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REACTOR TECHNOLOGY (TID-4500, 22nd Ed.)

NUCLEAR REACTORS and EARTHQUAKES

Issuance Date: August 1963

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Prepared by Lockheed Aircraft Corporation and Holmes & Narver, Inc., for the Division of React^or Development

UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION Division of Reactor Development Washington, D. C.

Tbisdociuneittit LYRELEASAB^R lulhorizmg Ofiicisjl ^^

DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government or any agency thereof.

DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document.

INTRODUCTION
This report has been prepared for the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission by personnel of Lockheed Aircraft Corporation and Holmes & Narver. Inc. It is intended to supply pertinent seismological information to engineers in the nuclear reactor field. Included are historical data on occurreficeTl^Rtensity, and wave shapes. "^Ihclilffed also a r e somejechniques for evaluating the response of structures to such events. A brief discussion of c'ertain reactor_ty2es and modes of operation is included to provide architectural, structural, and mechanical engineers with an insight into the design requirements of the industry. Although infrequent, earthquake effects on reactors should not be separated from the general problem of reactorsafety. Seismology and geology should enter the earliest site-selection considerations. A criterion of possible earthquake damage should be determined prior to final design, and the effects of earth motion should be evaluated for all components of the plant. This would involve consideration of such items as: an increased possibility of structural failure in the reactor and a possible need for an added degree of containment; control and safety circuitry under vibratory stresses; need for seismoscopes to initiate protective action automatically; regular inspections to assure that plant modifications have not increased seismic vulnerability and special inspections after earthquakes to assess damage; increased susceptibility to failure of components during seismic motion due to aging, fatigue, or irradiation damage. The cost of decreasing the earthquake sensitivity of the plant would have to be balanced against the consequences of its failure. In a properly designed plant, however, it is to be expected that an earthquake will not be a unique and overriding hazard in itself, but it will add to the possibility of mechanical or structural failure, which could lead to more severe consequences. The authors of this report are T. H. Thomas. G. Yasui, and R. H. Graham of Lockheed Aircraft Corporation and R. A. Williamson, R. E. Lowe, and Warren Hoak of Holmes & Narver, Inc. B. J. Garrick of Holmes Si Narver. Inc., reviewed the material on reactor safety. The approach to earthquake-resistant structural engineering was guided by G. W. Housner of the California Institute of Technology. C. F. Richter of the California Institute of Technology furnished the domestic and world-wide maps of earthquake incidence. R. B. McCalley. U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, Washington. D. C , contributed the analytical approach outlined in Appendix E. The authors would like also to express their appreciation to J. Schlocker of the U. S. Geological Survey at Menlo Park, Calif., for his critical review and many suggestions regarding Chapter 1. Contributions have been made in the areas of seismoscopy by Dean S. Carder and William K. Cloud of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. In the area of industrial earthquake damage, contributions have been made by Karl Steinbrugge of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, George Coltrin of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company, and H. C. Vander Heyden of the Southern California Gas Company.

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Many other individuals and organizations, governmental and industrial, in the fields of seismology, structural engineering, and reactor development have generously a s sisted whenever contacted. The accumulation of drafts, assembly of peripheral information, and much of the rev/riting of the final manuscript have been by T. H. Thomas. Technical monitors and reviewers for the Division of Reactor Development, U. S. Atomic Energy Commission, have been S. A. Szawlewicz, R. B. McCalley, and R. R. Newton. Final editing for publication has been performed at the AEC's Division of Technical Information Extension, Oak Ridge, by Mrs. Anne M. Goulden and Miss Ruth N. Bean. RICHARD H, GRAHAM Lockheed Aircraft Corporation

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CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1 1.1 GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS iii 1 i 3 4 5 7 9 15 15 . 1 7 17 19 21 21 23 23 24 26 28 . 3 5 39 41 41 43 44 47 52 52 52 53 53 54 54 60 61 61 61

Characteristics of Strong-motion Earthquakes . A. Faults B. Tsunami C. Propagation of Seismic Waves D. Earthquake Intensity E. Energy Release and Magnitude F. Relations Involving Intensity, Acceleration, Magnitude, and Distance G. Effect of Local Geology 1.2 Seismicity of North America . . . . . . . A. Seismic Zones B. Important Earthquakes C. Location of Past Strong Earthquakes D. Zones of Assessed Seismicity E. Probability of Occurrence of Earthquakes 1.3 Response of Structures to Earthquake Ground Motion . . A. Single-degree-of-freedom Structure B. Multidegree-of-freedom Structure C. Earthquake Spectra D. Spectrum Intensities . . . . . . . . E. Vibrational Energy of Structures F. Effect of Damping G. Limit-stress Design H. Building Vibration Records I. Influence of Foundation Conditions References CHAPTER 2 EARTHQUAKE GEOGRAPHY AND REGIONALIZATION 2.1 2.2 Acknowledgment Earthquake Geography: General Description A. Scope B. Tectonics Earthquake Geography: Details A. Cir cum-Pacific Belt B. Alpide Belt C. Eastern Asia Non-Alpide Areas . . D. Oceanic Seismic Belts E. Rift Zones
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F. Stable Masses G. Minor Seismic Areas H. Summary of Seismicity . . . 2.4 Seismic Regionaiization: General A. Forms of Presentation B. Factors Pertinent to Regionaiization 2.5 Seismic Regionaiization: Application A. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics B. Los Angeles Basin . . . . C. California D. United States References CHAPTER 3 3.1 3.2

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BASIC REACTOR TYPES AND POTENTK^L DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES

71 71 72 72 84 92 92 101 102 HI Ill 113 113 114 114 116 116 116 116 .117 117 .118 118 .119 .123 123 123 123 124 124 124 124 124 125 125 125 125

Description of Reactor Plants Specific Types of Reactors A. Pressurized-water Reactor B. Boiling-water Reactor C. Sodium—graphite Reactor D. Gas-cooled Reactor E. Fast Reactor F. Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor . . . . 3.3 Potential Seismic Damages to Reactor Plants A. Critical Areas of Reactor Systems B. Direct Mechanical Damages C. Nuclear Damage D. Indirect Damage E. Interaction Between Major Plant Components 3.4 Relative Susceptibility of Specific Reactor Systems A. Stationary Medium Power Plant No. 1 B. Shippingport Pressurized-water Reactor C. Experimental Boiling-water Reactor D. Sodium Reactor Experiment . . . . E. Gas-cooled Reactor No. 2 F. Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 2 . . . G. Homogeneous Reactor Test References . . . . . . . . . CHAPTER 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

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GENERAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

General Objectives of the Design Damage Minimization vs. Economic Considerations Adequacy of Seismic Provisions in Building Codes Structural Features Contributing to Seismic Resistance A. Bracing System B. Low Mass C. Ductility D. Adequate Construction Methods E. Adequate Foundations F. Damping G. Structural Symmetry . . . . . . . H. Separation of Adjacent Structures

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CONTENTS (Continued)
Details Allowing Structural Movement Without Damage to Nonstructural Elements 4.5 Structural Features Contributing to Seismic Damage 4.6 Static Method of Design A. Lateral Forces on Main Structure B. Lateral Forces on Parts of the Structure C. Allowable Stresses D. General Methods for Design of Structural Elements 4.7 Design of Foundations A. Overstressing of the Soil B. Consolidation and Differential Settlement 4.8 Relative Motion Between Structures and Parts of Structures A. Separation Joints B. Flexible Couplings 4.9 Effect of Material Properties A. Ductility B. Damping C. Relative Rigidities 4.10 Specific Design Details Important to Earthquake Resistance A. Structural-steel Details B. Concrete Details C. Foundations D. Structural Separation E. Other Provisions for Relative Motion 4.11 Typical Building-code Requirements m Earthquake Regions A. Scope . • B. Working Stresses Used in Seismic Design C. Preparation of Plans and Construction Inspection . D. Earthquake Design Loads E. Overturning Moments F. Distribution of Horizontal Shear G. Deflections H. Diaphragms I. Masonry Shear Walls J. Anchorage . . . . . . . . . . K. Structural Separation L. Foundation Ties 4.12 Relation of Building Codes to Reactor Design A. Use of Seismic Coefficients B. Seismic Zoning Provisions C. Detailed Seismic Provisions of Codes References I. 125 125 126 126 126 127 127 127 127 127 128 128 128 128 128 129 129 .130 130 131 133 133 133 133 133 135 .135 135 138 138 138 138 141 141 141 141 142 142 142 144 144

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CHAPTER 5 SEISMIC-RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR SIMPLE TYPES OF STRUCTURES ' 5.1 5.2 Introduction . . . . . . . Considerations in Using the Spectrum Method A. Choice of Spectra B. Resultant vs. Component Spectra . C. Damping Factors D. Structures and Equivalent Models Rigid-body Structures Example 1
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3 6. Procedure G. Example 2 6.8 Special Considerations in Designing Seismic-resistant Nuclear-reactor Structures A. Maximum Response C. and Limit-design Methods C. Energy Considerations B. Power Increase C. Equipment and Piping References CHAPTER 6 DYNAMIC PRESSURE ON FLUID CONTAINERS Introduction General Approach Formulas for Tanks Supported on the Ground Tanks Supported on the Ground (h/J or h/R ^ 1.5 Structures with Two Degrees of Freedom A. Example 4 5.6 Procedure for Elevated Tanks Example 3 6.2 6. Auxiliary Structures G.7 Limit-design Approach A.1 7.6 Elastic Flexural Members A. Accident Initiation B.4 5.5) Example 1 6. Plastic Strain Reversal D. Seismic-resistance Requirements B. Safety Factor F. Exhaust Stacks F. Example 3 5. Dynamic. Shielding Structures E. Example 5 5. Equations for Flexural Members B.1 6. Loss of Coolant viii 6.8 Curves for Tanks Supported on the Ground References CHAPTER 7 REACTOR HAZARDS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE ON EARTHQUAKES 7. Ductility C.CONTENTS (Continued) Structures with One Degree of Freedom Example 2 5. Static. Vessels and Shells D.5) . Periods of Vibration and Mode Shapes B.2 General Considerations for Reactor Safety Earthquakes as Causes of Reactor Failures A. 210 210 212 212 212 213 213 . Loss of Flow D.4 153 155 156 157 157 158 164 164 166 168 168 170 171 171 171 171 172 176 176 177 177 178 179 179 179 181 183 184 185 185 187 188 191 192 195 197 201 203 209 .7 Special Considerations in Designing Seismic-resistant Fluid Containers 6. Instability E.5 Procedure for Slender Tanks Supported on the Ground (h/1 or h/R > 1.

Nuclear Energy Sources B. Atomics International D. American-Standard. . .3 214 214 215 216 218 220 221 222 222 223 225 225 227 228 229 230 231 231 233 233 233 233 234 235 235 235 236 237 237 239 239 240 240 240 240 242 242 242 243 243 243 243 244 244 245 . Hanford Production Reactors G. . . . Stored Energy C. Experimental Breeder Reactor No. C. Inherent Mechanisms B.7 Recommended Earthquake Instrumentation . Shippingport Pressurized-water Reactor B. E. .1 8. Startup B. • A. Stationary Medium Power Plant No. Seismic Sensitivity 8. University of California Lawrence Radiation Laboratory .l A.2 PROTECTION SYSTEMS 7. Containment Vessel IX .3 Seismic Sensitivity of Control-rod Types A. Vallecitos Atomic Laboratory . Savannah River Production Reactors 8. Advanced Technology Laboratories . . . . 247 247 248 248 Site Characteristics Building and Containment Response A. F. Contrived Mechanisms .6 Current Earthquake-protection Systems A. Aerojet-General Nucleonics B. . . . .5 Earthquakes and Power-distribution Networks 7. . Contamination Release 7. 1 C. 8.6 Seismology and the New Reactor Project 7. . . . . Introduction Reactor Control A. Controlled Drop Rods E. Freely Falling Rods B. Continued Operation During an Earthquake B. Organic-moderated Reactor Experiment . 1 .2 SEISMIC CONSIDERATIONS PERTINENT TO THE STATIONARY MEDIUM POWER PLANT NO. .CONTENTS (Continued) Energy Sources and Release Mechanisms A.4 Typical Maximum Credible Accidents A. . . . Mechanically Driven Rods D. . 2 E. . Full Power D. Programmed Shutdown References CHAPTER 8 8. Experimental Boiling-water Reactor D. . . . General Electric Company. Friction Damped Rods C. .4 Reactor-control Instrumentation . Intermediate Power Range C. References APPENDIX A A. .5 Seismometers 8. Control-rod Whip During an Earthquake 8.7 Operating Practices Pertinent to Earthquakes A. Chemical Energy Sources D. F. . . NASA Engineering Test Reactor 7.

Primary System C. . . . Transient Load Demand During Earthquakes E.2 EARTHQUAKE EXPERIENCE IN UTILITIES PLANTS AND"INDUSTRIAL 342 342 342 342 343 343 344 349 350 Introduction Steam-Electric Power Stations A. Loss of Heat Sink During Earthquakes D. Loss of Power E. . Energy Release H.l C. Piping Stresses D. . Equipment and Supports C. Energy Release Standard Operating Procedure with Respect to Earthquakes Structural Calculations . . Plant 4 D. . . Nuclear Perturbations B. Control Rods C. Significance of Overstress G. .5 B. Static Resistance of Equipment Items . . Static Resistance of Equipment Items B.4 Standard Operating Procedure . . Operations Building Framing F. . 311 311 311 . . .3 Oil Refineries R e f e r e n c e s . Emergency Shutdown and Cooling System I. . . . X .3 Reactor System A. Plants 2 and 3 C. Plant 1 B.4 A. Failure of Steam System F. . Primary Shielding D. Containment Vessel B.3 A. Nuclear Perturbations F.' Fuel-transfer System B. . Significance of Overstress F.l B. Reactor System A. .5 Structural Calculations References B. Control Rods B. Transient Load Demand G. . APPENDIX C C. Turbine and Generator Support E. . Service Building E. . .311 312 312 .CONTENTS (Continued) 251 252 253 253 254 -254 254 255 255 255 255 255 255 256 256 A. . Plants 5 and 6 C. Loss of Power During Earthquakes C. . APPENDIX B SEISMIC CONSIDERATIONS PERTINENT TO THE EXPERIMENTAL BOILING-WATER REACTOR Site Characteristics Building and Containment Response A. .2 303 303 303 304 306 307 308 309 309 309 309 310 310 310 310 310 . . B. . . . . Core Structure D. .

3 Convective P r e s s u r e s F. . Pressure-vessel Stresses B.2 Derivation of Equations E. 351 351 351 351 .4 Simple Numerical Example References APPENDIX F DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FLUIDS IN CONTAINERS SUBJECTED TO ACCELERATION 367 367 367 371 377 383 389 390 391 391 396 399 401 401 F.3 Calculation of Nondominant Frequencies and Modes E. 2 H. Radiation Effects on Graphite (General) Pressure Vessel and Thermal Support Sleeve A. .2 G.3 General Electric Company.CONTENTS (Continued) APPENDIX D EARTHQUAKE EXPERIENCE IN EXISTING REACTOR PLANTS .6 Corresponding Equation Numbers References APPENDIX G MISCELLANEOUS DERIVATIONS Behavior of a Single-degree-of-freedom System Periods of Vibration and Mode Shapes Derivation of Frequency Equation for a System with Two Degrees of Freedom G.5 Cylindrical Container F. Vallecitos Atomic Laboratory D. Restraint by Garter Rings B.6 Hanford Works D.5 American-Standard.4 Atomics International D. MATRIX FORMAT FOR ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF UNEAR UNDAMPED SYSTEMS 353 353 353 356 359 366 E . .7 Savannah River Production Reactors References APPENDIX E . . .2 Introduction Graphite Core A.3 XI .3 403 403 403 403 404 404 404 405 405 407 408 408 .352 352 352 352 352 D.l H.2 Aerojet-General Nucleonics D. Advanced Technology Laboratories D. . Restraint by Shear Keys C. H.l Introduction F. .2 Impulsive P r e s s u r e s F.4 Derivation of Participation Factor for a System with Two Degrees of Freedom References APPENDIX H SEISMIC CONSIDERATIONS PERTINENT TO THE ORNL PROPOSED GAS-COOLED REACTOR NO. Support-sleeve Stresses G. Horizontal Shear Transfer D. .l G. l General E. .l Introduction D.4 Rectangular Container F. Miscellaneous F. UpUft E.

.CONTENTS (Continued) C. System Deflections H. . INDEX 408 409 409 409 409 409 409 410 410 410 410 411 .7 Fuel Transfer to Pond H.5 Fuel-element and Control-rod Malfunction A. . . .8 Top Biological Shield in Seismic Integrity References .4 Primary System: Deflection-induced Leakage H. . Control-rod Malfunction C. . Control-rod Suspension H. . . XI1 .6 Boron Curtain H. Fuel-element Jamming B. . . . Support-sleeve Alternates D.

Velocity Spectrum for El Centro. Spectrum Intenaltlea of Recorded Ground Motion.24 Detail of Average-dlaplacement-apectrum Curvea.1 1. 1.7A 1. Velocltlea of Longitudinal (P> Wavea at Shallow Depths. suggest this picture of the interior of the earth.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF STRONG-MOTION EARTHQUAKES In the past half century. Velocity Spectrum for Olym^a. Dealgnatlcm of Earthquakea by Magnltudea. 1. are not as well understood as the tectonic type but are of less practical interest since their occurrence is relatively infrequent. Hollywood. Earthquake.. 1.27 Acceleration-Time Record of Floor Slab in Building at 48-ft Elevation Above Grade. Calif. 1.18 SctMinatio tlluitrmcian of ElA«tlo Rebound Ttiaory. May 18.14 1. Calif. which represents the era of modern seismology. Calif. 1952.. 1962. Calif. Other types of earthquakes.26 Measured Ground Motion at Baae of Building. 1. Saa Fraociaco. 19S7. 1934.. Calif.5 1.4 1.8 Obaerved Amount and Perslatence of Surface Rupture. Earthquake. Mar. 1957. Earthquaka.8 1.17 1.. Intenalty of Ground Motion Recorded at El Centro. Waab. brittle outer shell. frcHn Salamographa Located in Both Panthouaa and Baaammit of Hollywood StorAf* Compaay Building. Earthquake. Apr.6 1.ll 1.3 1. 1958 Uniform Bultdli^ Code Zoning Map. Deo. 1.. Under some mountain ranges the depth may be nearly 40 miles. Calif. Velocity Spectrum for £1 Centro. 30. Oeo.13 1.chapter 1 GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS HGURES 1.. Earthquake.12 1. Radoa of Acceleratl<m and Intenalty.2 1. Calif. Intenalty of Ground Motion Recorded at El Centro. tdealiaed laoaelamal Llnea for i^iocka of VarlouB Magnltudea. July a ..3 1. Calif. Velocity Spectrum for El Centro. Earthquake. Aecolarograph Raoord of Arvln—Tahaebapi. 22.1 1. Calif.15 1. Magnltudea and Locations of Past Strong Earthquakes in and Around the United Statea.. Approxlmata Halation CoonactlAg Earthquaka Magnitude with Energy Releaae and Eplcantral Acoalaratlon. 1940. Multldegra«-of-freedom Syatem.7 1. Acoatarograph Raoord of Saa Frandaco. 1940. Intenalty of Ground Motion Recorded at El Centro. 1940. Mar. The crust lies on the mantle..7 1. Wave Voloolty u a Fuaotlon of D«ptli In th« Earth. Approxlmata Ralatlon Coonaotlng Earthquaka Intaaalty with Accelaratlon. One-degTee-of*fra«dom Syatam. Component N-S. Intenalty of Ground Motion Recorded at El Ceotro. Calif. landslides.22 Detail of Average-aeceleratlon-apectrum Curiraa. Compoaent SSO'W.25 Undamped Velocity-spectrum Curvea. CompoDent H-8.. Magnitude Rating of Earthquakee for the United Statea. 1957..9 1. 1940. Calif. Average Southern California Carthquakea..6 1. lotanaity of Ground Motion Recorded at El Centro. Percentage of World'a Earthquakea Occurring in the Circum-Pacific Zone. Calif. Taft. 1940. 1. 1949. representing a minor fraction of the observed seismic activity of the earth. Apr. 13. Component C-W... Intenalty of Ground MoUon Recorded at El Centro. particularly records of earthquakes. which extends to a depth of 1800 miles and con1 ... 1.23 Average-dlaplaoement-apectrum Curvee. Calif. The crust is a relatively thin. 1940. and collapse of caverns.19 Average-veloolty-apeotrum Curvea. 13. TABLES 1. varying from a thickness of a few miles (7 to 11 miles average) under oceans to an average of 21 miles under continental masses.4 1. Geophysical observations. Earthquaka.18 1.. Acoelarograph Raoorda of Arrln-Tebaohapl. 1940.28 Accelerograph Racorda of the San Fraoolaco. Earthquaka. Waeb. such as those associated with volcanic activity. 30. 1934. 1. it has been obseired that most earthquakes occurring in this period originated in either the crust or the mantle of the earth at depths varying from a few to several hundred miles. Calif. Earthquake. Calif. Earthquaka.21 Average-aooeleratlon-apeotrum Curvea. EarthqiHk*. Compiment 310*2. Data from San Francisco Earthquake. May 18.2 1. from Selamographa Located on 16th Floor and In the Baaement of the Alexander Building. 1949. Calif. July 21.. 1940. 1.20 Detail of Average-veloclty-apeotrum Curvee. 1. 22. Velocity Spectrum for El Centro. Calif. 22. Mi^ 18.^'''^-^ These are so-called tectonic earthquakes because their origin can be correlated with deformation such as ruptures or faults. Accalaroccraph Record of El Caotro.5 1. Mar.10 X. Component E-W. Velocity Spectrum for Olympia. Calif. 1940.

93 g/cm^ There is disagreement concerning the physical state (solid vs. gradually accumulated until the strength of the rock was exceeded. The average density of each layer. in turn. 2. unstrained blocks. transverse seismic waves. configuration just after earthquake.) (B) The numerous aftershocks usually accompanying earthquakes may be accounted for by this theory since it is plausible that the rebound motion either stops short of equilibrium displacement or continues beyond.84 g/cm^. F. This resulted in a sudden slip. 1. and core.1 — Schematic illustration of elastic rebound theory. leaving residual strain energy sufficient to cause later shocks of lesser magnitude along the weakened fault. a r e assumed to increase the accumulated stress at the focus. As a result of these forces.93 g/cm'. suggesting slow movement of adjacent crustal blocks along the San Andreas fault. but with high viscosity. the core does not transmit transverse seismic waves and is therefore considered to be fluid. Rigid properties of the mantle. Similarly.CHARACTERISTICS OF STRONG-MOTION EARTHQUAKES stitutes more than 80% of the earth's volume. strain condition preceding earthquake. The portion of this energy transmitted as vibrations. The crust and the rigid upper part of the mantle are in a continual state of deformation owing possibly to contraction from cooling. mostly in the heterogeneous outer regions of the crust and mantle. which often precede large earthquakes. -^ . ^ ^ " (A) V ^ (C) Fig. gives rise to the commotion known as an earthquake. foreshocks. Nevertheless. CHAPTER 1 . C. throughout its thickness.'•'' In contrast. H. 4. particularly in the crust. along a plane of weakness. The mantle. or elastic rebound. 10. Experimental evidence exists for the belief that material with little or no strength.2. setting the stage for the main shock. however. (Data from Ref.'"^ The doubt comes from the present lack of knowledge concerning properties of solids and liquids at the high pressures and temperatures that exist in the interior of the earth. which appear as shear displacements at right angles to the direction of propagation. as shown schematically in Fig. The tectonic viewpoint is strongly supported by specific examples such as the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. liquid) of the two inner regions. isostatic balance of high mountains and low valleys. 1. which resulted in horizontal displacements along the fault as great as 21 ft.1. strains that slowly accumulate in the crust and mantle are suddenly relieved by rupturing (faulting) at specific points. Further evidence is provided by the ability of the mantle to transmit. are indicated by deep-focus earthquakes arising from ruptures at depths as great as 435 miles below sea level. as the result of the observed relative motion of the adjacent crustal blocks. but the present trend of opinion is certainly toward a solid mantle and a liquid core. After the earthquake. disclosed by gravity measurements. From this rupturing large amounts of stored energy are released. mantle. Reid^'^ proposed in his elastic rebound theory that strains in the tightly locked fault. Records for 50 years prior to the event reveal that triangulation monuments in the area changed position measurably. according to the American Geological Data Sheet Committee (1958 A6-19). fluid drag from convection currents in the plastic part of the mantle and in the core. indicates that the mantle is more or less plastic beyond a depth of about 60 miles below sea level. A. is as follows: crust. can be ruptured and sheared. surrounds the core. or from other unidentified forces of a thermal nature such as radioactive decay. B. 1.

In large earthquakes the initial slippage. is propagated along the fault plane. Fissures within the zones may have an echelon GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 3 . Destructive earthquakes in the western United States have originated from faults showing surface rupture that varies from predominately horizontal to predominately vertical. Richter. F. which may be regarded as a point source. and the slip zone rarely reaches the surface. The observed amount and persistence of surface rupture associated with several strong earthquakes''^ are shown in Table 1. and the resulting ground motion is limited to a relatively small theoretically circular area. This is attributed to the brittle and heterogeneous nature of the material in this zone. and deep shocks as those originating below 200 miles. Generally the amount and extent of surface rupture is directly proportional to the intensity of the earthquake. conclusive surface evidence of faulting has been associated with earthquakes in only about 20 instances throughout the world. by folding or wrinkling. deeply alluviated valley. originating at a point source. Sudden slippage on faults is the origin of the large majority of earthquakes. F r e quency of occurrence decreases with depth. intermediate and deep shocks are rarely destructive. such as in a wide. Volcanism accounts for most of the rest. resulting in a larger and generally elongated area of strong ground motion. The dip of a fault is the acute angle between the fault plane and a horizontal plane. the slippage of deeply buried crustal blocks may be accommodated in the surficial blanket by widespread but minor rupturing. In a region where a thick surface blanket of poorly to moderately consolidated sediments exist. (1933). Gutenberg and Richter'•' classify shallow and intermediate shocks as those originating at depths less than 40 miles and 200 miles. It is measured in the plane perpendicular to the strike. Calif. the relative directions of slip on the two faces of a subsurface fault can be deduced from seismographs. including those most destructive. so that if the fault plane is inclined the epicenter will not be on the fault trace. The epicenter is a point on the earth's surface directly above the focus. Calif. In small earthquakes the slippage is confined to a local zone. The focus or hypocenter of an earthquake is the point at which fracture first occurs on the fault. respectively. or by readjustment in the packing of grains. The initial fracture usually starts at a depth of about 10 miles.''^ Despite the lack of surface evidence.FAULTS A. less fractured.IA ij * " i v__/ The rough plane of weakness between adjacent crustal blocks is commonly referred to as a fault. According to C. For purposes of this document the term center is defined as the location of the center of the slipped area of the fault. Surface rupturing associated with strong earthquakes may be very complex. Examples are the earthquakes at Santa Barbara. The zones may follow known faults or may have a straight or arcuate alignment unrelated to known faults. (1925) and at Long Beach. At these depths the crustal rocks are more consolidated. Faults I. inasmuch as both a r e related to the slippage that takes place along faults at depths of several miles or more. which does not permit large deformations without rupture. The strike of a fault is the orientation with respect to longitude (angle from north) of the line of intersection of the fault plane and a horizontal plane. Surface rupturing along a fault trace may extend as much as several himdred miles as observed in the San Francisco shock''^ of 1906. are shallow shocks originating in the upper 20 miles of the earth's crust. A fault trace is the line of intersection of this plane with the earth's surface. and these observations indicate that destructive earthquakes in the western United States are caused by fault slipping. Earthquakes may occur at depths greater than 20 miles. Both horizontal and vertical components are seen along some faults.1. Thus no well-defined surface rupture may be found for destructive shocks in such areas. It may take the form of wide zones of small fissures in which individual offsets vary from an inch to a few feet. and less altered compared to rocks at or near the surface. Most earthquakes.

Although intense weather systems create microseismic activity. Calif. They create no hazard for ships in their path but can cause severe damage as they pile up in shallow water and enter bays. other than seismographic evidence of a distant earthquake. Calif.LIB TSUNAMI arrangement or have different trends. Examples of this type a r e described in considerable detail for the Fukui. Hawke's Bay. They are assumed to be produced by shallow-focus earthquakes under the ocean bottom although some have been associated with seisms of inland origin. Precise resurveying of bench marks and triangulation points is exceedingly useful in revealing earth movements in connection with faulting and earthquakes. 4 CHAPTER 1 . Nev. is in operation. and narrow estuaries. Sometimes the sea withdraws from the coast prior to arrival of the wave. miles 5 40 60 12 1899 1906 1906 1915 1931 1940 8 21 30 270 22 45 B. These waves. Japan Assam Yakutat Bay. including Hawaii and the western coast of the United States. If such occur.1 —OBSERVED AMOUNT AND PERSISTENCE OF SURFACE RUPTURE Maximum o b s e r v e d offset along fault t r a c e . earthquakes''^ of 1952. P l e a s a n t Valley. earthquake''^ of 1948 and the Kern County. The seismograph stations in the warning net announce detection of severe local earthquakes. when traversing the open sea. Tide gauge stations watch for abnormal fluctuations.''^-'*' Table 1. Alaska Formosa San F r a n c i s c o . This technique allows sufficient warning time to prevent loss of life in distant areas. Calif. as well as other coastal installations. New Zealand El Centro. a tsunami warning is broadcast to coastal regions that a r e potentially afflicted. Tsunami are potential sources of damage to tidewater nuclear power plants. They generally show a more consistent and simpler pattern of movement than that shewn by complex surface ruptures. are large sea waves associated with earthquakes. Date 1847 1872 1891 20 13 Horizontal Vertical 9 23 19 35 47 6 3 15 6 15 9 Small Length of rupture. Japan. fjords. and the displacements on them may be in diverse directions. Tsunami Tsimami. often miscalled tidal waves.. ft Earthquake Nagano. Waves can be very massive and appear suddenly with no associated meteorological activity. although property damage may be severe since tsunami travel for thousands of miles without appreciable attenuation. tsunami appear out of the sea usually unannounced by local phenomena. A tsunami with a wave height of 210 ft reached Cape Lopatka on the Kamchatka Peninsula in 1737. Calif. A tsunami warning net. measure several miles from crest to crest and move at velocities of 400 to 500 miles/hr. J a p a n Owens Valley. although this is not a reliable p r e cursor.

1. say within 100 miles.PROPAGATION OF SEISMIC WAVES I. Typical records of strong-motion accelerations are shown in Figs. The velocity of these two types of waves in rock varies with depth below the earth's surface as shown in Fig. Thus. homogeneous elastic medium. or S waves (shear). 50 miles from the fault. Where velocities are stated in miles per second. the 0. Vp and Vs are the velocities of the P and S waves. based on the idealized assumption of an infinite. respectively.IC The Pacific Ocean is estimated''* to have one or two tsunami per year. S. with the possible exception of the inner portion. 1. which travel along the surface. 1.2. P and S waves after one reflection are called P P and SS. These speeds depend on the properties of the transmitting medium. The theoretical velocities of these two types of waves. and 0 is the mass density. The interest of the structural designer is in the strong motion occurring near the epicenter.2. These accelerograms. Surface reflection of P and S waves can also occur.'-' Transverse waves have shear strain characteristics. Differences in arrival times of the various wave types form the basis for locating epicenters.3-sec period components will have decayed two to three times as much as the 1-sec or longer period components. and transverse. statute miles are implied rather than nautical miles.6. The amplitudes of seismic waves in general decrease rapidly with the distance traveled while the periods increase.2.3 mile/sec. Propagation of Seismic Waves Seismic waves travel at varying speeds. The R wave produces an elliptical surface motion in a vertical plane containing the source and the point of observation.3 to 1. whereas the L wave is a shear type (transverse) wave vibrating ui a horizontal plane. Longitudinal waves h^ve the compressionrarefaction vibration characteristics of sound waves. and in very firm alluvium the velocity may reach values of 0. recorded by the U. For this reason the plot of the S waves is shown as terminating at the interface between mantle and core. called Rayleigh waves (R) and Love waves (L). The core. For the particular medium. The velocity of S waves is less than that of the P waves. The amplitudes of S waves are usually much greater than those of the P waves. and after two reflections they are called P P P and SSS. The velocities of P waves through various materials are shown in Table 1.1) 2cr)p In Eqs.9 to 1. Reflection of P waves in the form of S waves is also possible. In soft alluvium the velocity of seismic waves may be as low as 0. are given by the following expressions:'''" (1 a) (1 ^•'=V^ + ^'-'^"^ (1. C.1 and 1. but usually these are quite small. does not transmit S waves. with frequencies that are sometimes audible.2 miles/sec. it is designated SP. vibrating the soil particles in a plane normal to the direction of propagation. if it has a reverse history. Because of this the seismic waves a r riving at distant points have predominately longer periods than those occurring near the epicenter. The resulting wave is designated PS.to 0. or P waves (dilatational). and. The seismic disturbance is propagated from the fault in two principal wave types: longitudinal. Coast and GeoGENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 5 . a is Poisson's ratio. In the epicentral regions the shorter period wave components decay with distance much more rapidly than the longer period components.2. Those P and S waves reaching the surface near the epicenter generate two other wave types. E is the modulus of elasticity.

o. S.2—Wave velocity as a function of depth in the earth.oy 9X>\ •5 r *< 7. (Data from Ref. and the distances involved are too small for large separation of P and S waves to occur.^ 5 .Lie PROPAGATION OF SEISMIC WAVES 1.5. which serves to illustrate the extremely short period available for emergency action following the onset of an earthquake.or 9. J « •» 4. Mantle .2.01 Oepf/i m MII0S — miles Longitudinal Waves.0\ 50\ 4. In this epicentral region the amplitudes of the S waves are much larger than those of the forerunning P waves.0 4.) detic Survey. are typical of records taken in the epicentral region by special strongmotion seismometers with characteristics suitable for recording the short-period highacceleration ground motion in this region.5 ^ > « ^ ^ •^ 3. 1. C 3re < 1 5.^ mJi AW 3. These instruments do not operate continuously but are started on the receipt of a threshold impulse. in sec Fig. of s t ID o r 6. P. \n . In a typical earthquake the strongest motions are recorded within a few seconds after the receipt of this impulse.0i- S. 6 CHAPTER 1 . 1.0\i 1 / / # / y 1 1 k # jM 25 zL if -1 500 /OOO J /500 2000 2500 ^ " 3000 ^J u 3500 4000 Oepf/) in Ml/as—»• Tronsverss IVovss.

