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E2063/ Unit 3/ 1

UNIT 3

INTRODUCTION TO DC GENERATOR (Part 2)

OBJECTIVES

General Objective

: To apply the generated e.m.f. efficiency and power losses of a DC generator

Specific Objectives : At the end of the unit you will be able to : Calculate generated e.m.f. in an armature winding for a generator List DC machine losses and calculate efficiency Calculate the power losses of DC generator Calculate the efficiency of DC generator

m.m. Φ = useful flux per pole in Webers Ρ = number of pairs of poles n = armature speed in rev/s The e. generated by one of the parallel paths.m.m.DC GENERATOR (Part 2) E2063/ Unit 3/ 2 INPUT 3.0 E.f.f generated by the armature is equal to the e. generated per second is given by: E = 2Ρ Φ n Wb (since 1 volt = 1 Weber per second) Let c = number of parallel paths through the winding between positive and negative brushes ( c=2 for a wave winding and c= 2p for a lap winding) The number of conductors in series in each path = Z/c . Hence flux cut by on conductor per second = 2Ρ Φ n Wb and so the average e.f.f generated Let Z = number of armature conductors. Each conductor passes 2Ρ poles per revolution and thus cuts 2Ρ Φ webers of magnetic flux per revolution.

f. If the flux per pole is 20mWb.f. Solution to Example 3.3 )( 2 625 ) 60 .m. wave connected armature has 600 conductor and is driven 625 rev/min. determine the generated e.m. then E ∝Φω Example 3.f/conductor) ( number of conductor in series per path) = 2Ρ Φ nZ/c Wb 2p Φ Zn volts c i.1 An 8-pole generator. E = (1) Since Z. generated e.1 Given Z c P n Φ = = = = = 600 2 for a wave winding 4 pairs 625/60 rev/min 30 × 10-3 Wb 2p Φ Zn volts c (2) generated e. p and c are constant for a given machine.DC GENERATOR (Part 2) E2063/ Unit 3/ 3 The total e.e.f.f.m. between brushes = (average e. E = = 2(4)(20 ×10 .m.m.

DC GENERATOR (Part 2) E2063/ Unit 3/ 4 = 500 V Example 3.m. of 240 volts. Solution to Example 3.2 Given E = 240 V Z = 50 x 16 = 800 c = 2p (for a lap winding) Φ = 30 × 10-3 Wb n 2pΦnZ 2p Φ Z = 2p =Φ nZ c generated e. E = Rearranging gives speed 240 E = −3 Φ Z (30 ×10 )( 800 ) n= = 10 rev/s . The useful flux per pole is 30mWb.m. Determine the speed at which the machine must be driven to generate an e.f.f.2 A 4-pole generator has a lap-wound armature with n50 slots with 16 conductors per slot.

in question 3. Determine the e.03 Wb.3 A DC shunt generator running at constant speed generates a voltage 150 V at a certain value of field current.m.f.DC GENERATOR (Part 2) E2063/ Unit 3/ 5 Activity 3A TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE TO THE NEXT INPUT…! 3. is required to generate 260 V.1 if armature is wave-wound.f generated when running at 500 rev/min. If the armature has 120 slots.02 wb.05 wb.p.5 An 8 pole.4 Calculate the e. 3.m.m. lap-wound armature rotated at 350 r.1 An 8-pole.p. 3. Determine the change in the generated voltage when the field current is reduced by 20 per cent.2 Determine the generated e. calculate the number of conductors per slot. generated by 4 pole wave-wound generator having 65 slots with 12 conductors per slot when driven at 1200 r. the flux per pole is 0. lap wound armature has 1200 conductors and a flux per pole of 0.m.f. 3. The useful flux per pole is 0. .m. assuming the flux is proportional to the field current. 3.

3 3.1 3.2 3.DC GENERATOR (Part 2) E2063/ Unit 3/ 6 Feedback to Activity 3A 3.14 .5 300 V 1200 V 120 V 624 V 7.4 3.

