ls2 is given to an AND
gate which is giving a output high, thus setting flip-flop(e) providing the current for right
side motion until position ls3. Upon doing so the switch is activated , this is used to reset
flip flop (e) & then the output of this switch is given to a AND gate and the other input
being flip flop (b) high output, then given a two input OR gate where the other is also a
AND gate of inputs flip flop (a) high output and also Ls4, for this case when ls3 is high

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and as also Flip flop output of (b) is high so the output from the OR gate is high, thus
this sets the flip-flop (f) thus moving it till Lt1.When this happens the output, of (f) is
used to reset both flip flop (a) & (b).

4.3 FUNCTIONALITY OF THE SYSTEM

The system works as shown below by following the following procedure:

Pressing of switch Pb1, motor moves until lt2 limit switch and hence activating
the other flip flop through an OR gate and thus reaching upon to move the cabin until the
limit switch position Lt4 from Lt3, when it reaches Lt4 it again activates another flip flop
and the motor moves downwards then thus finishing its first cycle .

Pressing of switch Pb2, motor moves until lt2 limit switch and hence activating
the other flip flop through an OR gate and thus reaching upon to move the cabin until the
limit switch position Lt3 from Lt4, when it reaches Lt3 it again activates another flip flop
of IC 3 and the motor moves downwards then thus finishing its second cycle.

Pressing Pb1:

up until Lt2

left until lt4

down until lt1

Pressing Pb2:

up until lt2

right until lt3

down until lt1

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In order to avoid shut down of the motor due to the reason that both the switches
require different type of motion upon going up until lt2 we use two more flip-flops rather
than using only four, so as to avoid shut down due to two positive signals Lt3 & lt4 to be
applied at the same time to the motor and also by using the AND & OR.

Thus we can make a fully functional two dimensional lift using the above circuit
in this case we use six flip flops as shown in the above circuits.

Figure 4.2: Movement of the elevator

Thus we have created a circuit for both vertical and horizontal motion as shown
above. By using these simple components the same can be applied by using other
manufacturing methods such as FPGA, VLSI design, and etc.

The final circuit can be depicted as shown below:

Figure 4.3: final circuit

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Switching circuit consists of basis switches Lt1, lt2 lt3 &lt4.

The main operational circuit is the same as depicted in figure 4.2.

The Driver circuit is same as in figure 3.1

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CHAPTER 5

USES OF ELEVATORS AND HOW IT CAN BE USED


IN THE CASE OF TWO DIMENSION

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5.1 TYPES OF ELEVATORS

Figure 5.1: A residential elevator.

5.1.1 PASSENGER SERVICE

A passenger lift is designed to move people between a building's floors.


Passenger elevators capacity is related to the available floor space. Generally passenger
elevators are available in capacities from 1,000 to 6,000 lb (455 to 2,727 kg) in 500 lb
(230 kg) increments. Generally passenger elevators in buildings eight floors or less are
hydraulic or electric, which can reach speeds up to 200 ft/min (1.0 m/s) hydraulic and up
to 500 ft/min electric.

Sometimes passenger elevators are used as a city transport along with funiculars.
For example, there is a 3-station underground public elevator in Yalta, Ukraine, which
takes passengers from the top of a hill above the Black Sea on which hotels are perched,
to a tunnel located on the beach below. At Casco Viejo station in the Bilbo Metro, the
elevator that provides access to the station from a hilltop neighborhood doubles as city
transportation: the station's ticket barriers are set up in such a way that passengers can
pay to reach the elevator from the entrance in the lower city, or vice versa.

The former World Trade Center's twin towers used sky lobbies, located on the
44th and 78th floors of each tower. Passenger elevators may be specialized for the service
they perform, including: Hospital emergency (Code blue), front and rear entrances,

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double Decker, and other uses. Cars may be ornate in their interior appearance, may have
audio visual advertising, and may be provided with specialized recorded voice
instructions.

An express elevator does not serve all floors. For example, it moves between the
ground floor and a sky lobby, or it moves from the ground floor or a sky lobby to a range
of floors, skipping floors in between. These are especially popular in eastern Asia.