S.4 0. This would require that a system of such devices be used.33 g) of this shock. In spite of this limitation. two such scales have proved fairly useful. the Rossi —Forel scale.2 0.8 numerous small earthquakes which occur frequently. Figures 1. Calif. O. A modification of the Mercalli scale was developed in 1931 by H. about 70 miles from the center.4 was obtained at Taft.2-0. The record of Fig. columns 1 and 2. Accelerations in past U. at a distance sufficient to provide the necessary warning time.1-4. expresses intensity in general terms which are not well suited to take advantage of the voluminous and more detailed reporting of the present day. earthquakes may have exceeded the maximum value (0. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey in evaluating U. D. 1. These a s s e s s the intensity of the shock at a given point in only a qualitative way since they are not based on r e corded ground motions but only on the observed effects of the ground motion.9-2. Wood of the Seismological Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology and Frank Neumann of the U. 8.0 2..7.5 (Arvin —Tehachapi. Figure 1. the device would need to be triggered by the S waves of large earthquakes. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Calif..8 Material Sand Loess and artificial fill Alluvium Clay Material Salt Sandstone Limestone Granite Quartzlte 0. A detailed discussion of protective systems is presented in Chap. Both the R o s s i . To avoid this difficulty. about 30 miles from the center of the slipped area of the fault. 1. S.2 0. 1952) are shown for comparison of a close-in record of a large earthquake with a more distant record. Figure 1.3) is representative of the record obtained near the epicenters of large magnitude earthquakes.6-1.2—VELOCITIES OF LONGITUDINAL (P) WAVES AT SHALLOW DEPTHS Velocity.EARTHQUAKE INTENSITY LID These facts may be important in the consideration of a reactor protection device to be activated by the earthquake motion. this is the largest acceleration recorded in the United States to date. earthquakes. miles/sec 0. The older of these.5 represents a record of the same earthquake obtained at Hollywood. would also be operated by the S waves of the Table 1. Intensities established by these scales can be only approximately correlated with seismographic data.1-1. however. 1957) is representative of a close-in record of a small earthquake.5-3. For these conditions the more recently developed Mercalli scale has distinct advantages. Earthquake Intensity Earthquake intensity is a measure of the violence of the ground motion at a given point on the surface of the ground. 1. The El Centro 1940 record (Fig. GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 7 .5 3.7 1. miles/sec 2. This scale is in current use by the U. Such a device.7 Velocity. surrounding the installation to be protected. S. if designed to operate on the forerunning P waves of a major earthquake.4 and 1.3-1.F o r e l scale and an abridged form of the Modified-Mercalli scale are shown''" in Fig.6 (San Francisco. A number of empirical scales have been developed for describing the violence of ground motion in a particular locality.

(Data from U.) . Coast and Geodetic Survey. Calif. earthquake.. Magnitude.201- EAST 10 15 Duration (sec) Fig. M = 7±.3 — Accelerograph record of El Centro. Earthquake r e corded approximately 30 miles from center of slipped fault.LID EARTHQUAKE INTENSITY 0 20r- 10 15 Duration (sec) 0. S. 1. 1940. May 18.

000 twenty-kiloton a t o m i c b o m b s . earthquake. 1. w h e r e a s the s m a l l e s t shocks r e l e a s e only about 1 0 " t i m e s a s much e n e r g y a s the l a r g e s t e a r t h q u a k e s 1.20r 9 10 II 12 Duration (sec) 0. Coast and Geodetic Survey.4—Taft. July 21. Magnitude. accelerograph record of Arvln-Tehachapi.20p 9 10 II 12 Duration (sec) Fig. M = 7... (Data from U. Calif. Earthquake recorded approximately 30 miles from center of fault.2 GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 9 .) E n e r g y R e l e a s e and Magnitude The energy r e l e a s e of the g r e a t e s t s h o c k s h a s been e s t i m a t e d a s being roughly equivalent to the total energy of 10. Calif. S. 1952.ENERGY RELEASE AND MAGNITUDE C120r LIE 9 10 II 12 Duration (sec) o.7.

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ENERGY RELEASE AND MAGNITLTlE LIE Q 6- o « 3 > o - S! • > S 9 9 8 o 8 f Gjosuuaj ufjuouojafso^v U4 _Q r- GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 11 .

. Magnitude.054M'' 12 (1. to the energy. .4 + 2. released as seismic waves was given by Gutenberg and Richter'''^ in the form log E = 9./o 3 4 5 Duration (sec) 0.1 Duration (sac) iV/v^A*^^v^wV''H^^y^ < o. (Data from U. 1957. 22.10 O i « UP 0. M.10 r NORTH ^. . 3 Duration (sec) Fig. approximately 7 miles from center of fault. earthquake.10 3 4 5 ^iiirinii^^^iA 6 I . Calif. .3) CHAPTER 1 . Coast and Geodetic Survey.) At the present time accurate calculation of energy release is not possible.14M .05 0. Earthquake recorded at Golden Gate Park.0.. Mar.09 O 0 'la/fH^^Vr^WV DOWN •W^i^a^Miifa tmimm}mM«rf"l«'<' ' S 0.^If^yv'UvHJnvy^N^^ SOUTH 0.6—Accelerograph record of San Francisco.LIE ENERGY RELEASE AND MAGNITUDE t> 0.10 3 4 Oil. In 1956 a rough approximation relating earthquake magnitude. S. However. 1. as early as 1935 Richter devised an arbitrary magnitude scale based on the maximum amplitude of the record of a standard seismometer at a distance of 100 km from the epicenter.3. E. M = 5.

especially on upper floors. objects •sooo""thrown up Into air. cracks in walls of buildings. delicate suspended objects may swing. bridges destroyed. TSLPanel walls thrown out of -200 chimneys. swinging plaster and chimneys! damage -50^chandeliers. I Ttieshocl< felt only by experienced observer under very favorable conditions.direction to be appredabie. outdoors •8 by a few. (Data from Refs. lome buildings. ruins. pipes brokenf kmdslldes. run outdoors. ground cracked. -1000'^ : ' ' XT Ntm struduret remain standing. •3000 ' 2S Damage total. cracking of floors. ringing of some bells. 7 Felt by most people. tion. cracked. sand and mud ejected. falling asleep. 7 Felt generally by everyone. W Fall of chimneys. lines of sight •4000 and level distorted.11 to 1. disturbances of furniture. many lightened VI General awakening of those •40 and run outdoors. but •4 not always recognized as a quaket -S-OOSgstanding autos rock slightly. ringing of bells. thrown out of •400 pluml^ ground crocked. cm sec -2 a T H Felt by a few people at rest. -3 HI Felt noticeably indoors. startled people •60 small. SI Partial or total destruction of drivers of autos disturbed. '•eooo ' Fig. rails bent. •70 !3r Overthrow of movable objects. fissures in •2O00 • ground. motor cars rock noticeably. recorded by several seismographs. some breakage of dishes.'disturbance of loll objects. -30 VI Felt by all.and •?o p/astet.7 — Approximate relation connecting earthquake intensity with acceleration. rails bent. ]andslidesf etc structures destroyed. INTB^snYSCM.3 1 Detected only by sensitive instruments. -GOO disturbance of strata. windows. 2 C0L. noticed by drivers of autos. a Felt by a few persons at rest. VS Everybody runs outdoor^ fat of planter.13. kmtlldes. windows. -6 vibration like passing truck. at night some awaken. WOOD AND NEUMANN 0883) I cou COL. fissures. disturbance of movable objects. damage to buildings varies. W Felt by several people in motion. depanic with great damage to pending on quality of construcbuildings. M Felt by several people at resii strong enougii for ttte duration a.ENERGY RELEASE AND MAGNITUDE LIE MODIFIED-MERCALU INTENSITY ROSShFORB. 1.) GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 13 . -TOO X Most masonry and &ame rockfalls. dishes. ground pipes broken.ringingof bells. N Fait Moors by many. doors daturbed. under-•500°^ X Great (Masters. 1. waves seen on ground surface. •ZOO JZ BuiUings shifted off foundations.£ SCALE (1930.

(Data from Refs. 35. . &gs cm sec ••K)" -2 10' I- o X 0: Ul a^ C0L3 « Ul t lu W3•Kf -3 4 SJOC696 •7 8 i < / •-.) « 2000 2 c 3000 IcA''^^- « CHAPTER 1 . 1. 1. columns 1 and 2.7A. respectively. 6. Ui Q ffiUi to COL I COU u s.11 to 1. The r e l a t i v e energy r e l e a s e of shocks having magnitudes 5. 10'' ^10" •20 •50 kfS- •o^ 40 S0. and 7 would be 1. and 980.13.LIE ENERGY RELEASE AND MAGNITUDE w h e r e E is the energy in e r g s .^ / -10' khB— \ 3 O X Fig. 1.0Sg.7A—Approximate relation connecting earthquake magnitude with energy release and epicentral acceleration. 70 •10^ BO / •Kf •200 -300 1^7— -10"' 400 socP^600 700 800 900 la. This r e l a t i o n is shown in Fig.

and 8 for average southern California conditions''^ are shown in Fig. ACCELERATION.8 log ao (1. 1. Hershberger.4) where a is the acceleration in centimeters per second per second. where R is the distance from the station to the center of the slipped area of the fault. is known by the equation 1 = 3 log a + 1 . varies inversely as R^ and directly as the product h / E . h is the depth to the center. dip. 6. Relations Involving Intensity.1 (1. may be computed for the location where the Modified-Mercalli intensity. Perhaps the only definite statement that can be made GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 15 .2 + 1.4a) Acceleration. Isoseismal lines of constant Modified-Mercalli intensity for shocks of magnitudes 5. Propagation from a point source is assumed. and depth of faulting. The variation of maximum ground acceleration with hypocentral distance can be approximated. However. AND DISTANCE I.5) This equation assumes a point source of energy release. 5 (1.5 are shown graphically in Figs.7 and 1. This r e lation was stated by Gutenberg and Richter'"''' essentially as follows: The maximum ground acceleration. and Distance The relation between intensity and maximum ground acceleration and that between magnitude and acceleration at the epicenter are too complicated to be stated in exact terms. M. the present state of knowledge does not permit an accurate assessment of the relative ground-motion intensities to be expected at different sites. For these reasons large variations from the circular pattern shown must be expected. Measurements of very small ground motions which have been made both in the United States and in Japan indicate that intensity is strongly correlated with the depth and softness of the alluvium on which the measurements are made. 7. as shown by Gutenberg and Richter. in a r e cent analysis of 108 strong-motion records obtained from 60 e a r t h q u a k e s . at the epicenter. which gives circular isoseismals and overestimates the acceleration and intensity in the epicentral regions of large-magnitude shocks. Magnitude. Measurements of strong ground motions which have been made in the United States indicate that greater depth and softness of alluvium can also decrease the intensity. may be roughly estimated from the magnitude.7A. MAGNITUDE. There is some evidence that the radii of the isoseismals may. The pattern shown would be elongated in the case of a shallow shock involving a long fault break. In reality the isoseismals are very irregular in shape. The relations given by Eqs. of the earthquake by the equation M = 2. There is a general rule that firm ground is preferable to soft ground. 1. a. Acceleration. The shape is also affected by ground conditions and underlying geology. It is also possible to show approximately the variation in Mercalli intensity with distance from the epicenter. a. This relation assumes that the hypocenter coincides with the center of the slipped area of the fault. ao. I.8. as shown below: I = 7/3 log a + 2.IF F.RELATIONS INVOLVING INTENSITY. by applying the inverse-square law of radiation. 1. be as much as 40% larger than indicated in Fig.4 but with different coefficients. Effect of Local Geology Local geological conditions are important when considering the locations of buildings and structures. G. and E is the energy release. 1.8. ' " suggests an equation of the same form as Eq. as well as by the strike. with large scatter. it is possible to express these relations in a very rough way. 1.4 and 1.'''^ Estimates of the acceleration. However. for some earthquakes.

Idealized isoseismal lines for shocks of various magnitudes. 1.) about the influence of local geology on strong ground motions is that seismic waves are affected by the elastic and inelastic properties of the materials through which they pass and by the size. THESE ISOSEISMALS ARE QUITE IRREGULAR IN SHAPE. g. ANO IS CONSTANT FOR EACH SHOCK. r»l2* M«8 Fig. 1. AND REFERS TO VIOLENCE OF SHAKING AT ANY GIVEN POINT. (Data from Ref.RADIUS OF ISOSEISMALS.IG EFFECT OF LOCAL GEOLOGY M ' IMSNITUOe or QUAKE MEA&JREO INSTEPS ON A MA6MTU0e SCALE. The influence of the material properties may be such as to increase or decrease the amplitudes of various frequency components in the ground motion.8 — Average southern California earthquakes. shape. ACCELERATION NEAR CENTER STATED IN TERMS OF ACCELERATION OF GRAVITY. 16 CHAPTER 1 . / • DESTRUCTIVEteSS OFQUAKE MEASURED IN STEPS ON THE MOBiFIEDMERCALU SCALE.I. VALUE OF I NEAR QUAKE CENTER. ITREFEBS TO THEQUAKE AS A WHOLE. ITSTANOSFORSEISMIC INTENSITT.2. BUT FOR PURPOSES OF ILLUSTRATION THEY ARE ASSUMED CIRCULAR. and orientation of the various strata and lenses of these materials. (MILES).

Those areas of the world known through reasonably complete instrumental records. The characteristic general mobility of the earth's crust supports the view that an earthquake may occur in any location.000. it is unlikely that future earthquakes will exceed in magnitude those which have occurred in the past. The existence of these two rings of earthquake activity has since been substantiated by instrumental data. Therefore present-day estimates regarding the relative seismicity of these two zones must be considered as tentative. The s e i s mic history and records of parts of China extend back as far as 3000 years. He noted that earthquake activity is associated with the gradient of the earth's crust. However. about 400 years.'*'^ Each of the three New Madrid earthquakes and the 1866 Charleston.'"'^ included about 40%. however. in the Mississippi Valley. called the Circum-Pacific zone. No other shock in the United States is known to have affected more than one-fourth this area. This viewpoint is based on the theory that the maximum strain that can accumulate in the rock structure without rupture places an upper limit on the energy which can be r e leased by an earthquake. One. C . .'*'*'''" These experiences emphasize that historically stable areas do not always remain so. there occurred three earthquakes near New Madrid. In this connection it should be noted that observations of damage incurred during past earthquakes may give valuable information and that differential soil consolidation under the foundations of a building may be a problem in soft soils. called the Mediterranean—Transasiatic circle. about 2000 years. with no great gradient of the earth's crust. in 1811 to 1812. 1.SEISMICITY OF NORTH AMERICA 1.000 sq miles. those of the Americas.2 Observation would indicate that for strong ground motion the softness of ground may decrease the amplitudes of seismic waves whose frequencies lie above 3 to 4 cycles/sec and may under certain circumstances increase the amplitudes of waves that are in the range of 1 cycle/sec or greater. which shook down chimneys 325 miles away. have histories of about 45 years or less. Numerous earthquakes have occurred with energy releases approaching this limit. It should be noted that 325 miles away from the 1906 San Francisco earthquake no tremor was felt. included about 547o of the world's known earthquakes. tending to a maximum where extremes of height and depth occur adjacent to one another. Paradoxically 1600 miles east of the Circum-Pacific zone. Mo. where numerous shallow shocks occur. In North America the CircumPacific zone includes the western United States. those of much of Europe. the Circum-Pacific zone now seems to be the more active of the two. it is advisable to rely on local observations and measurements when selecting a site. The evidence is shown in Table 1. and the other. On this basis he established two great-circle zones of seismic activity. In view of the complexity of the problem of wave propagation in heterogeneous media.2 SEISMICITY OF NORTH AMERICA The seismicity of North America discussed in the following paragraphs is limited to the area of the United States and adjacent areas that may be associated by faults with the United States (Fig. As a result of instrumental tabulation in accord with the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude scale of energy r e lease and depth. earthquake were felt over an area of 2. but there has been a reversal of emphasis. GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 17 A.9). Seismic Zones The worldwide distribution of earthquakes was thoroughly investigated in the early part of the twentieth century by the Compte de Monessus de Ballore of France. 1.3 for the Circum-Pacific zone. S..'"'"''^ Appraisal of the seismicity of many regions is difficult because the lapse of time between great earthquakes may be greater than the existing periods of records. The possibility of selective frequency effects requires that the dynamic properties of the structures be considered when assessing the effect of local geology.

Coast and Geodetic Survey. pp. INSrRUMENTALLY AUTHENTICATED MAGNITUDES: 1925-1952 authenticated shocks.3 through M = 5..8. magnitude D: M = 5. S. UNAUTHENTICATED MAGNITUDES: Unauthenticated magnitude based on Modified-Mercalli intensity of I = X+. U. from 1900-1952 data based on Seismicity of the Larth.3. C. y . Washington. 609. Magnitude A and B: M = 7 through M = 8. # . 223 and 343. from Earthquake History ot U. by Gutenberg and Richter.9. Serial No. .9 through M = 6. 1. magnitude A and B: M = 7 through M = 8. S. magnitude C: M = 5.9 — Magnitude rating of earthquakes for the United States. ^ . a. D.3.Fig. A.

C .F o r e l intensity. South of this area major seismic activity occurs along the full length of California. B. In the case of the very earliest quakes. intensities 5 and 6 were given a weighted value of 5.2B As shown in Fig. no attempt is made to assign a magnitude rating.4. 1.33 Oregon Idaho Arizona Wyoming Colorado 0. a large number of earthquakes have occurred off the coast of northern California and Oregon.IMPORTANT EARTHQUAKES 1.13 0.14 1. Lawrence River. up to 37 miles deep Intermediate. 1.7A also indicates the relation between magnitude by classification and magnitude by numerical limits. which is repeated in Table 1. by R o s s i . However.08 0. However.00 1.27 0. Recent quakes are also listed according to the Modified-Mercalli intensity. All magnitudes listed are greater tJian 6. 38 to 190 miles deep Deep. and western Ohio.9. there are no parts of California where earthquakes have not been felt.7.3—PERCENTAGE OF WORLD'S EARTHQUAKES OCCURRING IN THE CIRCUM-PACIFIC ZONE Depth of shock Shallow. where the Rossi —Forel intensity is the only available rating. Important Earthquakes The more important earthquakes in and around the United States are tabulated in Table 1. Charleston.57 0. all other western states are only moderately seismic. and larger shocks above intensity of 6 were given a weighted value of 25.9.06 In this tabulation small shocks of intensity of 4 or less were given a weighted value of 1. GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 19 .17 1. In fact. Figure 1. there are four isolated areas where shocks of magnitude 7 or more occur. S. In historical times the north-central United States and the area of the United States bordering the Gulf of Mexico have never experienced a destructive earthquake. those early quakes which were reported as having a Rossi —Forel intensity greater than IX are arbitrarily included as important earthquakes. and the other states were assigned values proportional to the above quotients.20 0.25 0. Central California and Oregon are almost free of epicenters. The sum of these weighted values for each state was divided by the area of the state. deeper than 190 miles Percentage of world's earthquakes occurring In Circum-Pacific zone 80 90 99 In accord with the intensity scale and based on earthquakes that have occurred within state borders. the St. Mo. the seismicity of the western United States may be evaluated by comparing these states with California. and earlier quakes.5 in more convenient form. Talile 1. California was then arbitrarily assigned a seismicity of 10. which is assigned a rating'•'' of 10: California Nevada Utah Washington Montana New Mexico 10. The approximate relation between the Modified-Mercalli and the Rossi —Forel intensity scales is shown in Fig. However. one such zone following the coast ranges. These areas are in the vicinities of New Madrid. The middle and eastern United States rarely experience destructive earthquakes.. with a second zone located along the eastern flanks of the southern Sierra Nevada range. by comparison.

6 36.0 1.0 41.5 38. Mexico Seattle.1.3 46. San F r a n c i s c o . 1.9 37.8 32. Table 1.0 Class D 5.20 1.16 1. 1.1 1..1 1.0 2.1.1 1.000 200.7 7.17 1.000 Date 2/5/1663 1800 12/16/11 1/23/12 2/7/12 12/21/12 6/28/38 1/9/57 3/26/72 8/31/86 5/3/87 1900 4/18/06 10/16/07 10/2/15 11/21/15 1/31/22 1/22/23 3/1/25 6/27/25 11/4/27 11/8/29 12/20/32 12/31/34 1/27/45 4/13/49 7/21/52 12/16/54 District St. Dixie Valley.1. F r a n c i s c o .3 7.0 112.0 34. Pacific Ocean off Calif.3 X 500.16 San .9-5. 38. 1. Mexico Pacific Ocean off Calif.0 114.000 2.0 80.1.0 119. Mo.1 1.5 55.5 West longitude 72. St. 1.1 1. Calif.16 310.000 X 150.5 48. Mont.0 32.5 70.1.0 47.17 1. Tehachapi. Mo. sq miles 750.1 7. 1. Sonora. S.000 X X X X X X X X X 8. Gulf of Calif.000.17 1.000 2. Calif. Lower Calif.1 1.6 34.2 7.4—MAGNITUDES AND LOCATIONS OF PAST STRONG EARTHQUAKES IN AND AROUND THE UNITED STATES Extent of tremor. C h a r l e s t o n .5 Intensity* X Magnitude Refs.2 7.9-6.16 New Madrid. Lower Calif. Nev.19 1.2 38.2B IMPORTANT EARTHQUAKES Table 1.0 40.3 20 CHAPTER 1 . New Madrid.1 7. 1.0 34.0 118. Nev.0+ 1.0 40.17 1.5 7.16 1.0 122.2 121.7-7.6 89.3 35.17 1. L a w r e n c e Valley Helena.16 1. Atlantic Ocean off Newfoundland lone.0 7.3 Class E Below 5.1 123.000 2.0+ 8. Pacific Ocean off Calif.000 (VIII) (XI) (X) 7..000.16 1. 1. New Madrid.9 119.1. L a w r e n c e Valley North latitude 46. Calif.000 160.2 7. 1. Calif.0 89.8 Class B 7.1.21 * The values in parentheses a 'e based on the Modified-Mercalli scale.0 123.6 36.000 X X 8.5 44.5 115. Calif.0+ 8.1. Mexico Gulf of Calif. F o r t Tejon.0 375.6 89.1 1. Mo.0 109.0 118. 1. All other values are based on the Rossi—Forel scale..0 38. Wash.000 500.8 111. Santa B a r b a r a .17 1.1 1. 1. Calif.0 27. Mexico 36.17 1. 1.000 X 7.18.8 7.5 117.15.0 28.6 119. C.8 111.5 32. Mexico P l e a s a n t Valley.3 7.000 125.000.16 1.0 125.0 Class C 6.9 31.8-7.5—DESIGNATION OF EARTHQUAKES BY MAGNITUDES Classification rating N u m e r i c a l rating Class A 8.0 118.1 1.1. Nev. Lone Pine..5 124.000.

D.9. mapping ot seismic zones is strongly influenced by population centers since the bulk of data comes from local reports. for this reason. higher intensity in an alluviated valley may lead to a false epicenter. Coast and Geodetic Survey and was later adopted by the International Conference of Building Officials as a part of the Uniform Building Code. In some areas data are compiled from postcard questionnaires distributed by postmen along their mail routes following an earthquake. in this zone greater damage corresponding to intensity IX or higher might be expected at infrequent intervals. use of Mercalli numbers. and discrimination between zones of equal seismicity based on frequency of occurrence. New Madrid or Charleston. Because of the imperfect statistics that comprise the data. In the United States. S. These reflect the e r r o r s common to all eyewitness testimony. such as more detailed zoning. Zone 3 delineates areas where major destructive earthquakes have occurred in the past and might reasonably be expected at any future time. in the most destructive earthquake zone (of intensity seven or greater). Quakes having a rating of X or more on either the Rossi —Forel or the Modified-Mercalli scale are included and are arbitrarily assumed to have a magnitude greater than 6. Zone 2 includes areas of intensities VII to Vni. indicated as a well-defined line. Locations are also shown for those historic quakes of undisputed violence but unauthenticated magnitude because such quakes must be included to present a reasonably accurate picture. may vary with orientation of the area with respect to the epicenter GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 21 . it is plausible that a man standing on a featureless plain might give a better account of an earthquake than one in a city.. 1.9. for example. The relative seismicity of a site.'*^^ Furthermore. and normally below the threshold of structural damage. Location of Past Strong Earthquakes The more important earthquakes in and around the United States are shown in Fig. with intensities limited to V or VI. Zone 1 designates areas where earthquake damage has been minor. even when evaluated from a seismic-probability map for a local area.10 is widely known. the effect of local geology is not always sufficiently considered. frequently subject to moderate structural damage. Magnitudes shown are greater than 5.\ST STRONG EARTHQUAKES 1. However. People are influenced by the behavior of buildings they are in or near during a quake.2.' ^^ The zones shown are roughly related to the Modified-Mercalli intensity as follows:''^'' Zone 0 includes areas having extremely small probability of earthquake damage and where the intensity of recorded earthquakes has generally not been greater than FV. actually is casually related to geological provinces and is largely arbitrary. 1.g.''* The seismic probability map of Fig. Other proposed seismic-probability maps show varying characteristics.2C C. which classifies them as class A or B earthquakes. A large percentage of the mass of seismic data is obtained from newspapers. seismic-probability maps must always have definite limitations. Grossly inaccurate estimates of the distribution of seismic intensity have resulted from concentration of population or construction in a small part of the shaken area. e.LOCATION OF P. The boundary between any two zones. especially when observations have been made under conditions of mental s t r e s s . It was originally proposed in 1947 by the U. Zones of Assessed Seismicity Discrepancies between apparent epicenters located instrumentally and those found from macroseismic data have hindered the mapping of seismic zones in the United States. Finally. no distinction has been made between areas which suffer frequent earthquakes of qualifying intensity and those areas which have experienced only two in modern times. Such reports are often affected by exaggeration in an attempt to creaie sensational news or by suppression in an attempt to minimize the situation.

2D ZONES OF ASSESSED SEISMICITY 3> cs H o Q Is a a s 0) •a o O 3 CQ a D so 22 CHAPTER 1 .1.

and accelerograms recorded in the basements of buildings show that the two horizontal components are approximately of equal intensity in both directions.3D.2 13 7.0133. Housner'*'^ has made a quantitative probability study of the occurrence of California earthquakes based on 43 years of records during which 80 earthquakes of magnitude 5. (2) The average area subjected to groimd motion.4 The probability of occurrence of a strong earthquake for an average California city was estimated by using the preceding data with the following approximations and assumptions: (1) Only those earthquakes of magnitude 6 or greater are considered.2 0. but GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 23 .) (3) The probability of occurrence of earthquakes is constant throughout the state.0 8. is held at 200. The vertical component is usually less intense than the horizontal and is characterized by an accentuation of higher frequency components as compared to the horizontal motion. the number of earthquakes exceeding magnitude 6. lacks real meaning. earthquakes occur so infrequently and in such widely separated zones that any estimate of probability and frequency. based on uniform distribution with respect to time or location. from the preceding tabulation.25 106 6. is 198. This means that a California city may expect a ground motion with intensity equal to that experienced in the Long Beach 1933 quake with a frequency that would average about once every 77 years.7—M. in the western United States and particularly in California.2 damped spectrum intensity of 3. (4) The area of the state is 150. During an earthquake the base of a structure is moved by the ground both horizontally and vertically.PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE OF EARTHQUAKES 1.2E due to the unpredictable irregularity of the isoseismals. If the number of years. EN. was 0.0 1. In the 200-year period. (See Sec. and the magnitude. However.34 8. having a magnitude greater than M. this expression is as follows: EN = r ^ (8x^-4.4 7. which gives 2.000 sq miles.8 2. then the following tabulation results: EN M 198 6.4 74 6.69x2+ 7. Probability of Occurrence of Earthquakes For the United States as a whole.0 146 6.6. obtained by dividing this area by the total area of the state.0 21 7. More knowledge is required before it will be possible to predict with confidence the effect of local geology on the ground motion without strong reliance on local observations of behavior in past earthquakes.0133.6 51 6. the frequency and regularity of shocks have resulted in data from which statistical predictions can be made.52X*') (1. is allowed to vary. The vertical component has been observed to excite vertical oscillations in tall buildings. The probability that the 2000-sq mile area will cover a given point. He gives an expression for the expected number. is 2000 sq miles.2 or greater are considered. Accordingly the expected number of times the 2000-sq mile area will cover a specified location in 200 years is obtained by multiplying the value from the tabulation (198) by 0.8 34 7.6 4.8 7. 1 3 RESPONSE OF STRUCTURES TO EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION .1 7. 1. of California earthquakes during a period of Y years.7 as the probable upper limit of magnitude for earthquakes. With X = 8.2 8. Y. equaling or exceeding that c o r r e sponding to a 0.6) It is worthwhile noting that this equation establishes M = 8.0 or greater.2 138 6. M. E.