(b) Iron loss. due to hysteresis and eddy current losses in the armature. This loss can be (c) Friction and windage losses.1 DC Generator Losses As mentioned in the previous unit. . these losses are assumed to be constant.1 Power losses and Efficiency For any type of machine. reduced by constructing the armature of silicon steel laminations having a high resistivity and low hysteresis. 3. output power is different from input power. due to bearing and brush contact friction and losses due to air resistance against moving parts (called windage). The difference is caused by power losses that had happened whenever one type of energy is converted or delivered to the other type. due to I2R heat losses in the armature windings. When such conversion takes place. The principal losses of machine are: (a) Copper loss. a generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy.DC GENERATOR (Part 2) E2063/ Unit 3/ 7 INPUT 3. At constant speed. At constant speed. This loss is approximately proportional to the load current. (d) Brush and contact loss between the brushes and commutator. these losses are assumed to be constant.1. certain losses occur which are dissipated in the form of heat.

friction and windage losses is C the total losses is given by : Ia2Ra+ IfV + C (Ia2Ra+ IfV is. If the terminal voltage is V and the current in the shunt circuit is If. in fact the ‘copper loss’) If the output current is I.DC GENERATOR (Part 2) E2063/ Unit 3/ 8 3. the efficiency has no units.1. The total input power = VI + I a2Ra+ IfV + C.e. η = ( input power ) ×100 % (3) If the total resistance of the armature circuit is Ra. VI output ) η = ( VI + I 2 R + I V + C ) ×100 % a a f (4) The efficiency of a generator is a maximum whwn load is such thet Ia2Ra = IfV + C i. The greek letter ‘η ’ (eta) is used to signify efficiency and since the units are. If the sum of the iron. Hence Efficiency. when the variable loss = constant loss . Thus output power efficiency. the the loss in the circuit is IfV. power/power.e.2 Efficiency of DC generator The efficiency of an electrical machine is the ratio of the output power and is usually expressed as percentage. then the output power is VI. the the total loss in the armature is Ia2Ra. η = ( input i.

Solution to Example 3.m.1 = 210 V (ii) Armature Cu loss = Ia2Ra = (100)2 × 0.3 Fig. Figure 3. copper losses commercial efficiency.3 A shunt generator supplies 96 A at a terminal voltage of 200 volts.f generated. The iron and frictional losses are 2500 W.3.DC GENERATOR (Part 2) E2063/ Unit 3/ 9 Example 3. The armature and shunt field resistances are 0.1 = 1000 W Shunt Cu loss = I2sh Rsh = (4)2 Total Cu loss = 1000 + 800 = 1800 W = Stray losses + Cu losses × 50 = 800 W (iii) Total losses = 2500 + 1800 = 4300 W Output power = 96 Input power ∴ η = = × 20 = 19200 W 19200 + 4300 = 23500 W 19200 23500 × 100 = 81. Find : (i) (ii) (iii) e.1Ω and 50Ω respectively.1 (i) Ish = 200/ 50 = 4 A Ia = IL + Ish = 96 + 4 = 100 A Eg = V + IaRa = 200 + 100 × 0.7 % .1 shows the connections of shunt generator.

5 kW = 2500 W × 100 = 74 % = 2500 + 867 = 3367 W = . η = 830 W = ** (1/4)2 of F. we have (1/4)2 term here. Stray losses Total losses at no load (ii) At 25% of full-load Constant losses Armature Cu loss Total losses Output Input ∴ Note: ** When the generator is loaded to 25% of its normal rating.DC GENERATOR (Part 2) E2063/ Unit 3/ 10 Example 3. armature current is 25% (or 1/4 ) of its full load value.c shunt generator has the following losses at full load : Mechanical losses Iron losses Shunt Cu loss Armature Cu loss Calculate the efficiency at : (i) (ii) no load 25% of full load 290 W 420 W 120 W 595 Solution to Example 3. × 595 = 37 W × 10 kW = 2.4 A 10 kW d. Since Cu loss varies as square of current.L value = (1/4)2 = 830 + 37 = 867 W = (1/4) 2500 3367 = Mechanical losses + Iron losses = 290 +420 = 710 W = 710 + Shunt Cu loss =710 + 120 = 830 W The efficiency at no load is zero because there is no input.4 (i) At no load The stray losses remain constant at no load or any other load.