5.1.2 ENTRAPENT ELEVATORS: All elevators are required to have communication


connection to an outside 24 hour emergency service, automatic recall capability in a fire
emergency, and special access for fire fighters' use in a fire. Elevators should not be
used by the public if there is a fire in or around the building, and numerous building
codes require signs to this effect be posted near the elevator. However, emergency
evacuations in some countries do allow the use of special 'fire elevators'.

5.1.3 FREIGHT ELEVATORS: A freight elevator, or goods lift, is an elevator


designed to carry goods, rather than passengers. Freight elevators are generally required
to display a written notice in the car that the use by passengers is prohibited, though
certain freight elevators allow dual use through the use of an inconspicuous riser.
Freight elevators are typically larger and capable of carrying heavier loads than a
passenger elevator, generally from 2,300 to 4,500 kg. Freight elevators may have
manually operated doors, and often has rugged interior finishes to prevent damage
while loading and unloading. Although hydraulic freight elevators exist, electric
elevators are more energy efficient for the work of freight lifting.

Stage and Orchestra lifts are specialized lifts for use in the performing arts, and are
often exempt from some requirements. Local jurisdictions may govern their use,
installation and testing. However they are often left out of local code enforcement
provisions due to their infrequent installation.

5.1.4 VEHICLE ELEVATORS: Vehicular elevators are used within buildings with
limited space (in lieu of ramps) to move cars into the parking garage. Geared hydraulic
chains (not unlike bicycle chains) generate lift for the platform and there are no

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counterweights. To accommodate building designs and improve accessibility, the
platform may rotate so that the driver always drives forward instead of in reverse.

Boat elevators: In some smaller canals, boats and small ships can pass between different
levels of a canal with a boat lift rather than through a canal lock.

5.1.5 AIRCRAFT ELEVATORS:

Figure 5.2: aircraft elevator

On aircraft carriers, elevators carry aircraft between the flight deck and the hangar
deck for operations or repairs. These elevators are designed for much greater capacity
than any other elevator ever built, up to 200,000 pounds of aircraft and equipment.
Smaller elevators lift munitions to the flight deck from magazines deep inside the ship.

Upon some passenger double-deck aircraft such as the Boeing 747 or other wide
body aircraft, lifts transport flight attendants and food and beverage trolleys from lower
deck galleys to upper passenger carrying decks.

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5.1.6 DUMB WAITER: Dumbwaiters are small freight elevators that are not intended
to carry people. But materials only of small size for transportation these are used in
hotels, passenger aero planes etc

Figure 5.3: dumbwaiter

5.1.7 PATERNOSTER: A special type of elevator is the paternoster, a constantly


moving chain of boxes. A similar concept, the human lift, moves only a small platform,
which the rider mounts while using a handhold and was once seen in multi-story
industrial plants.

5.1.8 MATERIAL HANDLING BELTS: A different kind of elevator is used to


transport material. It generally consists of an inclined plane on which a conveyor belt
runs. The conveyor often includes partitions to prevent the material from sliding
backwards. These elevators are often used in industrial and agricultural applications.
When such mechanisms (or spiral screws or pneumatic transport) are used to elevate
grain for storage in large vertical silos, the entire structure is called a grain elevator.
There have occasionally been lift belts for humans; these typically have steps about
every seven feet along the length of the belt, which moves vertically, so that the
passenger can stand on one step and hold on to the one above. These belts are
sometimes used, for example, to carry the employees of parking garages, but are
considered too dangerous for public use.

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5.2 OTHER POSSIBLE USES OF ELEVATORS

These are some of the uses of uni-directional elevators these uses can be used
also in the case of two dimensional elevators thus reducing the load of work and making
it a simpler job of transportation of materials, the two dimensional elevator can be used
for also other purposes.

There are a few scenarios where an elevator like this one could be used. It could
also be used at storage facilities. They could have multi layered storage areas, building
up instead of out increasing the volume of storage area. A person could access their
belongings and only theirs, instead of having free reign of where they want to go. This
would help prevent burglary, and maybe even corporate espionage, by limiting a person’s
access.