SINGLE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM STRUCTURE these produce stresses that are only a fraction of the gravity load s t r e s s e s . there will be negligible interplay between the ground and the building. (1. a spring constant.'•^''"'•2' Single-degree-of-freedom Structure The simplest vibrating structure is one having a single degree of freedom. and this stmcture also elucidates the vibratory behavior of more complex multidegree-of-freedom systems.'•"•'•^^ Thus the horizontal components of acceleration recorded in the basement of a building or on the surface of the ground may be considered an accurate representation of the motion of the bases of structures located in that vicinity.^ ^ ' z(T)e-'^'-'' sin ^ (t-r) dr where y = displacement relative to tne base T = damped period of vibration = 27r/a) To = undamped period of vibration = 2ff/oJo t .l. 1. or is founded on particularly soft ground. y. relative to the base.8 gives the displacement of the mass. G. TQ = 2it/ij}Q. is thus the same as for a structure resting on an immovable base and subjected to a horizontal force (—mz). damping.. The solution of Eq. having a mass. and hence only in very special circumstances is an analysis of vertical oscillations pertinent.9) (1. 1.10) CHAPTER 1 (1. when subjected to arbitrary horizontal base acceleration. the equation of motion is d^ m 5p(y^z) or my + cy + ky = —mz (1.time at which y is evaluated T = time at which increment of force is acting (see Sec. and the basement of the building will move with essentially the same motion as a point on the ground adjacent to the building. k. 1. As shown in Sec. unless the structure has unusual proportions. m.7) dy -ky-c^ The relative motion.2) z = base acceleration Tj = c/2m = damping factor 0) = damped circular frequency of vibration It should also be noted that the undamped period. has unusual foundations. base motion. i. as shown in Fig. Consider a one-degree-of-freedom structure.'•^'^ Thus the behavior of structures during earthquakes is essentially a problem in vibrations. G. The behavior of the system is made clear by introducing the following notation: / ' zV^'-'"' cos LOT dr = A(t) / ' ze-''<'-''* sin OJT dr = B(t. for lateral deflection. and displacement.e. c. is y = .8) . Fig.7.11. During an earthquake a structure is excited into oscillations whose magnitudes determine the maximum stresses and strains. G. m. y. where OIQ is the undamped circular frequency of vibration. if the mass starts from rest. A building of moderate plan dimensions founded on reasonably firm soil will have its base moved with the ground. z. Equation 1.

and the excursions of y. ^.15) Fig.1 > the damped period.5 my^.— /Se sin (cjt .13) (1.y) (1. is essentially equal to the undamped period.a) y = . and the maximum total energy attained by the system during the earthquake may be written me = '/2m(A^ + ^X GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS (1. ww?^?fy^?^vw??> }^^///f//?//V^^^//f? The relative kinetic energy is defined as 0.11 — One-degree-of-freedom system. 1. a. and it is given by KE = me cos^ (wt . the factor ((3 —a) may be set equal to zero.17) The ground motion recorded during strong earthquakes e.18) 25 .11) In what follows A(t). B.^) V + KE = me [1 + sin (jS . and y closely approximate sinusoidal half-waves.(3)] (1. and e.(3) y + z = — \ ^ sin (oJt . TQ. and y are slowly varying functions of time.3A f (A^ + B^) ('4) = e(t) (1. For damping sufficiently small so that 7 1 + (i7V<^o) . B(t). t. and y are phase factors involving A and B.a) sin (2u)t . and it must be remembered that these are functions of time.16) (1. p. T. The potential energy of the system is V = me sin (wt — a) (1. For moderate amounts of damping.14) where T is the period of vibration and a. y./ 2 e cos (wt .SINGLE-DECREE-OF-FREEDOM STRUCTURE 1.a .xhibits the characteristics of random functions''^^ for which e. and the motion of the system is described by the following equations: y = . and e(t) will be written A.12) (1.

may be written ymax. however. = vTnic yn.21) which.22) Analyses of earthquake records show that the response of an undamped structure builds up roughly proportional to the square root of the duration of the earthquake ground motion. but the response is markedly reduced by the introduction of small amounts of damping. The following discussion is limited to structures whose free vibrations can be resolved into normal modes of vibration that are orthogonal..x. The maximum response of the structure is thus characterized by the value ymax. The maximum relative displacement.12).23) where y = 0n(x) = ciJn = Cn = displacement at point x shape of nth mode of vibration (dimensionless) circular frequency of nth mode amplitude coefficient of nth mode CHAPTER 1 . is m ( y + z)n. m. In particular. agrees with Eq. for moderate damping.19) The maximum shear force developed in the structure is Fmax.. Consider a general elastic structure undergoing small vibrations in the x-z plane (Fig. A one-mass system. during the earthquake may be written as T Ymax. Experiments show. Thus the response of a structure with zero or small damping may reach relatively high values. however. that. whereas the response of a damped structure builds up until the energy loss balances the energy input. (1. relative velocity. = m -^j— 2l T ' """• "* V m y„. good r e sults are obtained by considering the damping to be viscous in nature and the motion to be described by normal modes of vibration. (1. m.. that the maximum responses in the two perpendicular directions do not necessarily occur at the same instant. with two degrees of freedom. where moderate amounts of damping are involved. = / E k ynaax. In this case it should be noted. the precise nature of damping is not readily established. which can vibrate in both horizontal directions will respond to both horizontal components of ground motion. T (1. = m — yniax.20. (1.(t-r) dr] [.^. = \C ze-'^'-^' sin a.MULTIDEGREE-OF-FREEDOM STRUCTURE where e is the maximum energy per unit mass attained by the structure.20) The maximum inertia force acting on the mass.ax.. 1. and the r e sultant motion is given by the superposition of the two component responses. = kyn. The undamped free vibrations of such a structure can be written y = S n C n 0 n ( x ) SlU Ol^t (1. 1. = k ^ ^ if ^^y. of course.ax. Multidegree-of-freedom Structure For actual structures it is not always possible to determine the physical properties precisely. = ^ — yj^^^. which. = Y ^^2e = — y ^ „ . and absolute acceleration attained by the mass.'o Jmax. = 7 2 ? /•• ••\ 2ir rT^mi 2iT . (y + z) max.

2 ) d t = — ( .24) cos o„t (1. it is seen that the factor in the brackets is the same as the equation for the response of the single-degree-of-freedom GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 27 . to base acceleration.V K„ ' ^ C Z(T) sin Wn(t-T) dr (1.( .26) / 0tdm and where the integrals are to be evaluated over the mass of the structure.„t .27) (1.12 — Multidegree-of-freedom system.28) As in the case of the simple oscillator.7 for the simple oscillator.T0 .z dt and. 1.30) (x) — sin (a. from the orthogonality of the 0n(x) values. z.MULTIDEGREE-OF-FREEDOM STRUCTURE 1. is the same as the response to a lateral force.^ / : dm / 0ndm where Kn = (1. the response.25) there is required SnC„w„<^„(x) = .3B Fig. m.8. —mz.a„) Comparing the upper of the two Eqs.„t (-Z) dt (1. As was shown in Eq. The consequent free vibrations are thus y = y K„ ^ n i ^ sin a.Z ) d t . y.30 with Eq. 1. 1.T . the response is (X) — r z(T)e-''*'"''^ sin co„(t-T) dr Wn •'0 (1.29) If there is damping in the structure. The effect of z acting for a time dt is to produce an increment of velocity at each point of the structure: Vo = —z dt Since y = S„C„UJ„(/>„(X) (1. acting on each element of mass. 1. / < n dm ^ K„ C n = aj„ . the response to a continuous z is y =.

the natural true period of vibration when subjected to the base acceleration represented by the accelerogram of a given earthquake. 1. 1.30 contains a trigonometric expression which varies between positive and negative values and in addition the amplitude functions €„ vary with time. The process is repeated for other assumed values of period in sufficient detail to establish the complete curve.31 can be derived for the maximum shears and bending moments in a structure. It thus follows that the response of a multidegree-of-freedom structure can be determined if the mode shapes are known and if the response of single oscillators of appropriate periods and damping can be computed. 1. = | y fK«0n(x)-^/2e:|'r (1. < y iK„0„(x) 1^/217 (1-31) where the absolute value of each mode is added.ax. 1. it is customary to utilize the so-called response spectra. Studies have shown that for earthquake ground motions. Thus 28 CHAPTER 1 . Other curves c o r r e sponding to different fractions of critical damping are obtained in similar fashion. -^^'^-^^ By analogy with Eqs. However. To be meaningful for design purposes. time is established. be less than that given by Eq. 1. and the maximum value is plotted as an ordinate. To establish a single point on the curve requires considering the effect of the earthquake acceleration on a hypothetical oscillator with a given fraction of critical damping and period of vibration. in general. the maximum response may be written Ymax.31 since each term of Eq. Eq. The term maximum response as used here refers to the peak values of acceleration.32) Equation 1. At each point the equation gives the maximum possible value. From Eqs. The spectrum concept can be explained by outlining the steps involved in developing a spectrum curve.19. if three or four modes are involved and they are all approximately the same peak value. velocity. if only two modes of vibration are involved.1. Earthquake Spectra In most cases it will not be feasible to make computations of the complete response of a structure. 1. such computations would have to be made for several different recorded earthquake accelerations and for several different values of important structural parameters. The analysis of structures more complicated than those covered by the preceding equations can be carried out in a similar fashion. 1. 1. and similar results are obtained if three modes are involved and one of them predominates. To achieve a workable method of analysis.31 may appreciably overestimate the true maximum value.''^^ The response spectrum for a given earthquake is a plot showing the variation in the maximum response of a singledegree-of-freedom oscillator vs. Thus there is only a small probability that all the terms will reach their peak values and be additive at the same time. Equations similar to Eq.30 it is seen that the true response will.31 overestimates the true maximum by approximately 10%. and displacement of the oscillator. For such cases it has been proposed''^^ to use the following expression as an estimate of the true maximum: yn.3C EARTHQUAKE SPECTRA structure. The computation of the complete response of a multidegree-of-freedom structure is extremely laborious and is best done by means of computing machines. The variation in response vs. Eq. In such analyses particular attention should be paid to the possibility of torsional oscillations.30 and 1. and results similar to Eqs.31 will be obtained.31 and corresponding equations for quantities such as shear force or bending moment give the envelopes of maximum response.

Apr. Olympia. would correspond to the average-velocity-spectrum curve. 1940. the average maximum velocities attained during each shock. S. particularly for short periods of vibration.18. there is obtained a set of relatively smooth curves shown in Fig. Figures 1. it can be seen that the fluctuations about the average spectrum curves may be comparatively large for zero damping and comparatively small for moderate damping. These may be summarized as follows: (1) The zero-damping curve is marked by abrupt oscillations which indicate that the response is very sensitive to small differences in periods of vibration.20 shows detail of average-velocity-spectrum curves. Calif. (5) Spectrum curves for large-magnitude earthquakes at moderate distances from the epicenters have similar shapes. 1. May 18. 1952. 1949. it appears that they may be reasonably treated as a stationary random process and even the mathematics of stationary Gaussian processes apply reasonably well.5 sec decrease with distance at a stronger rate than the values for periods above 1 sec. El Centro. If the structure were subjected to a number of shocks of a given intensity. Calif. S. The accelerograms for moderate distances from the epicenters of large-magnitude earthquakes may be considered to be samples of a random process.19. It has been observed that the spectrum values for periods below 0.. The fraction of critical damping is f =T7V m/k. (4) The higher frequency seismic waves damp out more quickly with distance from the epicenter than do the longer period waves. Figure 1. As compared to large-magnitude spectra. Dec. is a plot of y^ax.EARTHQUAKE SPECTRA 1. (2) The introduction of small amounts of damping produces a large reduction in the maximum response. is a function of the natural period T and of the fraction of critical damping. The scale of this average velocity spectrum is such that the damped curves agree with the average of the two components of the El Centro 1940 record. random fluctuations.3C each point establishing the curve requires a complete dynamic-response analysis. and the percentage of critical damping is 100 t.. and Taft. and the effect of damping is not so pronounced.18 show computed velocity spectra for various percentages of critical damping plotted against the period of vibration. 1. There is thus a finite probability that the period of a structure with zero damping may coincide with a peak or a valley of the spectrum curve. the small-magnitude spectra are peaked more in the short-period region. July 21..'•^^•'•^^•'•^^ In fact. are averaged.These spectra a r e obtained by means of a special electric-analog computer. Calif. of Eq.19. From Figs.'•'^^ Spectra for a Large number of earthquakes have been computed by Housner and his co-workers. whereas an actual curve for low damping exhibits strong. These are the so-called average-velocity-spectrum curves for large-magnitude earthquakes at moderate distances from the epicenter. when averaged.''^'' The velocity spectra for earthquake ground motions have certain well-defined characteristics.. The introduction of a moderate amount of damping makes the response much less sensitive to small period changes.13 to 1.''^'"'"" If the normalized velocity spectra of both components of the four strong-motion ground accelerations: El Centro. 30. the spectra show differences between earthquakes of large magnitude and those of relatively small magnitude. Each ground shock may be viewed as a sample from a population of random functions. GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 29 . 1934. and the determination of a complete spectrum may involve hundreds of such analyses. The value of ymax. It should be noted that in practice a structure with zero damping is never encountered. Wash. 13. The velocity-response spectrum. 1.13 to 1. (3) For ground motion recorded relatively close to the epicenter. which is the most intense ground motion recorded to date. as regards response of damped structures. It should be noted that the average spectrum curves are smooth.

30. earthquake. 10 15 Undamped Natural Period. Dec.3C EARTHQUAKE SPECTRA 05 10 15 Undamped Natural Period. 30.. Component N —S. Dec.W . 1. 1934.1.. 1. 30 CHAPTER 1 . earthquake.14 — Velocity spectrum for El Centro. Component E .13 — Velocity spectrum for EI Centro. Calif. 1934. sec 20 30 Fig. sec 20 25 Fig. Calif.

EARTHQUAKE SPECTRA 1. 31 GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS . Component N . 10 15 Undamped Naturol Period.15 — Velocity spectrum for El Centro. May 18. May 18.3C 10 15 Undamped Natural Period. Calif. 1.. 1940. Component E . earthquake.W . 1940.S . 1. earthquake. Calif.. sec 20 Fig.16 — Velocity spectrum for EI Centro. sec 20 25 30 Fig.

13. earthquake. 10 15 Undamped Noturol Period.18 — Velocity spectrum for Olympia. Apr. earthquake. 32 CHAPTER 1 . sec 2.3C EARTHQUAKE SPECTRA S 2 15 Damped Natural Period. 1. Component S 10°E.. 1. 1949. Component S 80°W. Wash.17 — Velocity spectrum for Olympia.. Wash. sec 20 Fig.0 Fig. Apr. 1949. 13.1.

The quantities S„ S. The average spectrum curves give the average maximum response to be expected if the system is subjected to ground motions of the stated intensity. within approximately 45 miles. Curve B is based on a record of the same earthquake obtained at the Hollywood Storage Company Building. 1940. at points relatively close to the epicenter of a small earthquake. At greater distances from such earthquakes. Calif. the zero-period value shown is that of the maximum acceleration recorded for the El Centro 1940 earthquake and is not the average maximum value. and is representative GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 33 .3C Velocity relative to base Moss Spring Eorthquo. velocity. about 25 miles from the epicenter. about 70 miles from the epicenter. Curve A is obtained from the record at Taft.24. It should be noted that at zero period the acceleration spectra approach the maximum ground acceleration recorded during the earthquake.. On the other hand. 1. The shape of the spectrum curves is affected by the distance from the epicenter. andSa.19 are shown in Figs. the short-period end of the spectrum is relatively depressed showing that the higher frequency waves a r e more attenuated with distance than a r e the lower frequency waves. 1. 1.. respectively.19 — Average-velocity-spectrum curves. the accelerations. within approximately 20 miles. 1. and is typical for locations moderately close to the epicenter of a strong earthquake.21 to 1. that is. From the spectrum curves it is possible to read off the maximum response of a single-degree-of-freedom system. 1952. Intensity of ground motion recorded at El Centro. Curves A and B are spectra of the Tehachapi earthquake of July 21.25 where smoothed zero-damped curves for three cases are shown.*te motion OSCILLATOR 0> Fig. The average acceleration and displacement spectra as computed from Eq. and displacement spectra. the short-period end of the spectrum is relatively accentuated. The foregoing spectra were all for points moderately close to the epicenter of a strong earthquake. This is illustrated in Fig.EARTHQUAKE SPECTRA 1. designate. and the maximum response of a mode of vibration of a more complex system can also be determined. Calif. In the case of the average acceleration spectrum.

20 .10 .12 .14 .00 / //^ y . T.' y /y'^yy T^y^ y OLL . 34 CHAPTER 1 .30 Period of Vibration.OB .IS .1.3C EARTHQUAKE SPECTRA !^ / / .^ /. Calif..02 .IS .A. / / / -^ / / / .22 . Intensity of ground motion recorded at El Centro.26 . sec ^ Fig.L / / / ji- / / / / / / / / y / / / y y / / / r / / / / ~r y^ • / / / y / / y y / '/ y^ I JI I I / / -A / A'y^ o'*" ^y .20 — Detail of average-velocity-spectrum curves.24 .0* J06 .28 . 1940.. 1.

3D 1.. The Tehachapi and San Francisco earthquakes had magnitudes of 7. Intensity of ground motion recorded at El Centro. 1940.SPECTRUM INTENSITIES 1. 22. Curve C is the spectrum of the relatively small San Francisco earthquake of Mar.21 — Average-acceleration-spectrum curves. This range essentially covers the periods of strucGENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 35 . This curve is typical of a spectrum for locations relatively close to the epicenter of a small earthquake. based on records at a location about 10 miles from the epicenter.'-"-'-''^''-''^ The spectrum intensity (SI) is defined as the area under the velocity-spectrum curve of the appropriate damping ratio f.5 sec.1 and 2. 1957.7 and 5.33) It is a measure of the effect of the ground motion on structures having periods of vibration lying between 0.4 ^ TS 178 To Vibration.3. Calif. and therefore the area under one of the curves is a measure of intensity of the ground motion.f)dT '0. T. (The zero-period value shown is that of the maximum acceleration r e corded for the El Centro 1940 earthquake and is not the average maximum value.) of a spectrum for points more remote from the epicenter of a strong earthquake. 1.1 (1. respectively. SIc=/'fs(T. Spectrum Intensities The maximum response of a structure to earthquake ground motion is indicated by the velocity-spectrum curves. sec —*• Fig.

IB ' .— ' y y y y y y y y II • " ^» N a 00 . 1940. Intensity of ground motion recorded at El Centro.02 . (The zero-period value shown is that of the maximum acceleration recorded for the El Centro 1940 earthquake and is not the average maximum value. Calif.22 — Detail of average-acceleration-spectrum curves. T.12 • .28 . .3D SPECTRUM INTENSITIES »o 1 1 1 1 4 '1 / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /'V / / ^ ' ^ 1 / / / .« in / / * / r / ^ ^ a 1 / ' 1 / 1/ / y ^ / / y / — ..) 36 CHAPTER 1 . / / / ' 14 / / / / / / / / / / a .50 Period of Vibration. 1.10 .1.14 • 16 ' . sec • Fig.20 26 .

Magnitudes are those reported by the Seismological Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology.xpected from a magnitude 7. 1940.SPECTRUM INTENSITIES 1. Calif.6 presents the zero-damped spectrum intensities for both components of a number of recorded strong ground motions. 4 (July 21. The quantity r is the estimated horizontal distance to tne center of tlie fault in miles.23 — Average-displacement-spectrum curves. Table 1. and.3D Fig.7 shock.. It should be noted that the spectrum intensity is an objective measure of the maximum stresses ttiat would be induced in elastic structures if they were suojected to the recorded ground motion. and ag is the maximum ground acceleration expressed as a fraction of gravity. Intensity of ground motion recorded at El Centro. for comparison. Table 1. 1. On the other hand. the average for the two components of the 20% critically damped spectrum intensity is also given. tures located in the earthquake regions of the United States. RecGENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 37 . 1952) was produced by more or less vertical slipping on the fault rather than the more usual horizontal slipping and the motion was not as intense at Taft as might have been e. It should be noted tnat eartnquake No. the Modified-Mercalli intensity is a subjective measure of the degree of damage actually produced by the ground motion. The average of the two components is listed.6 also lists magnitudes and maximum accelerations.

T. -:^ rfv OOQlm^mm^ 00 Ol J02 03 .^^^ ""'^---.24—Detail of average-displacement-spectrum curves. 1. ZS - 20 : 1 ^ / - ^—.. T.04 SiJat^Si OS 06 07 08 09 10 II Period of Vibration . approximately 70 miles from center ot large earthquake. Intensity of ground motion recorded at El Centro..1 t i l l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 30 Period... Calif. approximately 10 miles from center of small earthquake.''^' T^T^"^ 001 o(. approximately 25 miles from center of large earthquake.^^^ "* A IS •1^ •]?' Co 10 / / " // /''\ \ — •""' B C 1 1 1 as .3D SPECTRUM INTENSITIES 004 f 003 -y / /-^ 0 02 / / / co« >^' ..// Ti<\—1 ^<cr^ L. 1. C. sec Fig.. B.25 — Undamped velocity-spectrum curves A. 1940.. sec——^ Fig.. 38 CHAPTER 1 .1.

The average spectrum curves presented were scaled so that the damped intensities agreed with the average of the El Centro 1940 earthquakes.0. 1. Southern Pacific Building)''^' were obtained on unusual foundation conditions and therefore are not directly comparable to the other records.3E ords No. and hence considerable scatter can be expected if the expressions are checked against observations.2\2 " r' (1.88 + 2 log (Slg h2+r2 3 )= 0 ). and the duration of the ground motion does not influence this intensity.36) obtained by substituting Eq. of an earthquake (in ergs) is approximately stated in terms of earthquake magnitude by Eq. 19 (San Francisco.6 that the ratios between the zero-damped spectrum intensities are not the same as the ratios between the 20% critically damped intensities. 1.IG and 1.CT ^2 (" (SIo)' 1^ .35) / J (1.2. and reasonably good agreement is obtained by taking'•''^ ii8 E = 1. I.29.9 X 10" . It is found that the 0.34) It is found that the maximum accelerations of various earthquakes (see Table 1.VIBRATIONAL ENERGY OF STRUCTURES 1. E.054M'' .'"*'' Vibrational Energy of Structures An undamped multidegree-of-freedom structure will have forced vibrations as given by Eq.''*^ It should be noted that the foregoing expressions do not take into account the details of local geology or the size of the slipped fault area.^ ag = maximum recorded acceleration as a fraction of gravity The energy release. On the other hand.31.3. 1.„ (1. and in scaling to other shocks the 20% damped spectrum intensities should be used unless it is desired to investigate the behavior of an undamped structure.35a in Eq. The explanation for this is that the damped intensities are measures of only that portion of the record having the greatest accelerations.6) are approximately related (with considerable scatter) to the damped intensities by the following empirical equation:''" a g . 9 (Seattle)'*^* and No.2 damped intensities are approximately related to the undamped intensities by the following empirical equation:''^^ SIo.2 = 0. The undamped spectrum intensity is also a measure of the energy released.0124(SIo)^ (1. This empirical equation gives good agreement with the magnitudes calculated by the seismologists. 1. The relative kinetic energy and the potential energy at time t are GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 39 .35a) h = depth to center of slipped area of fault (miles) ho= 15 miles r = horizontal distance to center of slipped area (miles) SIQ = undamped spectrum intensity measured at distance r So M may be calculated from the equation 0.444(SIo) . It will be noted in Table 1.3. and reference may be made to publications describing efforts to take into account the size of the slipped area. the zero-damped intensity is in a sense a measure of both the magnitude of the accelerations and the duration of the ground motion.14M + 8. The effect of local geology is discussed in Sees.

Oct.41 0. 40 CHAPTER 1 .6—SPECTRUM INTENSITIES OF RECORDED GROUND MOTION r. z sm OJT d r ) ' + ( / ^ z cos UJT dr)'] Table 1. Alexander Building M a r . miles 15 15 45 15 15 19 15 15 45 15 25 10 15 15 15 7 SIo (av.70 1. 1949 H o l l i s t e r .7 6.59 4. 9. Calif.8 h. 1941 F e r n d a l e .94 2.3E VIBRATIONAL ENERGY OF STRUCTURES KE=-/'/2y2dm V = .64 1. 1957t San F r a n c i s c o .29 0.3 1. U.94 7. Oct.5 7.84 4.83 6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 U 12 13 14 15 16 Date and location May 18. Magnitude 6.5 5. 13. 13.32 1. May 10.39) No. 1935 Helena.0 5. 9. Wash. Oct.53 4.78 3.82 1.3 5. Calif. Golden Gate Park M a r .67 2.12 0.9 6. October 3.21 1.2 7 5. Calif.65 0.05 5.3 6. 1949t Seattle. Apr. Southern Pacific Building M a r . F e b . 1938 F e r n d a l e .4 7 5. miles 30 35 45 40 28 15 50 33 55 10 15 35 17 75 22 7.77 5. 1957 San F r a n c i s c o .10 1.82 4. 1933 Los Angeles Subway T e r m i n a l Apr.37) (1. Mar. 1940 El Centro.36 1. 22.7 6. Sept. Dec.14 0.6 5.27 1. 22.49 ag. 1957 Oakland.96 0.) 8.21 2.64 1.28 19 11.40 0. 10.48 0. 1933 Los Angeles Survey T e r m i n a l M a r . Wash.38) The total energy.48 20 17.4 6.20 •Slipping of fault mainly vertical. 1933 Vernon.02 0.2 (av.84 SIo.71 2.29 2. 1 1 .3 5.31 0.3 5. tRecords obtained under unusual foundation conditions.95 0. 22.78 1.3 6. Calif. Calif.99 1.81 2.04 0. %S 33 23 26 20 31 18 18 17 19 13 24 23 13 12 6. 1949 Olympia. 1934 El Centro.49 1.99 2.5 4 7.16 1.2 16 12 8.1 5.43 3.5 7.29 2.82 1.1 7.IO 0.29 sso-w SIO-E S69'"E N21'"E S82°E N08°E S45°E N45''E N45''E S45°E N51''W N39°E N88°W S02°W S01°W N89''W E-W N-S N45°E S45°E S82''E N08°E N45''E S45°E N39°E N51°W S80°E N10°E S09°E S81°W N81°E Nog-w N45°E N45°W N26°E S64''E 17 18 9.46 0. 30.) 2.25 7.45 1.35 5.5 4 6.09 2.88 5.3 Component N-S E-W N-S E-W SIo 8. M a r .3 0. 1957 San F r a n c i s c o .2 2.93 5.27 1.50 0.9 4. Calif.45 1.80 1.38 0.8 10.22 0. 22. 2. 2. 1957 San F r a n c i s c o .8 7 7 5.69 0. Mont.91 1. June 30. 1952* Taft. Calif.62 3.8 23 11 16 14 8.1.5 5.58 0.32 I. J u l y 2 1 .35 3. 1941 F e r n d a l e .3 1.69 4.45 0.64 0. 22. Calif.5 6 13 9.63 2. 1933 Vernon. in the structure is U = K£ + V = ' / 2 S n 4 / <PI dm [ ( / .46 2. 3 1 .15 3./ ' / 2 y ( y + 2) dm (1.12 0.88 1.5 10 6 5 5 5 46 5 4 (1. Calif. State Building Mar. Calif. 1941 Santa B a r b a r a .44 2. Calif.

have very low damping. / < ^ ^ d m (1.40) The average value over a number of earthquakes of the same intensity is U. 1. However.''^' and the equation may be written Uav. and is independent of mass distribution. Effect of Damping It is seen from the spectrum curves that structures with low damping will be subjected to relatively high stresses in the event ot strong ground motion.EFFECT OF DAMPING 1. depends only on the mass. Monolithic concrete structures also have relatively low damping of the order of 7% critical. damping is very effective in reducing the maximum stresses experienced by a structure. If Eq. v . the spectrum curve is very nearly horizontal in the range 0. stiffness of the structure. 1. Uiv.3 sec.44) (1-43) Thus Eq.5% critical damping.45) where m = total mass of structure. with the requirement that the stresses remain within the elastic limit. Evidences of overstressing have been observed'•''^ in structures designed according to the building codes.41. but. In general. Eq. If the modes have approximately 0. ranging from perhaps % to 3% of critical damping.= y 2 S X ( S i ) . results in relatively large members. Bare steel structures.42) From the orthogonality of the modes SnKn0„=l Squaring and integrating over the mass of the structure gives S X / <^ndni=/dm = m (1. these are larger than the design forces specitied by building codes in seismic r e gions. (S^^v. G.41 may be written U. be found that design of such structures. building codes do not aim at preventing overstress in structures but rather are intended to prevent serious damage. is independent of the period of vibration.3 < T < 3. and lateral forces GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 41 .41) If the velocity spectrum is a horizontal line. it is seen that U^^. can be computed from Eq.. As seen from the spectrum curves. = y 2 ( S X . F. S X / *'n dm (1. = '/2m(s2) (1. Limit-stress Design The spectrum curves show that lightly damped and even moderately damped structures will be subjected to relatively large forces in the event of strong ground motion. This is an important consideration in the determination of structural behavior.45 is applicable. It will. or framing configuration.3F The maximum value of the ejqjression within the brackets is SL the square of the velocity spectrum value for zero damping. and the spectrum value (S^)^^.45 will also give a reasonable estimate. 1. in general.. if the pertinent modes have periods above approximately 0. 1.v. m. particularly such as are welded rather than riveted. In fact. The upper bound for the total energy is thus U= %EJ<KISI J c^l dm) (1.

the strain energy absorbed at this stress is „ 1 33. .^ .''''^''''" An approximate method has been proposed''"*^ which is based on Eq.48 is valid when T is about 0.000 . Although the equation can be applied easily to simple structures.000 33.41. and can be expressed as follows: U= D+ V (1. length. An exact analysis of the vibrations of overstressed (nonlinear) structures is very difficult.000 psi. ^ Equation 1.46) U represents the total energy input into the structure up to the time that the last nonlinear overstress occurs. For ground motion of approximately the intensity of the El Centro 1940 records (Fig. .48) and this equation specifies the amount of energy that must be absorbed if the structure is to remain standing. 1.1.. etc. which would require design for 42 CHAPTER 1 .45 or 1. . In buildings the walls and partitions dissipate energy through cracking and rubbing. If the elastic limit of the steel is 33. an elevated water tank''*' with rod bracing. ^ = 2 30lri5^-T2-=^-5"-^^/"^"^"If the bar is stretched plastically to a strain of 0.''*' If the equation is used for design. cross-sectional area and 1 in. its usefulness when applied to complex structures is limited because of the difficulty of determining the specific points where plastic deformation will occur. and steel frames can absorb energy by plastic deformation.''"•'•''' Most structures have considerable capacity for energy dissipation when they are overstressed. For example. If it is taken that U = '/zmS^ (1. and the results of such analyses are not yet in a form to be used for design. the equation becomes D = cW-V (1.02 in.02-0.19).0011) '/ij = 50 ft-lb/cu in. then D='/2mS2-V (1.3G LIMIT-STRESS DESIGN equal to those specified by building codes have been measured even during moderate ground motion.49) where W is the weight of the structure and c = '/is ft-lb/pound of weight for a structure with approximately 2% damping. The importance of plastic energy absorption is illustrated by considering a steel bar of 1-sq in./in. an appropriate factor of safety must be incorporated.45 (that is.000(0.3 sec or greater and gives reasonably good agreement with field observations of plastically deformed structures. Thus it is seen that with suitable design it is possible for a structure to absorb a large amount of energy plastically while retaining an adequate factor of safety against collapse. if it is assumed that the maximum input energy into the overstressed structure is the same as the maximum input for an equivalent elastic undamped structure). 1.. the energy absorbed plastically (assuming perfect plasticity) is D = 33. and V is the elastic strain energy in the structure at the time that the last overstress occurred. D is the energy dissipated by the structure.47) as in Eq. . 1.

1. 1.5. structural response has not been measured during strong earthquake ground motion.2 sec in the north—south direction. 1.26 in the basement of the building. The concrete second floor of the building.28 sec.5 2. and the maximum recorded building acceleration was 0. which was composed of approximately 12% g from the first mode and 1% g from the second mode. supported on braced steel columns. as deduced from the measured building vibrations during the earthquake. A plastic design must. The building is a monolithic reinforced-concrete structure 141 ft high. the maximum computed building acceleration was 0. could be designed for 12% g with allowance for plastic deformation and still have a factor of safety of approximately two. in sec l. It is rectangular in plan. Fig. Three examples of such records are given in the next three paragraphs. of course. the first of which was strongly excited. H. The maximum roof acceleration in the north-south direction was 13% g.5 To Z.35 and 0. Calculated period 0. experienced the horizontal accelerations shown in Fig. respectively. with a basement.5.347 aec 1. The total energy absorbed in failing members by oscillatory plastic strains is not well established at the present time so that such designs should be made on a conservative basis.10 g.0 Time. The acceleration measured on the roof of the building is also shown in Fig. 1952.3H a 40% g lateral acceleration to remain elastic during ground motion of the El Centro 1940 intensity.w e s t direction and 51 ft in the north-south direction. respectively. In the east—west direction. in sec Fig.BUILDING VIBRATION RECORDS 1. From the spectrum of the ground motion.O " 1.87 sec. Prior to the earthquake the measured periods of wind-induced vibration were 0.5 3. the maximum roof acceleration was 14% g of which approximately 11% g came from the first mode and 3% g from the GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 43 . 1.000 lb of buried explosives at a distance of 370 yd from a building produced the horizontal acceleration shown in Fig. The maximum ground acceleration was 0.27.26 — Measured ground motion at base of the building. The first two modes of vibration of the building had periods of 0. Building Vibration Records As yet.0 1.54 and 0.49 sec in the east—west direction and 1. A quarry blast''''^ involving 370. the Hollywood Storage Company Building was approximately 70 miles south of the center of the Arvin-Tehachapi earthquake of July 21. and the ground motion recorded in the basement of the building is shown in Fig. 1. 1. measuring 217 ft in the e a s t .0 Time.105 g. As another example. but measurements have been recorded for moderately strong ground motion.27 — Acceleration-time record of floor slab in building at 48-ft elevation above grade.075 g. The periods in these two directions were 0. be done very carefully to ensure that rupture or brittle fracture does not occur.

