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CAS S ELL & C 0 1\ I P j\ X Y j L ~[I TED :

I.OXDO,Y, PARIS, ,'\'E (V ~·ON.t..,. &. AJELBO RA'E.


I ALL RIeHl'S RESlJr_ \'11.0), J

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~jnrt t.



THE art of painting in oils is a very di cult one, and not the least of its difficulties consists in the great uncertainty that exists as to the proper nethods to be pursued. As a rule the great painters lave been too much occupied with their painting to xplain to the world how their effects have been prod ccd. Indeed, it would seem that they have not lways known themselves j fOT when they have thcor sed upon the subject their theories have been often quite irrccorr= cilab!e with their practice.

Fortunately, they have generally h d pupils who have carried on the tradition of their asters' work, and on the Continent this excellent sy tern is still in force at the present day, for most of th great foreign painters think it their duty to give up a certain amount of their time to teaching, with ut any other reward than the additional fame confe red on them by the successes of their pupils.

FOT so_me reason or other this prae icc is almost unknown in England, Our English pai ters have no B

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pupils, so the experience they ha e so laboriously acquired for themselves is of no p ofit to others. It is true that the schools of the R yal Academy are visited in turn by some of the Aca emicians, but the utmost that a student can hope t gain from these visits is a confused jumble of t least a dozen different methods.

Nor is there much enlightenrn nt to be gained from books. It is a rnelancholy fa t that more nonsense can be talked about art that about any other subject, and writers of treatises on ainting, from the great Leonardo downwards, have ot been slow to avail themselves of this privilege. The student who attempts to model his practice on t eir precepts must inevitably arrive at the most disastr us results.

I am aware that after having aid this it must seem the height of folly to add another to these treatises; but I have a firm convi rion, in spite of all experience, that it is possible t apply ordinary common sense to these matters, and I mean to try to do so.

First of all it may be as welt 0 Jay down, with some attempt at precision) the 0 ject the student should have in view.

To whatever use he may me n to put his art eventually, the one thing that he has to learn as a studen; is how to represent faithful y any object that he has before him. The man who can do this is a painter, the man who. cannot do i is not one. Of course there is more to be done in ainttng than this, but once this power has been att ined the student

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stage is at an end-the workman has learnt his cr ft, he has become a painter.

Of course, having got so far he may fail to ap ly his knowledge to any good purpose, but at least he means of expression are ready to his hand.

This representation of natural objects by me ns of pigments on a flat surface is a very definite mat er, and most people are competent to judge of the t ith or falsehood of such a representation) if they are fa rly put in a position to do so; even the student him elf can be a good judge of the success of his own w rk if he will make due allowance for his natural pa tiality for it.

There is, after all, nothing so very mysterious in the matter, Every natural object appears to us sort of pattern of different shades and colours. task of the artist is so to arrange his shades colours on his canvas that a similar pattern is duced. If this be well done the effect On the eye be almost identical. As far as seeing is concer ed, the two things, the object and the picture, will be alike; they will be absolutely different to the se se of touch, or indeed to any other sense, but to he sense of sight they will be practically identical.

I am sorry to say anything that may diminish he awe with which the outside public regards my rofession, but instead of finding it (as many wor hy persons 00) almost miraculous that a perfect re re~· sentation should be made on a flat surface of s lid objects, I have always wondered why it should b SO difficult.

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Let us state t e problem once again-s-

Whenever we look at a scene we have a patchwork of shades nd colours floating before our eyes, and this in fact ·s the scene; we have to place on canvas similar patches, similar in form, position, colour, and intc sity, It ought not to be difficult; anyone who can judge if two colours and two forms arc alike ought to be able to paint an accurate picture of anythi g that he has before him. And yet it undoubtedly is difficult-so difficult that a long and laborious course of study is needed before even the most gifted can achieve a real proficiency in this elementary part f their art

Unfortunatel ) in England at the present day) a student is left vc much to his own resources when he enters upon t at most difficult part of his studies which comprises the practice of painting as distinguished from hat of drawing. In most of the art schools now in xistence it is easy to get good instruction in drav ing, but the teaching of painting is mostly very inad quate, The painter who knows his business will not} with some few exceptions, waste his time in giving i truction, and the instruction to be gained from a pa nter who does not know his business is worse than use ess,

If by any me ns the student can obtain personal instruction from competent painter he will not need this handbook n any other; but if he cannot I will cndca your to sh w how he rna}' .. to a great exten t, teach himself

In the first pi cc, it is necessary to have Some: sort

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of method, both as to the rou ine of study an d as to the technical processes to be e ploycdv: With regard to techn iquc, [ shall describe very slrn ple system of painting which I recommend the student to try j but as it frequently happens that a method which suits One man does not suit anoth r, I shall give a short account of some other met ods, in the hope that amongst them the student w 11 find the one that is best suited to his talent.

And first as to the routin of study. 1 start by supposing that the student I as already acquired a fair knowledge of drawing; t ere is no lack of good teaching of drawing in Englan J 50 there is no excuse for incompetence in this matte .

By good drawing [ mean a power of accurately portraying the shapes and pos tion of things, but it is not at all necessary to have an specialdexterity with the pencil, In oil painting t1 e original drawing may be clumsy, untidy, vacillating in short, have every possible fau1 t of execution; b t as long as it is substantially accurate it will s rve its purpose, Of course, there is no advantage i clumsiness; it simply does not matter. There is one general principle which I think may be of sc ice in drawing. The painter should always train imself to seize first on the more important points of he object he is depict .. ing, and then go on to the 1 ss important points in turn.

First of all, he should fix the position of the object he is drawing with rega d to the other objects in the picture, then he shou1d determine its relative

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size, then its shape, the the proportions of its parts, and finally its minute etai!s.

In the case of a st dent who is able to make a fairly accurate-if sorn what bunglin g--draw Lng, the COUrse of study I shoul recommend is this; he should begin by what is calle "still life;" that is, he should carefully make an ana gement of some simple objects which are not liable t any change in appearance; it matters very little \ -hat they are as long as they conform to this 'rule, vhich, of course, excludes all living things. Perhaps hina and pots and pans make the best preliminary xerciscs, care being taken to avoid any elaborate pat erns, or anything in which the detail is intricate. Th sc objects should be arranged with some simple back round behind them, and in as steady a light as poss ble-that is, a light that remains practically the same from day to day, and from hour to hour. rOOIn with a north window is best; if there are other windows in the room .. they can be blocked p. Should there be no convenient room with a n rth window in it, some room can always be found in which the light is steady for a part of the day, and the painting should only be done during this p rt of the day. Even with a north window a gre t deal of inconvenience can arise if there be any uHding in front of it which can reflect the sunli ht ; this should be carefully taken into considerat on in choosing the painting room. Of course, it is better in every way to have a regular studio; but jt is not every beginner who can indulge in such luxury, whereas a room in

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which it is possible to paint an be found in every house. There is one other t ling to be considered in the choice of a room: it m st not be too small. I t is essential that the painter hould be able to see his work from a good distance. The kind of window matters very little as long as th light is steady. The window can be high Or low, big t small ; a light from above is in some ways best, ut it can very wen be: dispensed with; and a very sm 11 window gives Hght enough to paint by if the pai ting be brought close enough to it.

The way in which the objec is 1it up is comparatively unimportant as long a the lighting remains the same. Any kind of light and shade is good for study, but it is very important hat there should be a good light on the picture. If n oil picture be turned towards the light it gets what s called a shine-that is, it reflects the window, Of curse, if it be too much turned away it does not have 1 ght enough on it, so it must be turned sideways with egard to the window, unless, indeed, the light comes 'ery much from above, in which case it can be placed in almost any position -which LS one of the advantag s of a top light.

It is, therefore, the lighting f the picture that has to be chiefly considered in a nging the position of the H sHU life." I shall point out, later on, how important it is that the picture hould be often placed side by side with the object, an then looked at from some distance; consequently, t e object should be so arranged that when this is don the picture receives a good light.

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And now a word as to the m terials to be used.

A stretched canvas is on the wh lc the most convenient thing to paint on ; it shou d neither be very rough nor very smooth, nor should t be of too small a size; about :24 x 20 inches is a go d size for studies. On canvases much smaller than th s the work is apt to be niggling, but they may be as I uch larger as the ambition of the painter may suggest. In many ways it is better that the study should be of the same size as the object, but it is not essen 41. The painter should always; if possible, stand u to his work; so the easel must be tall and substantial. As it is important that the picture should be crpcndicular, the common three-legged easels which slope backwards should be avoided. It is also i portant that the picture should be readily moved up nd down, so that any part which is being worked at may be kept at a level with the eye. Thc " still li£;,'l also. should be placed more or Jess on a level with te eye.

The preliminary drawing shoul be made with charcoal. There is no other rnateri 1 that gives such freedom of execution and such facili y of correction.

To begin the drawing, the easel should be placed at some distance from the object, a d the draughtsman should stand as far from his anvas as is consistent with the power of drawing n it. He should practise drawing with an outstretch d arm, and every now and then should step backwar s to judge better of the effect. Indeed, there is no rn re useful general rule in painting' than this; that the p inter should continually look at his picture from as f. r off as possible.

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From time to time the picture hould be placed side by side with the object, so t at they can be looked at together from the end of he room. This is supposing the picture to be of t e size of life; if it be under Iife-size it should be pla cd at that point in front of the object: where they b th appear of the same size when looked at from the end of the room. When the two, picture and object, a e tl1US seen side by side, it must be a very dull eye that cannot distinguish inaccuracies.