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CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSION

This type of elevator design would also open up many different types of
building designs. Today buildings can be connected by skywalks, but with this design
they can be connected with an elevator as well. Buildings could also stagger and the
elevator will still be able to travel to the top. And for also elderly people to move
across easily in hospitals for transportations of patients with more care, and hence
reducing the workload and hence provide another closer step to our not so distinct
electronic future, where every one of our needs will be done at the touch of a button.

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Further in order to apply this situation of a two dimensional lift in a
subjective building let us consider the below case of a three floor building in which the
exists a motion of horizontal possibility, this can be done by interlocking the limit
switches with each other and providing a microprocessor in order to perform the
motion according to the user’s needs, in this case there must be eight limit switches
interlocked and two must be of special capability as was lt2, lt3 in our
Experiment(SPDT). For motion until 3 floors upwards, the limit switches must
perform only vertical motion while upon reaching third floor it must perform
horizontal motion if the user decides to do so, or else the lift can also go downwards it
should not perform horizontal motion in any other floors. This can only be achieved
by interlocking the limit switches and also providing a microprocessor to perform a
user integrated elevator algorithm as in the case of our predecessor elevator.

6.1 A DAILY LIFE EXAMPLE

Otis Elevator Company created and developed a prototype for an elevator that can
move passengers in the same cab both horizontally and vertically as well as inside and
outside. This dimensional concept was envisioned in order to allow the sky-scraper
such as the Mile High City designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, originally limited by
vertical movement, to become a reality. Now that a prototype exists and the
technology has been tested by the Disney Corporation for their Tower of Terror, the
physical possibility for this technology transfer to the “real world” is quite real. New
transportation stations, downtowns, and mega-centers can be dramatically impacted by
this new technology taking us into the 21st century and beyond. Multiple vertical levels
and often long horizontal walking distances and connections to other building
typologies such as parking, further extend travel distances requiring different types of
connection systems. This three-dimensional elevator technology can provide a
complete system of movement allowing seamless spatial connections making
transportation's architectural linkages more accessible for all.

The architecture of the city and its movement can now merge into one as
envisioned by Eugene Henard in 1910, Street of the Future, as automobiles entered the

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home connecting with transit and the architecture of the city. We need to begin to
realize some of these visions in our future planning and architecture and incorporate
modern technological breakthroughs. The Future Transit Way by the Westinghouse
Electric Corporation, 1970, was a direct linkage into a user's destination with a high-
speed electric rail movement system, and it is interesting to note that a discussion of
linear sprawl was occurring then. So, in order to prepare for the densities of the future
we must begin to embrace the current technologies that can take us into this new
future. The elevator system called Odyssey is programmed with fuzzy logic and
different configurations are possible allowing the elevator cab to “learn” the movement
and flow of users to direct several cabs at one time in the appropriate direction. The
challenge would be in integrating this new technology into current built environments,
but new visions and experiments are possible on the large-scale tracts of land currently
being developed.

6.2 FUTURE SCOPE

The elevator design considered here in this case using two dimensional motions
can also be used for many other purposes and further modified as per required
criterion as well as other conditions using the similar techniques of considering limit
switches and motion using large relay boxes to function for many floors both
horizontally and vertically.

6.3 REFERENCES

Halliday, David; Robert Resnick (1960-2007). Fundamentals of Physics. John Wiley &
Sons. Chapter 9.

Serway, Raymond; Jewett, John (2003). Physics for Scientists and Engineers (6 ed.).
Brooks Cole. ISBN 0-534-40842-7

Stenger, Victor J. (2000). Timeless Reality: Symmetry, Simplicity, and Multiple


Universes. Prometheus Books. Chpt. 12 in particular.

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Tipler, Paul (1998). Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Vol. 1: Mechanics,Oscillations
and Waves, Thermodynamics (4th ed.). W. H. Freeman. ISBN 1-57259-492-6

Hand, Louis N.; Finch, Janet D.. Analytical Mechanics. Cambridge University Press.

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