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# Unit 11

Complex Numbers
Chapter 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6

## What we learn in this unit:

In this unit we learn the basic definition of a complex number, complex numbers
in rectangular form and the graphical representation of complex numbers. We
learn 2 other forms of complex numbers, the polar form and the exponential
form, as well as products, quotients, powers and roots of complex numbers in
polar form.

Why!?
As one example, complex numbers can help us to analyze and design AC circuits

Using the complex plane, we can represent voltages across resistors, capacitors
and inductors.

The voltage across the resistor is regarded as a real quantity, while the voltage
across an inductor is regarded as a positive imaginary quantity, and across a
capacitor we have a negative imaginary quantity.

http://www.intmath.com/complex-numbers/8-ac-circuit-definitions.php

Outline:
12.1 Basic Definitions
• Any number squared (positive or negative) is always positive.
• Therefore, it is not possible to square any real number and have a
negative result.
• We expand our understanding of numbers to include negative roots.

j is defined as √-1
therefore
j2 = -1

j=j
j2=-1
j3=j2j = (-1)j = -j
j4=j2j2= (-1)(-1)=1
j5=j4j= (1)j=j
j6=j4j2= (1)(-1)=-1
j7=j4j3= (1)(-j)=-j
j8=j4j4= (1)(1)=1

## We see a cycle j,1,-j,1,...

Any j raised to a multiple of 4 equals 1
Ex.

## Rectangular form of a complex number: a+bj

A complex number is a number that can be written in the form a+bj where a and
b are real numbers and j is imaginary (j=√-1).

## If a=0, b≠0 we have bj which is called a pure imaginary number.

If b=0, then a+bj becomes ‘a’ which is a real number.

The set of complex numbers includes the set of real numbers and all pure
imaginary numbers.

2 complex numbers are equal if the real parts are equal and the imaginary parts
are equal.

Ex.

The conjugate of the complex number a+bj is the complex number a-bj.

Ex.
12.2 Basic Operations with Complex Numbers

## The basic operations of arithmetic (addition, subtraction, multiplication and

division) can be performed on the rectangular form of complex numbers.

Addition: Add the real parts and the imaginary parts separately. Make sure
number’s are in rectangular form first.

## (a+bj) + (c+dj) = (a+c)+(b+d)j

Ex.

Subtraction: Subtract the real parts and the imaginary parts separately. Make
sure number’s are in rectangular form first.

Ex.

Multiplication:

## (a+bj)(c+dj) = ac +adj+bjc + bdj2 (FOIL)

= ac +adj+bjc-bd (since j2=-1)
= (ac-bd) + (ad+bc)j (separating real and imaginary parts)

Ex.
Division:
Multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate of the denominator. This
will result in a real denominator

## a+bj = (a+bj)(c-dj) = (ac+bd) + (bc-ad)j

c+dj (c+dj)(c-dj) c2 + d2

Ex.

## 12.3 Graphical Representation of Complex Numbers

Complex numbers have 2 parts, the real part and the imaginary part.
To graph a complex number, we use the x-axis for the real part and the y-axis
for the complex part.

-5 + 3j 3j

## Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education Canada

Ex.
Adding (and subtracting) Complex Numbers Graphically
Steps:
1. Find the point corresponding to one of the numbers and draw a line from
the origin to this point.
2. Repeat step 1 for the second number.
3. Complete a parallelogram with the lines drawn as adjacent sides. The
resulting fourth vertex is the point representing the sum.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education Canada
Ex.

## 12.4 Polar Form of a Complex Number

Looking at the graphical representation of the rectangular form of a complex
number and some trigonometry we can come up with the polar form.
Using: r = x2 + y 2

y
and θ = tan x
−1

To get

## x+yj=rcosθ + rsinθj = r(cosθ+jsinθ)

The right side of the above equation is called the Polar Form (also called the
Trigonometric Form) of a complex number. R is called the absolute value or
modulus and θ is called the argument of the complex number.

Ex.
Another widely used notation for the polar form is r∠ θ = r(cosθ + jsinθ)

Ex.

## 12.5 Exponential Form of a Complex Number

The exponential form of a complex number is
rejθ = r(cosθ + jsinθ)

## * jθ obeys all laws of exponents we have seen

* θ is expressed in radians for this form

Ex.

## Summary of Forms of a Complex Number

A complex number can be written in:
• Rectangular form as: a + jb
• Polar form (also called trigonometric form) as: r∠ θ = r(cos θ + jsin
θ )
• Abbreviation of the polar form: r cis θ

• Exponential form as: re
o The angle θ must be in radians for the exponential form.
12.6 Products, Quotients, Powers and Roots of Complex Numbers
 If given a complex number in a form other than rectangular form, you
must convert the complex number first into rectangular form before
adding or subtracting.
 Finding products, quotients and roots of complex numbers is possible in
all forms.

We will find products and quotients using polar and exponential form
Products:
In polar form (or trigonometric form) we have:

## In exponential form we have:

⋅ r2 e jθ2 = r1r2 e j ( θ1 +θ2 )
j θ1
r1e

NOTE: In all forms the magnitudes are multiplied and the angles are added

Ex.
Quotients:
In polar form (or trigonometric form) we have:
r1 ( cosθ1 + j sin θ1 ) =
r1
[ cos (θ1 − θ2 ) + j sin (θ1 − θ2 ) ]
r2 ( cosθ 2 + j sin θ 2 ) r2

## In abbreviated polar form we have:

( r1∠θ1 ) = r1 ∠(θ − θ )
( r2∠θ 2 ) r2 1 2

## In exponential form we have:

r1e 1 r1 j ( θ1 −θ 2 )
= e
r2 e jθ 2 r2

NOTE: In all forms the magnitudes are divided and the angles are subtracted

Ex.
DeMoivre’s Theorem is used with the polar form to find powers and roots of
complex numbers.

(r∠ θ )n = rn ∠

Using DeMoivre’s Theorem to find the nth roots of a complex #
Steps:
1. Express the number in polar form
2. Express the root as a fractional exponent
3. Use DeMoivre’s Theorem with θ to find 1 root
4. Use it again n-1 times, adding 360˚ to θ to find the other roots

Ex.

Homework:
12.1 Pg.336 #1-53 Odd 12.4 Pg.344 #3-15, 19,21,29,31
12.2 Pg.339 #5-31 Odd 12.5 Pg.346 #5,7,9,11,17,19,21
12.3 Pg.341 #3-17 Odd 12.6 Pg.352 #7,11,21,25,27,37