This is the most potent aid to s If-improvement j by continually resorting to this me hod the student can be his own teacher, and correc his own faults. It should be employed from time to time throughout the whole progress of the paintinb• Indeed, H is quite possible to leave the canvas crmanently side by side with the object, and to wal backwards and forwards from the end of the room uring the whoIe course of the painting, giving a to ch or two at a time) and always going back to se if it be right. This method is much less tedious than it seems; and that it is capable of giving' goo results is abundantly proved by the fact that Sir J in Millais never paints in any other way. So if an student like to take it up he can he sure that it will not be the fault of his method if he fail to take the highest rank in his profession, Nevertheless, J think the modification of jt that I suggest will be found more generally convenient j that is, that the painter hould habitually work a good way off from the object, but should from time to time place his picture side by side with it,

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and t.a.ntc. As a. furth

iSJ there is a c askew: ut \\ the obl uity eye the mor c usto m . to i . For j a line hich sh uld inc line ( et Us sa. ) 3. nOI nod d n 0

it. and t s J I lin

pcrp end cuJar u t j

appears nclin n g to

even m the

Qui apil t fresh vi wof


or to get

tecting in large up m, in SUt object can

tha.t it at

g-glass . to de

r the head 0 0 bliq ult de n cy to d r w thing~ awings arc cen in t revers ed j and stri o more it as beco

ance, the p . nter in

perpendlcu 1 has

to the left. If the -e soon ge accu sto

lining a ll e to the lcokiug-gl So this

ght. a nd co seq uentl endicular t an it real the ad va n age of h such as t e 100ki In painting it fatnl ten ency to

H IN. There 19 nothi

rent poi n t of view gi ve

s pictorial e nscience,

ing a. dra -ing is

t in and


o lBIB FDlJ'Dllm Boou -.~ob.DI1



is 5<Jm be bl aU be

In or e to do this w th mo precislon it ded t ha t the dr ~ing should

I) it i called-a-t at is, t it should

wn igb H n es, cu ed port on s and R 11,

ent ally obta i ed by und i ng 0 ff

the a.p es.

I t ink m s very d ti eren t y should be dr ~

end~ring of rvature but should be sitions are d out and the mi 110r sin osi ties j ng put in,

th roughly s t died w h regard 10 tu . Any s 'ght 1 nes may as shu Id never disdaLn any Rid to t is; possi le, act 1 mea SUI"C!" t is, ge emily f revery line

ed. E v foresh ened l in es

may TaU

of the

that aJly u dicular and \ hI parts. But, s

be rOD d nee ss

accura to b side wi h the b

ther lines

re perpenOver- other ill scarcely self of the vas side by

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rna. n Ii es ha'\i

in his. In er I the harco

bru cd off (eith r \ lth it on: ~ t flip ing the can s), and t c lin s C3r fully race \Vi h b n or b t1ui with tu pent ne, he lin bein an not too ain t, y fi cou e jt is very . mp rtant 0 ha m t of 001 u rs, n t C choi of ha\ to be b me n m ud ;-

i'"jrstly,t t co au must per

it matt rs ve y 'i tie wh. thee t e

cffo s be lnte wit pc anent



inting 0 proper 5SO r . i h three hin s

olo rs mu be

ixi Rg) eri g alit

et with in N hirdly, hey ut with the fo

o ens th Eh fi

tho ughl a.t bin tions.. think t

ble, wit lI, the t nts

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perf t1y pr::rma en t as ving a rich and t10n of oobal t and usef I in fI esh- t nts, ..._ ...... ......,._ ... ity for sing o far, my lette of i ng the On Usc

I have ken


v; and tb



Lhi n ~ neverthcl §j t t 1 m . These ra Alt ough a ti t ca

whl shall fair

con cnlent in grc that I Dee cadmium

et it is so row and itho t it, t it vould

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particula rl


e 'Ca.fI l rc Qr br lliancy t tim racy r There is no t ly exp rim t to be

• th I:: udent In

ly a tin in N atu some in 'ii table 1

lain th:t rn y list 'ith t a. y rate.

rs i I h order in which I ich I ha .. urse, the

prae • ee, u t, of

\ Ii tle j but

n me t, and of dip ing the is mu h more

in rapid an

Il. e chei e of he pal ance, It sh uld be ih er large tha sm al l, b large s to b ti ing 0 ho d.

me ki d of me t be us

and the hoi

of cop al, F. nsecd-oi ncral p TpOSCS:. I propo ions of a ired to ry q uic.kl diminish •


~rpen ti I c, is l.C be m xed i unless he pi tu the lin eed ~1 heul

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stud IOU sly a voi ded in the t here iSh oth j ns: more Ii ely yle in i l painting than in suffic ·

thi , b t in nothing else, the p He should a I so be warn ed int with the half-dry remai

ulat on the paJette. Some adder, remain in a 6t

. ng been On the palett become sticky in a da

as he are in this st ate: they sh

y~ C lours can be kept rnois lit ing them in water, but as a bi e to do thj~

ble eco amy cant however, be cby alw ys clean in It them on eself A

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paint brush \ i l last a lon

soon after it h s been u ing them is 0 put ali tt1 hand i);fl d to ,.; ork th e them ou t i deratel time. \V he hey are fi

t h~y should well rin

get rid of th and any str preserve the ina modera l warm p] c

\Ve will 0 ~ su pposc

shall we p to pain

The first ing to be

the Qbj ect, to put

proper plac i thou t th

or cxt:cu ti on;. nd the c the palcttc-k . c, m i x----.t

-il tint co S ending t

object .. and t hold up

this patch of lour and

com pari son j t in sue

nove ry bad tch Can

will p reba b 1 e 1 ud icro

must be mo i ed agili n nd a

success IS ~ ed at. whi h is on

end of the a ctte-knlfc n ha r rom the pa h of colour n fron The pai nt sold then dabb place on th it is of the

produc ion

Bes des j ng ted ious, the

d i fficu 1 ie! \ph ich C8 n 0 Iy exerci 0 OOn !'iidc.r able ere. once t at t e tjnt on th much Or aw Ca.I1'~S she

light, t s ciently turn

shine rrom 3.p

(This must m

a da.b Or too e palette .. kn i ~ sh I with its sur ace or the pic rc ; ir the CO knife J i position t they a pI 00 en t he can as match ~ t is obvious hat i

the rna chi can only gi tal


O'U r be suffici ntl i ng th rgugh. Th· 0 e.,ery consi d ub de in the Db ccl vas is com plet ly rt or mosa ie, ood idea 0 f tI,


tul 3 unirorm the in a fairly str nO' the wi ndO\ to

ce a ched wit h he k he same w en d d whilst bing nOlth!!



throu On far

he around

gro und be co ctcly hid

them 0 th.i del that Yi"e ea

to be orrec I. The mod i nderne h showing very rious, hut I . For e present olour Id thinly 0 a colder i.t:., bl u -lh an it

th in t of c lou r on a i

day's nting s at an c no t to a. ve the paint too r the lea ore advan the pai t rou I y when a an d B oothly ~ hen the smooth; but f; r the pres these b btleties Nor she ul

they u Id pro bly have

slightl in the nishing, an trou bl orne thi g to al ter ; ou I d be a little bl



orange uc, 'Vb nthe y's painti in the s n, or in f1 ken not to put it

e 1 I n FDlJ'Dllm Boo


r ~ CTJ~I!:.

There ,. ru be '\0 dange of fou r to fi re ree t r rom cv

the oil bubb e u

is a distance: 0 fro

err 5 ran G: fi rc. en \\" hen we ha v of our pict t:u -0 work on

his i one of the _

3. lime; gtnners. an oil


go on with n y plan to a t U this is certa. n 1 y a general lei 1" ing un]~S$; i is ry exe epti na) ore ra tal t ian

len it is a ainting day aft alnt a bit 0 it cod method for ne s ould never wet or quit

cella in ex nt, ion or oi i the mcdiu . ulte dry furtherr oul d be b ed OVCr Hg t ly round tha in

in w

20 A ~t VAL or U[L Al~ It-:(.i.


oor r pal lug on, lc b side wnh

~ om time to time, glass as ans or fu ther ref . i \V hen the g n era tone a pp car u itc

should oug t a a.y rroru the

larger det Ml0 1<1 put i UJ he

fully drat ith ny bush tha

the rule I 1 0 bein ohse rv

shou Id no rever a

at nee w h c e pai tcr come

shou d be lef tOI~ es COrTtX tCt. now sed quit e pain er shoul lU..I of the room to. th l(1oking h i,~ uJgtn en "ght t


jog care prlate all bra"

n ary h

une ve sud ace paint should b

c firs .