7 3. (ii) 3.6 In DC generator iron losses are made up of ………………. (ii) (iii) . This shunt generator delivers full load current of 200 A at 240 V. Determine the efficiency of the generator at full load. assuming the iron.75 Ω and a field resistance of 125 Ω . and …………….DC GENERATOR (Part 2) E2063/ Unit 3/ 11 Activity 3B TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE TO THE NEXT INPUT…! A 10kW shunt generator having an armature circuit resistance of 0.9 A 75 kW shunt generator is operated at 230 V.035 Ω and brush drop is 2. The armature circuit has a resistance of 0. Find : (i) 3. The stray losses are 800 W. generates a terminal voltage of 125 V at full load. The shunt field resistance is 60Ω and full-load efficiency is 90 %. Calculate : (i) total losses input of prime mover efficiency at rated load.8 armature resistance current at which maximum efficiency occurs.35 A. 3. The stray losses are 1810 W and shunt field circuit draws 5.. friction and windage losses amount to 600 W.2 V.

DC GENERATOR (Part 2) E2063/ Unit 3/ 12 Feedback to Activity 3B 3.22 A 3.6 80.7 hysteresis and eddy iron losses (ii) 143.0858 Ω 3.9 (i) 7615 W (ii) 82615 W (iii) 90.50 % 3.8 % SELF-ASSESSMENT 3 .8 (i) 0.

m.) percent. A 15 kW shunt generator having an armature circuit resistance of 0.DC GENERATOR (Part 2) E2063/ Unit 3/ 13 You are approaching success. generates a terminal voltage 240 V at full load. of 240 V and has an armature current 50 A on load. Good luck.f. Assume the armature resistance is 40mΩ . If the useful flux per pole is 15mWb. A 4-pole armature DC machine has 1000 conductors and a flux per pole of 20 mWb. assuming the iron. Determine the efficiency of the generator at full load. (b) (a) A 4-pole.m. friction and windage losses amount to 1 kW. generated in an armature winding is given by E = 2pΦ nZ/c volts. Question 3-1 The e.. State what p.f. Φ . determine the generated e.m. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section and check your answers with those given in the Feedback on Self-Assessment 3 given on the next page. Determine the e.4 Ω and a field resistance of 100 Ω . . n. generated when running at 600 rev/min when the armature is (c) (d) (a) (b) wave-wound lap-wound (e) Determine the terminal voltage of a generator which develops an e. discuss it with your lecturer. wave-connected armature of a DC machine has 750 conductors and is driven at 720 rev/min.m.f. If you face any problems. Z. Question 3-2 (a) (b) (c) State the principal losses in DC generator.f. and c represent. The efficiency of a DC machine is given by the ratio (….

brush contact loss ( output power ) ×100 % input power 82. friction loss.May success be with you always….. . check your answers now Answer of Question 3-1 (a) Ρ = number of pairs of poles Φ = useful flux per pole in Webers n = armature speed in rev/s Z = number of armature conductors C = number of parallel paths (b) (c) (d) 270 V (a) 400 V 238 V (b) 200 V Answer of Question 3-2 (a) (b) (c) copper loss.14% CONGRATULATIONS!!!! …. iron loss.DC GENERATOR (Part 2) E2063/ Unit 3/ 14 FEEDBACK TO SELF-ASSESSMENT 3 Have you tried the question ????? If “YES”.

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