On the other hand. Measurements of very weak ground motions''^' have shown negligible influence for periods around 0. Observations made after earthquakes often report . as shown in Fig. 0. it appears at present to be impossible to predict the effect on the intensity of ground motion.7 were obtained. 1949. 1. and the second and third modes of the building were strongly excited. The building is a relatively slender 15-story steel-frame structure''^" with masonry walls. The periods in both directions were approximately 1. 1957. However. 13.25 sec for the first three modes. S.3. if a plane stress wave travels through a medium of high modulus of elasticity into a medium of low modulus of elasticity. Therefore it may be expected ttiat. The first of these is a matter of geology. Strong-motion measurements at Olympia and Seattle during the earthquake of Apr.''*" Influence of Foundation Conditions The precise influence of foundation conditions is not yet well understood. Because the building was close to the epicenter of a small earthquake. The undamped spectrum intensity for this ground motion was 1. 1957. The Alexander Building was approximately 11 miles from the epicenter of the San Francisco earthquake of Mar. The maximum ground acceleration was 5% g and the maximum roof acceleration was 12% g.4. Two different factors are involved: the influence of local geology on the intensity of the ground motion. and 0.1 and 10 sec. From this it appears that the local ground condition at the Alexander Building had small influence. it was found that some geological conditions amplified the ground motion as much as 5 to 1 compared with measurements on rock. the undamped spectrum intensities being in the ratio of 2. and the influence of the ground conditions on the behavior of the structure. there will be energy absorption with a corresponding diminution of intensity. there have also been reports of more damage on rock than on alluvium. it is known that. 1.INFLUENCE OF FOUNDATION CONDITIONS second mode. whereas at ttie State Building it had appreciable influence. for some locations. 1. The motions shown in Fig. with the Olympia instrument on firm alluvium and the Seattle instrument on water-logged fill. 1. there would result at least a doubling of the intensity if the alluvium behaves elastically. On the other hand. Similar reports are also sometimes made in comparing damage on firm vs. the short-period end of the spectrum was relatively high. These data indicate that the effect of ground CHAPTER 1 .''^* The two instruments were approximately the same distance from the epicenter. Analysis by Hudson shows good agreement between computed and measured response of this structure. Coast and Geodetic Survey.6 to 5.5 were recorded by the U. 22. Because of the long distance from the epicenter.8. 22. The Seattle record indicated less intense ground motion than the Olympia record. soft alluvium.heavier damage in alluvial valleys than on rocky hills. the spectra of this ground motion were relatively low in the short-period end. the data given in Table 1. and the second is a matter of engineering. Coast and Geodetic Survey. With respect to the influence of local geology on ground motion intensity.1 and 10 sec. if seismic waves travel up through base rock and pass into surface alluvium. showed the following influence of ground. the displacements and accelerations are essentially doubled.28.4.8. The motions shown in Fig.''*^ When correction''*'' is made for the different distances from the epicenter. the ratios of acceleration and intensity obtained are as given in Table 1. If the seismic waves travel from rock into an alluvium formed of layers and lenses with different properties.28. if the alluvium is overstressed by the seismic waves. and the ground motion recorded in the basement and on the roof of the building was as shown in Fig. During the San Francisco earthquake of Mar. measurements have shown marked amplifications for periods between 0. For the weak ground motions measured.28 were recorded by the U. S. The building was excited into short-period vertical oscillations.

05 - .05 . Located approximately 10 miles from center of fault. earthquake. 1. from seismographs located on the 16th floor and in the basement of the Alexander Building.10 r .31 ^' o .10.) GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 45 .10. 1957.INFLUENCE OF FOUNDATION CONDITIONS 1. Coast and Geodetic Survey.10 r EAST ^.05 .05 - 7 3 Duration 9 (Sec) Fig. 22. (Data from U.V/VVV—v»* wesT Basament 7 3 Duration Rtcord 9 (Sac) NORTH . Calif. Calif.A..to. Mar.28—Accelerograph records of the San Francisco. S.OS - .05 ^M^Mjwy^jV\/\lU'^A/*Ar^ .05 7 3 9 Duration (S»e) . San Francisco.

1 0 0 ft of alluvium . A soft alluvium may also promote rocking of the structure during an earthquake and cause overstressing of the soil with consequent deleterious effect on the structure.8 10.13 0. if the soil is sufficiently soft.12 0. There is nothing inherently bad in this extra degree of freedom.48 The influence of local geology on the behavior of structures is somewhat better understood. Table 1. 1957. This structure is founded on piles in very soft alluvium.3 0. be advantageous for a heavy stiff structure. 1957 Epicentral distance.75 Spectrum intensity 1.1 laterally.7 —DATA FROM SAN FRANCISCO EARTHQUAKE. A well-designed building of typical proportions founded on moderately firm soil can be treated as if supported on a firm base.0 1. and the acceleration recorded in the basement showed that the base of the building had oscillated Table 1. This was demonstrated in the record obtained in the Southern Pacific Building in San Francisco during the earthquake of Mar. 22. A soft alluvium that may consolidate unevenly during an earthquake and thus permit differential settlement of the foundation of the structure is a serious hazard.8 9. It may. A differential settlement of a fraction of an inch may produce very large stresses and lead to failure during the earthquake.8—RATIOS OF ACCELERATION AND INTENSITY Station Golden Gate Park State Building Alexander Building Maximum acceleration 1. miles 7. the base of the building may move laterally relative to the soil.INFLUENCE OF FOUNDATION CONDITIONS is not simply a matter of depth and softness of alluvium. g 0.05 Spectrum Intensity 0. and the design should be such as to avoid undesirable permanent displacements.''*^ Thus in this case the softness of the ground introduced another degree of freedom in the structure. thus very little data on this subject have been gathered. but the soil must then be treated as part of the structure. Such failures have been observed. The spectrum curves showed pronounced peaks that coincided with the measured periods of vibration of the building.8 Station Golden Gate P a r k State Building Alexander Building Type of ground Rock .105 0.1 2 0 ft of alluvium Maximum acceleration. 22. At present there are not sufficient instrumental data from strong earthquakes to establish the precise influence of local geology on strong earthquake ground motions. However. These are of particular interest when considering the influence of very soft soils. but usually it is difficult to establish whether or not foundation settlement has occurred. MAR.84 1.0 1. in fact.0 2. Numerous studies of the influence of ground have been made by Japanese investigators and are reported in the bulletin of the Earthquake Research Institute of Tokyo University. CHAPTER 1 .

Serial No.. Eiby. Los Angeles. H. Vol. Ill. I.. F. L. Serial No. Seismicity of the Western United States. Am. Murphy and W. 610 South Broadway. J. New York. Far East Command. Vol. Washington.5 1.14 1. Richter. A Comparison of Earthquake Accelerations With Intensity Ratings. F. F. D. Collins and H. Department of Commerce. Serial No. Princeton. U. D. Earthquake History of the United States. Japan.12 1. K. U. H. Office of the Engineer. Internal Constitution of the Earth. E. About Earthquakes. Part 7 of the series Physics of the Earth. Division of Mines. A. Coast and Geodetic Survey. New York. Bulletin 171. New York. C. Department of Commerce. G. B. L. S.. 609. C.13 1. 81 pp. Princeton. Energy. K. The Major Earthquakes of California: An Historical Summary. During 1952. 1955. Continental United States and Alaska (Exclusive of California and Western Nevada). L. Earthquakes in Kern County. Part I. 793. Soc. Seismol. State of California. Earthquake Magnitude. McGraw-Hill Book Company. K. 1954. Inc. Seismol. State of California. Measurements of Earth Movements in California. 27(1): 1-27 (1937). 1951 ed. Geology. O. Bulletin 171. Intensity. Pacific Coast Building Officials Conference. Washington. Am. New York. Richter. C. Soc. Heck. 1957. Am. Bulletin 171. 1953..19 1. G.11 1. Cloud.. 413 pp. Seismol. Earthquakes. in Abbetts' American Civil Engineering Practice. L. Earthquake Engineering. 1955. C. 1947 ed. N. in Proceedings of the 1956 World Conference. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Department of Natural Resources. Gutenberg and C. S. P. Richter. D. H. 555 pp. B. Gutenberg and C. N. in Proceedings of the Symposium on Earthquake and Blast Effects on Structures. Perry Byerly. B. Gumensky. 1949.. Murphy and W. II.21 1. 2nd ed. (L of C card 57-6137). 1957. 46: (1956).. Soc. V. C. United States Earthquakes. 1956. rev. California. Soc. Pt. Am. 773. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. 28 June 1948. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute and University of California. U. W.. Department of Natural Resources. H. Spectrum Intensities of Strong-motion Earthquakes. 1956.REFERENCES REFERENCES 1. 46(4): (October 1956). Earthquake Magnitude.22 1.. Heck. D. 1955. 748. F. L. Harper & Brothers. M. H. Serial No. Whitten.9 1. Bull.1 1. Bull. Department of Commerce.. 1952. Washington. S. Department of Commerce. N.18 1. California. J. Earthquakes in Kern County.10 1. rev. Princeton University P r e s s . U.17 1. Washington. J. Hokuriku Region. Seismol. Gutenberg and C. Cloud. San Francisco. Heck. DeSitter. United States Earthquakes. 1. Inc. Bullen. 609. Housner.15 1. Coast and Geodetic Survey.20 1. 1936. Murphy and F. Gutenberg and C.2 B. Division of Mines. Energy. Inc. California. and Acceleration. Stronger Earthquakes of California and Western Nevada. San Francisco. McGraw-Hill Book Company. 1958. U.7 1. 32: (July 1942). Richter. San Francisco. Uniform Building Code. in Earthquakes in Kern County. John Wiley & Sons. Seismicity of the Earth and Associated Phenomena. 75-80. 1952. M.6 1. G. S. 1939. An Introduction to the Theory of Seismology. Coast and Geodetic Survey. D. New York. Division of Mines. Bull.3 1. Louderback. Coast and Geodetic Survey. U. During 1952. Gutenberg. The Fukui Earthquake. D. C. S. Department of Commerce. J. Wood and N. L. Bull. United States Earthquakes.. Los Angeles. N. Characteristics of Active Faults in the Central Coast Ranges of California with Application to the Safety of Dams. John Hershberger. Princeton University P r e s s . Structural Geology.. Benioff and B. Washington. S. pp. and Acceleration. Intensity. Vanderhoof. D. B. During 1952. Serial No. U. Department of Natural Resources. Earthquake History of the United States. M. Cambridge University P r e s s .4 1.. State of California.16 1.8 1. Foster.. Evidence from Deep-focus Earthquakes.23 GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 47 . 1954. Ulrich. Earthquakes and Earthquake Resistant Design. General Introduction to Seismology.

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Science Council of Japan. R. L. W. I. 1956. and Tank Towers. and S. Am. in Proceedings of the 1956 World Conference. Bycroft. Motion of a Soil Subjected to a Simple Harmonic Ground Vibration.. Seismic Characteristics of Ground. R. Neumann. in Proceedings of the Symposium on Earthquake and Blast Effects on Structures.. Los Angeles. BulL_EaTth2uake_^es^^^ (1948).. in Proceedings of the 1956 World Conference. Revised Dec. On the Elastic Properties of Soil. Bull. Earthquake Intensity and Related Ground Motion.. M. Kanai. Pacific Fire Rating Bureau. 1956. Steady Forced Vibrations of a Single Mass System with Symmetrical as well as Nonsymmetrical Nonlinear Restoring Elements. NewmarK. Soc. N. Inst. The Macmillan Company. in Proceedings of the Symposium on Earthquake and Blast Effects on Structures. 1952. M. Particularly in Relation to Its Water Content. and H. Jacobsen. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. L. Murphy. Tokyo Univ.. 465 California Street.. Jacobsen.. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute and University of California. Soc. Kanai... Am. 20: (1930). Kawasumi. Directorate of Intelligence.. 30: (1952). S. L. L. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute and University of California. 1950. Harrison. 1949. Am. in Proceedings of the 1956 World Conference... Earthquake Motions on Various Formations of the Earth's Surface. Jacobsen.. Structures.. S. Los Angeles. Vibrations of Buildings in Japan. Earthquake Res. Takahashi. N. 220: (1935).. Nov. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Civil Engrs. 60th Anniversary Volume. New York. Bull. 1956. Soc. Inst. Franklin Inst. Neumann. University of Washington P r e s s . Tapered Reinforced Concrete Chimneys Subjected to Earthquakes. S. Menekami. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. W. N. Dynamic Behavior of Simplified Structures up to the Point of Collapse. Newmark. S. 1956.. Earthquake Engineering. Seattle. Am. Martel. Seismol.. Seismol. Earthquaike Engineering. J. L.. Yoshizawa.. Approximate Solution of the Steady Forced Vibration of a System of One Degree of Freedom Under the Influence of Various Types of Damping.. Aseismic Design of Simple Plastic Steel Structures Founded on Firm Ground. in Proceedings of the Symposium on Earthquake and Blast Effects on Structures. Report NP-3572. 1938. J. July 1960. Dynamic Response of Elastoplastic Frames. M. 1954.1960. Kanai. Jesperson. EM-4 (October 1959). H. and L. Design and Analysis of Tall. Soc. Behavior of Structures During Earthquakes. Computation of Dynamic Structural Response in the Range Approaching Failure.. Isada.. Department of the Air Force. 20: (1930). K. Tokyo Univ.REFERENCES Housner. 1952. 1952. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.. 10: (1940). San Francisco. N. T. J. Effect of a Flexible First Story in a Building Located on Vibrating Ground. M.. Proceedings of Second World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Earthquake Engineering. Sakuma. 18. and K. R. in Proceedings of the 1956 World Conference. Los Angeles. Some Generalized Concepts of Earthquake Motion. Electrical Analog for Earthquake Shear Stresses in a Multistory Building. Bull. Tokyo.. G. 1956. J. Kimizi. Proc. K. Effect of Foundation on Earthquake Motion. Bull. Frank. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute-.. Civil Eng. and H. Recommendations. 18: (1940). Paper 2545.. Stephen Timoshenko. and S. Earthquake Res. G. Jacobsen. Rodriguez. Jacobsen. in Proceedings of the 1956 World Conference. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute and University of California. Kawasumi. On the Damping of Vibration of Actual Buildings. 50 CHAPTER 1 .. Proc. Earthquake Engineering. S. Earthquake Engineering. Methods of Analysis for Structures Subjected to Dynamic Loading. 17. Penzien. Earthquake-resistant Design of Buildings. 1950. Civil Engrs. F..

Seismol. G. Earthquake Investigations in California 1934-35. Soc.. Seismol... Bull. Engineering Seismology. T. White.. 58: (May 1932). Soc. 1956. M. Byrne. Tung. Soc. Am. Civil Engrs. Earthquake Engineering. 79: (March 1953). K... Am. Earthquake Engineering. Am. L.. 31: (1941).. I. Friction in Buildings. E. and N. Proc. 102: (1937). Washington. Special Publication 201.. 29: (1939). Soc. 32: (1942). U. M. 1956. USAEC Translation AEC-tr-5424. D. Williams. F.. Earthquake Stresses in Shear Buildings. Moscow. M. Bull. White. Newmark. Civil Engrs. Proc.. P. Newmark. Notes on American Lectures. E. C .. Earthquakes in the USSR. GENERAL EARTHQUAKE CONSIDERATIONS 51 . Bull. 1936. A. Model Studies of the Vibration of Structures During Earthquakes. A. Suyehiro. H. Trans. in Proceedings of the 1956 World Conference. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. M. P. Am. Aseismic Design of Latino Americana Tower. in Proceedings of the 1956 World Conference. Dynamic Distortions in Structures Subjected to Sudden Earth Shock. Am. White.. Savarenskii. Soc. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. S. Kharin. M. P. and R. and D. Seismol.. A Method of Calculating the Dynamic Force on a Building During an Earthquake. and N.REFERENCES Salvador!. Soc. Gubin. Am. Zeevaert. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Based on Ground Accelerations instead of Ground Displacements. 1961. M.. P. Civil Engrs. Shears in a Tall Building Subjected to Strong Motion Earthquakes.

The problems of energy release are those related to the statistical study of location. TABL£S 2. 52 . (2) subsequent wave propagation or energy transport. F.1 2. including the nature of the focal s t r u c ture.2 CIrcum-Pacific Belt: Relative Frequency and Energy of Earthquakes.5 WorldM. and magnitude of seismic disturbances. 2.. California Institute of Technology. 1909 to 1952. All Known Shocks of Magnitude T and Over. Fortunately a rigorous approach is not a prerequisite to acceptable engineering studies. as previously indicated by the text of this report and as further supported by the material of this chapter.6 H 2' Microragionalizauon Map.:CU. 2. Tentttlve Regionallzatlon Map (or the United Slates and Adjacent Areas " "* *-""orn!a. Gutenberg and C.3 2.1 2. and (3) the nature and violence of motion imparted to the foundation supporting the responding structure.the foundation for this introduction to earthquake geography and regionalization. or simply the problems of earthquake geography.A. frequency. however.2 EARTHQUAKE GEOGRAPHY: GENERAL DESCRIPTION Inherent in the prediction of probable seismic intensity as related to engineering construction are the factors of (1) initial seismic energy release. Southern CalUornia.UowEarth<. lo. Pacific Stable Mass.. F. R'*oniai«tlon Map for C^lfornl. Richter of the Seismological Laboratory. i o .oI9»2. Azlmuthal Equal-area Projections. 2. a . Regtonallzatlon Map for the USSR.4 2. Los Angelas Basin and Vicinity..1 ACKNOWLEDGMENT Proper and full acknowledgment must be given the distinguished work of B.o World Map of De«p-focua Earthquakes.chapter 2 EARTHQUAKE GEOGRAPHY AND REGIONAUZATION FIGURES 2.»k. Redrafted from Savarensky and Klmos (1955) with Some Omission of Small OeUils. Prediction of probable seismic intensity as a function of both earthquake geography and local geology is the purpose of seismic zoning or seismic regionalization and is a field of study that is of interest to both the seismologist and the engineer. Richter in reviewing the material in this chapter is gratefully acknowledged. The rigorous postulation of seismic damage to a given structure would be dependent upon comprehensive statistical and geophysical knowledge of these factors.1904. Their extensive studies of seismicity during the past 20 years have found comprehensive and definitive expression in the references comprising . Azinuithal Equal-area Projection. Continental Stable Masses. Equivalence for the Los Angeles Area.pofSh.B.2 2. such a state of technology is not likely of general attainment. The contribution of C.CU.

The earthquakes of arcuate structures. dominant in most of the Circum-Pacific and Alpide belts. complicated by an intervening series of anticlines that often appear as submarine ridges. may find expression in active thrusting. Scope 2. The Alpide (Ballores' Transasiatic) belt (2) The non-Alpide areas of eastern Asia a. The Pacific stable area rifts (5) The stable masses a. as evidenced by occasional surface rupture and the insignificant amount or absence of intermediate or deep seismicity. which. Those features of the earth's surface most pertinent to seismological study include (1) The principal great-circle seismic belts a. The Cir cum-Pacific beltfa. shallow earthquakes are associated with the conditions of two distinct environments: arc as opposed to block tectonics. Lawrence rift zone b. The East African active rift b. A group of typical phenomena and features normally identify the active Pacific arcuate structures. Stable-mass shatter zones (6) Minor seismic areas. generally in regions of older mountain building B. whereas c e r tain wider areas show fairly general moderate activity. Such faulting is geologically shallow. 1. Where most clearly defined in the Circum-Pacific belt. The Chinese triangular active area (3) The oceanic seismic belts a. these arcs are still active with earthquakes at all depths. The Pamir —Baikal active zone of central Asia b. are thought to be related to the thrust surfaces of the great mountain-building epochs. The Arctic belt b. Most pronounced are the severe gradients. generally in a late stage or exiinct. and folding is thought to be still in progress. EARTHQUAKE GEOGRAPHY AND REGIONALIZATION 53 . The greater majority of epicenters occur in a few narrow belts or zones. another arc is marked by older volcanism. but rather an indication of large-scale shearing adjustments subsequent to such activity.2B. The Indian Ocean belt and branches (4) Rift zones. The geographical location of faults associated with block tectonics can be determined in areas where the geology is well understood. including the St.SCOPE A. farther inward in the system. Shallow seismicity is most frequent between the foredeep and the principal mountain arc. Active or recently extinct volcanoes are characteristic of the principal mountain arc. Well within the interior of the system are found the deep-focus disturbances. Characteristic of these adjustments are the development of long fault zones that often appear to be mechanically inconsistent with the apparent tectonic regime. whereas activity of intermediate depth extends from the mountain arcs to the interior. Active continental margins and troughs adjacent to the stable masses. The dynamic potential of the system finds evidence in pronounced isostatic anomalies.2A The worldwide distribution of earthquakes has been briefly mentioned in Sec. Tectonics In the principal seismic zones. the topography of a typical transverse section ascends from a deep oceanic trench or foredeep along the outside margins to the heights of a principal mountain a r c . including a. Consequently the correlations of origin. Conversely the behavior in a block structure does not appear to be a direct expression of folding. The similar arcs of the Alpide group are less active and show fewer of the characteristic features. for certain conditions of s t r u c tural environment. The Atlantic ridge c.

Explanatory statements should be made in regard to Figs. in the provinces of Mendoza and San Juan. A. For convenience the regions have been identified with the principal geographical area. Japan includes the Kurile Islands and the Kamchatka Peninsula. the strike-slip fault associated with the Mino-Owari earthquake of 1891 cleaves across Honshu transverse to the active arcuate structures. damaging shocks.2A. 1. similarly the great transverse structural break known as the Fossa Magna partitions this principal island into a southwest and a northeast tectonic division. Reference should be made to the more exhaustive compilations available for detailed study of a particular locale.23 . Obviously it is not possible to include finer geophysical detail in maps extending over such broad areas. EARTHQUAKE GEOGRAPHY: DETAILS path.1 to 2. These figures were accordingly prepared to illustrate only major activity and should not be taken as necessarily representative of lighter seismicity. From the engineering viewpoint light or moderate seismicity is not necessarily statistically significant with respect to large. of all the world's earthquakes. however. thus it must be understood that activity may extend beyond the indicated area. A brief description of earthquake geography. As examples. regions which have obscure boundaries or which are areal in nature are located by a general coordinate. Regions of extended length are located at each end. correctly indicate the general features of world seismicity and appear appropriate to the introductory t r e a t ment afforded by this chapter.1. Block faulting does not necessarily occur as a distinct alternate to the arcuate processes. 54 CHAPTER 2 . and more than 99% of the deep shocks are attributable to the CircumPacific belt. In arcuate regions.^*' Accordingly in the following discussions the Circum-Pacific belt is given corresponding emphasis. only well-documented shocks over a relatively short period of time have been plotted. 80% of the shallow. Circum-Pacific Belt The geography of the Circum-Pacific belt is indicated by Figs. and relative seismicity by both frequency and energy r e lease for regions of the Circum-Pacific belt are summarized in Table 2. In Japan particularly. such as the following. extend horizontally over a wide belt. The California region includes the Gulf of California to the south. They do. In Argentina shallow earthquakes of block tectonics.1 to 2. lie directly above the hypocenters of deep shocks associated with Andean arcuate activity. Further. The p r e dominant position of this belt in any accounting of world seismicity was mentioned in Sec.3.4 illustrate the discussion. structures. and fine regionalization for arcuate areas may be more difficult than that for block structures. however. The location. and local geology for regionalization of such areas are susceptible to definitive treatment.1 gives the type of structure for all regions except those for which the exact structural nature has not been determined.2. in the zone of shallow seismicity.^•^'^•^ Figures 2. therefore these figures may not exactly represent the relative activity of some areas. 2 3 EARTHQUAKE GEOGRAPHY: DETAILS . is of necessity overgeneralized. The small scale of these figures again leads to overgeneralization. Table 2. where the surface expression of Andean arc tectonics is far to the west. 90% of the intermediate.1 and 2. 2. the arc and block tectonics are enmeshed in a condition of unusual complexity. where it was noted that. Location as given by coordinates should be taken as only indicative of the extent of seismicity for a given region and should not be applied rigorously. Probable epicentral location cannot then be precisely determined. and many of the significant geological features pertinent to smaller areas are unfortunately rendered obscure. 2. the active surfaces are not simple sharp breaks but may.

1918 to 1952 (Data from Ref 2 1) . MAGNITUDE 7 . 1918-1952 •. class B.7 7. 1904-1952 MODIFIED MOLLWEIDE PROJECTION Fig 2 1—World map of shallow earthquakes class A.LARGE SHALLOW EARTHQUAKES •. MAGNITUDE 1% OR OVER. 1904 to 1952.

7 .TE EARTHQUAKES. MAGNITUDE 1% OR OVER MODIFIED MOLLWEIDE PROJECTION LARGE DEEP-FOCUS EARTHQUAKES. MAGNITUDE 1% OR OVER Fig.) . 2. 7 V. (Data from Ref.2—World map of deep-focus earthquakes. MAGNITUDE 7 . 2.1. 1905 to 1952. 1904-1952 h>300KM T.7 . 1904 h = 7 0 . 7 T.LARGE INTERMEDLi\. all known shocks of magnitude 7 and over. MAGNITUDE 7 .300 KM V.

and deep-focus shocks are listed for about a 30-year period.3—Pacific stable mass. 2. the class B shallow shocks for the period 1922 to 1945. 2 1. azimuthal equal-area projection Ref. and the class C shallow shocks for the period 1932 to 1935. as EARTHQUAKE GEOGRAPHY AND REGIONALIZATION 57 .CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 2. With some qualifications Table 2.) (Data from The statistical base period varies with earthquake depth and classification. Intermediate.1 lists the class A shallow shocks for the period 1904 to 1945. All data were derived from instrumental sources. It is obvious that.3A Fig.

Fig 2 4—Continental stable masses. azimuthal equal-area projections (Data from Ref 2 1 ) .

differentiating between the various depths and classifications of earthquakes. release.3 3.4 4.0 0.4 3.0 3 0 3 14 9 0.6 4.3 6.5 3.1 0.1 1. although adjusted.0 0.7 0.0 17 4 90 6.1 5.S 09 1.7 19 19N 68W 073 7**W S7S 27W 1S92W ss 10SW-80S leow 88S 175E-50S 135E 54S 159E-37S 178E 388 179W.0 16 3 1. energy release.6 22.Pacific belt Total for Transasiatic belt others All shocks 80.4 0.8 0. Further.7 2.9 12.0 9.0 3.3A the magnitudes to be considered increase.0 1.9 0.1 2.1—cmCUM-PACIFIC BELT: BEl4ATrVE FREQUENCY AND ENERGY OF EARTHQUAKES*'t Relative frequency.5 07 16.8 1.3 5.9 0.6 Deep A and B Relative energy.5 8.7 0. Gutenberg and Richter catalog more than a dozen class A shallow shocks from instrumental data.1 14 4.8 ~100 Intermediate 2.8 3.9 17.9 1.6 0.7 1.9 2. Seismicity by relative frequency is more adaptable to engineering requirements.5 13.•arc Arc 0.6 5.3 8.7 0.1 11.2 3. including the Kurile Islands and the Kamchatka Peninsula.•arc Blook.3 3.7 3.0 ~100 41 5. is that showing the highest general level of seismicity.1 3. % by depth Shallow 4.CIRCUM-PACIFIC BELT 2.1 91.7 0.5 2.0 ~100 Aand B 3.6 2.2 B 4.14S 173W 14S 173W-18S 175E 22S 175W-10S 164E 103 184E-7S 148E 7S 148E-2S 128E Arc Are Block.4 0.7 8. Major d i s turbances emanate from all depths in frequent numbers.6 3S.4 4.4 0.1 0.0 0.5 89 11 0 ~100 25 4 3 6 35 4 4 3 44 3 3 34N 132E-S7N 164E 24N 121E-32NI31E 3N 128E-18N 120E On 123E 5S 130E-12N93E Block. but also by the superposition of the well-developed block structure of the northern Honshu coastal region.2 1.8 0.4 0.0 3.2 1.2 4. differentiating only by depth.2 1. energy release tends to be heavily weighted by the very large shocks.8 2.6 2.8 ~100 ~100 loot Ot 0 ~100 loot Ot 0 ~100 •DaU are from Ref.4 0. tSee text for discussion.•arc Arc Arc Arc Block.7 8. 2. although moderate seismicity is well represented for engineering purposes.5 14.Tonga Samoa-Fiji New Hebrides Solomon Islands New Guinea Caroline Islands Mariana Islands Japan Kyushu. and (2) relative Table 2.6 0.7 6.8 S.6 0.3 3.8 3. % by depth and olaaa Intersnaiiow mediate C 3.5 2.6 11.2 1.4 0. Two indices of seismicity are presented in Table 2. The structures are arcuate.2 0. some regions have exhibited broad fluctuations.8 2.5 1.7 4 8 4 8 2.9 13.2 0.3 0.1 2.3 0. Further interest is afforded by the Fossa Magna.0 12.1 3.6 6.0 2.5 3.6 75.2 3.S 3.7 5.1.2 1.7 7 8 0. The Japan region.• arc Are Arc Total for Clrcum.5 4.•arc A S. the statistical representation becomes less precise.0 4.^-' The destructive nature of this high seismicity upon a dense population has justifiably served to publicize EARTHQUAKE GEOGRAPHY AND REGIONALIZATION 39 .7 8.9 2.0 0.7 16.0 0.3 0.5 79. a large-scale graben of fissuring and volcanic activity reaching directly across Honshu from the Idzu Peninsula.4 0.Formosa Philippines Celebes Island Sunda Islands S7N 61N 44N 28N 15N Location 163E-6SN 147W 140W-48N 128 W 130W-28N 112W 112W-15N92W 92W-7N 78W Structure Arc Block Block Arc Are Are Block.4 7 1 8.• arc Block.5 4.1 1. and the representation for the short period of three years.0 0.1: (1) relative frequency.2 4.0 2.6 2.3 7.6 2.0 3.0 3.4 0. complicated not only by the dividing into the Formosa and the Marianas trends.0 0.0 2.8 Deep Region Aleutian British Columbia CalUornia Mexico Central America Caribbean (northern) South America (aouthem) Southern AntiUea Oalipagoa Islands Easter Island Ridge Indian Antarctic New Zealand Kermsdec . may not be wholly correct for these r e gions.4 2.5 0. tThe Transasiatic deep-focus shock of 1954 under southern Spain does not appear in this data.0 1.8 6.

The Asiatic arcs are clearly defined. and inland. the latter has many times more class B earthquakes than South America and thus a higher seismicity from a risk standpoint. Three active volcanic lines are further evidence of the arcuate nature of the structures. The Luzon arc continues north. This line is broken only through the area of Peruvian faulting. Shoclcs at intermediate depths following a line of nearly extinct volcanoes are relatively common. in general. however.5% of shallow-focus. another begins in Guatemala and reaches southeastwardly through Central America. Consequently only a few remarks will be offered in the paragraph describing Mediterranean activity. becoming more obscure. frequently of the magnitude of 40 to 60 km. the Mediterranean s e i s micity assumes a more detailed expression that is not susceptible to a brief discussion. A less active arc of moderate activity follows the west coast of Luzon (14N 122E to 18N 120E) to front the China Sea. east of the Andes. South America has somewhat more frequent class A shocks than Japan.4% of intermediate-focus. The high incidence of very large earthquakes relative to lesser activity has been noted. CHAPTER 2 . the focal depths of shallow shocks are. are found the deepfocus shocks expected with strongly active a r c s . and finally loses identity in a region of uncertain structure and low seismicity south of Formosa. and that of the Caribbean branch assumes a north-and-south alignment at its easternmost extent. then extends northwestwardly through Iran in a broad. less active. Other structures of lower seismicity trend through the archipelago. Although these arcs are thought to be roughly of the same age as those of the Pacific. the activity of the Caribbean is well below average for the Circum-Pacific belt. These two areas are connected by a sweeping shear structure featuring a master strike-slip fault. they a r e . less clearly defined manner. a number of locally destructive shocks have given the Caribbean an impression of high seismicity wholly undeserved. suggesting that they have aged more rapidly. A nearly continuous active volcanic line extends along the east coast of South America. Especially pronounced in the southern part of the Andean zone (15S 75W to 45S 74W) are strongly arcuate structures and features of the Pacific type. The islands of the Philippines and Melanesia collectively account for 25. the Himalayan arc (about 28N 97E to 36N 73E). the Baluchistan structure (about 36N 73E to 24N 63E). 40. the Andean zone should not be accorded the same level of seismicity. again excepting Peru. however. Alpide Belt Active arcs similar to those of the Pacific are characteristic of the Alpide Mediterranean-Transasiatic belt.ALPIDE BELT these conditions and has resulted in a wealth of research activity in the seismological field and related fields. The Philippines display a rich tectonic variety. greater than usual. The Alpide belt trends successively along the Burma arc (roughly 17N 97E to 28N 97E). Although the Andean zone of South America shows a relative energy release comparable with that of Japan. An arcuate structure of strongly pronounced features and high seismic activity extends along the eastern margins of Mindanao and Samar Islands (3N 128E to 13N 125E) to front the Philippine Sea on the east. Although the shallow seismicity of Mexico is relatively the highest in the western hemisphere. These features are less clearly defined in a long reach of Peru {5S BOW to 15S 75W) and are often completely obscured owing to a shear type structure with conspicuous recent fault scarps that are strongly suggestive of the strike-slip regions. and 34% of deep-focus world seismicity on a relative-energy-release basis. in addition. some extending into northern Borneo. Central Mexico is among the regions of highest seismicity in the western hemisphere. The structures of Mexico and Central America (22N 107W to 7N 78W) are those of a succession of active arcs which branch into the Caribbean loop. however. One line extends across central Mexico in a roughly east-and-west manner from Colima to the vicinity of Veracruz. in general. at typical depths of 600 to 650 km.

