14 views

Original Title: Unit 11

Uploaded by Rob Gchuk

- Graphs of Sine Cosine and Tangent Functions
- Complex Numbers Exercises
- Microsoft Word - Maths T Syllabus
- Math Formulas Book for JEE MAIN & Advanced
- Complex
- Circular Function Module 4
- c++ exams
- 954 Mathematics T [PPU] Semester 1 Topics
- Answer Solution (6)
- complex.pdf
- Book the Algebra of Coplanar Vector
- 2013-03-06 Polar Graph Investigation
- HW1
- data-0001-fdbffe74211b6cb801211ebfa7247b71
- Dunearn Prelim 2009 Am p1
- GEN MATH
- Technology and Math Education - DID Model
- graphing trig functions
- BSAM4_ComplexAnalysisExam1 (1)
- Position Analysis

You are on page 1of 10

Complex Numbers

Chapter 12.1, 12.2, 12.3, 12.4, 12.5, 12.6

In this unit we learn the basic definition of a complex number, complex numbers

in rectangular form and the graphical representation of complex numbers. We

learn 2 other forms of complex numbers, the polar form and the exponential

form, as well as products, quotients, powers and roots of complex numbers in

polar form.

Why!?

As one example, complex numbers can help us to analyze and design AC circuits

Using the complex plane, we can represent voltages across resistors, capacitors

and inductors.

The voltage across the resistor is regarded as a real quantity, while the voltage

across an inductor is regarded as a positive imaginary quantity, and across a

capacitor we have a negative imaginary quantity.

http://www.intmath.com/complex-numbers/8-ac-circuit-definitions.php

Outline:

12.1 Basic Definitions

• Any number squared (positive or negative) is always positive.

• Therefore, it is not possible to square any real number and have a

negative result.

• We expand our understanding of numbers to include negative roots.

j is defined as √-1

therefore

j2 = -1

j=j

j2=-1

j3=j2j = (-1)j = -j

j4=j2j2= (-1)(-1)=1

j5=j4j= (1)j=j

j6=j4j2= (1)(-1)=-1

j7=j4j3= (1)(-j)=-j

j8=j4j4= (1)(1)=1

Any j raised to a multiple of 4 equals 1

Ex.

A complex number is a number that can be written in the form a+bj where a and

b are real numbers and j is imaginary (j=√-1).

If b=0, then a+bj becomes ‘a’ which is a real number.

The set of complex numbers includes the set of real numbers and all pure

imaginary numbers.

2 complex numbers are equal if the real parts are equal and the imaginary parts

are equal.

Ex.

The conjugate of the complex number a+bj is the complex number a-bj.

Ex.

12.2 Basic Operations with Complex Numbers

division) can be performed on the rectangular form of complex numbers.

Addition: Add the real parts and the imaginary parts separately. Make sure

number’s are in rectangular form first.

Ex.

Subtraction: Subtract the real parts and the imaginary parts separately. Make

sure number’s are in rectangular form first.

Ex.

Multiplication:

= ac +adj+bjc-bd (since j2=-1)

= (ac-bd) + (ad+bc)j (separating real and imaginary parts)

Ex.

Division:

Multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate of the denominator. This

will result in a real denominator

c+dj (c+dj)(c-dj) c2 + d2

Ex.

Complex numbers have 2 parts, the real part and the imaginary part.

To graph a complex number, we use the x-axis for the real part and the y-axis

for the complex part.

-5 + 3j 3j

Ex.

Adding (and subtracting) Complex Numbers Graphically

Steps:

1. Find the point corresponding to one of the numbers and draw a line from

the origin to this point.

2. Repeat step 1 for the second number.

3. Complete a parallelogram with the lines drawn as adjacent sides. The

resulting fourth vertex is the point representing the sum.

Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education Canada

Ex.

Looking at the graphical representation of the rectangular form of a complex

number and some trigonometry we can come up with the polar form.