tex t rc al Wit) a. p . ars I n ly e thoro . h] rend

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E. 21
vcry c:arerU hercver
rs quite sh rp this
e of pai II t. b t t is In
Id be paintc s arply
urc ; draper cs have
but. of cours ~ he d
ess ,,-a.ry J
ld be earcfu I
tone as
bum nmm to j masim~:: I
Hne hen it nows that
OIlS i a ten ency j) gainst ,If
parti ularly n his gU4lrd.
l.lring t e progress 0 t se su intings
the s udyo ht to be gr:.. 'U ly get in like the
objec j unti at I ast, \ .... he. laced. "d
the 0 ject. d looked at
it oe ht, at rst sigll t, to
whic • Ev for !l b.:gin
sible LO pro u a pi t
be a tonishi gIy like any :;, pic 0 ~ ~ indeed,
he m ~t pc \~ere until it IS Eke for if it
look arke y unlike it 11 ny l' e ought
to be able see where e dis ,and to
cor tit ac rdjngiy.
T c stu should be
looks so rro the end of t c m.
large size th is com pa tibl
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I I I I I I or ey tan dcg e:s or d ral I y used to bigu s ; but in u ng« to 'l to ex p to e press c J u r Or h u

of a object a dsrk

rOT d rk) in t ret b=:. propos m ea j ngs for

r the tw diflie lt of it

l'" on.. l-'A [:ri~flN(-

]jttle more


I ions on uce think ng of 0 t hei r rue col In fa t the

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r rom thcr obj to 1I~ Its 11gh .a esse n irll, pccu 1 i rl · C J and I being of corn

small i In portan. t s, are habitua l'y isr a

all \11'] 0 are not 50 much so t at lh n tural

tendc c y of .c hi] en they begin to p

lea ve out the alt oget he: t, a l d ,

a unirorm CO t 0 \V~ k now bet cr t this tendenc ha

curious \ 0 hat ha rei I)' any bcgi

his s had w rl y dark enou h.

requi s '} 0 t:l.1 i it before we ar true d pth of sh 'W t at n light objec ngr

n that, bout

ley very valuable N re lien t the eye frol patches or


is in r

palct t - kui fe mel 10 of m tal prejudi d judgm la te j uxta

m 3. t ter a little m the book; bu t it \V it helps to j (iry omrnend,

this aitem deed

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I



with a litl1c s ill the most ch co] ou r can be produced 0 ut 0

and I lnd eed I is should be pa to sec w hal ccrnbinatio 115 harmonious a d what 3 re d ise no rules can gj ven to gu i c hi q uc stion of armo ny; he u t

hi nat ions, :L n not be contc t un . \ thing wh it h te rccl!ii at one: contin u al stri i ng after beau y

refine mcnt 0 tas te and cc l least) if it d J10tj Lt is pro r not the artls ic spirt t~ and h o nergi C$ to ~ C orher pursu i

\Vhen th st udent can h that his stud es of still life t ro he had bette r begin the prac t c of la the 5'C rt of 1 ndscape he sho l most rcsern bl the work he h that ls, he sould take MJI u nne r the si plest possible e tha t can be t sted to remaJ together,

For i nst ce, he shou ld and only wor at it when the ~

pai n tint::: whe ever the su n to of sun light ust not be a tic 11 for it is not n Iy difficu]t on a.

the eye, but js a lso a terri I 0

la w of reas a ble permanen shad ow j t th W~ is CCn ti nual

T and orm ;J nfo unatel Ihi difficu

himse ceurat . An

b t of ld wa • g ey, I ving 0 t, The pain tin

r r a ] ng tim t of its dau:1 in

cr a e ect, g ng its positi

e In n FDlJ'Dllm Boow..:.


Fortuna tel

~y grc oays i Enel d,

of 0 ppo un t}' r Or lands ape to a begi ne .

of ,vor shou Id uch t

that pursu j the pai ting or till life.

be more d ffi ulty in matching th tint with the palette-k nili ! the swill gen ral y be fi und t be so brir.;h t t t no paint can qui te re der i hnnl OUS q uali ty ; bu lrnost C~ ryth j ng he c an p rly matched, a d his shnu d always b d one when Vel'

practic able. ' he ean v s S hou Id be pi ac well out

in the ope ir, and hould ne b sh d b

u mbrella, w i Is rea lion ty n ing or sun ig t, In f; ct, the

In uch the 9: ! ight the obj t~ Som

n ienee mit b caused by the 11 ht shi ni the canvas, if th c sky every b ig t bch j

course, this c always e rem ed j d Y pu t

lhiQg behin t c tanya. A nc per d

as an y thi n SCI and has th e t ad

bet ng casil p u ra ble.

\Vith a] ur p lions in

subject, an nly wor ing in g found that n th l ng ou -of-decrs colo ur and 0 e in a v IY perpl

obvio usly u el to e

an d tin ts c ti me tl at the la ds

ent to USJ i is as well t be very ca

t hesn at 11 rs , not rrecting th

qu i tc con vi tha t t cy were

ginning. the tope should

_. foraDltm1.noh.DI1

II . _. ,.-----

at trees a

sl no pain t the will c abso bel in stru weal h or d tail peescnt and is atte lion will tone - and. ti tts which S lOU

stud. He should avoi they chang too m uc h; an

dab ate d "tant views, ifferen way~ as th y r Jl ng unosphcric to it ions in t e [0 round. Th re . t besi cult of aer al perspect 11 ich

as ] n lain ti r u C' the stil changeab


best for

st b inni rubs t but, close, Or al with the u

lS erg cs an g~ Ie

d. oug , elat ve

Q [ect of


with is har , this rspec ive unde

time, but r or whic the I shall have some ing t late 0 i as the diffieult s or ood. d eat sm om he 1 by

Ccoun e a:i i. dis antly con Or bla k c e the lan ture ; but icult e fee sible, the d she d f

ors, are som elim 5 c r

ight is \'cry st i ~

n until it looks

IC: wi I do rce ly be needed m ted.

:S ou ld stand up his

time look at it II m a distance th at it 1 oks r landscape that e is

~ mple an scapes seen und

li It hal; ell fairly master

wei J 0 P ceed t' t e study or fig urcs,

neces ita te muc eo accu rate d r311

t ha n the previo s ud ies, SO the stu baek 10 is dliU 'i n for a wh i lc bcfo

the iffic it t as pain ling the hu an

t is ot t t the d wing of fig .... res s In

d fficu It hat he d ra \v1ng or nym adc fo r the fact hat d, ca 11 keep per Ii ct J}'

hu man fi n;: is so much

us ny cth r bjcctsl that very ~ a II

zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I

NUAL OF 0 T. rA 1 xrt

present a. t ion f) r it are It. re yc. An er r of pro rtion, ~ a. rna. ter of ind i ff'e.t nee in II r wing b sufficien t in ru W'ing th hurna

A ef ormed r] ppl c

1 j mi ted rt§O rces at ou J d isp P ace we must av "1 ourselv or or the irccks by st thcl stat the c t g t th human ron at its st-fa tha we sh 11 c er ~c it in th life j so t ere ca

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou


b er trai i ng in the disc i nil nati 1

a bea ut ful in men a nd vomen

or drnwin s from casts of antique

But 0 r t ra in ing rnus not en rnu st go

to ""ork i the same wa lhat t e reeks did, and men a d vorn en U nfortu ately, t e men ant! w nen wh a . avail ble to us as mode I s re mos tly or t very j C I" ty to those spend id c ea tures frnrn \ lorn the G iek s til I1CS were ca ved i s ll, if \1.""C take rou b le gh, w ca n get m nand \ men to work from ~I I C'·utly '~]I~ made

n to dis case even a til tc mild c tical '" study

of the an iq .... c. I think il is n while to

, rk fro rn modcl:t woo pos it cIt j::s a d~ gerous t hi n S' to the a. ist to u gl iness ny fen. As I ave said) it is


e shall never

man y figu res m w ha ough t alwa G eek stat es.

fraid I cann quit t

to ching pen a prej u d ce tha t so e wort y people tl ga.i st the rn dcls,

J n the ,'Ii rst plaee, I posl11 1 y that

' ..... i hout st dy (rom the n de the 0 sen us ligurc

p. n ting MSt ble, If tb :1 rt tal .. a con ientious

o icetions to thi~ kind of study h ust eo fine himsc r to 1 an sea pes. and st ill i ((:. t 3tter~ not what

kid or u rc- p le tures e w ishe he will


e zm n FDlJ'Dllm OOU II II


s healthy

r taking I but we too fat ani-the

su hjec without ms to exist in or nude



r be


therwise, n less nurse of ·t udy fi of diffi~ t draug res, it . dvisable 0 put lh canvas fi st and t [ n to ad

ugh iii. ndeed, raped upon Tltis

is $U pai tcr, w C rna y of tlu ing th are

o even t most

he rcco lects the studi

ffae ue's os t eel bra te

ra ll5figur lion) J j n nude. • c u lty ex sts in tee

art, but I think it may· els lrin patti;:)] I d. ra y time at the Sla e Se

or ladi s who fairly ct by j as \ as the t T some larl y sh kin g malt: odels, and 1 or

pcrso n.~ i a. part ie tha womc hould M dy from nude I h ve n ev r been able to under tan d am oonscq

con se the is neve any n

ell to . t y from t nude n (on u· on, 1 t m y be sa Jy sa

so hjng e en tiall y fa lse an u ('I.]

g tha t e human body is n itsc

tiona I e an d the QJle r eery 1

f this ing the tter.