The belt returns south through Italy. Intermediate shocks occur to the rear of the mountains. current knowledge EARTHQUAKE GEOGRAPHY AND REGIONALIZATION 61 . Only shallow d i s turbances are known. across the north pole to Iceland. As in the ocean a r c s . About 70 shocks have been assigned to this focus since 1905. Active volcanic lines are unknown. this activity must be considered to be well below that of the more active parts of the Pacific belt. The belt extends south from Iceland as the Atlantic belt to Bouvet Island and then turns east as the Atlantic-Indian Swell.B a i k a l zone and the Himalayan arc of the Alpide belt is the broad Chinese triangular active region. Seismicity of the P a m i r . the most active of which are those of the East Africa rifts (from about 12s 32E to 18N 41E). that of California. follow narrow active ridges of young mountain ranges. in general. North of the belt is the stable area of north central Asia. the complexity of the known rift structures is demonstrated by the seismicity.EASTERN ASIA NON-ALPIDE AREAS 2. of these. and deep-focus disturbances have not as yet been recorded. extending the full length of the range. with intervening blocks remaining relatively undisturbed. E. Rift Zones The rift zones as used here imply shallow shocks associated with interior fractures of the stable masses. D. Notable oceanic belts include the Arctic. or a little higher than. seven of these were large earthquakes and included some that were of destructive nature. activity has been recorded in the Crimea. A notable focus for activity of intermediate depth occurs in the Hindu Kush mountains beneath the angle formed by the Himalayan arc with the Baluchistan structures (about 36V2N 70V2E). The triangular active area is traversed by a series of structures showing varying degrees of seismicity. originally produced by folding. To the north. Oceanic Seismic Belts The oceanic active belts. as would be expected of ocean structures. Shallow activity is comparable with. It has been hypothesized that these ridges. are being subjected to the shearing adjustments of block tectonics. From Prince Edward Island the activity continues north in the Indian Ocean to end abruptly on the coast of Arabia. and the few available gravity observations have not indicated any coherent pattern of large negative-gravity anomalies. The African activity is moderate. positive-gravity anomalies are indicated in the mountain-arc region. C.3C The Himalayan is the most active and most clearly developed of the Asiatic a r c s . then reaches across Sicily to Africa. Although active volcanic lines occur along these ridges. Again conforming. which follows no single line. From Iran the Alpide belt traverses Turkey and then the Aegean Sea and the Balkans in a broad swath curving northward. South between the P a m i r . however. and continues along the north coast into the Atlantic as far as the Azores. which extends from the mouth of the Lena River on the north coast of the USSR. This a c tivity reaches through Ethiopia and north along the Red Sea. The oceanic foredeep is represented by the extremely deep alluviated depression of the Ganges valley. however. tabulations include seven of great magnitude.B a i k a l active zone is a broad belt of activity extending from the Pamir region (36N 73E) to Lake Baikal (53N 108E). it is usually drawn as a loop that returns through Spain and France to the Alps.B a i k a l zone is apparently limited to shallow shocks. there is Little other evidence to associate them with the arcuate structures of the Pacific. a strong negative-gravity anomaly extends with some interruptions across the entire width of India in a belt well outside of the mountain a r c . and the southern limits are well south of Crete. Eastern Asia Non-Alpide Areas The P a m i r . However. A comparison of the features of the landlocked Himalayan arc with the fully developed oceanfronting arc is of interest.

Sweeping across the Baltic. Japan. Aside from internal rifts such as in East Africa and at the Hawaiian Islands (as p r e viously mentioned).2A. Thus the St. include the Mississippi Valley earthquakes of 1811 and 1812 and the Charleston earthquake of 1886. Stable Masses The stable masses. about 90% of all intermediate shocks. taking into account r a r e exceptions. Summary of Seismicity The Circum-Pacific belt is associated with 80% of all shallow shocks. for they undoubtedly occur along a fractured structure in the interior of the Pacific stable mass.4. One group of small regions exhibiting moderately frequent minor earthquakes are certain pre-Cretaceous mountain structures. The Pacific basin. or oldlands. illustrated by Fig. the South American continent encompasses the Brazilian stable mass east of the Andes Mountains. Arctic. Seismological evidence suggests that Africa is divided between two stable shields with the Congo River roughly intervening between the two. and western Australia are of practically aseismic p r e Cambrian continental nuclei. which is between the Canadian shield and Greenland. and the Philippines exhibit the highest seismicity. which have remained relatively undisturbed through most of their geological history. western Mexico. Melanesia. and Baffin Bay. Arabia. CHAPTER 2 I . seismic activity associated with the stable masses is found to be confined to margins and troughs separating major and minor continental masses and to marginal shatter zones of the stable masses. Hawaiian shocks are considered to find ultimate origin in a rift system. It is obvious that only the more important stable areas can be listed. the presence of at least one active volcano strongly suggests possible minor seismic activity. and geologically similar localities in eastern Australian. collectively they are the Eurasian stable mass. however. is most logically included in a cataloging of stable masses. which represents an intra-Pacific rift similar to the Hawaiian rift. These are discussed in Sec. Lawrence activity is marginal to the Canadian shield. central Europe. Other disturbances. not so well geologically defined. although differing structurally from the others. are principally continental nuclei. and South Africa. plus the rift at the Samoan Islands. the Ural Mountains and northern Asia are a series of shields. as supported by teleseismic observation. and. Antarctica is considered wholly stable. disturbances of South America have an unusually high proportion of great shocks. However. The North American continent displays the Canadian shield. 2. including the Appalachian area of eastern North America. All remaining intermediate and large shallow earthquakes are assignable to the Mediterranean and Transasiatic belts. The principal ridges of the Atlantic. are examples of troughs separating major and minor continental areas. southern India. 1. with all deep shocks. continental shields. For comparison of shallow shocks.STABLE MASSES fails to justify its extension through the Suez region into the active Jordan trough of Palestine. and Indian oceans are associated with light-to-moderate seismic activity. which is between Africa and Madagascar. where epicenters are found roughly aligned along mountain chains. Minor Seismic Areas Seismicity of significant magnitude is not limited to the principal areas previously discussed. The Mozambique Channel. all sizes exist. and the shocks along the eastern margins of the Australian stable area are related to shatter-zone activity. becoming more numerous as smaller areas are considered.

Thus it is appropriate. 1. where integration of seismicity with local geology for regionalization is considerably simplified by the use of limiting assumptions to minimize variables. The stable masses of the continental nuclei and the Pacific basin appear to be r e l a tively inactive. ideally necessitating a rigorous synthesis of seismicity and local geology. some engineering applications of regionalization are offered. provide the foundation for engineering regionalization. unless very strong evidence exists to the contrary.3D. EARTHQUAKE GEOGRAPHY AND REGIONALIZATION 63 . Such maps may be developed from the viewpoints of (1) the seismologist.. to be applied with due regard to the character of community structures and services. except that it is simpler because it considers only the expected maximum intensity as a basis for design or study. To some extent engineering regionalization is then seen to evolve through considered opinions with the attendant complications and possible conflict between recognized authorities. in lieu of a possible l e s s than-humane statistical abstract. Seismological maps do. to allow the boundary range of maximum recorded or expected activity to govern.4 SEISMIC REGIONALIZATION: GENERAL Seismic regionalization.IG and 1. and power. 2. The engineer's responsibility to his community requires a conservative approach. Similarly. Insurance mapping is directed to a determination of a final estimate of risk. as measured by the expected intensity of shaldng.4 The rift structures such as those of East Africa and the Hawaiian and Samoan Islands demonstrate moderate activity.(2) the insurance statistician. as exemplified by the earthquake-geography maps. or weakness.^'^ The following material considers briefly each viewpoint.SEISMIC REGIONALIZATION: GENERAL 2. the engineer will assume the alluvium to multiply the magnitude and violence of seismic motion. is of common interest to the seismologist. however. when seismic geography is being considered. Seismological maps or data should be selected for this purpose with care. In the application of these maps. Finally. Richter has introduced the term regionalization to describe zoning for engineering applications. those reflecting a disproportionate weight of historical macroseismic data. one must consider the strength. and must in consequence be based upon the statistical elements of seismic frequency and magnitude combined with the effect of local geology. Forms of Presentation Seismic zoning is most conveniently illustrated by the use of maps supplemented by explanatory or qualifying text. whereas the engineer is concerned with the intensity of disturbances as related to the probable nature and violence of ground motion in the area of his studies. water. including those of gas. The applications are accompanied by brief comments. when the effect of deep alluvium under a structure is being evaluated. occasional large shocks have been recorded. will be distorted in areas of population concentration or in areas having established seismological stations. Maps indicating the statistical distribution of seismic activity are generally not directly applicable to engineering applications. however. then propounds some of the qualifications and limitations to regionalization with regard to the engineering aspects. A. Such maps are more properly concerned with the magnitude of disturbances as related to energy release and mechanism. Engineering regionalization is similar to zoning for insurance purposes. even though it is known that under some conditions alluviums may not amplify seismic intensity (see Sees. the mapping of areas with respect to probable seismic a c tivity. as well as the integrity of essential public s e r v ices. along the troughs and margins of these masses and also in a r e a s of minor-to-moderate activity between these masses and the active belts. the insurance industry. and (3) the engineer. and the engineer. or exhibiting large numbers of small earthquakes. of existing or proposed structures.

Although such long-period motions are significant in the response of taller buildings and towers.IG and 1. a selective frequency filtering can be impressed.2D. should be for the ground under the majority of existing or projected buildings and therefore will generally be for the higher expected intensities characteristic of alluvium. the amplitude of motion essentially doubles. earthquake geography as determined by unmodified historical or macroseismic data will reflect higher seismicity in areas of denser population or older culture. With aUuviated valleys it may be possible to consider compensating factors such as unusual depth. Among these factors is the distortion that can result. (2) the location of structures with respect to local geology. Such maps achieve their most definitive status and attendant usefulness when constructed from previous microreCHAPTER 2 . In addition to this doubling. it follows that the more important buildings and the seismically susceptible older structures which represent these centers will occur in the more level alluviated areas. Small-scale regionalization maps that represent vast areas usually obscure the detail necessary for engineering applications. In areas exhibiting fine geological detail. Summarizing. 1. it is not convenient to include this characteristic in regionalization. When drawing small-scale regionalization maps incapable of depicting such fine geological detail. so that in areas distant from the seismic epicenter the ground motion may be predominantly of the longer periods. softness. Further. many portions of these maps are of speculative nature. I.FACTORS PERTINENT TO REGIONALIZATION Factors Pertinent to Regionalization Several qualifying factors pertinent to regionalization must be considered in a study of earthquake geography. such as rocky hills and alluviated valleys in close and complex juxtaposition. as waves pass from a fractured rock structure to a firm. there can be further amplification when seismic waves travel through an alluvium formed of layers and lenses that have different properties. from improper use of historical data or from undue emphasis on minor disturbances. When seismic waves pass through a variety of materials over appreciable distances. Conversely. The influence of local geology has been presented in Sees.31. consolidated alluvium. The possible distortions arising from the use of historical or macroseismic data have been discussed in Sec. and (3) the proper sequence of developmg maps. As seismic waves pass from a medium of high modulus of elasticity to one of low modulus of elasticity such as an alluvium. Reliance upon such data could lead to serious e r r o r . the frequency of occurrence of small earthquakes varies with the incidence of large-scale earthquakes in a different way from area to area. and it is necessary to make a representative selection from among several levels of anticipated intensity. of course. which tend to attenuate the violence. only moderate increases of intensity may occur. Business and industrial centers trend to locations on level ground. and these portions detract from the authenticity of representation for those areas where detail seismicity and geology are well known. Other qualifying factors are (1) the influence of local geology. The choice of intensity level. Such data may not be directly applicable where population and industry are expanding into areas that formerly were sparsely occupied. it is often necessary to rely upon comparatively small shocks as a source of data for regionalization. Since large earthquakes are r a r e . the problems of generalization arise. Engineers concerned with these taller structures should apply regionalization maps only with regard to this qualification. Further. provided that adequate seismological evidence justifies such an approach. Some of the principal effects will be iterated and their application to regionalization indicated here. as mentioned preAdously. Small or moderate disturbances tend to distort a review of seismicity in two ways. Data on small earthquakes will show an apparently high rate of activity around centers in which detection instruments are located and in a manner that is analogous to the r e l atively high seismicity indicated by historical data around older population centers. or complexity of alluvium.

and the effects of local geology received inadequate consideration. In more recent work a strong effort is being made to render the seismological data more statistically representative by means of an active instrumental program. The location of active faults. failures of this kind are not represented by regionalization maps since they would lend undue complications. 2. over a sufficient period of time. 2. 2.5 gionalization studies. although pertinent. Los Angeles Basin The microregionalization of the Los Angeles basin by Richter.5 A. The discussion to this point has tacitly assumed continued integrity of the terrain. the obscuring of geological and seismological detail essential to the knowledgeable engineering applications. or other expressions of ground failure may be of severe consequence to structures. 2.4B. EARTHQUAKE GEOGRAPHY AND REGIONALIZATION 65 .SEISMIC REGIONALIZATION: APPLICATION 2. Earlier work was concerned with small-scale maps. several years. Every major earthquake that occurs in a region where only minor seismicity has been previously known is seen to refute these gross assumptions. The opposing point of view would be to maintain that any locality. For this area the expectable intensities are determined in principal measure by the nature of the ground. An acceptable solution for engineering regionalization has been suggested as that of p r e paring a series of maps for a given area. thus these phases are still of an argumentative nature. even for this case they would serve best as indices and for illustrating general trends not possible with large-scale maps. instead. that such earthquakes are not necessarily statistically represented by smaller shocks. although landslides. would experience an earthquake approaching maximum possible intensity. subject to the limitations that were discussed in Sec. Work has also progressed on larger scale regionalization where it has been possible to account for local variations. SEISMIC REGIONALIZATION: APPLICATION Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Seismic regionalization of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (illustrated by Fig. The corollary to this assumption would be that our very brief quantitative seismic history is a representative sample for all times. Development of regionalization for engineering purposes often implies the assumption that the strongest known earthquake of a given locality is representative of the maximum to be expected. 2. further. e. several decades. gross soil settlement. B. The problem of regionalization is thus the translation of geological features into terms of intensity. namely. are in the nature of secondary considerations.4B. In general. further.. The difficulty of postulating the probabilities of future great activity in areas where such activity has not been previously known is a p parent and is seen to be a principal obstacle to satisfactory regionalization. however. Unfortunately in much of the Soviet Union the instrumental data are principally for smaller earthquakes that are not necessarily statistically representative of great shocks.6. and. Both seismological data and geological qualification of these early maps were subject to justifiable criticism: the s e i s mological data were of a short-term historical nature that led to distortions as mentioned in Sec. the possibility of such occurrences is more appropriate to investigations in connection with specific works of construction.5) has been accorded official sanction in that country.^'^ which is shown in Fig. Even with this approach it must be recalled that the truly great earthquakes are sporadic in time and locality and. each map would illustrate maximum expectable intensities for successively increasing intervals of time. may be regarded as reasonably definite.g. with mapping by division into areas identified with degrees of expectable intensity represented by a Modified-Mercalli scale. the natural application of geological principles often leads to apparently illogical results. and then possibly a period of centuries.

3.) .lOOOmi mm Fig. 2.5 — Regionalization map for the USSR. (Data from Ref. 2. redrafted from Savarensky and Kirnos (1955) with some omission of small details.

7. is not of uniform reliability.2) for the Los Angeles area.^*^ as shown in Fig.4B.3. 2. C.6—Microregionalization map. Further experimentation has extended and refined the results.2 are believed to be satisfactory for the requirements of microregionalization. certain departures from the simple geological equivalence have been dictated by considerations of path effect with respect to the possible event of a great earthquake originating along the San Andreas fault to the north. Small terrace patches adjacent to rock have been assigned the next higher intensity in conformity with the arguments of Sec.CALIFORNIA 2. Further. 2.) A sound basis for this translation has been laid by work of the Seismological Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology. This includes the comparative study of simultaneous operation of identical seismological instruments on both granite and soil of terrace classification. This work has indicated the equivalence (Table 2.5C Fig. 2. California Regionalization for California by Richter. Los Angeles basin and vicinity. Southern California. 2. (Data from Ref. The intensity values given in Table 2. This reflects the current variable status of detailed geological knowledge for EARTHQUAKE GEOGRAPHY AND REGIONALIZATION 67 .

2. _. ^™ J ^k • ^ ^^^^imm^^ .2—MICROREGIONAUZATION EQUIVALENCE OF LOCAL GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURE AND SEISMIC INTENSITY FOR THE LOS ANGELES AREA Modified-Mercalh intensity DC Yin VII VI Formation Quaternary alluvium and sand dunes Quaternary terraces Tertiary Mesozoic sediments and igneous rock (the latter prevailingly granodiorites) I2«' CKCtCtMT O T T . 2. _ lie- II4- ^ ^ ^ ^ ® ^ EUSEKA—«»^J^ ^ x ^ v ^ SEISMIC California probobly REGIONALIZATION showing zones intensity of MM ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ KJSS ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ -^<^NNNSS^ maximum ^$^^^i^' 1 1 yy 40' ^ ^ ^ ^ \ ^^^^^^ m FOTT SP>«60-«^^NNNNNNXSNSN^^^ SANTA R S — ^ ^ i M & w / m ^ S S ^ i OA '9* 9AN FIIANCI3C0 mm m ^ ^ ^ IX (reached occasionally) IX (reached frequently) zone H H — — " Active fault ^^B ^ ^ ^ ^ Y m^ i^^F^^m *\l>]Ki^^« Wk \^ B^ ^^ ^'^'^'^^'' ' ^ ^® MONTEREY •^t^»| :<> \ ^ ^^kI \ DIEGO-• 1 1 1 \SAII ^ .5C CALIFORNIA Table 2.w e 122' f ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 20' 18* . 1 : ] ^^^^^K \zm^ 1 CHAPTER 2 Fig.•»'»E"^^^^^§^^^^^^H^ " ^ ^ M ^ ^ ^ lOOmi lOOkm . ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ SAN LUIS OBISPO — J« ". 2 7—Regionalization map for CaLfomia.) 68 . (Data from Ref.<^m.3. .

2. Lines between the areas of differing intensity are approximations only.) .3. (Data from Ref. 2.8—Tentative regionalization map for the United States and adjacent areas outside California.Fig.

as in the Los Angeles basin. tilting." REFERENCES (The bibliographies of these references comprise an extensive selective listing of seismological and related literature. Richter. large areas. The immediate zones of the San Andreas and other active faults represent an unusual risk to construction because of the effects of rending. United States Richter^'^ tentatively proposes regionalization for the United States as shown by the map in Fig. 2. which includes the New Madrid region. Elementary Seismology. Assignment of IX is appropriate to the western end of this belt. San Francisco. Geological maps are available in large-scale detail for most of the settled areas and for mining and oil districts." (2) "Assignment of maximum IX to a belt including Charleston. Seismicity of the Earth and Associated Phenomena. The distribution of active faults is such that poorly consolidated ground of most areas will experience probable severe intensities.5B) with appropriate local adjustments for path.) 2. Richter. The most uncertain areas.4B. 897. and shattering by displacements at the surface. 1958. It is subject even more so to the statistical limitations of a heterogeneous.. regionalization is primarily dependent upon the nature of the ground and secondarily upon location. Gutenberg and C. F. Princeton. which Richter would be most ready to revise in the light of further evidence. Richter. F. intensity determinations in these regions are correspondingly uncertain. The importance of geology is again emphasized. 1954. J. 70 CHAPTER 2 . At the opposite extreme. Division of Geological Sciences. The map obviously does not have the engineering significance of microregionalization maps." (3) "Neglect of the suggested active alignment extending from Lake Erie southwest across Ohio and Indiana to the New Madrid region. Seismic Regionalization. California Institute of Technology.4B. Freeman and Company. Princeton University P r e s s . H. 2. (1959). Richter further cautions that such maps are open to every sort of challenge and question. 2. sporadically seismic area as discussed in Sec. N. Am. include:^*^ (1) "The entirely hypothetical band of VHI extending northward into Canada along the west margin of the Canadian Shield. Thus.5D UNITED STATES this state. W.2. 2. However. Soc. These effects are not conveniently represented by regionalization and would require special consideration in connection with specific works of construction. and extending westward.. BulL Seismol. The relation between intensity and geology is assumed to be that used for Los Angeles (Sec. F. South Carolina. C.3 B. D.2 2. Contribution No.1 2.8. and therefore the resulting intensity determinations for these regions have good reliability. have been mapped only on a small scale or at the reconnaissance level. C. he cautions that this map is subject to the qualifications of any very small-scale treatment as briefly mentioned in Sec. principally those of the eastern desert or northern forests. the less definitive aspects of the generalizations identified with smaller scales are readily apparent.

Power is produced in an analogous manner by both fossil-fuel and nuclear power stations. PWR Boiler and Reactor Chambers.35 3.17 3. PWR Primary Syetem. Extensive shielding and other safeguards are therefore required.26 3. thermal energy is converted to mechanical energy and thence to electrical energy by means of steam or other heat-transfer media and turbogenerator machinery. Sectional View Through Reactor and Reactor Bay of GCR-2. EBR-2 Primary System. Plan View of SM-l Equipment Arrangement.15 3.7 3. CuUway View of HRT Core.24 3.9 3.36 3. such as stored potential energy.37 3. Details of GCR-2 Core-support Skirt. Primary Loop Arrangement of PWR. The fission process occurring in the reactor core produces. EBWR Flow Diagram.6 3.28 3. EBWR Preeeure Veseel and Core.25 3. in addition to the necessary thermal energy.1 Characterlatles of Reactor PlanU—Types of Reactors. EBWR Plant Perspective. Plan View of GCR-2 Core Section. In some reactor systems chemically reactive materials are used.20 3.11 3.32 3.33 3. Elevation of SRE Reactor. GCR-2 Coolant-flow Diagram. SM-l Core Croea Section.12 3.18 3.2 3. EBR-2 Control and Safety Rods.23 3. Elevation View of SM-l Equipment Arrangement. TABLE 3. Elaborate instrumentation is needed in all nuclear reactors to control the rapid fission process. EBWR Elevation Cross-section BB.13 3. 3 1 DESCRIPTION OF REACTOR PLANTS .3 3.5 3. PWR Containment Veseel. PWR Neutron-ahJeld Tank. HRT Flow Sheet.22 3. i. biologically hazardous radiation and radioactive materials.e.16 3. CuUway View of SM-l Core and Primary Shield.10 3. and therefore additional safety provisions are needed. and containment of fission products. Information pertaining to safety. Isometric View of HRT Plant. View of EBWR Main Floor Plan.chapter 3 BASIC REAaOR TYPES AND POTENTIAL DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES FIGURES 3. In this description of various 71 .. Cutaway View Inelde PWR Presaure Veteel. SRE Sodium System. Predicted Flow Sheet of SM-l. Cutaway View of PWR Building. Cutaway View of EBWR Reactor Area. General Arrangement of SRE.27 3.36 3. EBR-2 Reactor.21 CuUwmy Vlawof SM-l.30 3. is qualitatively presented for the information of the reader not familiar with nuclear power plants.29 3.31 3.39 SRE Reactor Core and Primary Loop. The chief difference between the two plants lies in the heat-generating unit in which the conventional furnace is replaced by a nuclear reactor.19 3. Plan and Elevation Views of EBR-2. PWR Boiler Chamber.14 3.34 3.1 3. HRT Shield Enclosure. emergency shutdown. 3. EBWR Elevation Cross-section AA.8 3.4 3. CuUway View of GCR-2. EBR-2 Flow Diagram. In this chapter several types of nuclear-reactor power plants are described with r e spect to potential damages and hazards that may result from strong earthquakes.

In the steam generator. These may be regarded as hazardous chemical plants with respect to industrial safety practices. and drive motors are thus outside the primary vessel. Flat fuel plates containing highly enriched uranium dioxide (UO2) and boron carbide (B4C) in stainless steel are sandwiched-between stainless-steel cladding. 3. Since detailed information on specific reactors is available in the literature. sodium-graphite reactors.1. and there would be the added necessity of radiation protection. steam if formed in a secondary loop. which is used to run the turbogenerator set (Fig. which is 22 by 20 by 20 in. The shaft seals. the types of material used as moderator. coolant. the distribution of fuel in the core. In principle. and a pressurizer is used to keep the water below its boiling point. A scram signal releases the magnetic clutch to allow the rods to fall back into the core by means of gravity. but many of the safety considerations of the reactor system apply also to them. g a s cooled reactors. A spent-fuel transfer tube. however. Examples of PWR units are the Stationary Medium Power Plant No. The SM-l (see Appendix A for seismic analysis) is rated at 10 Mw(t) and operates at 1200 psia and 450°F (Fig. the liberated excess r e a c tivity compensates for the depletion of fuel and the buildup of fission products and heavy isotopes. The active core. located directly beside the cover CHAPTER 3 . the types of material and design of the control rods. When some burnable poison in the form of B4C is added to the fuel plates. the time between fuel recharging is lengthened to 18 months. 3. Forced circulation is employed to cool the fuel plates. controlled amount of leakage from the shaft extension. The drive shaft for the control rods extends out through the side of the pressure vessel below the core level. has upper and lower grid plates to lock the fuel plates in place and to give lateral support to control rods (Figs. and homogeneous reactors. These control rods are square tubes made with B4C and stainless steel.2). part of the initial excess reactivity is balanced by the poison. 1 (SM-l) [formerly called the Army Package Power Reactor (APPR)] and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. clutches.SPECIFIC TYPES OF REACTORS nuclear plants and how their safe operation might be affected by earthquakes. Conventional turbogenerator sets produce electrical power from the steam. fuel. as the poison burns away.. 3. boiling-water reactors.1). fast breeder reactors. only brief descriptions of the types of nuclear reactors chosen will be given here. The basic types investigated are pressurized-water reactors. and reactive materials constitute greater potential hazards to the populace than small research type low-power reactors. the number of cycles or heat-exchange loops used.4).3 and 3. For large power reactors the pressure vessel containing the core must be very thick to withstand the high pressure. Labyrinth seals allow a small. Besides the reactor a large nuclear power station may have a fuel-processing plant and a radioactive-waste-treatment plant. During reactor operation the absorber section is displaced upward from the core. Since a PWR seeks to avoid boiling in its primary loop. heat is transferred from the p r i mary loop water to the secondary steam system. which results in shutting down the reactor. and the various hazards and safety features. Pressurized-water Reactor A pressurized-water reactor (PWR) is characterized by its highly pressurized p r i mary loop containing subcooled water that serves both as a moderator and a coolant. SPECIFIC TYPES OF REACTORS Large power reactors in particular are discussed because their sizeable inventory of fission products. and fuel. The pressure vessel is surrounded by combination blast and gamma shields of steel and water in a large tank. attention will be directed mainly to the reactor system itself. Points of comparison to be noted for these reactors are the presence or absence of moderators. Their details will not be pursued in this study. Some of these data are conveniently summarized in Table 3.

) PWR Shlpplngport SOS (original 231) 2500 3750 540 740 4.-in.35 20* 800 1200 488 645 1.4 6 6 Hf-Zlrcaloy Hf-B-Fe C r u c i f o r m (3. psla Test-core p r e s s u r e . cu ft 2 Gravity 6 Gravity 4 6 P r e s s u r e g r a v i t y .S. per/'F Average s c r a m time. *F Max. ft Material Cladding Secondary c o n t a i n e r : Shape T h i c k n e s s .4 in.3 0 15 473. None Domed cylinder 1-ln. months Fuel b u m u p . S.p r o d u c t i n v e n t o r y .S.3 in.000 11 Cylinder 1.0. nv P r o m p t .2 . . forced Na. 6 X 10"' 0.0 . n e u t r o n flux.S.0-steam UO.3 Ag-S. boiling H}0-steam None U-Zr U-Zr-Nb Flat plate Flat plate Zircaloy-2 Zlrcaloy-2 93 1.T a b l e 3. s p r i n g Homogeneous HRT 5 2000 2800 570 570 > O o w H K! *t) H tn > o o •0 >-i M z a > > o M CO O G M Rated p o w e r .6 13 10 2xl0' Graphite Na. 5 0 1 400.5 X l O " 5. Cylinders.000 9 Cylinder 85 33 Carbon s t e e l Vrln.S. dla. ! total c u r i e s Moderator material P r i m a r y coolant s y s t e m Secondary loop s y s t e m Fuel-element material Fuel-element geometry F u e l . 3 x 10"* 0. .b u n d l e length. 83 3 B.1 0 125 at 24 p s i g 450. forced HiO-steam UOj-BjC-S. ft Scram-system force Primary conUiner: D i a m e t e r .2 V (fuel) Hexagonal (1.000 ^ *Has operated up to 100 Mw(t> fTen seconds alter shutdown JVapor pressure. .8 13 5 Carbon s t e e l Vj-in. ft aape T h i c k n e s s .908 in.2 X 10» 2. -49 1. Rod 4 X lO' D. in.I 0 02 25. s e c Refuel-cycle time.1 X lO' . . Cubicle O > W W ' A Various Various Steel +53. psla Coolant exit t e m p . sphere SO ^here 3.6 X 10-» .%/day Net v o l u m e . s e c lieactivity t e m p . . S. Domed cylinder -12 80 119 Steel-concrete +15. vol. forced H20-'steam UOjSOj-DjO Liquid s p h e r e S. forced H.4 X I O " 6 3 X 10-' .0 HjO. D i a m e t e r . s t e e l 80 139 Steel-concrete +24.0 Fuel. B t u / ( b r ) ( s q ft) Max.n e u t r o n lifetime. p s i g Leakage r a t e .1—CHARACTERISTICS O F REACTOR POWER P L A N T S .000 > o H -10 25 X 32 X 54 Steel-concrete +32. e l e m e n t s u r f a c e t e m p . e l e m e n t h e a t flux.5 19 304 S.S.S. 7 X 10-« 0. forced U-fission Pin S. ft Safety-rod m a t e r i a l Sdfety-rod g e o m e t r y 7 X 10" 2 X 10-* .0 .2 X 10* 1 X lO" 2 X 10"* . Height.4 X 10» 2. 2. Rod 304 S. ft HRT d i m e n s i o n s Material Design p r e s s u r e .S. forced Na. Flat plate 304 S S.S Domed c y l i n d e r 24-36 36 64 Steel-concrete 43 37. forced H.C-Fe Square (3 in.e l e m e n t cladding Fuel e n r i c h m e n t . forced U Rod 304 S.T Y P E S O F REACTORS a > CO o Reactor characteristics R e a c t o r type PWR SM-l 10 1600 2400 4S0 SS4 2.5 -25 SS.) SGR SRE Gas-cooled ORNL GCR-2 687 300 1000 1200 ~i X l O ' 5 X lo" Fast breeder EBR-2 62.) C r u c i f o r m 6 X lO" Graphite He. ft Height.3 (Sphere) Steel None Conventional building 26 Cylinder 0. in. None Conventional m i l l type building Gravity w CO en P r e s s u r e .4 X l O ' 5 X lO" 5 X 10-* .S.8 6 B-Nl-Fe Rod (2. coefficient.2 Gravity. f i s s i o n . .38 3 4 5 xlO* None Na. across flats) 1. piping -90 None O M Safety-rod t r a v e l length. Gravity spring! 7 Cylinder 2. *F Max. % Approx.000 5 ^here 44 (Sphere) Steel SS.3 X 10"* 2 X 10* 2 XIO' H)0 H. . gravity » I c! N W > w CO 4 Cylinder 2.53 18 2S 8 x lO' HjO HjO.5 120 900 950 J xlO* 2 5 X l O " (fast) 8 X 10-' .S 2 3.35 BWH EBWR 20 18 960 10» 3.2 X IQ-' 0. Mw(t) Design-core p r e s s u r e .2 X I0-* 1.3 . S.25 23 Carbon s t e e l '/. % U * " F u e l .