Using: r = x2 + y 2

y

and θ = tan x

−1

To get

The right side of the above equation is called the Polar Form (also called the

Trigonometric Form) of a complex number. R is called the absolute value or

modulus and θ is called the argument of the complex number.

Ex.

Another widely used notation for the polar form is r∠ θ = r(cosθ + jsinθ)

Ex.

The exponential form of a complex number is

rejθ = r(cosθ + jsinθ)

* θ is expressed in radians for this form

Ex.

A complex number can be written in:

• Rectangular form as: a + jb

• Polar form (also called trigonometric form) as: r∠ θ = r(cos θ + jsin

θ )

• Abbreviation of the polar form: r cis θ

jθ

• Exponential form as: re

o The angle θ must be in radians for the exponential form.

12.6 Products, Quotients, Powers and Roots of Complex Numbers

If given a complex number in a form other than rectangular form, you

must convert the complex number first into rectangular form before

adding or subtracting.

Finding products, quotients and roots of complex numbers is possible in

all forms.

We will find products and quotients using polar and exponential form

Products:

In polar form (or trigonometric form) we have:

⋅ r2 e jθ2 = r1r2 e j ( θ1 +θ2 )

j θ1

r1e

NOTE: In all forms the magnitudes are multiplied and the angles are added

Ex.

Quotients:

In polar form (or trigonometric form) we have:

r1 ( cosθ1 + j sin θ1 ) =

r1

[ cos (θ1 − θ2 ) + j sin (θ1 − θ2 ) ]

r2 ( cosθ 2 + j sin θ 2 ) r2

( r1∠θ1 ) = r1 ∠(θ − θ )

( r2∠θ 2 ) r2 1 2

jθ

r1e 1 r1 j ( θ1 −θ 2 )

= e

r2 e jθ 2 r2

NOTE: In all forms the magnitudes are divided and the angles are subtracted

Ex.

DeMoivre’s Theorem is used with the polar form to find powers and roots of

complex numbers.

(r∠ θ )n = rn ∠

nθ

Using DeMoivre’s Theorem to find the nth roots of a complex #

Steps:

1. Express the number in polar form

2. Express the root as a fractional exponent

3. Use DeMoivre’s Theorem with θ to find 1 root

4. Use it again n-1 times, adding 360˚ to θ to find the other roots

Ex.

Homework:

12.1 Pg.336 #1-53 Odd 12.4 Pg.344 #3-15, 19,21,29,31

12.2 Pg.339 #5-31 Odd 12.5 Pg.346 #5,7,9,11,17,19,21

12.3 Pg.341 #3-17 Odd 12.6 Pg.352 #7,11,21,25,27,37

- Graphs of Sine Cosine and Tangent FunctionsUploaded byGary Kasparov
- Complex Numbers ExercisesUploaded byVíctor de la Cruz
- Microsoft Word - Maths T SyllabusUploaded byniomr1
- Math Formulas Book for JEE MAIN & AdvancedUploaded byManiak
- ComplexUploaded byLUIZ ANTONIO PONCE ALONSO
- Circular Function Module 4Uploaded byArman Pestaño
- c++ examsUploaded bymostafa-sky
- 954 Mathematics T [PPU] Semester 1 TopicsUploaded byJosh, LRT
- Answer Solution (6)Uploaded byChennaiSuperkings
- complex.pdfUploaded byמוחמד טאהא
- Book the Algebra of Coplanar VectorUploaded byCr Charley
- 2013-03-06 Polar Graph InvestigationUploaded bysamjshah
- HW1Uploaded byDavid Kim
- data-0001-fdbffe74211b6cb801211ebfa7247b71Uploaded byGolden Dubey
- Dunearn Prelim 2009 Am p1Uploaded byJASON_INGHAM
- GEN MATHUploaded byJang
- Technology and Math Education - DID ModelUploaded byempezardc
- graphing trig functionsUploaded byapi-285179261
- BSAM4_ComplexAnalysisExam1 (1)Uploaded bypogiako05123
- Position AnalysisUploaded byWernher Braun
- ch04Uploaded byRiaz Ahmad
- 6.5 ReviewUploaded byMahtab Alam
- Fourier ConceptUploaded byTahir-geo
- ConvolutionUploaded byApurva Agrawal
- grphs of trig fnctnsUploaded byapi-261587850
- lab23Uploaded byfuckyou
- web-rcostheta-alphaetc.pdfUploaded byumesh_nirmala
- CalcI DiffTrigFcns SolutionsUploaded byFajrul Islam Ramdhan
- CES 16-10-2018Uploaded bySolayman Salindato Maso
- Revision One t2Uploaded bybdobe