I thou hit is no t trict! y i thin It! F rev nee of

th is hand b J yet it 3: y be a \\+(:IJ 0 B j \Ie il relY

as to h sort of d w j ng t t is I""C"I'I"'-'-" a.lly useful as prepa t on to the ractice r figu pai nt i g.

that ist fOT picture (inall the figures

that t ere IS .;I.lthy j the indccc t and er of a gets

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou


3' tippling, olutcly odtllcdt simplest

eron g I IX rnmcnd that the

be don with I 1 sump. he cftcct

1 ke that foil ti g than

point co Jd be, d he exec

r, It is; alsn a s~cdy ocess-«

g not t be d ; r or, a hough a

s, yet 1 should shortes possi ble in pai ting for ~t~50 he

~lIalg collected

inures e it m In tiv

rowing do 0 lnt ngs sho .. hite dr wings in in ings, re roducing !; adc an d WlQUT in shou ld c an old

A quite C] paint, r minute o expect

do his work i is too ucb to l low hi sel r to

power way, it is as yt a cut. - Fhese that is black

every variety

• better t the

is (Jr me d

c st is a iery di d elicac in t h olour w ieh it i For it ust be

colour. thing pelon ha Iy rair 0- leeted

: it is SLlre to rc Acc:tcd fr .lln

ast I d iffic ~II t thl ng

os as diOicu t as the human

b 5 tl e g advantage or

our as the man figure i~

to da and e en rrom hOUT n thi g


o pai It ng the human rs v~rc i h our original

k out ~ ea ref uUy ror

o ti t : C all, we must

Quite apart col ur ~ ny 0 e can sec that 3 d or a d fferent kind or

ur in ings~

r tcx nrc d T e

h harder, and Quid be care-

ow, then, shall csh pal n ting ~ g great ettenut f i nc of a cast are

shou d be so paint 00. 1 d, is covered en SCpri1.ratdy,

gur ,un te Ii rlc lol rs, t mi iute to b

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I I



places t he and moul

d irecei n or any fu shoul be: pa i nted a.nd e ~ry end ea. Vi) paint n lighlly .a n the se ra.te fibres, stray air or two a able d lance. they ush,

e zm n DIJ'DIIm Boou




ssary ti of drap el can



to acqu i rc such

gure ea n be sp

painted from ractice from the 1;;,

rapidity t at d wi th, and all 1 hut the

'en when


\Yo Us to dispe whenever the sud.

in their kn e human lrnust cnti

e zm n DIJ'DIIm Boou


"for anato great tically rep

e, direct obse ueb : but we J

t letting OUT

here is hard]

on Que

g.e ove hing in b.y of res show

d more isplaced

in par agree degree


s net 3S eally are,

tage may wcl s is especl all y v racy ; we ha pots and pan n bci ngs Ii ke hu i tu re which sh U

g every as Leon rdo says, lnuts," In fact, d master. U nless ourage t a t (artis .. e natura ma.n to themt b t as he

of per-

content po ts a d pans.

n bein NOiv,

t only like 3.

ono hu an being nd re I ali S !!Jhall rurthcr


rl in which ha ly

ond mere a r

s of study the sl tt d kept as still as

portraie student i 5 a very

ything ou ld be

of r bl all CC.

sh ou ld treated

ibl e, i]st the

e zm n DIJ'DIIm Boou I I

sole e nde r shou ld

oks at the n

PllAcr [CE.


most c Il.5pcct. that 5

there picture is mea n t.

Sue is. rough 1 j end. It

imafrect~ pre .. r his imple

cultiva ing of and th

legs, r the ardly is the

found:a io n e r 3.]1 g


en this a e inter, h 5 im

me a cond nature an d, in ed, ought, to atlou ; ot hero • If he has hi mit "ill be no De the worse [OL" here ;5 th ng so de denin c: to the

try to h inadequate

step beyond :!II.

re is one of readily inters ,,"'"C n t on IX: ts one after c(ffJ rts to be "trem~ly bad

ubjecl S 0

ht 0 arres ht if possi t css expl es at the

he fi rst place ou r atten tion e, to be beaun itsclr i that neral nature to an elabo-

t many fine eq irement bu t I vent ure sti 1 finer i ley did. Of n only make

In fact. the it 5 neces ry to pain t it eq any true that a picture co ouri ng i . a fine piet u re, aL

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou




differ fr better t ubject:. or

is one di I Y rccogn ; bu t a ists are so rnu ch

th r:!y wl 11 rt'C say that a.

r ha \.-jng io ubject at 8! L this opinio 1 ; t I think tha. a bad 0 C-J'~ a ra.d ltally ne that is n ad quate ly trent divide s bjec s into two el ; but th Ii u oct ween the . To mv rnied the great no n mod ern su bje 5 modern su eets ougl,t t

a] l, what goi ng on aro nd us at the a is more i 1 cresting t a ea I thy mi n d

e OM!'; or t buried pa t. nd againl ern

ts have the a. t advan ge that they cal be

tbfully re de d~ All histo kal C5! guess ,-or ,and i~ eertai to lcuJa rs ; r al ehocd which lay

ut which roba bly be Ii nd .Il dv anccs,

idera tio n~ w ich 1 the past.

r cdern I ire Is gl r, f it \'Ii th \ h ich the pa inter c ro bab ly n ver las been anyt the world be n as the ordi

rcspecta lasses, and j is

y hut un 31 people tha the

Is. The sti II el emen of

ne cause · the side t There

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou


sc nes whe at ne for th

ists who ha ty to' be exp jon with kin poor rna po oJ the

we are con -i f we have S1j b j 3rt to t h pai ting do ng

co tumes.

F or one h ing the or hlst

it :5 very ad ca no

wi] suit our

so vast t eth ng in it t

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou




n issa ce, wl'te it hi hest d fi re ''Ie :1 ri \ c shaU to all painf tj ul eople,

o his rieal

o Gr k and

tuffs, and ere is the W' ole 0 t c Middle:

I mi n ilting i the I ~ an Re-

the briUi:l of

L Do we ly to turn nty of su · eets a ughtsman j p , j r we wi h to elled by a y e can r~1 in th ythology. r if he m05t d p-sca

our su ~ect f1 Web perhap is th ~ who feels that

h to be 1 ik d fa

tiod we C ocse, nown hist rical s to. some ~i 1 ~ if unreld spare no troo 1 to make

i th the bcs ble know-

, ieh give n powers int beau-

wish OUr feelings the Old

est choice pictures mselves

apt to s elves this

arc gi vl ng proof 0 i magi na .. shewing eir Ig ance j bu t (or ca rc less css j ntis respect. e for im . atio animatarc hi:Wl(1g)' 1m 4 natio n is

ledge. 0 the trary, the

that which cans im i late a] l

o 111111 FDlJ'Dllm Boou -. fot-aottmhoooh.Df1


ki n ds of knowledge and grou nd from which to so \Vh en the S l) bjcct ha proper course t 0 pur~uc ?

llrJore rn.:lking the sl" h test thin kin g of th e com positi n or the shou ld famllia rise hlmsel wi th a of his su bject, He sh u Id kno

were d~sed-if they ar hi steri 1 a

they looked li ke-wh a t w re their a hi S a wh athol.'! ses they ] i ved i , ,\I hal cen ry

them, H i:wing got r il.i r I elea T ea

pol n tSJ he should let his m agin at i n 3U bj ect, un ti lit seems to make s i mage. I r this men t 3..1 i m ag~ wcl I suited for a. pi cture a roug m ade of it in eharceal, Shou I

hOPel e:s.sly un pictorlal, t abou t in the mind u nt il s appears..

\Vhcn the charcoal ketch I as f gu res should be altered an d shi ed

Ii nCS of the tom posi ti seem f .flirt

Then a li ttJe coloured ske h shou1 b in pretensions to ac curacy 0 any ki I bu the rough j dea of the louting and tl shade. Th is also should be k DOC ed resul t seems prom isi ng~ Then sel cctoo wi th great ea re appro the: personagr:s of the pi urc,

I t sometimes happe s that a

o lBI B DIJ'DIIm Boou _" foraDltm1.noh.DI1

I I I I I I "i"r-i---

unsult h1e figu will h

fJn"ld. \Vhcn h is is t


must empl d for

be ilV idcd 1 r p ssible. p~jt\ ~ Of if cy be more eauti ful nd gra

they hould drawn

before any umes a

10 be fepresen d) it i studle ln charc 1. Th

as is ensistcnt with a · r am ou

sboul keep m re elos to the

le for t e pictur. When n m ade, it tan be: opicd on as ml h added vigour .a is C1I P ble of gi ing.

o course, sla vi~ Iy Mpy i nn m el can more han 8. be po ible to an in n igcnt odell a mome tary g] mpses, plen t of rest, d trus

actual copy i ng Aga i

dent! we 11 P rtion

drawin made

know] ge of nt thing to have to refe to fro

nnt or mu

earefull attempt as well


kn up rh space of at all.

m el

more to very fe\ for ideal

t it j an really fine t they will

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou




if arc tum i e s in tion of rnedi 'a!

"th a \rery

entury d they had

be ecollocmd that SI that we ave ous idea 0 their plain-

the ] j ttlc terr a cotta they were often I a bo-

tly colour ~ I ha ve

of Greek nd Iy dealt wi h in

u it; es, \.Vhich~; 11 C edt

val able for th f in-

rtists abut te drapcri ~v to p nt them fr

1 cannot

the great the living p s 11 ind 0 can

ries be a

o lBIB FDlJ'Dllm Boou -.~ob.DI1


are s re to I
n up a
pedes are too el
anner, y 5hQU d be r
m the iving del~ and hen ar
same MI s On
d be finis ed, th
rupu]ous yadh
runted, w ere\!
here this i not p
sclec which omew
ulred forms. \Vith a ittte
ay be brained in this w •
M:iJ. ilndsc.ape t 5h be
r some. si liar
raphs of the c
e~ If Ih bac
Ily drawn in,ac
th aU rhe arehit e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou




place out 0 possible to aint gardCfL Bu t w he from the rno el u how people 1 nk 0 t

r n spite 0 all that the plet re \v ll have stri ven ha d particul ar pa of ruthless ly scr pcd at first be r. d di thus taking prac Dee w 1\ l on p at all glaring, and t to paint a p ctur When all is one a t least look I.