In addition to an auxiliary power line from the outside. the pressurizer. Its shell is made of carbon steel clad on the inside with stainless steel. The core. At the top of the vapor container two emergency spray nozzles are installed to reduce the temperature and p r e s sure rise that may result from accidental rupture of the primary components. The concrete shell is. The source of this emergency water is the Fort Belvoir water supply. leads to a pit outside the secondary container. 3. 3. 18 gauge. type 304 stainless steel. Four separate coolant loops (one stand-by) are provided to remove the heat. The Shippingport Pressurized-water Reactor. is fabricated from Va" ^^^ ^-in. in turn.) of the pressure vessel. 9 ft in inside diameter.3. which has a heat-gene ration rate of 505 Mw. is a cylindrically shaped vessel with hemispherical heads. which normally is disconnected from the spray system.2A PRESSURIZED-WATER REACTOR TJRBINC -ENERATOB Fig. lined with No.5 and 3. the primary coolant pumps. located at Shippingport. A plug seals the transfer tube during reactor operation. Cruciform-shaped control rods 74 CHAPTER 3 . and 33 ft high. is a fullscale power reactor of the PWR class (Fig. is cooled by water at 540°F at 2000 psia.6). and is lined on the inside with a 2-ft-thick layer of concrete (Figs.1—Cutaway view of SM-l.7). thick. The core is composed of plate type seed elements of fully enriched uranium-zirconium alloy and of tubular blanket elements composed of natural U02 pellets. (Alco Products. Access manholes are gasketed and bolted to 2y2-in. During reactor operation personnel are not permitted in the secondary containment shell.-thick steel covers. 3. The secondary container which is 36 ft in diameter and 64 ft in height. a battery set furnishes emergency power to the system. The pressure vessel is S'^ in. Inc.. Pa. This vessel was hydrostatically tested at 75 psig. The reactor. and the steam generator constitute the major components in the containment vessel.-thick steel.

n > CO I—• o > o 32325 LB 1214 7h 2000/2SOOKW 404 F TURBINE 12105 KW I II9SSKWI 190 PSIA (JENCRATOR 2005 KW ie2SKW l-J O 3) >^ •ti AUX POWER M (LESSAIRCONOaHT) lUKW -O—^ > a o z f 27. WHEN EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS KNOWN MAKE UP PUMP 365 LB CONENSATE n S N tq o I > » > o ^ NET STATION HEAT RATE §) 2 5"Ha» ^.2 — Predicted flowsheet of SM-l. (Alco Products.) H O to ..815 LB 95a 3 h o > > o O C M M CO 547h 91 7F o >-i X JO G » CO Oi ^ > NOTES FIGURES IN c m ARE AT I 5"Hg EXHAUST PRESSURE ALL OTHER FIGURES ARE AT 2 S"Hg EXHAUST PRESSURE LB = POUNDS PER HOUR PREDICATED PERFORMANCE TO BE REVISED.tl*^° 1825 NET STATION HEAT RATE @ I 5" Hg = 341X10* 1925 = 18.685 -= 17. Inc.715 RECIRCULATION PUMP BTU/NET KWH BTU/NfcT KWH Fig. 3.

Maximum design pressure for the system is 53 psig. In case of an electrical power failure. The rods fall in by gravity m the event of an emergency scram (Fig.000 cu ft. 3. The net free volume is 473. each of which contains two of the primary coolant loops and their associated equipment.9 to 3.8). 3. 76 CHAPTER 3 . Vaportight steel containers enclose all critical plant components to prevent the spread of radioactivity following a maximum credible accident (Figs. At this pressure a maximum leakage rate of 0.3 — SM-l core cross section. 50 ft in diameter and 147 ft in length. The pressure vessel is shielded by 3 ft of water and 5 ft of concrete. The reactor vessel is enclosed in a 38-ft-diameter spherical shell having an 18-ft cylindrical dome on the top to house the control-rod-drive mechanism. Between these containers and the turbogenerator is situated another cylinder.3. (Alco Products. In addition.14).2A PRESSURIZED-WATER REACTOR PLAN VIEW OF UPPER GftIO A S S E M B L Y CENTERLINC OF REACTOR U 20 4S3 (REF) • 1 M0H1Z0NTAL CROSS SECT ON THRU CENTERLfNE OF LATTICE Fig. where spent fuel can be stored in water canals. These secondary containers are all interconnected by a system of 8. which contains the pressurizer and auxiliary equipment. Inc ) are driven oy top-entering-drive mechanisms.and 12-ft-diameter pipes. there are two cylinders 50 ft in diameter and 97 ft m length.15% of the net volume per day is anticipated. A water spray system is built in to reduce the pressure in the vapor container in the event an accident releases the potential energy of the primary loop. the plant is equipped with a manually started diesel-driven motor-generator set. Fuel transfer is performed underwater m the fuel-handling building. 3.

60(1957). 3.] BASIC REACTOR TYPES AND POTENTIAL DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES 77 . [Reprinted from Nucleonics.«? TUBE PIKION a RACK Fig. 15(8): facing p.PRESSURIZED-WATER REACTOR 3.2A WORKING PLATFORM FUEu TPANSFE.4—Cutaway view of SM-l core and primary shield.

6 — Plan view of SM-l equipment arrangement. Inc.) Fig. (Alco Products.5 — Elevation view of SM-l equipment arrangement. Inc. 3. 3.2A PRESSURIZED-WATER REACTOR MANHOLE LADDER VAPOR CONTAINER SECONDARY SHIELDPRIMARY SHIELD TANKPOWER ROOM SUMP -PRESSURE VESSEL Fig.3.) 78 CHAPTER 3 . (Alco Products.

l li ttV Fig.7 — PWR primary s y s t e m . 3.I \ l l i \ lOli o H M H lil M ^ M I) W\l I li O > > o M \ir^ en G M O M a I \ ( I I V \ ( . I M l i \ IIVI III VI I \ ( II V \ ( . l I! ((III I'w i{ in \( r()i{ 11 Ml) ^^s^l M^ _ . (Westinghouse Electric Corporation.I M It VIIVI III VI I \ ( li V\(. I li IhDIt VI IK VI n o n I! VIIII V \i \ i ^ ( VNMI) MoKilt I'l Ml' 1)1 VilM It VI I / I li i 11 > H £) G > ?! M CO lil V( KM! V I -'^l I l i K . \(l\ liK.> Ui a H O to H K! > o M Cfl > d l ' l { | ^ ^ l l i l / l li i I MlllUli ( l l ' l I! VI I I) I ^1 I \\l I. Bettis Atomic Power Division) .

OUTLET NOZZLES CORE SUPPORT SPRING CORE GAGE CONTROL ROD ASSEMBLY SEED CLUSTER THERMAL SHIELDS PRESSURE VESSEL BLANKET ASS'Y.DOWN BARREL CONTROL ROD SHAFT ASS'Y. INLET NOZZLE / Fig. HOLD . 3.3. (Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Bettis Atomic Power Division) 80 CHAPTER 3 .8—Cutaway view inside PWR pressure vessel.2A PRESSURIZED-WATER REACTOR DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE CELL FLOW MEASUREMENT PIPING CONTROL ROD DRIVE MECHANISM FLOW MEASUREMENT CONDUIT PRESSURE VESSEL HEAD CONTROL ROD SHROUD ASS'Y.

3.9 — Primary loop arrangement of PWR. Bettis Atomic Power Division) . (Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Bettis Atomic Power Division) ^-AUXILIARY AUXil_IAKT \ CHAMBER ^MAMBtn ^BRACING CONCRETE :LOSURE iZ FT 6 IN OUTLINE 6FT DIAMETER^ EOUIPMEN' H A T C H ! "^ H T "TA"TI''HES HATCHES PLAN REFUELINQ HATCH t BOILER _ CHAMBERS SPHERE 3/4 IN PLATE SECTION AA Fig. 3. (Westinghouse Electric Corporation.10 — PWR containment vessel.STEAM TO TURBINE FEEOWATER fROM CONOENSER FEEOWATER FROM CONDENSER STEAM TO TURBINE Fig.

11 — PWR neutron-shield tank.3. 3.2A PRESSURIZED-WATER REACTOR Fig. (Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Bettis Atomic Power Division) 82 CHAPTER 3 .

(Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Bettis Atomic Power Division) BASIC REACTOR TYPES AND POTENTIAL DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES . 3. 3.13 — PWR boiler chamber.12 — PWR boiler and reactor chambers. (Westinghouse Electric Corporation.PRESSURIZED-WATER REACTOR 3 Fig. Bettis Atomic Power Division) Fig.

3. The steam turbine generator and condenser are located within the secondary shell (Figs. 3.14—Cutaway view of PWR building.16). The pressure vessel. which is 80 ft in diameter and 119 ft in height. holds the emergency water supply for a spray system. a carbon steel cylinder internally clad with stainless steel. Most of the shell is lined with concrete.2B BOILING-WATER REACTOR Fig. Boiling-water Reactor In a boiling-water reactor (BWR) the water in the core is boiled to produce steam. The full-scale Dresden (Commonwealth Edison) BWR also uses the direct-cycle method. is 7 ft in inside diameter and 23 ft in height. (Figs. which is 4 ft in diameter and 4 ft in height [however. Only the EBWR will be discussed here in detail. coolant. serves as the secondary container. Thus electrical power can be produced using a single heat-transfer loop in which the water serves as moderator. A cylindrical steel shell.15 and 3. the core has been operated up to 100 Mw(t) to demonstrate the capabilities of the system]. located in the ceiling dome. with a hemispherical dome. (Westinghouse Electric Corporation. and the steam is used to transfer an original rated 20 Mw(t) of energy out of the core.3. A 15. 84 CHAPTER 3 .000-gal tank. and working fluid. It is capable of withstanding 15 psig. The Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR) (Argonne National Laboratory) has successfully demonstrated this principle. 3. Plate type u r a n i u m zirconium—nickel alloy fuel elements are clad with Zircaloy-2.20). Bettis Atomic Power Division) B.17 to 3. In the EBWR (see Appendix B for seismic analysis) water is boiled in the core at 600 psig (488°F). The wall thickness is 2/^4 in.

15 — EBWR pressure vessel and core. 3.BOILING-WATER REACTOR 3. (Argonne National Laboratory) BASIC REACTOR TYPES AND POTENTL^L DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES 85 .2B TURNTABLE WTTH TOP PLUG AFFIXED FOR INDEXING OPERATION SHIELD RING DUMMY FUEL ASSEMBUT ACTIVE FUEL ASSEMBLE LOWER CORE SUPPORT PLATE FEED-WATER OUTLET FORCED CIRCULATION) CORE SUPPORTING LEGS NOD GUIDES CORE SHROUD SEATING RING (FORCED CIRCULATION) SUPPORTING LEG PADS RADIATION SHIELD — S CONTROL ROD THIMBLES d >^ FEED WATER INLETS (FORCED CIRCULATION) Fig.

o > •0 Fig.NERATOR *OL[:II:II ^n. ^AIR EJECTOR EBWR FLOW DIAGRAM!.TURBO-OI. HP POISON' CONTROt RODS J PURIFICATION SYSTEM RECOVERY. (Argonne National Laboratory) ..16 — EBWR flow diagram. 3...

2B Fig. 3. This is aided by an initial spring force and system pressure.and high-pressure boric acid system.BOILING-WATER REACTOR 3. An auxiliary shutdown system is provided by a low.17—EBWR plant perspective. For quick scram (emergency shutdown) the failsafe mechanism permits the rods to fall into the core by gravity.21). Blast shields are located around the reactor to absorb most of the energy that may be released in case of a detonation from a potential metal-water reaction (Fig. BASIC REACTOR TYPES AND POTENTIAL DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES 87 . Numerous other safety provisions are also incorporated. 3. These elements are then stored underwater m racks designed to prevent an inadvertently critical assembly. Replacement of spent fuel is accomplished by transferring the depleted fuel elements to a shielded fuel-transfer coffin that moves on floor rails. (Argonne National Laboratory) Cruciform-shaped control rods of hafnium and boron steel are operated by mechanisms located below the reactor vessel.

3. (Argonne National Laboratory) 88 CHAPTER 3 . 3.2B BOILING-WATER REACTOR ^lijSS^^ • »»««> KM »tM>e< JLtf^^^^gtr Fig.18 — EBWR elevation cross-section AA.

BOILING-WATER REACTOR 3. (Argonne National Laboratory) BASIC REACTOR TYPES AND POTENTUL DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES 89 .19 — EBWR elevation cross-section BB.2B Fig. 3.

2B BOILING-WATER REACTOR 90 CHAPTER 3 .3.

3.STAINLESS STEEL S P E N T FUEL STORAGE RACK MAGNETITE CONCRETE RECEIVING BOTTOM SHIELD PLUG STEEL PUNCHINGSeONCRETE CABLE DUCTS MAGNETITE EXPANSION CONCRETE TUBE BLOCKS SHIELD BELLOWS ^3 Fig. (Argonne National Laboratory) BASIC REACTOR TYPES AND POTENTIAL DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES 91 .BOILING-WATER REACTOR 3.2B INOEXINa PLUG CARRIER TELESCOPING TOOL RETRIEVING LEAD PELLET SHIELD WATER LEVEL ORDINARY CONCRETE "C" SPRING TROUGH STEAM FOR 6 LINE V E S S E L SUPPORT STRUCTURE FUEL ASSEMBLY ORDINARY CONCRETE SLOCKS HOLD-DOWN COLUMNS S H R O U D A N D CONTROLROD G U I D E BLAST CORE L E A D BRICK SHIELD GRID PLATE BORON.21—Cutaway view of EBWR reactor area.

Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and conducted by the Atomics International Division of North American Aviation. CHAPTER 3 . which is 1% in. These disadvantages can be minimized by resorting to high system p r e s sure. S. graphite appears to be the economically optimum moderator for large central-station power plants utilizing gaseous coolants. (2) a very large pressure vessel. is common to all U. in diameter and 6 in. the coolant gas could be used in a direct cycle to power a gas t u r bine. thick. is placed within an outer tank that serves as a sodium catch tank if the core tank should leak. The main core tank of stainless steel. are enclosed in long. design studies to date and hinges on the vibrational resistance of (1) a large stack of graphite bars. The basic problem regarding aseismic design. a 20-Mw(t) reactor. Sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) bonding provides good thermal contact between the fuel and the stainless-steel cladding. Stored spent-fuel elements are cooled by a toluene coolant system. (3) a complex of massive gas-heated steam generators. in length. Proposed plant designs vary fundamentally in the choice of a coolant.25). The outer building that houses the SRE is not constructed to be gastight. The exact parameters of the thermodynamic cycle and design details differ widely. Removable plugs in the cover are sealed with O rings. and in fuelelement materials. The Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE). 3. sponsored by the U. The core tank is shown in Fig. Another problem that becomes acute at high temperatures is the retention of fission products in fuel elements. 3. gases have poor heat-transfer characteristics and require significant pumping power. and (4) mechanisms providing for relative motion between these p r i mary components during differential heating. This assembly rests in a concrete well. operates at nearly atmospheric pressure with the p r i mary sodium coolant heated to 960°F. Gas-cooled Reactor Many of the problems of corrosion and phase changes associated with liquid metals and water at high temperatures are avoided by using inert gas as a coolant for the nuclear reactor core.23). and 19 ft in height. together with the complicated drive mechanism. S. Seven fuel rods are arranged in a cluster. However.22 and 3. 3.-thick zirconium to prevent disintegration by sodium. Ideally. Control and safety rods. A heavy concrete cover rests on the surrounding foundation and is sealed with a low-temperature melting alloy (Cerrobend). thin stainless-steel thimbles that enter from the top cover.24. Helium and nitrogen gases are used as an inertgas blanket. There is some possibility that future designs will be based on a heavy-water moderator. A fuel-handling coffin system allows remote handling of spent fuel without leakage of radioactive gas to the building (Fig. This will shift the seismic design problem from one dealing with a structure of brittle pieces to one m which an extremely large volume of liquid must be constrained against position shifts. The SRE. Heat is transferred from the primary sodium loop to an intermediate sodium loop and then to a steam-generating water loop (Figs.. 11 ft in diameter. proposes to explore the use of sodium-cooled graphite-moderated nuclear reactors that combine the features listed. In general. however.035-in. The graphite moderator is canned in 0. A small space filled with helium allows thermal expansion and venting of fission-product gases at the top of the fuel-rod tubes. Each fuel rod consists of a 6-ft-long stainless-steel cladding filled with metallic uranium slugs that are % in. in the degree of fuel enrichment. Inc.SODIUM-GRAPHITE REACTOR Sodium—graphite Reactor The sodium-graphite reactor (SGR) concept is being studied for commercial powerplant application since the economics of nuclear power reactors indicate the desirability of high-temperature operation at low pressure coupled with good heat-transfer characteristics in the core fuel elements. one estimate gives a leakage rate of 10% of its volume per day.

2D . O . FROZEN SODIUM SEALS USED IN C O O L I N G SYSTEM FOR: a.> 1. VALVES b. FUEL PLUGS 3.22 — SRE reactor core and primary loop. 3.'. 3.r^ GAS-COOLED REACTOR 3. FROZEN METAL SEALS (LEAD TIN ALLOY) USED FOR REACTOR SHIELD 2.R I N G SEALS USED FOR: a. CONTROL AND SAFETY THIMBLES b. (Atomics International through American Society of Mechanical Engineers) BASIC REACTOR TYPES AND POTENTIAL DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES 93 . DIFFUSION COLD TRAP AIRBLAST HEAT EXCH Fig. >^> I . (Atomics International) PRIMARY FILL TANK HOT TRAP OISP COLD TRAP SECONDARY FILL TANK DIFFUSION COLD TRAP .23—SRE sodium system. PUMPS Fig.

3.2D

GAS-COOLED REACTOR
1. Control alamant driva 2. Saol 3. Rollar 4 5 Rototabla ihiaid Ring thiald

6. Ballowi 7 8 9 Sodium laval Diaphragm Innar tinar

10 M o m todium mlat lina 1 1 . Biological shiald 12 Cora tank

13. Tharmal ihiald 14. Ootar tank 13. Tharmal intulatlon 16. Soaring plata 17 Grid plola

18. Control alamant 19 Fual alomant

20. Modarator alamont 2 1 . Guard pipa 22. Auxiliary sodium inlat Una

Fig. 3.24—Elevation of SRE reactor. (Atomics International) -One of the AEC-sponsored studies of the gas-cooled power reactor concept, the Gascooled Reactor No. 2 (GCR-2) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is taken as an example (see Appendix H for seismic analysis) This design employs slightly enriched uranium oxide fuel canned in stainless steel, with graphite as the moderator and helium as the coolant. An indirect cycle is utilized to transfer heat from the gas to water in large heat exchangers to form high-pressure steam. Figure 3 26 shows an overall view of the main reactor components, and Fig. 3.27 indicates the size of the components. This reactor, which operates at 300 psia and generates about 687 Mw(t) of energy, is contained in a 50-ft-diameter steel sphere with a 3'/4-in wall. Purified helium enters the core at 460°F and leaves at 1000°F through four main ducts, each 5 ft in diameter In the four separate heat exchangers spaced around the r e actor, 950 psig steam at 950°F is formed and fed to two identical turbogenerator umts, which, together, produce a net output of 225 Mw (Fig. 3.28). Within the core, which is 30 ft in diameter and 20 ft in height, (Fig. 3.29), are 1597 vertical fuel channels, varying from 3.05 to 3.45 in. in diameter. These fuel channels hold fuel-element clusters composed of seven elements 0.8 in. in diameter and about 40 in. m length. Each element is loaded with 75 annular UOj fuel slugs which are 0.75 in. m outside diameter, 0.32 in. in inside diameter, and 0.50 in. m height. Each cluster of elements
94

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3.2D

Fig. 3.29—Plan view of GCR-2 core section. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

is individually supported at the top by a horizontal bar that r e s t s m a groove cut into the graphite wall of the fuel channel. Since the core is composed of a vertical array of graphite blocks 8 in. square by 40 in. long with fuel-channel holes in the center, lateral support must be provided to hold the assembly together. Special tubtilar hoops bearing on flat steel plates (which, in turn, ring each layer of the graphite assembly) will permit thermal expansion while holding the assembly together. Each graphite piece has a pilot extension at its lower end which fits into a counterbored hole in the top of the blocks below. For reactor control, silver rods encased in stainless steel and suspended from above by stainless-steel cables are employed to absorb neutrons. Sixty-one of these control rods, each 2 in. in diameter and 18 ft in length, are positioned in 3-in.-square channels. With enriched fuel (2% u " ' m U"') there will be 3.3 x 10^ lb of UOj. The total weight of the machined graphite is 1122 tons. The gross weight, including the pressure vessel, core support, graphite, and fuel, which must be borne by the base support of the 22-ftdiameter by 2-in -thick thermal sleeve, is in excess of 2000 tons. Figure 3.30 shows the details of the core support skirt. Each of the four primary loops contains a vertical steam generator having a diameter of 20 ft, a wall thickness of 2.75 m., and a body length of 60 ft. With water m the finned
BASIC REACTOR TYPES AND POTENTIAL DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES 99

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FAST REACTOR

3.2E

tubes and helium on the shell side, three zones (the economizer, the boiler, and the superheater sections) are included in the once-through design. It is believed that the helium leak rate can be kept below 1% per day in the primary circuit. A canned motor-blower design is used to prevent leakage of the coolant through the shaft seal. Stainless-steel bellows expansion joints take up differential thermal expansion in the connecting piping. Each loop has a single butterfly control valve between the blower and the reactor. Thus it is necessary to shut down the reactor if a major leak occurs in any one loop or if a primary circuit component requires removal from the line. Fuel loading and discharging is accomplished from the top of the reactor by machines that can load or unload 25 fuel elements through a single port. Handling of the irradiated fuel is carried out by remote control after the reactor is completely shut down and the pressure in the core is reduced to atmospheric. The spent fuel removed from the core is lowered down a well to a transfer carriage. The carriage conveys the fuel elements through a tunnel to the storage pond. Through the intermittent sampling of gas from each fuel channel, the release of radioactive fission products from defective fuel elements is noted on recorders, and a helium purification system is provided. Only the biological shield cooling air is discharged to the atmosphere, and filters and a tall stack are provided for this purpose. E. Fast Reactor All the reactors thus far described utilize slow- or thermal-energy neutrons for the fissioning process. In a fast reactor high-energy neutrons are used directly. One of the major advantages of the fast-reactor concept is the conversion of U^^* to plutonium for maximum exploitation of natural-uranium resources. The most efficient method for converting the abundant natural supply of U^^* to fissionable Pu^^^ is the utilization of reactors in which most fissions are initiated by fast neutrons, for which losses due to nonfission-producing absorption of neutrons by reactor materials are low. This permits a breeding gain greater than unity and produces more fissionable material than is consumed. At the same time such a reactor may provide energy for power production. From a control standpoint, fast reactors differ from thermal reactors in several important respects: (1) The prompt-neutron lifetime and thermal relaxation time of the fast system are very much shorter than those of thermal reactors. (2) The nature of the reactivity coefficients differs considerably between the systems. Positive and negative components combine in the fast reactor to give net coefficients which may be small and which may vary in size with the rate of reactivity changes. They depend strongly on the core design and fabrication details.^*' (3) Few materials have sufficiently high cross sections for use as control rods in fast reactors. Alternate methods, as used in the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR), employ movable fuel rods or movable reflector pieces. (4) Since most materials have low cross sections for high-energy neutrons, a fast reactor may be operated at power for long periods with excess reactivity below that r e quired for prompt criticality. Therefore inadvertent prompt criticality is vmlikely.'-^ Since moderators are not used, the fast reactor core is smaller than that of thermal reactors. Consequently very high power densities can be achieved in such reactors, and rapid heat removal is necessary. Sodium and NaK have been used as coolants because of theii" excellent heat-transfer characteristics. The Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 2 (EBR-2), which has a heat-generation rate of 62.5 Mw(t), seeks to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of fast reactors for central-station power application and it is taken as an example for this study. As shown in Fig. 3.31, heat generated in the reactor core is transferred by forced circulation of the sodium coolant in the primary tank to the secondary sodium loop in the main heat exBASIC REACTOR TYPES AND POTENTIAL DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES 101

This assures rigid geometry while providing a good coolant flow path.38). Blast shields are built around the primary tank. and a secondary gastight container encloses the bulk of the equipment (Fig. fuel storage system.35). This vapor container is a seal-welded rectangular shell 25 by 54 by 30 ft made of welded steel plate V in. It is a steel sphere 5 ft in diameter and 4. in length. Control and safety rely on the displacement of fuel with an effective void of nonfuel material. and yields a very high power density at the rated power level of 53 Mw.-OD stainless-steel spherical blast shield with a iVa in. the system is self-regulating. although it is no longer in operation. and it is designed for 30 psig. is contained in a large sealed tank that contains such equipment as the heat exchangers. The leakage rate at 20 psig is not to exceed 1000 cu ft per day. in diameter and 14 in. The maximum allowable leakage rate for the CHAPTER 3 . such as the secondary sodium-system pipes. with an equivalent diameter of 19 in. Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor The aqueous homogeneous reactor concept is another of the many systems that have been investigated in the United States. A dump tank for shutdown storage is provided. Topentering control-rod-drive mechanisms and the fuel-handling mechanism are mounted on the cover (Fig. and electrical lines. are made from enriched uranium and simulated fission-product elements. An isometric view of the reactor is shown in Fig. 3. air locks. 3. thick.AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTOR changer. which are 0. A double-walled construction is used for the tank to minimize the probability of coolant loss by primary tank failure.4 in. 3. Fuelelement pins.32. The primary sodium pool. and hydrogen burning. metal-water r e a c tion. neutron shield. The core is quite small. wall. A uranyl sulfate-D20 solution in a spherical zirconium core is surrovmded by a breeding blanket of thorium oxide-DjO slurry.37). in thickness (Fig. Since the fuel solution has a sufficiently high negative temperature coefficient of reactivity. 3. as well as the reactor. of concrete lining the steel shell except for the top portion of the r e actor building. This will contain the pressure rise associated 4 with the maximum credible accident involving primary loop rupture. A gastight containment vessel of steel and concrete is built to contain the fission products in the event of a maximum credible accident (Fig.33).144 in. There are a large number of other openings in the shell. A primary pressure vessel surrounds the core and blanket. Because of the very high level of radioactivity associated with the fuel solution in the primary system. The temperature of the inlet sodium to the reactor is 700°F. The heat in this secondary sodium is used to generate superheated steam that drives the 20-Mw(e) turbogenerator set. stringent requirements are set up to achieve leaktightness. The Homogeneous Reactor Test (HRT) discussed in this section is an example of this type. A helical winding around certain pins serves to keep the pins separated from one another.-thick high-temperature insulation. This aqueous system operates at high pressure (2000 psia) and transfers the fission heat by circulation of the fuel solution through a secondary heat exchanger to form steam. and the exit temperature is 900°F..-diameter pipe are provided with fast-acting valves to permit rapid shutoff in the event of an accident. They are clad in stainless steel with sodium to give good thermal contact between the fuel and cladding. 3. Missile protection is provided by a 77-in. The top closure is protected by 6-in. It is designed for an internal pressure of 24 psig but tested at 30 psig. as shown in Fig. steel plate is 80 ft in diameter and 147 ft in height (48 ft below grade). A schematic flow sheet is shown in Fig.36. There is a minimum of 14 in. The ventilation openings of 16-in. The reactor proper is composed of the enriched core and the breeding blanket around it. The reactor is enclosed by a fast-neutron shield made from canned graphite.34. The shell of 1-in. 3. and no control rods are used. 3. and sodium pumps. and a height of 14 in.

AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTOR 3.oas ^ 1 S|| -CX-i U I O^O U '-*' 31^' |^Vl-^-^<H±h BASIC REACTOR TYPES AND POTENTL^L DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES 103 .2F o •s •J B O m e e o fas S a u I « n n fail 3 8|S i.

3. 3.32—EBR-2 primary system.2F AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTOR SUBASSEMBLY SRIPPER MECHANISM CONCRCTI MSSILE SHIELD COVER MECHANISM •UILOINO SHELL OPCRATINO FLOOR (ELEV I 0 0 ' .O " l SUBASSEMBLY TRANSFER MECHANISM DISASSEMBLY CELL WALL DISASSEMBLY CELL FLOOR SHIELD COOLING AIR DUCT aiOLOOKAL SHIELD a TOP STRUCTURE PRIMARY TANK COVCR PRIMARY COOLANT PUMP MEAT EXCHANGER PRIMARY COOLANT AUXILIARY PUMP SHUTDOWN COOLER REACTOR VESSEL NEUTRON SHIELD PRIMARY TANK INNER WALL PRIMARY TANK OUTER WALL INSULATION SHIELD C00LIN6 AIR BAFFLB BLAST SHIELD INNER LINER SODIUM LEVEL REACTOR COVER BIOLOGICAL SHIELD SUBASSEMBLY STORAGE BOTTOM GRID Fig. (Argonne National Laboratory) 104 CHAPTER 3 .

(Argonne National Laboratory) BASIC REACTOR TYPES AND POTENTIAL DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES 105 .2F CONTROL ROD DRIVE MECHANISM SAFETY ROD DRIVE MECHANISM MAIN FLOOR CONTROL DEVICE LIFTING MECHANISM ROTATING SHIELD PLUGS SODIUM LEVEL GUIDE BEARING DRIVE SHAFT NEUTRON SHIELD COVER UPPER PLENUM CHAMBER 6RIPPER a DEVICE SENSING NEUTRON SHIELD SAFETY ROD GUIDE THIMBLE REACTOR CORE SUPPORT GRID ROD DRIVE BEAM BOTTOM OF PRIMARY TANK Fig.AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTOR 3.33—EBR-2 control and safety rods. 3.

REACTOR COVER COVER HOLP-DOWN DEVICE > a o a m X FUEL SUBASSEMBLY NEUTRON SHIELD — SAFETY SUBASSEMBLY COOLANT OUTLET CONTROL SUBASSEMBLY INNER BLANKET SUBASSEMBLY HIGH PRESSURE COOLANT INLET LOW PRESSURE COOLANT INLET OUTER BLANKET SUBASSEMBLY SUPPORT GRID o o o o a m > o H O to t^ 2 M n > PI Fig. 3. (Argonne National Laboratory) .34—EBR-2 reactor.

-> O CD O •i 0) Z a o fan 2 13 > s BASIC REACTOR TYPES AND POTENTIAL DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES 107 .2F sii^iiif • uu•S .AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTOR 3.

3. CO > o 3) o > S3 EVAPORATOR EVAPORATOR Fig. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) .TURBOGENERATOR STEAM DRUM c o G CO X o 8 tq 2 M O c.36—HRT flowsheet.

4 in.D. D . Z I R C A L 0 Y . I. THICK) > ID > P) M D G PI H COOLING COILS DIFFUSER PRESSURE VESSEL (60 in.D. 1-1/2 in. 3. I.a > O X PI ^ FUEL^ BLANKET-^ EXPANSION JOINT CORE ACCESS FUEL PRESSURIZER BLANKET ^PRESSURIZER > o s •<! 13 PI CO > •z a s H PI Z H BLAST SHIELD CORE VESSEL (32 in.. 304 STAINLESS STEEL. 4.. I . THICK) > G M O PI > O G CO X £) G X > ?.37—Cutaway view of HRT core. THICK) (74 in. PI CO o o o PI z PI o G CO Fig.2 . . 347 STAINLESS STEEL CLAD. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) HRT REACTOR VESSEL ASSEMBLY BLANKET > o o X p] FUEL bo . 5/16 in.

2F AQUEOUS HOMOGENEOUS REACTOR o ea u a a o 2 CD (U " 2 s fas i 1 \ Ai \ \^\ •v\ / 3 en 0 •o •I u su < >^f 7 V r •.3. ' s -? 9 -i UJ J: a > / g f IB B! H S 00 M 1 K (n « 1 1 CK fas 110 CHAPTER 3 .

3 HRT secondary vessel is 100 cm^/min. Positioning members 4. Critical Areas of Reactor Systems A prime concern of nuclear reactor safety is to prevent the release of fission products to the environment. 7. 3.3 POTENTIAL SEISMIC DAMAGES TO REACTOR PLANTS This section briefly covers possible areas of structural damages and nuclear perturbations that might result from strong earthquake motions. Pressurizer 3. Ventilation system (4) Fuel handling and storage system (5) Secondary containment vessel or building a. Reactor core 1. Foundation The principal hazards associated with damage in some of these areas are discussed in Chap. BASIC REACTOR TYPES AND POTENTIAL DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES in . Inert-gas blanket system b. dependent on (1) s t r e s s e s imposed by seismic shocks (together with other significant forces). pumps. Power system d. in general. Emergency water system c. Piping. 1 and 4 to 6. Heat exchanger 2. Turbogenerator c. and seismic disturbances and earthquakeresistant engineering practices are discussed in Chaps. Supporting members 2. Heat exchanger b. and (3) the plant activities at the time of seismic disturbances. The following is a list of certain reactor plant components which may be sensitive to mechanical damage during strong earthquakes and which may involve major reactor safety problems: (1) Reactor primary system a. Shell b. Reactor pressure vessel c. This aspect of safety distinguishes nuclear power plants from conventional plants in which maximum hazards are relatively localized. valves. The extent of damage incurred by a structure is. Cooling water system (3) Auxiliary systems a. (2) the aseismic properties of the structure. Fuel elements or subassemblies 3. Condenser d. 3. Instrumentation e. The general subject of reactor hazards and safeguards is discussed in Chap. Emergency cooling water is available from a cooling tower that can supply water by gravity feed when necessary. A. etc.39. Coolant purification system f. A cutaway view of the HRT plant is shown in Fig. (2) Secondary system a. 7.POTENTIAL SEISMIC DAMAGES TO REACTOR PLANTS 3. Primary coolant loop 1. Control and safety rods b.

3 3A CRITICAL AREAS OF REACTOR SYSTEMS 2 tS u o l-i bo •o Is a o *^ a 2 <a as o S CO 112 CHAPTER 3 .