- Joypad Example Dead Space 2Uploaded byEzequiel Escudero
- Gmail - Vente Finale - Vente # 239228000000Uploaded byRob Gchuk
- Www.passport.gc.CA Form Pdfs Pptc153Uploaded byRob Gchuk
- Shadowsword DatasheetUploaded byZach Schillace
- mtgdigitald14decklistsx4Uploaded byRob Gchuk
- Warhammer - Regiments of Renown 9th EdUploaded byRob Gchuk
- mtgdigitald14decklistsx0Uploaded byRob Gchuk
- D DAy Commander PackageUploaded byRob Gchuk
- lab 5Uploaded byRob Gchuk
- Project SpecificationsUploaded byRob Gchuk
- BLueUploaded byRob Gchuk
- Worker Health and Safety Awareness in 4 Steps CertificateUploaded byRob Gchuk
- General Package (1)Uploaded byRob Gchuk
- gasificationUploaded byRob Gchuk
- CEC Wiring Methods AnswersUploaded byRob Gchuk
- CEC Wiring MethodsUploaded byRob Gchuk
- WHIMIS ANSWERSUploaded byRob Gchuk
- Over Current AnswersUploaded byRob Gchuk
- ELE8923%20Labs%20Part%201%20W2011Uploaded byRob Gchuk

- Tablet Hardness TesterUploaded bymandala561
- Ecm Clas TypeUploaded bynishith316
- Ad 9954Uploaded byneelu_kh
- chem lab reportUploaded byapi-343706830
- t002 Magnetic Crack WorkingUploaded bychidambaram kasi
- natsci2Uploaded byAngel Omlas
- The dynamics of coherent vortices near the turbulent/non-turbulent interface analysed by direct numerical simulationsUploaded byReis
- Prognostic Modeling With Logistic Regression Analysis-- In Search of a Sensible Strategy in Small Data SetsUploaded bydaniel
- 158Uploaded bySilviu Prise
- Quantum Mechanics TheoryUploaded byPridana Ynwa
- feeding in pre-term infants article 1Uploaded byapi-233194702
- D664 TANUploaded byTulananda Aulia
- The Geometric Efficient Matching Algorithm ForUploaded byVinaya Kumar S
- Link Budget CalculationUploaded byRicha Budhiraja
- ISO 128 - Wikipedia, The Free EncyclopediaUploaded byRickson Viahul Rayan C
- Ansys Autodyn 120 Workshop 06Uploaded byAhmed Hanafy
- Mathematics (Extended) FlashcardsUploaded byZubair Junjunia
- Rfc 2475Uploaded byNishant Mishra
- Visual Foxpro Excel Question paperUploaded bySukanta Pal
- electrosurgeryUploaded byOgechukwu Nwobe
- Selenium Content,selenium online trainingUploaded byQshore online training
- Complete Stem ScienceUploaded byMoi Alcantara
- SoloGuitarStrategiesConcepts-TedGreenePersonalNotesUploaded bysisman8386
- insulator.pdfUploaded bymanoj_2027
- Principles+ +LU6Uploaded byAlvin Ray Juan
- NaviDictionaryUploaded byChaplain Rowhen Immortalis
- Function SpacesUploaded byJavier Alejandro Puga Cañedo
- NPcompleteUploaded bypoja_sinha
- Lecture2B_APT.pdfUploaded byGahoul
- QT9_1SDC007108G0202Uploaded byJeyakumar