It is poss ble, n combi ne ,vi th e p other bran ell of 0 r scape paintin • 'i for its O\.VTl s e I a.

it becomes a very c [t is true, it. rna and the pro le from their" v y si


is. j s no pos be mod tied f doors. prc(a \J nous, iss tbat air impress »r= ieture sma and pain cd 0

It to (1\ id a

inting j 014 .... -ent the pi! tc ho

i at ion be there ly in that the

i nd eed rery nt;ng or sub] rt, such s p portra U re is ot rncrel

nta eous, to 'ctu es some iture or landl up -erlou:;)ly { study, of art.

o dema presents icity

o lBIB FDfZ(I!Im Boou -.~ob.DI1

I 11 I I





inter sting p ieture ou t teme Q r the pre. ed that in some ere are !OJnC

be in terestin g 10 erits, but which sirn I)' ugly and dull.

t we com ~ across an t; ·hen woe do \'Lre r it u u Id be eontrary or po traiture to rna kc npl a e, Bu t we can vell, nd make it like

in it lf Is no small

quest on even, if shou] p advi

. derations \\' h lch portraits.

a d u ty towards

mmi slcns, He .... lUSt as he can do $0 ience, Tha t is, prcpa red to do !5 el f' p refer to do be gi en a voice in the ietim should wear, and r ex presslcn he shou ld gi ve hls cd not i nsrst on e 0' ht to be able to n In uniform as well st In n have diB"ercnt

as in a

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou


n t ti mes, and an y c pre sion on is tit to be i m rnor ali in

so e · pei nts that the paint r s auld

He. Id never fl atter his t te ; be

int lrn at 15 best, ir he can) but t t ls all. ld n er mae him you nge r or bette 10 king is, n give i m an am ia ble expres ion if he oes a ythin but scowl, nor put im in a art i ~ e if h is essen tiall y Un grac:efi L

th i gs a aga inst the artistic c nse amou tor 11 trea ty shou Ld rna ke he inch in Lh direction or Ra. ttery ; a. lilt ma t choice Df trcatrn ent, hould have heir way~ Arter all, to ] j wit t he picture. sup po i ng t e cheiee in all these serve ly to t e painter, what pl'"incip es him i the mposition of his pictll ?

ng to be ne in mind is tha.t th po lrait

eha ere ris c. The r:mt urne shou d (len orn b the si t~er; the pose m st

~ a tu.r lly ass mes ~ th I! accessories ust in

a cc wi h his abits and tastes. His e pt

be ai rl y 3 bi t ual t not a mere m m tary

ich gi clue to his character, \ ithin

i t~ th shou I d c ndca vour to na chis

d hi look their best; tb t i ~ he

in the I ight and Sh3 e w hich

s him and uJd arrange the colo ri n a ad

'C$ of his pi turc so :1$ to produce the

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou


men iQus w bole. culty, even in such a.

d nearly th e whole or t I Y !§ pent j n a.rrangi ng t uld st ru ggle man fully t

ing bo red, This is on rtrail painting~ an d can . encouraging the si tter t n early so effie aclous, uilcting to the artist. next best plan is to g 50 C

t am used he m U5t be a ] i nevita bly rcllc<:t the t. N or shou Id the sit sti It; of course, h get too much, but a his position can ha rdl nstralned j and above eneve r he wan ts it : an m us [ ha ,~c one a~ soon a. \ Vhc:n all is done that c

portrait wil 1 depen d il g

o sltte r be a good su bjc tor not, c professed portrait t can oose ; but there is not j g to P troT in teresti ng sitt a quai ntancea, an d offt: rin

n offe r that will sel do

nsiderable portrait; be profitthe artist

itter from cultles of best met to him is uch more i I not talk, to. him;

te portrait r the sub-

s thinking ward and yen a rest C do Lot want itJ


SUCC(!$S of n whether ortunatoly

pick and us lvoking 'ends and or nothing his way he ting por-

s me slight

uniary sac rificc+

o lBI FDlJ'Dllm Boou -.~ob.DI1



figure poverty The

combined admirable training for ui I t by the

aintin land ,Ilav yield c is t I) OJn tratc one IS ff'ect s; he 1 er to gi ve, scene iJJ whi the c ect is

· g of fon an ocal ur.

at kn wled the

it were, a LJ bsid iary to The first~ to an d study,

landscape: the pursu i t, rt or figureas a relief arc typical e methods pal n tin g are S,SLL rHy b ~

rapid and ledge. The on the spot, Lr1.I.thr ulness

never be

evanesc portrait the rend be well

painter, The painter, from hi or the 0 suitable

incompl second by whic or colo rivalled

If t built in The fro or ligh preva.ili

apel both of admirable

wishes er work. T . nd, Mill is's

lese two kin iHerent. 'T

time port ndsca dsca

ny siz I a s

ain e can and ilst R t work I

d on e $1 e s uld be open g1ve plenty

d t r 5id~ facin towards the Uy b shelte enough. or

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou


co rsc, if the

so much the ter.

\V IIs~ being m rely open

be • eve that ] lars stand

th \Va} r; at pa nted, SO the c of p roduei ng u ire ich is t he Del shoul not profess Ia dsca Jn~dnot I in add a. sh ga her as to t t of I:h~ th reti at pri w ole art of 'ntin, som co siderable p r C tic ) uti I it

"nt any rrther, been blcto

lples whi h nnde ie the r which il be f nd of

will begin my accou o r oil pain tJ ng vi! h the d S th Kensin on Sch w ich, on u nt pro ch racter, arc call by ore ~I cdes a d P

ions d w-

by JL..1 r oyn ! and

Iy of t cl unb nding I C !ituden:5 (The Laws

.!Leu ONS FUR,. 0 I ~ A~ 1'1 T1 CI P..l r, 01" Tlt N It. tO~"" t, USH J N TN E sea LS.

, DRAWN ;r Y TIl

RT TR...& 1 N NO Sen

J;iRtNw r, FOR

oleurs to be sed: Flake when Ille cot r of the: ca

SienJ'lal Burn S i Ol.

ire, Raw m Tt BJ ~quirt'S 111 In, Vel

zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou


PA[ti'fJ ,.,U.

tip a tint with th

For the Sbndo For the darka' For the light H tch th,= lints with

the co OW'" a~ trw; a:i ~'bk.

'lIai'i'n celour of 1he M01 w, or

If here is any quant' )' of s r ~hir.:b t:tmtra:s.ts. ina mal" ed D'J.3 up:rn dditiona 1 tint for he rell N. -In, ma,chj[J~ l e tinls be hel in the fullligbt

t.h~U' :iJ I be PO ~ shine Qf" g

If he s.t udem is. wO {ng- i t1 the ea I is in the darker part 0 the ca t to mntch the ti n '5. or t he m m:uch ~hem rrot bis pi

M ke a tard ... l outli e of t begin ing to paint, d nlIw in tbfwi th r w u.m her th inned ~11th t Ih~ r e DU tline sha n be


ve some colou.r halr·tint, paintin It In

beyo the t rail sit ion 1 ne, or t

~ hi~ thu ns f..\r ns e~!!ii1 it:!li ~ or the Lighter half-tin

HgLtl following or cnu the

"-'it. !Ii L

N :M:t cover the Hght parts ~ I tbe: s aces of bighest 1 gb t bf_ imila ing the grad·uioas in the

N pain~ the refiec ion!i in

the ligluer ) mi~ ,~hite

zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boo I



white aad tin' ,a lig en t~ ac ~1I.nnth in t

wdow (pi

raw or bu ,

the grtldat Nut

hre an h·, witb Ule II3i wgU:l.ter or leu deg ee of in in (be darker parts f the t,y! i-'Cing tat~· IJmbcrJ blat' ,and ado -tlrn, fol1O'\~·Lng j n eac


a 'i raJ tonel j n the hair.. bi by laces which arc ~'10 mplcte, ('H1t on the: re IIJal 1 he colol.l f

and the off.

Top not teQ\~ edge : an e);."lClIy ~i yiou-s d:.y

N(Jg Use d,..w",,-1

.l.rge "$"ft If th~ in solid rnmplet

WTong,_ it m.1.y he ret ir~ wht:n the:" whole:

-touching or more ish is

diu m rubbe d • hin'y on nom

in thin cnlou r. pai ting should fig' be so n to produce highly m til mlJ~! be undenlOod l Of nfin i.hcd in a:ecut;O

e zm n FlltJ'Dllm Boou I

ur of this S stern match d. again a cast ·5 the else, a. d doe do I t ink it or co] urs ~ ,l5.tlJderJ

palette Ev

cannot be p ment -0 colo«

cri tici rns to Persia s, whi ence i the t

h-f first

t my system Indeed) [ h

the Slade S vertheless, I I ws or the

uipped wlt t may crop C1J e 1 bv the limit

nd d by Mr. Poyn

o lBIB FDlJ'Dllm Boou -.~ob.DI1


Wily. iii e w ieh is vcr t h stude nt w It be sure 0 fa r 1 y be left t student



Thr: wan sted as the cast s adow ; bu valuable

to the LL tine he shado\ I &Cr

this i'Tld

5 adc is qui

Another s re ornmenda i i5 quite untr e b ushes, and l \V II g;\~ a b ill whic.h th

object _t the r tha 11 At. 1 t draw wi adv: ntag~ tha acco ing to t roun brus h it ch to n arly he same

n ms t ie i nj uncti n to ~I it is q ite true t at in

of exe tion j s g ine<.i

I ld" rongly th t ror

It can If

is to secure i.1!I; veey d iffi

N w, it a in th i.s with on e pai tin g, i po i ble 0 judge f the

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou




correctn ess of rc 0 the

can vas is b I an rea ad va nt age r J lin up

the c:anvas at II c is t at t ell an tile 1 It


su rrou nrling§ y be

they w il I not b fa r \v ron perly pursued. Bu t, ftcr .a nd ready '\~8.y f Securil ing a fc u ndati n bu t n fi nlsh i ng. T the pal ctte-kn

map of the and then to oyer it until a J

been gain ed, ad "ant age. I ra tely a mere canvas with t represcn t, sur u

qu ill: a part rro

to expect of lex ture quite aim at it~ b u t 1

must never h WTong I eve n a

messy. But, u

"'Cn known t

all, it is r uracy: inv fficicntJy d true rnetl ughly ace aud tints etch by p degrer: or the eye m e able tD C in the mid e object it sorts of col