1 g. For example.. At higher initial pressures the variations due to earthquakes become relatively less noticeable since void fractions are functions of the total pressure. variations in the water and steam fractions) result in a changing power coefficient. or shear stresses created by their movements. buckling. but they are difficult to analyze because the effective reactivity coefficient depends strongly on the actual physical design. Sinusoidal r e activity oscillations are introduced at low power levels. In the EBR-1. for instance. Direct Mechanical Damages 3. (2) Failure of lines or members joined to structural units which undergo large differential motions. the generated heat can lead to serious damages. At the high-power densities desired in commercial power reactors. (5) Failure of structures due to seismic shocks imposed on materials that have been weakened by such causes as chemical attack. such as control rods. thermal shocks. radiation embrittlement. fuel-element bowing has been hypothesized as the primary cause of instability. the boiling-water reactor may experience resonance instability.DIRECT MECHANICAL DAMAGES B. if one assumes at startup a pressure of 96 psia and a maximum vertical acceleration of 0. Stored-energy r e lease from vaporization of the liquid coolant. and a pressure increase sufficient to rupture the primary loop. and hydrogen detonations may follow.e. the variation of voids due to earthquake accelerations is a fraction of 1% locally. These variations appear to be small enough so that seismic shocks are not likely to induce instability from this cause. s t r e s s .3B Damages to structures overstressed because of the direct transmission of ground motion to the structures are referred to as "direct mechanical damages. If extreme power surges should occur in a nuclear reactor. In boiling-water thermal reactors. except possibly at some very high power density. fuel subassemblies. or previous overstressing from earthquakes. the alternate increase and decrease of reactivity may lead to diverging power oscillations at this condition of resonance. C. the phenomenon of resonance instability. With respect to earthquake-induced variations in the moderator density of the EBWR. such as liquid movements. In particular. may be subject to distortion or breakage. the coolant pipe joining the reactor pressure vessel to heat exchangers may be overstressed during earthquakes. Nuclear Damage Seismic shocks might conceivably lead to dangerous power fluctuations through resonance-instability mechanisms and delay in insertion of negative reactivity r e p r e sented by control rods. since oscillations of liquids with a free surface may magnify stresses resulting from earthquakes. The possible high temperatures and short time constants involved may result in thermal shock failure. Fast reactors may also experience resonance. changes in moderator density (i. (3) Failure at the base of structural units. possible metal-water reactions." Such failures can be categorized approximately as follows: (1) Failure of isolated structural units due to bending.^*^ Briefly.c o r r o s i o n cracking. long thin structures. partial meltdown of the core. and the resulting reactivity transients are observed as the transit time around the loop is varied by throttling the BASIC REACTOR TYPES AND POTENTIAL DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES 113 . tie bolts and anchor bolts may be stretched beyond their elastic limits to fail completely. Experimental techniques using pile oscillators have been developed to predict with reasonable certainty the threshold levels at which instability will occur. although not clearly understood. is believed to be due to a feedback mechanism between the reactivity and power of a reactor when a certain phase relation is satisfied. Should the amount of water and steam in the core fluctuate at some critical frequency. The concrete of the base may crack or break off. For example. and water towers. vent stacks. (4) Failure caused by dynamic loads. Therefore the subject of deformation during seisms requires careful examination in this type of reactor.

for example. heavy-wheeled machines. emergency cases may arise in which a slight delay in initial insertion of the rods may cause a dangerous overshoot of the power r i s e . often used as temporary shields for experimental purposes. highly elastic and poorly damped structures. or tall heavy equipment with poor lateral bracing should not be permitted on top of the biological shield. in addition to having a high probability of failure in its own right. These points are more fully discussed in Chaps. There will be no decoupling.3. These forces include dynamic reactions of the biological shield. The installation of free-surface liquid reservoirs. However. Possible toppling of external structures. shields constructed of mortared concrete blocks with no reinforcement or tie strips should be avoided since such structures. the overhead crane system. little harm is anticipated from falling structural components. Superstructure design of such plants in highly seismic areas should eliminate or protect easily severed items. are susceptible to damage from lateral accelerations. 1. E. and operator panic. such as the swimming-pool type. D. In the reactor proper the prime consideration is that the reactor structure be sufficiently rigid so as not to distort and jam control rods or damage fuel elements. such as that used in the EBWR. heat exchangers. fire. In this connection. the components are extremely sensitive to damage from falling objects. Indirect Damage Possible indirect damages to the reactor plant from earthquakes include the effects of falling objects. 5 and 7. Interaction Between Major Plant Components In a typical earthquake a well-designed foundation in strong soil or poured on bedrock will exactly duplicate the motion of the ground imposed on it by the passing earth waves. may be subject to hydrodynamic forces from either impulsive shocks or waves. Such equipment. Reactors may be particularly vulnerable to damage from seismic shocks during startup. as described in Chap. Those graphite-moderated reactor cores which consist of large stacks of small blocks of graphite with low surface coefficients of friction should be keyed and braced to prevent shifting 114 CHAPTER 3 . and other massive equipment supported by the foundation. An overhead water reservoir. such as exhaust stacks. In reactors with unprotected rod-drive mechanisms. may also impose undue stresses on the shield due to forces arising from the amplification of the earthquake velocities and displacements. which might be a sensitive area during lateral earthquake movements. For reactors with an unencumbered top surface on the biological shield (bottom entry of control rods). With regard to control-rod delay. which would be evidenced by fissures or cracks between the foundation and the earth after an earthquake. defined as relative motion between the ground and that part of the structure extending below ground level. the stress at the rim of the EBWR overhead tank is not significant because of the large rim-base area. The biological shield is preferably a monolithic structure firmly anchored to the foundation. there should be a low probability of damage even in a disastrous earthquake. Heavy m i s sile shields above the reactor proper tend to further protect the plant. and damage to reactor containment shells should also be considered in seismic design. A combination of lateral and vertical forces imposed by earthquakes may delay the scram operation. If this structure is rigid (high spring rate with good damping) and tied to the foimdation with reinforcing steel.3D INDIRECT DAMAGE coolant flow rate. pressure vessel. Such foundations should be of sufficient thickness and have the necessary reinforcement to withstand the shear and bending forces imposed on it by the seismic waves in passing. Attention should be given to all heavy masses in elevated positions. This method delineates the safe operating limits for a given reactor system (and the effect of any reactivity changes potentially due to seisms) before significant power levels are approached.

The support and lateral restraint of the pressure vessel for large reactors. In the design of the overall reactor complex. Furthermore. Thus. This leaves the vessel free to expand radially from the vertical center line and axially in either d i r e c tion from the plane of support. interconnected components should. (2) the differential deformation in response to BASIC REACTOR TYPES AND POTENTIAL DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES 115 . thus provisions for seismic restraint along this axis need not ordinarily be considered. the reactor and biological shield may be mounted separately from the heat exchangers and power-conversion equipment. control-rod drives. Expansion bends and flexible couplings should be designed to handle not only motion due to relative thermal expansion but also the maximum predictable motion (described in Chap. and the pressure vessel must comprise a sufficiently rigid assembly so that the relative motions one might expect in a violent earthquake do not exceed allowable limits. where this vessel is subject to considerable temperature cycling. 4. be mounted solidly on a unit foundation of adequate earthquake-resistant design. In very large reactor plants it is sometimes necessary to mount the components on separate foundations. fuel-charging machines. In small enriched reactors the strength and rigidity of the reactor structure. however. as dictated by other considerations. the sheer mass of the assembly (often exceeding 1000 tons). coupled with design details that allow freedom for radial and axial thermal expansion. and.INTERACTION BETWEEN MAJOR PLANT COMPONENTS 3. to avoid excessive thermal s t r e s s e s . should be designed to allow for possible seismic-induced displacement as well as for the normal movements from thermal expansion. whereas unlimited uniform radial expansion is permitted by sliding of the tongue relative to the groove. Fig. control-rod drive. etc. In this situation some means of lateral restraint during earthquakes must be provided.3E of layers. such as primary coolant and hydraulic supplies for operating control rods. 4. is usually sufficient for earthquake resistance if mounting details are adequate. plus the use of circumferential support rings are methods that have been employed to maintain core integrity under seisms. Since the maximum separation of foundations is small in comparison to the length of earth waves. in any direction in the horizontal plane. the reactor. It is often desirable to support the vessel on low-friction devices. ductwork. It is also improbable that oscillations of structures attached to independent foundations will exert forces on the foundation to produce more than minor relative displacement.. Earthquake-induced misalignment of large reactor-plant units on separate foundations are therefore expected to result mainly from the sum of three effects: (1) the slight differences in the accelerating wave form. translation of the vessel relative to the restraining member is limited to the clearance between the tongue and groove. In the utilization of this or similar seismic-restraint schemes. also poses unusual problems in seismic areas. with suitable expansion bends or flexible joints in the connecting piping or ductwork to accommodate this movement.1 g. The tangential clearance between the tongue and groove (see Chap. and the relatively weak mechanical properties of some moderators (such as graphite) pose unusual problems in seismic restraint. connecting piping. it is unlikely that the foundations will be displaced relative to one another sufficiently to damage interconnections among components due to differential foundation displacements alone. A solution to this appears to be a system in which the lateral support is provided by a series of tongue-and-groove guides arranged radially around the pressure vessel.3) is sufficient to provide only for the small thermal expansion of the tongue relative to the groove. For instance. This would include all components interconnected by ductwork or piping carrying radioactive fluids. Two-dimensional keying of adjacent core components. fluids that might become radioactive in the event of an accident. at the same time. or other fluids vital to reactor safety. such as roller or ball-thrust bearings. whereas the tongue is free to move radially relative to the groove to accommodate the much larger thermal expansion across the vessel diameter. The vertical component of earthquake motions rarely exceeds 0. In large reactors. if possible. free radial adjustment for thermal expansion must be permitted. 1) which might arise in an earthquake.

will respond with different frequencies and amplitudes to identical excitation. Experimental BoUing-water Reactor This system seems. the second effect is probably the most important. Interconnections between units on separate bases are often made at points well above the foundation top surface.RELATIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SPECIFIC REACTOR SYSTEMS earth motion as dictated by the mass and spring-constant relations of the structures supported on these foundations. The water supply for the spray system on the vapor container is dependent on a source outside the plant. However. reactor plants are ruggedly constructed. from the top of the reactor vessel to the tops of the heat exchangers.4A for various reactor power plants. Supporting structures for the vertical steam generator and the pressurizer as designed should withstand strong earthquakes. However. 1 This relatively small power plant appears to be compact and sturdy. and temporary connections are made in an emergency. the outer bottom rim of the shield tank should be anchored. If similar plants were to be built in a seismically active zone. Of these. and the general construction of the service building merit reconsideration if the plant site is seismically active. An estimate of damage susceptibility in the event of strong earthquakes is given in Sec. stressing points of connection. and (3) the possibility of differential foundation settling. Stationary Medium Power Plant No. therefore. to be structurally adequate with respect to seismic shocks. the vacuum tank support. RELATIVE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SPECIFIC REACTOR SYSTEMS In general. even with the present design. However. Similar damage to the secondary loop might be expected. each plant must be analyzed separately to determine the effects of an earthquake so that it can be accounted for in the design. Factors favorable to seismic resistance are (1) the relatively small and compact design. In addition. The question of possible power in- CHAPTER 3 . thus their original design criteria do not include critical earthquake effects. or a heavy demand elsewhere may limit the spray-water flow rate. the interconnections themselves will oscillate. Shippingport Pressurized-water Reactor Differential movements among the four secondary steel containment shells under a very strong earthquake should be considered. Differential settling due to slight differences in soil structure could occur and magnify the displacement. Analysis indicates an insignificant stress in the thermal shield from hydrodynamic forces exerted by the shield water during severe earthquakes. and (4) the springloaded vertical positioning of the fuel subassemblies. Liquid forces are not structurally significant. although some improvements would be advisable. the steam dryer support. 3. such failures are considered very unlikely. (2) the extremely rugged concrete-lined containment vessel. in general. the points noted should be reviewed. Seismic forces are also likely to accelerate settling of foundations in soils which have not been compacted with exact uniformity. It is conceivable that the primary coolant pipes could be broken. The discussion is qualitative and is only intended to suggest possible points of damage. Relative motions of the bases can be amplified by the whipping of these tall components since the structures. and adequate safety factors are included. In most cases the plants examined are located in relatively nonseismic areas. A strong earthquake may break the supply line. (3) the demonstrated ability of tne plant to follow abrupt changes in the electrical load. damage from strong earthquakes seems unlikely. for example. however. having different periods and damping coefficients.

The core tank is similarly keyed to the base of the outer tank. including graphite. Some of the specific measures taken to prevent seismic damage have been described as follows:^'^ The entire core assembly is carried on cylindrical support rings which are anchored to the concrete foundation which. BASIC REACTOR TYPES AND POTENTIAL DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES 117 . in the cocked position. 2 Since the ORNL graphite-moderated gas-cooled power reactor is a large reactor. thus additional loads imposed by seismic oscillations should be carefully examined in the design of the joint. in turn.3C). The SRE safety rod consists of a column of poison rings supported by a pull-tube which. care must be taken in the aseismic design of the structure. Sodium Reactor Experiment This reactor. The moderator cans are supported laterally at the bottom by seating into the grid plate and at the top by core clamps. it should be noted that the poison column is fle::ible and is designed to accommodate a relative horizontal displacement of up to one inch between the top shield and the core to differential thermal expansion. It is believed that extremely high-power densities must be achieved in the core before nuclear perturbations from seismic effects become significant (see Sec. In addition. Analytical studies of deflection and stresses in the rod due to vibrations set up by an earthquake loading (using the acceleration spectrum of the El Centro earthquake of April 18. outer tank. The relatively thin walls of the bellows under high pressure and temperature are subjected to a major fraction of their allowable s t r e s s . rests upon solid sandstone bedrock. has been designed to withstand the equivalent of the 1940 El Centro earthquake. 3. and core support (amounting to over 2000 tons). compared to measured rates of less than 0. Commercial buildings of this type usually cannot withstand more than a 1-psi external load without failure. Gas-cooled Reactor No. Leakage rates of fission products from conventional mill type buildings can be 10%/day/inch of water pressure or more. The outer tank is doweled to the outer support ring for lateral restraint at the base. E. is held out of the core by an electromagnet. However. and thermal shield are interlocked. D. This skirt has a radius of 12 ft and a height of 7 ft and it can be adequately designed to resist seismic loads. it is believed that such mill type construction is amenable to improved erection and sealing techniques that would significantly reduce leakage r a t e s . it is equipped with a commercial earthquake scram switch that is set to trip at a nominal Modified-Mercalli intensity of VIII. with radial lugs maintaining separation between the core tank and thermal shield. prevent large shifting motion in the GCR-2 core. In this connection. The cylindrical skirt supporting the entire weight of the pressure vessel. must be able to withstand lateral earthquake forces in addition to the vertical load. being located in a relatively active seismic zone.4D stability is difficult to answer.SODIUM REACTOR EXPERIMENT 3. 1940) indicate that in no case would the safety rod fail to function properly. preventing differential lateral displacement of the bases. As previously mentioned. The SRE plant represents an unusual approach to containment in that the reactor core and primary loop are housed in a massive sealed concrete pit located below grade and sheltered by a conventional mill type building that offers limited containment at lowpressure differential. Thus the bases of the core tank. fuel. having sufficient clearance for thermal expansion. The complete assembly is contained in a thimble.5% per day from hietal shells at design pressure. Loss of current to the magnet results in a scram. Radial spokes. A point of concern in the primary system is the coolant-piping bellowsexpansion joint. Comparable reactor systems usually employ an outer metal shell capable of confining the maximum credible accident involving pressure differentials as high as 35 psi. large high-temperature cores and pressure vessels must allow for thermal expansion without permitting large lateral movement from earthquake forces.

Owing to the location of the plant. Transfer function studies of the EBR indicate that earthquake vibrations are not likely to contribute deflections in phase with power oscillations. During severe earthquakes the forces associated with the large masses attached to the vertical members may create sufficient stress to overload the anchor-bolt system. Both the inner and outer dump-tank systems are comprised of tanks freely suspended from crossarms located on vertical structural members. increased the reactivity that fluctuated in phase with the power oscillations and led to the meltdown. For this reactor it is considered uneconomical to construct an outer containment shell because of the size of the core and pressure vessel. Since the reactor is firmly attached to the inner tank. invariant geometry is sought by continuous spacing of adjacent fuel elements relative to one another over their entire length. clearance between the walls of the inner tank and the outer fixed tank is more than adequate to prevent interaction. Therefore seismic design should give special consideration to these items. Even for strong shocks the maximum stress in the tank wall due to deflection is well below the allowable s t r e s s . An earthquake coefficient of 0. earthquake sensitivity was not considered in the original hazards evaluation. although slight. it. It has been hypothesized that the fuel rods. Hence. In the EBR-2 core design. with considerable emphasis being placed on the detection of fission-product activity in the coolant stream. such as cranes and charging machines.EXPERIMENTAL BREEDER REACTOR NO.2 was used for this zone 2 site. which could produce effects similar to those caused by thermal bowing. (2) vibration from the diaphragm pumps. Integrity of the fuel cladding and of the pressure vessel are relied upon to prevent general fission-product release. most components would not be damaged during earthquakes. plus close-fitting grids for lateral and vertical positioning. Stretching of the tie bolts may cause a break at the seal of the metal floor lining. seismic-induced deflections of rods. Although stringent requirements were mec with in regard to (1) shocK resistance (in the case of D2-O2 explosions following zirconium-water reactions). Experimental Breeder Reactor No. Differential motion between the tall heat exchanger and the pressure vessel should be minimized by bracing the heat exchanger to the heavy biological shield or to the heavy concrete foundation. Whereas three walls are heavily reinforced and backfilled with earth. too. Heavy movable machinery. Horizontal stops should be installed to prevent excessive swaying of the dump tanks. which were rather loosely suspended in the sodium coolant." will move. This bowing. should be examined with regard to seismically imposed s t r e s s e s . neither mechanical damage nor power-level disturbance is expected from shaking. The safety-rod mechanism is also considered to be seismically adequate. The method of suspending the core tank by its top in the EBR-2 design allows some lateral movement of the tank during strong earthquakes. 2 A partial core meltdown occurred in EBR-1 during an experiment in which reactor power was being oscillated drastically. the north wall of the containment structure is of lesser strength. and (3) containment of explosions due to brittle fracture failure. with adequate bracing to the cell walls. a fact which resulted in the reducCHAPTER 3 . are prevented. bowed inward due to the radial temperature gradient through the core. several points should be examined for possible damage during an earthquake for any future systems of this type. The 5-in. 2 Seismic design should assure that sufficient clearance is provided to accommodate radial core expansion and to permit safety rods to fall into their slots and coolant flow to enter the fuel channels without postshock interference. however.^"* Homogeneous Reactor Test The small size of the main components and the flexible piping arrangement of the HRT plant suggest that.

personal communication. 15(8): facing p.. J.2 3. Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation and Westinghouse Electric Corporation. USAEC Report ANL-5577. Palladino. 1958. J. Argonne National Laboratory. BASIC REACTOR TYPES AND POTENTIAL DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES 119 . Mandil.3 3. Pa. I. Brittan. Part A: Nuclear Power Generation. Alco Products. USAEC Report APAE-18. Nucleonics. pp. 15(7): (1957). May 1956. September 1957. B. Nucleonics.6 6 (1957). July 1955. and water for biological protection to the operating crew in the control gallery. Zirconium-Water Reaction Data and Application to the PWR Loss-of-Coolant Accident. 1955. Although no heavy equipment is m o u n t c on this wall. Initial Operation and Testing of the Army Package Power Reactor-1. sand. R. The forces i m posed on the wall by combined seismic activity and internal pressure may be sufficient to breach the wall. August 1957. Atomics International. K. Design Analysis for the Army Package Power Reactor. Vols. Alco Products.. PWR Hazards Summary Report. Vol. August 1956. 211-226. Pa. Description of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. R. The void space between the steel bulkheads comprising the wall is filled with barytes. Description of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Power Plant at Shippingport.REFERENCES tion of the rated capacity of the containment vessel from 50 to 32 'Si after hydrostatic testing was completed. New York. Inc. United Nations. ADDITIONAL REFERENCE MATERIAL Stationary Medium Power Plant No. conduit. personal commimication. Westinghouse Electric Corporation. 1956. W. June 1957.. Lustman. Nucleonics. USAEC Report WAPD-PWR-970. in Proceedings of the International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. O. May 1957. USAEC Report WAPD-SC-543. instrument leads. despite the considerable inertia to be overcome. Hazards Summary Report for the Army Package Power Reactor. and T. Fast Breeder Power Reactors—Their Problems and Prospects. USAEC Report WAPD-SC-541. Rome. H.. Description of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Power Plant at Shippingport. Moffett. Inc. 1955. it has a tremendous mass (~500 tons). M. Inc. 1958. 3. 15(4): 6 2 .. Geneva. United Nationi. June 1957. Geneva.. 1 Army Package Power Reactor. Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Holbrook. USAEC Report WAPDSC-549. it is penetrated at hundreds of points by piping. Alco Products. 60(1957). Although this mixture has neither strength nor rigidity. etc. 1956. USAEC Report AECD-3731.5 R. R. in Proceedings of the International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. Alco Products. Argonne National Laboratory. VoL 3. and N. Part C: Core Design. I and II. USAEC Report APAE-10. O. R. Inc... Shippingport Pressurized-water Reactor Simpson. New York. 231-242.4 3. USAEC Report APAE-2. Brittan. October 1955. Some Problems in the Safety of Fast Reactors. Reactors on the Line. Westinghouse Electric Corporation. PWR Plant Container Sizing Criteria.1 3. pp. REFERENCES 3.

Kaiser Company. United Nations. The Sodium Reactor Experiment. Nucleonics. M. in Proceedings of the International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. West.. 3. Gas-cooled ORNL GCR-2: The ORNL Gas-cooled Reactor. Design and Development of the Coolant System for the Sodium Reactor Experiment. Anderson.. Mason. Selection and Application of Materials for PWR Reactor Plant. Parts 1 to 4. New York. 1956. J. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. North American Aviation.). Argonne National Laboratory. in Proceedings of the International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. Gas Cooled. April 1958. Kaiser Company. Philadelphia^ 1957. and M. in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. J. November 1957. Vol. T.. Jr. F. Harrer. July 1957. J. p. April 1958. Vol. 295-321.. and H. United Nations. Geneva. Heineman. USAEC Report WAPD-PWR-971. 2. M. Brush. 16(4): 53-72(1958). USAEC Report ANL5781. Reactor News.l). A. H. Sodium Reactor Experiment Eggen. 3. J. M. Nucleonics. Westinghouse Electric Corporation.000 KW Prototype Natural Uranium. 16(6): 68-72(1958). April 1958. Roundup. 1958. USAEC Report NAA-SR-1626. Stelle. J. R. 11. USAEC Report ORNL-2 500. pp. 16(1): 17-28(1958)... W. The Engineering Design of a Prototype Boiling Water Reactor. The Significance of Shippingport. Gas Cooled.l). USAEC Report WAPD-SC-542. A. USAEC Report IDO-2022(Rev. Jameson. H. 1956. Kaiser GCR: Preliminary Design. J. 139-152. Dietrich. pp. Upping EBWR's Power. Gerber. H. 483. 250-262. S. 55. Parkins. USAEC Report ANL-5607. A. New York.. Feasibility Study Optimum Natural Uranium. Galper. DeShong. USAEC Report IDO-2021(Rev. Henry J. 16(4): 25(1958). October 1957. and J. E. Jameson. PWR Reactivity Accidents.. Heisler. Geneva. Vol. May 1956. 1955. Nucleonics.. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ORNL Gas-cooled Reactor Materials and Hazards. Geneva. G. New York. Argonne National Laboratory. J. A.. W. May 1958. Inc. 1958. C . D. Safety Evaluation of Sodium Graphite Reactors.. A.. A. 15(12): (1957). Vol. May 1957. pp.. 120 Reactors CHAPTER 3 . Henry J. Harrer. Rickover. Graphite Moderated Nuclear Power Plant. West. Nucleonics. H. M. S. Containment for the EBWR. D. Nucleonics. and N.REFERENCES Jones. Hazards Summary Report on the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor. 1955. USAEC Report ORNL-2505(Rev. R. Graphite Moderated Nuclear Power Plant. Fromm. United Nations. Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Experimental Boiling-water Reactor The Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR). and L. in Proceedings of the Nuclear Engineering and Science Conference.

. Henry J. P.C o r r o s i o n Cracking Problems in the Homogeneous Reactor Test. May 1957. USAEC Report ORNL2088. 1955. J. Nuclear Energy Conf.. Bohlmann. p. L. Miller. Monson. Adamson. Okrent.(8): (1956). Roundup. Operational Safety of the Homogeneous Reactor Test. 16(1): 17-23(1958). M. E. USAEC Report IDO-2023(Rev. United Nations. S. pp. 330-344. A Prototype Fast Neutron Reactor Power Plant. Nuclear Power. C. New York. Graphite Moderated Nuclear Power Plant. W. Nucleonics. 2(19): 450-454(1957). Kaiser Company. Beall. C . Kasten. J. Levenson. pp. 3(29): 408-409(1958). 2(3): (1957). USAEC Report ANL-5719. and G. 36. VoL 3. 2(2): (1957).l). USAEC Report TID-7548. C. 44. in Proceedings of the Nuclear Engineering and Science Conference. E. July 1956. H.(6): (1956). in Proceedings of the International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. 14(12): S10-S25(1956). Hazard Summary Report (EBR-2). USAEC Report GRNL-2091.000 KW Prototype Partially Enriched Uranium. Vol. Nuclear Power. Experimental Breeder Reactor n . Jankus. Simmons. 1956. J. Brit.. j. pp. Feasibility Study.. March 1958. Experimental Breeder Reactor No. Nuclear Power.l). The Engineering Design of EBR-11. S t r e s s . R. The Graphite-moderated. 1(7): (1956). Smith. J. and F. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Gas Cooled. Nuclear Power. B. Henry J. D. E. H. 1957. R. United Nations. Loewenstein. August 1956.. Nuclear Power. Brit.. Nuclear Energy Conf. Other HW-5427. April 1958. Geneva. and Power Reactor Development Company. A. 1957. V. 2 Koch. Humphreys. USAEC Report IDO-2024(Rev.^. Nucleonics. Monson. April 1958. Haugsnes. Abstracts of Papers from Fast Reactor Information Meeting. Nucleonics. March 1957. Hinton. New York. O. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. USAEC Report ORNL-2089. in Proceedings of the International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. Koch. Barnes. and W. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Calder Hall. Containment Problems in Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor Systems. 2. Argonne National Laboratory. 1955. HRT Reactor Hazards. J. A. Argonne National Laboratory. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Gas Cooled. 2021. VOL 3. J. G. BASIC REACTOR TYPES AND POTENTIAL DAMAGES DUE TO EARTHQUAKES 121 Reactors . L. 322-329. Geneva. M. O. 1956. Kaiser Company. Optimum Partially Enriched Uranium. Philadelphia. H.REFERENCES Feasibility Study. 3(24): 3(1958). Nuclear Power. R. 16(8): 118-121(1958).. 1(18): 397(1957). Graphite Moderated Nuclear Power Plant. J. Nuclear Power. Gas-cooled Pile and Its Place in Power Production.

Nucleonics. 94-124(1958). and J. Reactors. Technical and Pictorial Summary. in Proceedings of the International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy. M. 16(5): 61(1958). Nucleonics. Power Reactor Control. J. General Baron. S. W. New York.. Nucleonics. 1955. United Nations. W. E. pp. Hazard to NRT Containment Cell from Zirconium-Water Reaction or D^O Explosion.. November 1956. Beall. Weil. Nucleonics. A. The Homogeneous Reactor Test. August 1956. Reactor Projects. USAEC Report CF-56-8-156. Void-induced Power Distortion in Boiling-water Reactors. VoL 3. 1956.. Eight Reactor Types: A Thermodynamic Comparison.. Geneva.REFERENCES Rosenthal. Swartout. 16(6): 9094(1958). 122 CHAPTER 3 . Oak Ridge National Laboratory.263-282. 16(6): 64-67 (1958). S. USAEC Report TID4562. 16(9): 72-82. Experimental Power and Test Reactors. Division of Reactor Development.

for example. 4.3 ADEQUACY OF SEISMIC PROVISIONS IN BUILDING CODES The design of a structure in accordance with the seismic provisions of current building codes will not necessarily ensure against earthquake damage.6 Plan Oetaile of Varloue Schemea far Seiamlc Building Seperatlona. since there is evidence that the horizontal forces specified by these codes may sometimes be too low to provide 123 . Part of this economic penalty may be recoverable in the form of a lower rate for earthquake insurance. The cost of altering an existing structure to comply with code seismic requirements may be a large percentage of its original cost.2 DAMAGE MINIMIZATION VS. is nominal for small structures but becomes more appreciable for taller structures.chapter 4 GENERAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FIGURES 4. apartment. 4. 4. It is not intended to present material readily found elsewhere relative to the s t r e s s analysis of structural elements under seismic forces. largely owing to the increase in the amount of work required of the structural engineer.1 FtoxlUs and Rigid MooMnt Coiuiectloaa.4 Elevation of Special Reinforcing at a Coaatnietlon Joint.5 Stairway OalaUa. The cost of designing an earthquake-resistant structure is increased considerably. Maximum Allowabla Lengtb-tO'WIdtli Ratloa for Olapkragma. 4.3 4.''•^•^•^ Instead.1 4. ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS The added cost of providing seismic resistance in accordance with California building codes.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVES OF THE DESIGN Discussion of seismic effects in this chapter is necessarily limited by the present state of knowledge in regard to structural behavior. Compartaon of Earthquake Magnltudea. this emphasizes the performance of multistory commercial.*-' 4. such as those found in industrial and process installations. and light-manufacturing buildings rather than that of structures more closely related to the nuclear reactor field.2 4.2 Sclamio Bracing {or Horliontal Vaaaal. EUlaUve Intenaltlea (or Varloua Zonae. 4. The increase in the cost of a conventional 12-story building that is designed to resist a static horizontal force equal to 10% of its weight has been estimated''"' at about 4 to 6%. 4. However. 4.3 Salamlo Bracing (or Vertical Veaaal. emphasis is placed on evaluation of the seismic forces based on the dynamic characteristics of both the structure and the earthquake. For the most part.4 TABLES Salsmio Coefflcienta for BuUdlnga aod Other Stnicturea. there is no great disadvantage resulting from this approach since the basic principles involved in earthquakeresistant design apply in general to structures in all these categories. 4.