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm OOU I I


So very there

on again and And as this wo

to do without

e begi on i ng. It· t r u e tha t there lri ve fi l"I i.!!&h t h ~i r pic the p ture showj~g on

possi t to do th is wi sera ping on t bi n ti ng them ove r do ne with grea pa ti n and de er It may he gonrl · but; \ H1 he gem

e piet Ute is P a te a t fresh

has been ga;n at h ex pens 0

aluable q U:r:J litl cs 0 f g n ra I truth n f effect, A t a y ra e, i~ 19 be

fi IlCS t pictures 1 pain ted

! that or conti rking ov r

e rcqulsl te effect gained.

ily be usef ul t wi th f.; r.

the one pursue j n

of lL Carol us D iven me by a rrie in hi., own wo Ij he model was po

it h out shadow bac kgrou nd, W

ela t lons to the areoal, then we ren ~ then ~hc 0

o conart or

ispute Ie other d over

o lBIB DIJ'DIIm Boou -.~ob.DI1



ed ... ~i h tu ti put i pa ette Y 9 set "H[ c

to m:l kc n y prep=- raw dews, The

w umber. cobalt. laque Ted! yc lJ W ochre, and on the alene in this

ce or ton r

smail b shes, at illlY


e to c.". hc]~ a nd correct the pain ing if it was ked in th cu rtain r. rst, in big touches 1 i kc \ ith a hat hct ; in fact, to sotten hings down,

e the igl t a mo LUl light a d t he pr~r

fi ~ t 10 the" ghc:;t Tig The hair,

at Minto t Aesh at rst, but just ght tone I ke .a coa wig; then u hes w re plac 00 0 e j unctio s of the bjg m Ie t ches, to model ten and m ke the flesh In re s p le. r u rse, t he I:! touches ere a grauati t ecn t touches h y model AU was tions by rush inc: the

t e d ark s 'i)ic~ w:r.rd ~. c ually mil e and match H carne ilga in

zm n FDlJ'Dllm OOU I

s tern bears a considerer's, the ch it!r di ffer-

oes ot consider it ti m ,but pre fers, as ones shoul d first be of the fi nishi ng

cnce being advi ble t


tha day we finished

ot ler et hods p met iscd

t em on the same

(a.1I r or bsolut e tr ut h of in the sim pl est

thod. pursu cd by the ca nvas !Ii de back wards and ~ in many \\+ays

3. t1 is partjcu larl y wcl 1 ou t of the direct com .. n the icture and the


visa. b e rOT L the h this



generally it is right. tinual co with great same time next thing yet it j~ precision


is apt, out canvas, an I Dr his obj proceedin ) general vi Of cour danger, b human nil

So far is, they h sec them. fhat or a

founded which ,va thirty yea and consl in a sort colour,

gj ithas to bee who lc process is ss wh ich . 1:; hil rd l recision of d ra n. s be rem embere is to be wrong \ i

r to be righ ~ · e

that the proc es i 5 so trksoln~ t h I

.z n.e~ to stop to 1 n paint j s picture from the" w when h _" quite clnse t t

5 it is u te impossible t of an 0 j until one is sO very r s lute pi;! i nter en

U Ln41n n tis wea.k ~ partie

, the mO!.1: thor u practised j n E la cal Jed the AI t e 1 ing the sub j t:ct c

t called "·f u rra y 0 elling was com pi

o lBI B FDlJ'Dllm Boou _. foraDltm1.noh.DI1

I I I I ·-·r----

Wil5 d d by or au ie, the ssibl

and wh e. n II last pa ting ult

palnti gcs ion can be Th pi t .. re, i was ed out v

in gla.zj ngs 0 r ans a. nt igrn nts, reat 0 bj celi on t h i eth dis that to get anyLhin Jik ns of it. No gro ing ell tral grou n d t gi of hue- that is t be r.


ctte r or Si r J os ua ich

d account of 9U h a

wn practice in I' I wh he was

5 (lId-that i5.J in is r ishcd j n my met od fain t ng. paintings are wl hoi r c aiv olours being on] bl c , ult am nc, C second paintln is t sam .)1 tl The with ydlow ocl roe, a c, b ck, and without white! re tou h d wi h a. ittle her colours. II

the hands 0 rani s I ike cy old, be done wi th en. D II nsa isfa ory m us t be noted tha 1 tho h fi ne

not by nny m ns a.t his fi rst pain t ng of hls black n d by the ric: hCE"" C Iou tu res. 1\;1 uch 1 stem if the pal tte is s light ly en rl h I ven of an the c lou s

its first stages, "" n t ion of t he 'iCC nc t r [!

rine was vhie he ~ ctio Cia be

ieh u d in a th t a. sug .. r th ori i nal, be a pal and r the

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm 00




ther had r elved i nstruc \0

~ 50 I WOO blc th UlC tradit io!

by hi i or the rn Il rk.

Ti ti an pa cd his piet u es at first ve

wit l 9impl 1 tc compos of white, blac ~

ye 1 ~. Th re 'a.s 3 ppa rentl no blue; but

wh ish-grey, w ich would be s

10ur in the painting.

ks or four end) Ii ngs w ic

d and then I picture was p

took it up a l the rorms. ( contl nual gl a. i ur, frcq uentJ brush, In th s

colour ls inforccd wit

II palette uti I th e req uis bee n gai ned. RS jf TItIa me rton's ve hie arts, fro ount of R

11 the

's practice: w re (J this interesting at d eel which I h41~ olds' pracelc ! ini teUs us \'i th r ~ rd ini knew th

tings 5urpas a method

t is too eta ould aim il. commcn]

o lBIB FDlJ'Dllm Boou -.~ob.DI1


is ever,

rs to have laid i hig pi tures w th d this also \V s the utch pa; nters eneraU. No, j 3- cry pl easan t our in itself. nd ful greys whCfl other 'ours re r it, so tha t pi!. i ti ngs od ueed in

II y agrcea ble i colou resent the tru II ring+ A gre ~ but the actu lou ring than t be . mod ified t ; bu t in prac

es p3 in ted in d ~ antagn tha t pt to become more

\I" hit e grou nd sh u ld sh

i a little more han w

a drawback, a d wOU

the ge neral r chn ess r·

dark grou nd t e case a tendency t grow arkc r' ith sly unwise to h ten th tcnde cy round, whic h com nd \"ery year. tneccssary fferent systems in the matte

PKAl. ........ ·IC .. .,:,.

auld kec -

brown is ords deli scurnbled y ge:n ly do not r natura]

nspicue s think it i regatdin ho is cu 0

execut on

in he

cnt in he rather pt and th re

~~e cr

f pa.i Lng. -can fi

s of In tingJ a

o lBIB FDlJ'Dllm Boou -.~ob.DI1


care u] co lee tio (J r all t

the n ds or the old

'-I Port olio I' for re-wr tten and 1 hav .31 read y

nung as ~ gi\''C of at they is really hey in ent new lHicul t r always t; It ual y bel ng 1 t t do good

m, a n there: is ki rut r defin ite

01 II) FDfZ(I!Im Boou -.~ob.DI1

I I rl I

es to practi al matters j reti cal prin i es w hie h

To some 0 e it may fore theory I can only

my j tlficatl n, th t in ::;0 dOL 111m fol-

e natu al ON r, for no valid th of any-

ever en m I:: u til we have tically

a goo deal a N or is it p !Sible to y und r~t3.nd the y un tll we

the (a ts on whi.:h it is

ther p le (amo~gs t

scout the i ca of ther gat H, a d who are SC6TC afte scie ntUic

dell W YS 0 Fo

beco ing les com 11K bet r und rs ore no less t an k



icnce is hen: are iii we shall

o lBIB FDlJ'Dllm Boou -.~ob.DI1



ercn t shades a

is so atTi1.nge his

as that il similar pat

fa wil n y. In w n fortu at ly.

howe 'Cr bri

~ c nsider s ma tter 3. the n se of sight a nsw r th i s qucsti Y. to the C onst i tuti

ttt e more nsi t ?

I must n or the

ld by P pic who arc ua j ficd to e SU bj t, t hat matte r co sists of rticles, not close to 0 c nether,

ween, and tha t t he arc

ding s mething, callc I:' ether,

f still smaller t cl~t or

!ole do not · much

now that it hrough it wi

tions (OfJ rath ~c call ligh~ is so arrange lions: that is to s the nerves w i tation rcachc

ether- fills up

or m ter ; it is the ts up t te vibrations i ctuaJly a.t re t ut are \rVhen a yt ing ;5

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I


o we i magi ne hilt

same j the ei .. -es them. limits or ra

vibr ting y ity re tra


rna and e en di erent for

certain ext ceived, but

ether wa "c:::s.. y vibrati g ve self-lum] 10 U5 in a crfect other b dy, c their ursc t

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boo



t vls ble lly cd,

e to isexpl in, colou is

for he



1 at ter case to he

ot her hand, t]

nd rrom ! t, 0 , are re-

ts s dace. I r the a e be mcoth,

ted i a definite d ire ion jf th su rface are ref eeted ina l t hes reflect ed ray n self-Iumino us.

ray $J and it j

In aU

a]]y ifferent ehe n rves of

ea rays iii re in. a ert ain e x tent ~ an be rnlsed ntratcd

t, "by a ether means

ne gives

of li ht. It


deviatio rcfracte some of Ae(ted

they are be roug by mea objects objects rays t.h.a rays whi absorbc

visible. heating, as hot UPDP it

The first pia rise to the n

.. !!it ttl tiv~ to not ice the same ra of vision, I many or th isible rays are, t me f them, at leas J t ski t provided th ffi . ntly,

Iffi nee depends on t~ opti 01:: rVI:! he we

1 y d i erent sensatl

uch The optic n

. by blow; by a ga in i sown rapi dit y ~ but ex itc mont of til m to the se 1 angu age, a the one spo

rise in can on] quite di

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou


touch. very cnabl differ There j to thl by the

er tensity, cr ~ en skin which s at ra us, s 0 th at

p3re it of whi we 301

king it int II gib c is ene which s we l kn (an b~

otographic C 3.

dark box: "t a ens

it, which ront of it 0

relative I the im a faithful t r the sere


i tion, ivalent given

in a that




their rorms

the le S i at an blurre. This p the lc oS ckwa appea

c im gc appears

rain by moving ~i1 t c image on he e e is merely m or lenses, out de it on to lt ~I$O has a ocus s obtain ed, cmpl ycd in the

a. cling e distance e ac al sha pc or iog re convex onvcx for d j sta n t CCClV the image uS res of the: d UTi ren tty r rom

cem t .5 prcad out lies called y describe stru ceu res

3. s.o mech but pho betw the

e way in br ai rem ains a

from he out side

eve case) i fl-

u hly th t the brain so f ar cqu j valen t 9 en" led to in fer

e zm n DIJ'DIIm Boou


f r mit the proper pes mon an d r umin ou tside the eye. B t here we arc confront b t only see that one obj ct n in the field 0 r vi sion fro from others in in tensl y 0 j rrers r ro m them in ultc in colour. w, this third diffcrenc

t ere i~ nothing. so far know,

o Hg t to accoun t for it. esc rays d i fft:r a man (amp. i tude or sW'j ng) that is to saY1 the s S 'on of green are just j t the sensation of re ing a tittle more rapidly 50 enti rel y d i ff erent fro ~ .IS bou ld c xpcct some or eth er wav~ that cause he sensat So to the difficulty is lh t e lours I ari t ies, to which, aga in, oth g 5eC th physical constitu ti on of J gh t; for the colou TS. such n n:, green r to be 51 mple, whil:it oth I sue J and greYJ arc eompo nds or two t :!;iC s.i rnple colours, Agai. th re are (c J colour-blind) who can see he for

r. 1 y and some or thei

n ibLe to other or the f n J the whole syst em 0 f



xeite those they nsario n org diffc

cpe ofobj t who lJy to

e 1 I n FDfZ(I!Im Boou

I i I I

72 A. liIlANUAL OF

be ve compUca ted, wh 4 ether w yes are ve ry simp le

Thi puzzle is so diffie holts ( he greatest living acknow edges t hat he was u that \V uld in the least ac with Il n en tl rei y sa tisf acto or Thol as ¥oungl an Engl the be ianing or this cent the glo of having fir,nly theory r 1 ight.

H el hol tz remarks that in rd Icc that ever ] jved~ bu be too much in ad van ceo- 0

t ha t y of his (inest di

.a tchi ve or the Royal Soci ousl y re f scovered by a you I

other Uses t hat con tri bu

with \V ich the labours or th in his wn ti me must be re rortuna ely, successful onsla who u rwards becam e L very in rior capaei ty to greater etension s,

The theaI')· or CQ lour j n prorOlln cbllvion, until He the cOU se or his omni vorou struck it h the com pl eten g.rl ve the ridd le that h Having len tit the 3. u thority n ately ndimmed by the s

in the


thorlty on .51l bj ccr]

b Ie to ram y theory

unt fo it, n I he met xplana 10n ho

is due dulatory


aries, so in the c laborimongst neglect treated and, unougharn, man of nfinitely

at once that it

pu.zzl so long~

f his I:: eat a C (rortu.

· ct UICS of a Germa t1

o lBIB FDfZ(I!Im Boou -.~ob.DI1

1 I II


13 by

':t ncel I r j it is n O\V a lm O!it universa t e scie ti C -orld, As t · t h ory is or great i m portan y est to expound it. Sin it h s always been held that

t rec!!iii c pr i muy col ours, an

thers a e m rel y mixru res of these ccord i g to N ewton, the three pri r j yell, a d blue. He seems to t is resu t hi Dy by experiments on igm~n . B t unfortu natel Y t the ent s i , v ry d ifr"eren t thing (rom 1 ght or Ii er nt colours. There are

oducin t e ttl ixture or colou red 1

e simp t r by using what is call

c slip 0 an ordin ary top little

ard, p inti_nrc hal r the disc of at of another, and then

ec nothi ng but an u ni form lx ure of the two oolours. bl e and yellow in this w en, b t k nd or grey. By cxpcrim i this a d si i lar ways we have now

t e tru c 4 aries arc red, green, a w ich all th e 0 ther colou 11 is for med by a com

rtis~ e ·of he a. only th t al the mpl co ours, ou sate

rriv at re or o pigixt re Dr s of

un \"i let. y a ca bepro-. ti n 0 red

t nd

a co m bina t I on of vi olet ed secondary 00100 rs, together in certain pro

By mixing the t hrc


e zm n FDlJ'Dllm 80011..:.


arc 0 n ly a,CCU5 mcd to ear ha t blue an yellow ut g cy Or \, .. hire accord ~ i1 u m i at jon. Th t th ls js crimen t m non ed

t why do lue and D answer this we

pi ents prod ce their

y d so by arb L ng I ig t that reac 5 them, una sorbed f! re fleeted the spec La 1 00 I



ing so ca

abov yell 0\ pal nt p m ust explain h differ t coJ certai colour

w hils the eo I back ofth T

men e xam ned by t

l'e.t1cc 1 ight f

effect being t take he cas~ bJ .... e aint ab r wa v reflect] g violet so tha t tl e result

blue. Aga j n, ta a. yeJ l

the ue and vi l t WRVC

yell 0\ I and . A i


will , theref re

It must h


ture o r pigmcn is: very ; t at none or the pig .. y u re colou r, \Vh~ n

pe they are und to

en t lours. the t whole ese ifferent hu . Now·, n t s ch a S co L The ~ orange an yellow he grc en. lue, and ern I im pr ssi on of ent, w hie h abs or bs till g bile k the red, ture or these -0 will lour except gre • which nt ti t or the mi ture, tha colou 1"$ dl cr fro In

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I


other In lr qui t distinct ways. F irstly ~ ill ~~ a! 1 sh d an d arleties f red an: d i If trent

11 shades va rie ies of gr . n. Secon dly, j n

n ity-a I red i di fferen from:t dark red,

~t in wha is called aturatio -that .isj one red

much red than..., her, q uite mde ..

c tly of i ty. \Vh n we speak or a.

chi in ten h at, in scie nt i fie

our, So that to O]OUft we mus bear these three Take any gi n colour, such as ~ I the first place it is yellow,

in it is ightl in t e third place it is

tn3.t i j the hue s a light yellow or

this tha th e W he 1 C systetn it, is a very com pl ica ted ady pol ted on t, there are renee! i the ether wa ,'es • . gi \""C rise to the sensa. t ions 0 r

I di ffr:r n rapid i .:l nd in in tens! ty.

I nothi that rresponds to the

d the seconda ri cs.

om a c siderntion of the il VC'5, h .. ' it i £I tha t aile n other ot on 1 y in degree, C C:1 use of these co m pl ica-

t for, at in physical proper ..

~ bu in the · nstrument \V h ich the s me way h3.l ether wa ves c ly id tical gi rise to the qlJitc

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I

MANU AI~ 01"

recent :1ppar t this: t

S ald that eac.h or waves or a

is ehl aln le to jng Ii

4a, '\'"C.S, er on ond to ht]y a

of uerv t either b . of wave f

excit t acc.ordi they tertia

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou





h elc 5.5,. caps ble a] ics of colour

e i prcsslo th et it Wa5 B.

opl ea n blues, greens,

lu i sh - reen generally So that they and the fiower red ;, nd green is a m atter or he colou r or same; they

e nen-percepfibres would be m ply suffici~nt light nd shade, ex ..

a.pp ea too d ark a. nd

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou




my fo fil of co 0 u r .. blin d n n 0 f th other.s ts of nerv gi ving add i tic it I con fi rrn

ve no l , e ily fat

eat er he sub n rves of the

roo In tired

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I



short "me it object in the only e n the

c. and very le, Bu not


some t me, wi look way

local tigue the iln ge or

lies en tlr ly in

hich ivai

out the at

nt it is neeessa

n~ed upon the ig allow to wand r, '11 be fat;gued i t Ugh t bject shou d

brigh enough. h exc i emen t On

cd awa i t to ex tte it

ucce. ... s this

yc shou be

therwise ortions not ad ~ 5a ble t, wh i te pel' j cct pro uces at a dil erent

; besides, urio 5. pal' te porti ons 0 am nerve-clcme fati u e the red .. s e ~ot Cl'5.

ti e fi xedly at a brlgh t gaze to a pi c of n image of he ob

at the redbeen tempo light comie ord ina ry d r msta

all hree sets of nc vcs, t he grec:n and vi let- se i g

that the p nt

retina is of h-

serl C5 0 effects stim ulu can be l

Bu t not Or1]y 11

be exci ed ~ but al it is qu te possib e t (ror in.s t nee) wit out

If \ Jook f. so object a d then t arisf paper w shal I se a b The ex 1 iI. na ticn t h or one rt or th 1 ysed b ra tigue~ grey p pcr ~ whl h, would s imul3,te uall atcr effi t 0 n on t ot percepti n in this part bluer

T his suggests 0 us

e~OUB pu


and vio

have t If \V can In a nerves, e shall sensatio of red.



Its by u ... hich c can te than we c n eve

Our ordinary rcep

with sensatio of g , as the long :9t w v i olct~sccing lyse these t have an a]

een f ades in ily for some tim e spectrum, nn

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I


a red sue for the fi An t

nation true, a omical l assu


wanting. mammal site diffi

I tn.1S slight id th esc w h 'Vi with it ei he logische German, Ic-cturcs. There 15 Internati n by Prof




er seen be ore, f with gre and


em: so rate in rch hasno n--that 0 e slight

and bird been f,

need ot cru pie s m n 0 tlines, as yc co lirnled the t Tee nerve-

nfirm tio tho gh nd 0 th

some refer

ey Me u acqu in his pula en transl ted in wor k on he su jee ries, U i\Jo ern C

ences in us of di e different s

eives more al obj t eolou 5,

r, we wilJ I aspect

bich rna the r to

These d iffi rene a solely Objec 5 whi h:; d to

in length to s red,

us green~

e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou I

and an objec nu to US, as • nearly
on. 15
the of waves 0 d fferent
" the
0 r usu
the su 1. Su
to be mp
portio s that t produce s t
Or y1igh t, \\'1
visibl ly 5unUgh
lobules w
till more we
percei lue sky. eneral
Ite, althou hilt is
r mor i ncl inet.l t The
sun's ightj 0 this reflec lfght
or self .. ] , from
i\n lnOU5
all ,~at ralob ts, and it . I tl,is way t
them. Hut general r 4 is not reR
same roporti s in whJch received.
colour obje s owe thei lours to the
thcyo ly refl :some of ves 0 f lLgh t,
or tra smitti the othc 50 that tl
W:iLVe!: hat .1 efleceed fr
three crve-el ents cq , and, as we ] a seen,
any u equal citation of ret i nal clcm n gives
rise to the Sen r, o u!' artists' pt iuenes
are bo iC5 wh c have this erty or absor
ys of I ght and ing others.
paint sorbs ry few ra absorbs Ih
so tha light j fleeted fro pnlCtic.aUy u
e zm n FDlJ'Dllm Boou -.~ob.DI1
I I absorbs many m re ra y ~jelly of ~ so tha.t the ones it reRe(' are mostly Our blues, on the ther hand,

h Jongi:::f wa ~t a so on, A black

of great absorb t pow ~ so that reflected f ram it, n il. position to Un

ent c r di fferen t ly lou pig men ts

so thorough 1 y resen a n a tu rat

a natu rat seen is n thi ng more

r co lou f5 prod lie by he va tying

i lu min:ttic n of nat 13.1 0 beets. Ou r

fl give j tIS! the me a. rption of

prc~nt th e V3I r y i g ill u j nat ion by

fleet more or less ight t the eye.

a diff icul tv. C n it re resent the:


sam e j~ ten ity light and shade that e natural

scene gives n many instances i certai ly cannot,

Let us take th S( of a pictu re re resen · g a sun I it

landscape. \V lll su pposc it ha gs on he wall of

It is ious that its hi hest r ht is only

i nated by the in erate l l ight that

r roo Ill. This m u t surcl be many , saYJ a. white s e, on which the

he real landscap and t it cer-

nlig h t, To bri n out th d j fficu I ty vi 11 suppose that there ang! side icturc another rep sen ti g a. mOM-

OUT red pi In the shen ter k i the longer n abscr b m os ly pigment is 0 very rew ra

\Ve are no


that an a

white pa nt, c 2'

white obj cct wou be r pusen ted . t h perhaps a slig tl y bl ish tl nge.

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At any rate, t would be repr and yet we k powerf ul tha so than we made direct about 8~

an i m und r 0 rd Lt.

re ina onl rcspo In a conditi

stan t u n\'aryi g qua itles di ffe.rences w . ch v ry f! III 0 e morn n

To distinguls on ob j fr ru ano

i m portan t to now heir relat i e cola osities ; th3t iSJ th t u der n y j lJ u ob j ect is redd r tha a b ue on ~ and lighter than a black 0 nc, Th· tells i m portance, nd r: a. blc bod les und er aU pa light er in 5U n ght an cc to us wh teve we habi tu all d isr

matter of ha t, but it i the structu re r ou reyes.

As we h vc s id, t fatigucd* an d n th' s ta great j nt ensi t ; \Vh reas

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exe ted by

uses stimnli given by the o ~ ts i

nd vcryt j ng seems dark; but i very tin a recovers) and a n y light bj ~ t

vith an i tc nsi t Y Ihat seems q ui bri lli

este eye. So that not only do i ffi noes nf i llu m ina tion as bel 5. b t &1 the structure of our r u1 y perc viflg the m, e wil no w lZo back to 0 ur tw

h j tin th sun ny picture strikes

ot n d ul led by CXP05UTC'

L or real in u minatjon i acu teness of the retl n

nearly '0 great as it, en exposed to the m So tha t the moon Ii t para lively inert cyf;

an the actual scene \: · ti ve e y~ th at wouJd. n a


no and


time S crut o the great

The that




13\ how j it that we can n light an th 0 a nswr:r t thi i


sunn mode ljghtJ shade r obj-e iUumi


Th~ diffe

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There is can be draw to d lff eren t that one or t

on the red-s

e vlolet-s ·

slightly or

sity has st

ant ] ast on the r d,

ends t us light 0 e

nr ,appears t U!J

same avera or a bluish ti

There is out dearly: colour one 0 a room they take them

pJ e ex pc· cnt ich brings t is

t kc t :'0 pice S o( paper! a d

and h oth lue, so th t ill

mess, and will ap t the blue

a ppea.r m ueh It is chie ciplcs that 0 the ir falslty The latre

ig wen kn nting is to "d bringing c say! \"'0 int all we cause of

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dim do

physical. ·hcn we lor; r s orne time than when ve 1 k at the sc

gaze claul

is n t so uc]

atten t on a.3 ad j stment of e reti na to

tleul R degree f ] ig t gi ven 01.1 t Y each sepa. of the scene, 0 r i sta nee we looking at lands pe, inc fo roun of • ic h is a w hit ston w hich is the b + ght t 0 b [e of c scent; Y\·

look the vi v as w hol e I h one merely

wi; but ir , ort time it c all sorts n it. The r j n a h :9 degree at hi ch t

1d the pain repr

Ccrta i nly not * f r e as it itlpp rs to pain this sto t~ not as it p pea 5 som~ time. A ga i t e to paillt log f he J ooks at it wit su n ligh t it ppca z;ing at th sha \~C to do if C wis

can sent i with his ob ect is casual specta t sees i when when e has if he in wood lyi ng i his ey dlmm simpl for s topa

the g ne

III but. Il:

time (as he 'n eye \ in be

in t c log~

Us: to run

] difficnlty to t lC most wh lese

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instinct t

he sees. also,

objects. p in a studio li he dHE u

\-""e-V i%.t to ~ nt

gh ina lcs degre to The be t pta leal is never t kc the it tmt one

and endea v ole. osition to e amin can tru th fu I ] n:p the sHght sk tch I it is abundan ly evi ession tee ei ed 0 th e identlca I wi h the imne Ih ill it de ices. n su gge!iits it If, h

d i ffc ~ncc a.

ve 1 iUle dol bt I h

question a natural given of that in all

ure can b rom the s the qu

pression r

Here, it that w

picture the r lity?

a ru le, we kllo hanging on

a f1 y rate, isJ bl



ca.ught r a portrait in 3. pos i ble 10 be in ; ca n very we I be

t sieht) ~ a. living be is

od in t ase of a port

farly if on

lnoki ng -gl we

person cut ff fro

its surrou din There 19 a

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IIp round I e w~rc ~I rew ah ground. In one by sidc-on and, at f rst

Dut we .of actual d pictures 5

pictures arc .

d 19Crcpancy betv is quite sum icnt 0 them from

into portrait of

ad mira. hi r, n

hfadrid at n time w en hi.1ii COQ rse this tory m y be matter of lsto • but it possible.

Again. celebrated in the Cha

there :t be the

being iO. vay. a as it is a vay im-

t in the xhibitcd ffi("uJt to lly built objects d back-

!isibility of ]j\tgC When definite s which i tinguish ifferencc yc.

. objects ach eye. stances ner), we tmpresct~t::md

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