''•'''*•' The consequences of deficiency in seismic resistance depend on the energy-absorbing characteristics of the structure and on the effects of sources of reserve strength which have not been considered in its design. as well as those typical of refinery installations.4 STRUCTURAL FEATURES CONTRIBUTING TO SEISMIC RESISTANCE Some of the general requirements for satisfactory performance under earthquake conditions are enumerated and discussed in the following paragraphs. the currently specified forces may not be adequate for structures that have poor damping characteristics (particularly if these structures are designed for the same forces as those for structures having greater damping) because. This could be justified economically in exceptional cases only. C. even in well-designed structures. the greater the mass of the structure the greater is the seismic force. Some overstressmg that is due to the action of a major earthquake is probable in many structures designed under the seismic provisions of conventional codes.4. inspection. cornices.e. a safe. This condition may require a nominal design resistance much greater than that resulting from code requirements in order to maintain elastic response to a major earthquake. in a major earthquake. (2) bracing systems designed for wind are often inadequate. In some cases the walls. roof. Experience has shown that (1) the bracing system for this purpose requires special care in design and detailing in order to be adequate. have these low damping characteristics. This is shown largely by the damage incurred. both nuclear and conventional.4 STRUCTURAL FEATURES CONTRIBUTING TO SEISMIC RESISTANCE necessary protection against the larger earthquakes. Adequate Construction Methods The importance of good workmanship. these structures must depend on yielding of the primary structures for energy absorption. economical design can sometimes be obtained by using methods that account for strain into the plastic range (see Sec. Bracing System A positive means for resisting the seismic forces and tying the structure together is an obvious necessity.. a large energy-absorbing capacity from yielding and fracture of nonstructural elements) or which have a large amount of reserve strength. The forces that are specified in the codes are adequate to provide survival with minimum structural damage for buildings which have a large amount of damping (i. when these qualities are lacking. 4. Where some permanent deformation is acceptable. B. and other nonstructural elements constitute a major hazard unless adequately secured to seism-resisting elements. D. However. Ductility Brittle materials should be avoided in primary seism-resisting elements. The impor- 124 CHAPTER 4 . The avoidance of earthquake damage to this type of structure may require the use of horizontal forces in design that are several times greater than the specified code values. and supervision is demonstrated in every major earthquake affecting urban areas. Under these conditions ductility is necessary for survival. A. and floor of the structure itself can be designed to perform this function. 5. Lightweight construction materials minimize seismic forces but do not necessarily result in minimum cost. Many of the structures typical of electric power plants. Low Mass With other things being equal.7G). facings. and (3) ornamentation.

glass.5 STRUCTURAL FEATURES CONTRIBUTING TO SEISMIC DAMAGE The conditions maximizing seismic damage are obvious from the foregoing discussion. The hammering effect that results from insufficient . In this connection. damping in itself is not a complete index of the antiseismic value of a material. Such a condition can exist.clearance has. Special care in detailing is required to minimize this type of damage. resulted in severe damage. since. However. Its chances for survival would be significantly decreased by poor construction. even though they were not specifically designed for earthquake resistance. Details Allowing Structural Movement Without Damage to Nonstructural Elements Damage to such items as piping. reinforced concrete has a higher degree of damping than structural steel. Adequate design must minimize the possibility of relative displacements between the various parts of the foundation and between the foundation and superstructure. Adequate Foundations Differential movement of foundations that is due to seismic motions is an important cause of structural damage. with walls not positively anchored to floors and roof. and insuffiGENERAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 125 .ADEQUATE FOUNDATIONS 4. in some cases nonstructural damage cannot be completely eliminated without interfering with functional requirements. Structural Symmetry Past experience has shown that buildings which are unsymmetrical in plan have greater susceptibility to earthquake damage than symmetrical structures. I. in the past.4E tance of these features is further substantiated by the fact that some exceptionally wellconstructed buildings have survived major shocks with minor damage. in buildings having a flexible front wall with large openings and an essentially nonflexible solid r e a r wall. the oscillations of buildings do not occur in phase. Separation of Adjacent Structures To permit free horizontal deflection of adjacent structures under seismic forces r e quires an adequate separation. rigid structures that cannot accommodate these movements. light fixtures. Buildings with structural dissymmetries of these types need not be disqualified for use in seismic areas because such buildings can be made resistant to earthquakes by current seismic-design methods. plaster. The effect of dissymmetry is to induce torsional oscillations of the s t r u c ture. especially to heavy. would be a poor earthquake risk. in general. However. Damping The damping characteristics of the structure have a major effect on its response to seismic motion because the presence of a small amount of damping significantly reduces the earthquake s t r e s s e s . for example. constructed of unreinforced masonry using lime mortar. E. Structures that are L shaped in plan. differential displacement of foundations. for example. and partitions may constitute a major financial loss even though the damage to structural elements is minor. structural dissymmetry. Structural dissymmetry can also be found in buildings which are symmetrical in plan but which have eccentric bracing systems. F. H. A structure completely lacking in bracing. frequently suffer damage at the junction of the two wings. 4. G.

The value of W in Eq. STATIC METHOD OF DESIGN The dynamic problem of seismically induced structural vibrations is usually treated as a static problem in which the structure is designed to resist certain static horizontal forces. for example. C is specified to vary with height. Lateral Forces on Main Structure The main structural system is designed to withstand horizontal forces that are p r o portional to the weight of the structure. The value of C reflects the opinion and judgment. varies with the bearing value of the soil and the type of footing. often undertaken in lieu of structural rehabilitation after damage from an earthquake. the value of C assigned may differ from those values used for the main structural system. The value is higher for components whose failure would be particularly hazardous to life and limb and for which the cost of providing extra internal strength is minor. it is usually required that members carrying dead and live loads be designed to carry seismic forces in combination with the live load. and it has a different value at each floor level.1 includes the dead-load weight of the structure. According to some codes. W. However. and tanks. regarding the seismicity of various regions. Therefore they must be considered as approximations. for this reason the forces specified by building codes may not be the correct static loads. higher values are often used in the case of towers. C values for walls are generally higher than those for the main system. high values being used for school buildings and important parts of power plants and low values for frame dwellings. CHAPTER 4 .''•^ These forces are intended to induce static stresses roughly corresponding to the maximum dynamic stresses caused by the earthquake. Lateral Forces on P a r t s of the Structure Components of the structure are also designed for a static horizontal force as defined by Eq. 4.1) where C is the specified seismic coefficient. Wind loads and seismic loads are not considered to act simultaneously. to the system in accordance with the equation F = CW (4.STATIC METHOD OF DESIGN cient separation from adjacent buildings. For example. 4. F. Paint and plaster repairs. Most codes agree that 100% of the vertical live load is appropriate in the case of floors c a r r y ing storage loads. of those concerned with the writing of building codes. This modification is intended to provide static loads that approximate dynamic forces of vibration. and C values for parapet walls are even higher. of each mass element in the structure is assumed to apply a horizontal force. Under other codes. Regardless of the percentage of the live load used in determining the seismic forces. The weight. The function of the structure also influences the value of C. plus a p e r centage of the vertical live load which varies under different codes from 0 to 100. It is not possible for a simple equivalent static method of design to cover adequately all different types of structures. leave a structure vulnerable to further damage and possible coUapse in the event of a second strong shock. C also varies with the type of structure. C.1. to be revised as more knowledge is accumulated. stacks.

Bending and shear deflections are accounted for in establishing relative rigidities of the various piers. From these the shears carried by each pier are computed. and the resulting settlement of building foundations is rarely uniform. Allowable Stresses 4. In this case the r e sisting elements are designed on the basis of an elastic analysis and take into account the torque about the center of rigidity. and imder this assumption each column carries a part of the total shear which is proportional to its relative rigidity. Diaphragms are checked for bending and shear s t r e s s e s as horizontal beams.ALLOWABLE STRESSES C. For this reason. rod bracing. are not considered capable of distributing shears to the vertical elements in the same fashion as a rigid diaphragm. shears are often proportioned to the vertical elements on the basis of the mass tributary to each. The floors and roof are usually utilized as horizontal beams. formed of wood sheathing. or metal decking. piers.7 A. Rod bracing systems are analyzed approximately as trusses. differential settlements can result in extensive damage to the superstructure. fixed at either top or bottom. and spacing. Flexible diaphragms.6C It is customary to permit an increase in the basic allowable stresses under seismic conditions. General Methods for Design of Structural Elements In the static-design approach. Special consideration is given to the situation occurring where the center of mass does not coincide with the center of rigidity of the vertical elements. the tributary horizontal loads at each level are d i s tributed to the main resisting elements on the basis of relative rigidities. plywood. or caissons bearing on a firm stratum is a solution to this problem. The analysis of metal diaphragms is based on test results and is usually controlled by weld size. The shears and moments in rigid-frame bents are calculated by standard methods of rigid-frame analysis. DESIGN OF FOUNDATIONS Overstressing of the Soil The foundation system is proportioned to resist all or most of the overturning moment developed by the static horizontal forces applied to the structure above. Some r e duction in moment is permitted on the basis that the allowable dynamic soil pressure exceeds the allowable static pressure. the diaphragm can usually be considered infinitely rigid. t r u s s e s . such as those based on moment distribution or slope deflection. under the combined condition of vertical loads and seismic forces. B. are specified to be one-third greater than the basic allowable s t r e s s e s . and the floor or roof members acting as chords or posts of the t r u s s e s . In the case of rigid structures supported on individual spread footings bearing on such material. In the case of concrete floors and steel columns. or diaphragms. D. Consolidation and Differential Settlement Earthquake vibrations may cause consolidation of loose soils. Usually the allowable s t r e s s e s . GENERAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 127 . the unit shear stress and other stresses in the piers are checked. Nailing controls the strength of wood sheathing and of plywood diaphragms. to distribute horizontal shears into the vertical frames. pattern. or at both these locations. when such diaphragms are used.''•^'**^ 4. Either the stabilization of the soil prior to construction or the use of piles.**^~*'^ When shear walls are used in lieu of rigid frames. and vertical reinforcing steel is provided for the bending moments. the portions of these walls between wall openings are considered to act as piers. with the rods in tension acting as diagonal web members. or shear walls.

in general. chutes. Junctures between distinct parts of buildings. where the failure is caused by the differential movement. Separation Joints In past earthquakes the mutual hammering received by buildings in close proximity has caused sufficient damage to justify the inclusion of provisions in many building codes which require a certain minimum structural separation. however. In recent years proposals have been made. A. would be to accept whatever impact damage might occur to each structure due to improper clearance. such as the intersection of a wing of a building with the main portion. The first alternative may not be feasible for large.''*^^ which limit the amount of deflection permitted in each story of a building. However. This is accomplished by incorporating flexibility into the connecting elements so that the necessary differential deflection can be accommodated without overstress. each part of the building must be considered as a separate structure that has its own independent bracing system. The motion to be provided for in the flexible coupling is produced partly by the deflections of the structures themselves and partly by the rocking or settling of the foundations. etc.4. the large forces to be transmitted through this system may make such an approach impractical.9 A. EFFECT OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES Ductility Ductile materials are highly desirable for earthquake-resistant designs. heavy. The amount of separation r e quired increases with the height of the structure. As previously described. are often designed with frangible joints that allow relative movement. When this happens the only other alternative. the alternatives are (1) to design a structurally integrated system to transmit the seismic forces involved or (2) to provide flexible couplings to reduce these forces to negligible values. Type 2 damage can also be minimized by tying the structures together with a bracing system. Two main types of damage are possible: type 1 is the damage due to impact of structures or parts separated by a gap insufficient to accommodate the differential motions involved. B. When the clearance cannot be increased sufficiently.^'" and code provisions have been adopted. considerable reduction in the amount of relative motion between the structures and the soil can possibly be attained by the use of a common footing instead of two separate footings.8 4. Brittle materials should not be used to resist seismic forces. and type 2 is the damage due to the failure of elements joining the vibrating structures or parts. or complex structures. to act as a unit.8 RELATIVE MOTION BETWEEN STRUCTURES AND PARTS OF STRUCTURES RELATIVE MOTION BETWEEN STRUCTURES AND PARTS OF STRUCTURES Relative motion between adjacent structures or between parts of the same structure is a matter of considerable importance as regards seismic damage. When this is done. a possible alternative approach is to tie the structures t o gether to form an integrated system. Often the simplest way to prevent or minimize type 1 damage is to provide sufficient clearance so that free motion of the vibrating parts will result. conveyors. Very often. provisions allowing independent relative motion of each structure without damage to connecting elements will be found to be more acceptable. Flexible Couplings Certain types of structures commonly found in industrial installations are tied t o gether at or near their tops by connecting elements such as piping. In the case of structures which are relatively rigid but which are founded on compressible soil. in this category are unreinforced 128 CHAPTER 4 . 4. if the magnitudes of the forces permit a reasonable design of this nature. ducts.

the moduli of both e l a s ticity and shear vary with load intensity and duration and with the ultimate strength of the material. deep beams. The internal damping available in elastic steel structures is less than that of reinforcedconcrete or -masonry structures. the plastic yielding of a steel structure can be equivalent in its effect to a high damping capacity. and the frame would have to be designed on the assumption that the rigidity of the shear wall was relatively lower. C. B. which occurs to a minimum degree in a welded steel structure. since steel beams are rarely of such proportions. shear. In general. brick.DAMPING 4. to be certain that the design is adequate. both the shear modulus and the elasticity modulus are significant. Relative Rigidities Relative rigidities are important in determining the distribution of seismic shears between resisting elements. and tile. In the case of reinforced-concrete and -masonry materials. Damping is largely associated with inelastic action. In seismic design. The moduli of both elasticity and shear have a bearing on the relative rigidities. glass.9B concrete and all unreinforced-masonry materials. With proper design and rigid control of workmanship. to a greater degree in r e inforced concrete. The low tensile. such as concrete block. and bond strengths of reinforced concrete and masonry materials must be recognized. predictable values in the usual range of working s t r e s s e s . values as small as 2% critical damping can cause marked reductions in seismic s t r e s s e s . and its high ductility is favorable. The question of relative rigidities also becomes important in the support of r e l a tively rigid parts of the structure by flexible bracing elements. these moduli have relatively constant. GENERAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 129 . shear deflections are important only in short-span. and to a still greater degree in reinforced masonry. concrete is fairly ductile in flexure and is much used in earthquake-resistant construction. both concrete block with reinforcing in concrete-filled cells*'*^ and reinforced grouted brick*'^ can also develop considerable seismic resistance. However. However. a relatively rigid but brittle structural element may fail while acting in combination with a second. compression. the distribution of lateral force between a steel rigid frame and an interconnected reinforced-concrete shear wall is difficult to establish owing to the uncertainties involved in calculating the rigidity of the shear wall. When properly reinforced with steel. The effect of overstress should be considered when combining materials of different rigidities. and shear in structural steel. overlapping assumptions may have to be made. shear deflections become an important percentage of the total deflection in the case of shear walls and piers constructed of these materials. In the case of steel. tension. Because of this. the shear wall would have to be designed on the assumption that its rigidity was relatively high. Damping The amount of damping in the structure significantly affects response. Because of this. and plaster show that this problem''"^"'"'"^''*"^' is recognized. only the modulus of elasticity is of primary interest. For example. There is a better balance between strengths in flexure. using upper and lower limits. thereby transferring its load to the second element. The a c curacy with which the division of load between resisting elements can be estimated is r e duced when these elements are composed of different materials. with some elements having moduli that are not accurately known. Under these circumstances. more flexible but ductile element. In the event of overload. The limitations placed on the amount of horizontal deflection per story to reduce cracks in masonry walls. particularly since these can lead to brittle types of failure.

Joint failure due to shearing of cotter keys. bolted.2. member BD being pivoted to accommodate the thermal movement at B. A bracing scheme for a suspended cylindrical vessel is indicated schematically in Fig. such as the ordinary web clip angle or the top and seat angle types (parts a or b of-Fig. two are shown in Figs. The system shown in Fig. seismic motion in this direction is prevented by bracing member AE. should be avoided where definite seismic moments must be provided for. Certain deficiencies in the seismic behavior of rod-braced tower type structures have been noticed. and torn gusset plates. where overstress under seismic forces is likely. has also been observed. 4.w (a) Flexible (b) Flexible (c) Rigid Fig. 4.2 and 4. For bracing rods.10 SPECIFIC DESIGN DETAILS IMPORTANT TO EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE A. 4. 4. Of the several ways of accomplishing this. which are normally in tension. Structural-steel Details Consideration must be given to the possibility of s t r e s s reversal under seismic conditions.1). Translation of the vessel in a horizontal plane is limited by the small clearance gap p r o vided between the contact surfaces of the lugs on the vessel wails and those on the supporting structure. Fabrication error through the use of undersized dies in threading of rods has been known to cause failure from stripping of threads. may require lateral bracing because of the compression.3 for seismic support of a vertical cylindrical vessel p r o vides for radial and vertical thermal movement by means of the large expansion gap._. 4. and knee braces.10 SPECIFIC DESIGN DETAILS IMPORTANT TO EARTHQUAKE RESISTANCE 4. 4.3.4. some examples are the split-beam type (part c of Fig.l. Beam flanges.*"^'' These include stretching of rods and anchor bolts.'''" Upset rods have more energy-dissipation capacity through inelastic stretch than do standard rods. Rigid t37pes of connections should be used. 130 CHAPTER 4 . riveted. which allows the clevis pins to drop out. such as tank towers. As ordinarily designed. Thermal movement in the x direction is permitted at end B.1—Flexible and rigid moment connections. forged clevises are preferable to those of the bent plate type. or welded brackets. Antiseismic details that permit temperature movement are often required in p r e s s u r e vessel installations and similar applications. and they are to be preferred in certain structures. the bent-plate clevis tends to fail through the bolt hole without d e - IT*—^ Column 1 ^^ : • 1 1 . Use of nonrigid connections of steel beams.1) or its welded equivalent._. veloping the strength of the rod. Members AC and BD prevent seismic motion in direction y.

do not develop trouble under seismic loadings. In general. A reduced spacing of ties should be used at these locations. Occasionally seismic shears at a given cross section. since they are effective regardless of the sign of the shear. B. Columns with spiral reinforcing have greater reserve strength and are less vulnerable to this type of failure. 4. Haimches utilizing diagonal bars can be used advantageously to strengthen beam-to-column intersections. care is required to ensure that potentially weak points. combined with those due to other loads. shear failures in certain types of reinforced-concrete members have r e sulted in corrective code revisions**'* that should be observed. Bars placed in the bottom surface of flat-slab capitals are helpful in preventing cracking where seismic bending moments must be developed. be used in regions of negative moment.2—Seismic bracing for horizontal vessel. is made continuous with the wall reinforcing by means of dowels between slab and wall. Concrete Details In antiseismic construction with reinforced concrete. GENERAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 131 .Expansion gap (typical) ' ^ V Plan Plan Fig. 4. it is customary to provide for tensile s t r e s s e s by means of flange steel concentrated at the edges of the slab. Part of the top steel in beams should extend the fuU length of the span. whereas inclined bars are entirely effective only for shear with a sign such as to induce tension in the bars.CONCRETE DETAILS 4. since it is difficult to transmit large bending moments from the slab into the columns. as well as the main reinforcing. Recently. it is preferable to design multistory flat-slab buildings as shear-wall structures. These revisions also provide that web reinforcing. In floors and roof slabs used as diaphragms. Continuity of the main reinforcing steel is desirable to allow for reversals in the sign of the bending moments. and a portion of the bottom steel should be made continuous with that from adjoining spans. a common mode of failure for tied columns is by buckling of the main steel and spalling of the concrete cover near the floor level. Shrinkage reinforcement in the slab.10B ^^Va^'^'^'-'^'^^^t^^^'^^'"^^'-''^^'"'-^'^'^'-^^^'"'^^^^^^^^^^^^^ T. Under the combined effect of compression and flexure. These revisions apply to continuous or restrained beams joined to a slab in such a way that T-beam action cannot be developed. which may not be serious in ordinary circumstances. designed for at least two-thirds of the total shear at a given section. with the intent of minimizing slab cracks. Under these conditions vertical stirrups should be used.3—Seismic bracing for vertical vessel. result in maximum positive and negative shears with intensities sufficient to require web reinforcing. Tensile stresses due to the bending moments in shear walls are also provided for by steel concentrated at the vertical edges of the wall. Fig.

4. 4.5). 132 CHAPTER 4 .4. Using Open Stair Well. Earthquake experience with tilt-up and precast construction is very limited. Plan ^ (below) . -/]fi Section (b) Stair Walls for Transmitting Shears Plan (below) .5—Stairway details.4—Elevation of special reinforcing at a construction joint. 4. the use of See plan below See plan below Section (a) Separation Joint for Relieving Shears. In the case of tilt-up walls. 4. Potential sources of weakness are the jomts between units. Mom steel /^ not shown Elevation of cone wall Construction joint Hooked dowels Fig. Diagonal bars are sometimes used where shearing forces are high (Fig. Such damage may be minimized by the use of those methods of joint preparation which result in a high bond strength.o^ Treadplote oyer joint —V vf^— Fig. This can be avoided by providing open joints m each floor at the stairway to elimmate the bracing effect or by providing an adequate load path for the forces by using stair walls extendmg the full height of the stairs (Fig. Concrete stairways often suffer seismic damage due to differential displacement of the connected floors.4).10B CONCRETE DETAILS Seismic damage at construction joints has been frequently noted.

*'^^ 1958 GENERAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 133 . each member being designed for an axial load equal to a percentage of the vertical load carried by the heavier of the footings connected. San Francisco City and County Building Code. welds. Other Provisions for Relative Motion Damage to partitions can be largely eliminated by locating them away from columns and by providing a detail at the top which will permit relative motion between the partition and the floor above. 4. Structural separations are seldom used in wood-frame buildings. providing restraint in ail horizontal directions.FOUNDATIONS 4.''•^' Breakage of glass windows can be minimized by providing extra clearance at the edges to allow for frame distortion. in this case. D. should be tied t o gether in a way to prevent relative movement of the various parts of the foundation with respect to each other. Foundations Pile foundations. Alternatively. IOC either poured-in-place concrete or gunite with wall bars lapped across the joint is considered the most acceptable. E. 4. the seismic provisions of four such codes have been selected for discussion. In some cases. since. which should be continuous through walls and roof. California Administrative Code. Title 21. Los Angeles City Building Code.''"'^ In piping installations the expansion loops and bellows joints used to accommodate temperature movement are often adaptable to handling the relative seismic deflections between adjacent equipment items. Scope Current methods of seismic design are governed largely by the earthquake provisions in California building codes.*''^ The equivalent of a continuous tie is required at top and bottom. and foundations on soil with a low bearing value.11 TYPICAL BUILDING-CODE llEQUIREMENTS IN EARTHQUAKE REGIONS A. C. bolts.*-" 1957 Code 3. The practice in the use of structural separations varies with types of construction. and keys. An interconnecting grid may be used. Uniform Building Code of the Pacific Coast Building Officials Conference. an interconnecting reinforced-concrete slab. To illustrate some of the main requirements. may be used for this purpose.*'" 1958 Code 4. Such separations are used most often in reinforced-concrete and -masonry structures at junctions between distinct parts of the buildings and at other locations where large and possibly indeterminate forces would have to be provided for if integrated construction were used.6. Typical separation details for these types of construction are shown in Fig.*'^° 1958 Code 2. Those placed in long steel structures for relieving temperature s t r e s s e s usually function also as seismic separations. where smaller seismic forces are involved. integrated construction can usually be economically designed to transmit the relatively small seismic forces generated in the structure. load transfer across joints may have to be made using such m e chanical tying elements as reinforcing bars. Public Works. These are: Code 1. Separations are used less frequently in steel buildings. Frangible crumple joints. Structural Separation The clearance between adjacent structures or parts of the same structure which are dissimilar in mass or stiffness should provide for maximum amplitudes of the motion of each structure or part. are often used to cover this gap.

plus 1/2" for each by Southern California ten feet of the building height above twenty feet.6—Plan details of various schemes for seismic building separations. MIN. The seismic provisions specified in codes are usually considered by the code authority to be of a general nature. 134 CHAPTER 4 .4. and. In this section no attempt is made to discuss the minute details of seismic-code r e quirements. INDUSTRIAL WORK building codes to be at least ( a) METAL SIDING. MIN. INDUSTRIAL WORK * Clearance Is required r. instead. pertinent provisions are presented in general terms accompanied by brief explanatory comments. For explicit requirements the codes cited should be consulted. 4. Fig. WORK (d) BRICK OR BLOCK WALLS. WORK Girts V^ columns Heavy timber framing. the building official is permitted to supplement these provisions with interpretations and special rulings.11A SCOPE (c) BRICK OR BLXXK WALLS. in the interest of fulfilling their intent. timber columns (f)WOOO SHEATHING.

This is often identified with inadequate detailing of structural drawings. 0.1. Code 3 states essentially that in calculating any effect of dead loads in relieving seismic s t r e s s e s . D. This has resulted in improved inspection requirements. goes further and takes into account the dynamics of the problem using seismic coefficients based in part on the earthquake spectrum. C. which was not evaluated in the table in this regard. but not in combination with seismic forces. and 4 agree on a coefficient C. It will be noted from this table that Codes 2. or 0. for the entire building or structure.118 B. the design live load must be a s sumed to act simultaneously with the seismic forces. and in some cases.2) GENERAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 135 . all codes give due consideration to combined vertical and short-time lateral loading. 4.10. California codes agree in general on the formula F = C(WD+kWL) This formula and its implementation require the following notation: F = lateral force of the earthquake (horizontal force induced by seismic ground motion) W D = total weight of portion considered (vertical dead load.WORKING STRESSES USED IN SEISMIC DESIGN 4. which are involved in resisting seismic forces. To allow for the vertical component of acceleration. Working Stresses Used in Seismic Design These codes permit working stresses under the combined action of vertical loads and seismic forces which are 1% times the working stresses normally allowed under the a c tion of the vertical loads only. and because of this. Wind forces must be considered.2 is given in Table 4. but Code 1 approves an increase in soil-bearing value not to exceed &&%%. The usual increase for combined loading is 33y3%. In the design of members stressed by floor live loads and seismic forces. 4. to be detailed on the working drawings. F. not more than 75% of the dead-load stress may be used. These provisions are stated in Code 2 and generally accepted by the other building codes. The tabulated values of k give a reduction in the amount of live load permissible for computation of the mass contributing to the horizontal seismic force. Earthquake Design Loads In order to specify earthquake design loads. which varies with height in accordance with N. The deficiencies referred to are also often attributable to poor construction practices. reductions in allowable stresses are specified when inspection is not continuous. In the case of soil-bearing values for foundations. codes generally require all features of the structural framing. In this code the C value for the entire building or structure is made (4. Preparation of Plans and Construction Inspection Deficiencies in joints and connections constitute a major cause of seismic damage.25 used for the seismic zones of the Code 4 Seismic-probability Map reproduced in this report as Fig. Code 1. see also Sec. 3. 1.12B N = number of stories above the story under consideration A comparative tabulation of the coefficients C and k in Eq. the number of floors. including machinery and other fixed loads) WL = total live load on portion considered k = coefficient dependent on nature of live load C = coefficient dependent on type of structure or part of structure Z = multiplier (relative intensity) of 1.5.

A tower having a plan area that is less than 25% of the plan area of the lower level of the building may be designed separately for its own height. under certain conditions.10. In Code 1 the horizontal force that is acting at each floor level of a building is obtained on the assumption that the deflection curve is linear with height.075. the height used is an average value derived by dividing the area of the elevation of the building. or some other equivalent means 138 CHAPTER 4 . The use of a moment-resisting structural frame is credited in a provision stating that. except that in determining the period T. In tower-supported structures. and weight. in seconds. Interconnection consists of a continuous reinforced-concrete foundation slab or grillage. T can either be calculated or substantiated by technical data. 4. The lower part of the building is otherwise considered separately for its own height. If the construction is on marshy or filled ground. Buildings and structures ottier than buildings are handled by separate formulas. by the base width.3) where 0. where C is obtained from Eq. these requirements are increased 25% unless the footings under the columns are so interconnected as to prevent horizontal displacement. computed from V = CW. the lateral-force-resisting capacity of such a frame may be deleted from the total required seismic force to determine the required resistance of the other lateral-force-resisting elements. and weight. For structures other than buildings. width. as projected on a plane parallel to the direction considered.1 hx = height in feet of level x above the base SWh = summation of the W^h^ values for the full height h Buildings with setbacks receive special treatment under Code 1. The conditions just described still apply. For buildings. a reinforced-concrete floor slab.3 W^ = weight at level x (dead load plus a portion of the live load) from Table 4. In such a case the resulting total horizontal shear from the tower is to be applied at the top of the lower part of the building. width. whether carried on piles or not. which leads to the following expression: F -^-^^SWh Notation used in this formula is as follows: (4 5) ^^•^' Fx = lateral force applied at any level x V = seismic shear at the base.035 < C < 0. such as elevated tanks. under certain conditions this code permits T to be estimated on the basis of technical data. A semiempirical formula is provided for estimating T and is based on the geometry of the building.4. for the direction of motion under consideration.04 < C < 0.10 is the minimum a l lowable value for C. and the base shear V.11D EARTHQUAKE DESIGN LOADS a function of the fundamental period of vibration T. the coefficient k.4) where 0. In this case. 0. a s y s tem of struts or ties. The preceding rules and regulations are the minimum requirements of Code 1 for computation of earthquake forces. Code 1 gives C=M2 (4. Code 1 gives 0=-^(4.

00 Parapets and other cantilever walls l. use the normal operating live load for kW^ Code 2 Code 3 Code 4 0. towers.00 0.5) 0.OOZ 0.50 1.50 0.11D Table 4.20Z Exterior walls. towers.00 0.iot Parts of a building or other structures when the force is from any direction horizontally: Ornamentation or appendages l.20 0.20 0. instead of coefficient k.. chimneys.OOZ 0.20 0.20 See text 0. towers. GENERAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 137 . fW I may not be less than that calculated on basis of 15 Ib/sq ft of wail area.50 0. and chimneys Tanks.20 0.20 when not connected to a building P a r t s of a building or other structures when the direction of force is normal to the wall surface: 0.00 Wharves 0.60Z/(N + 4. and chimneys 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1. and chimneys when not 0.60/(N + 4.5) except tanks.25 0.00 *WQ may not be less than that calculated on basis of 15 Ib/sq ft of wall area.00 1.05 Tanlcs.20* 0.10Z 0. and penthouses 0.00 0.1 —SEISMIC COEFFICIENTS FOR BUILDINGS AND OTHER STRUCTURES (For Use Only in the Equation F = C(WD + kWi).00 0.EARTHQUAKE DESIGN LOADS 4.20Z Interior walls. towers.60/(N + 4.20 0. See Text for Definitions of Terms) Coefficient C as stated in the indicated building code Code 1 Code 2 Code 3 Code 4 Entire building or other structures when the force is from any direction horizontally: Any type of building or structure See text 0.12 connected to a building Anchorage of tanks.00 1. not cantilevered 0.5) 0.20Z 0.50 1.00 0.20 0.20 that are connected to or integral with a building Coefficient k as stated in the indicated building code Code 1 Parts of a building or other structures when the force is from any direction horizontally: Roofs of buildings Floors other than storage floors Storage floors Tanks Other structures. not cantilevered o.50 1.50 1.

The use of floors and roofs as diaphragms is probably a distinctive feature of California practice.4. All codes have similar foundation tie requirements. In this report the term shear wall is used synonymously with the term vertical diaphragm. Overturning Moments All the codes require that the dead-load moment of stability (righting moment) be at least iVa times as great as the overturning moment. F. Rules governing the use of diaphragms are based mainly on test data. and bins. building codes place few limitations on deflections that are due to lateral forces. by inference at least. Code 4 also requires ties if the soil has a safe bearing value of less than 2000 Ib/sq ft. or it may consist only of walls. it applies to all lateral forces including seismic forces. but in each code. or wood frame. concrete. glass breakage. For example. Such buildings increase the probability of costly nonstructural damage and injury from falling plaster. floors. Diaphragms The main seismic-load-resisting system may be steel. As presented in some codes. where acceptance of new types usually r e quires load testing and a determination of deflection characteristics to substantiate the validity of any design method used. 138 CHAPTER 4 . Diaphragms may be classified as horizontal (floors and roofs).*'^^ G. or vertical (walls). in recent years the emphasis on more open structures. HE OVERTURNING MOMENTS of tying the footings together. the general limitations of each variety vary considerably. this rule is written for wind loads. Code 3 limits the amount of deflection of shear walls and similar elements resisting horizontal forces to Vij in. it may consist of a system of vertical and lateral trussing. giving due consideration to the distortion of the horizontal distributing elements.*'" Proper provisions should be made for torsional movements unless the center of rigidity of the resisting structural units is coincident with the center of gravity of the vertical loads in the building or other structure. There are many types of diaphragms. Code 1 requires that provision for overturning moment and direct stress shall be made for the specified earthquake forces in the top 10 stories of buildings or the top 120 ft of height of other structures and that the moments and direct stresses shall be assumed to remain constant from these levels to the foundations. Comparable restrictions apply to glazed openings unless special details are used to permit relative movement between glass and frame. There is considerable variation in the way the rule is applied. on the other hand. per foot of height. H. on economy through lighter design. and on more generous use of fenestration has resulted in flexible buildings. This is especially true in the case of steel decking. However. Code 3 contains provisions intended to limit excessive seismic deflections by requiring that consideration be given to the secondary stresses induced by deflections of a building or its parts when these deflections might create unsafe conditions. Code 1 requires that the loads used in calculating both righting and overturning moments be identical. and roofs which are then designed structurally as lateral-load-resistii^ elements called diaphragms. E. and other damage to the finish. Distribution of Horizontal Shear It is a typical requirement that the total horizontal shear at any horizontal plane is required to be distributed to the various resisting elements in proportion to their rigidities. tanks. Code 2 excludes righting moments induced by special loading such as vats. Deflections Traditionally.

:l 1:1 2:1 3'/.:l 3'/. No attempt will be made here to detail the requirements for design of all the different kinds of diaphragms. reinforced grouted masonry walls. GENERAL STRUCTXmAL DESIGN CONSIDER. floor or wall Vertical diaphragm 3'/.2.3. under certain conditions. • 1 Code 4 Vertical diaphragm 3'/. the spacing is reduced to 100 ft.11H In the case of plywood and diagonal sheathing. When the framing is wood. T Ratio varies with type of supporting wall. and additional resisting elements are required. Code provisions sometimes limit the spacing of these elements when flexible diaphragms are used. L = height (vertical diaphragm). AND 4 Length-to-width ratio 1.-^TIONS 139 .2 gives a typical sampling of code restrictions on length-to-width ratios.:l Horizontal diaphragm 4:1 4:1 3:1 4:1 L Codsl DlaplincB pud Type of diaphragm Plywood. It is customary to utilize walls or parts of walls as shear-resisting elements to t r a n s mit lateral forces from higher levels to the ground. rational analysis alone is acceptable as long as the shears comply with the allowable code values (which have been based on test results). Instead. 2. These ratios are often of basic interest in a building layout. For example. Only stress limitations are specified in Code 2. and 4 are less restrictive.: I Horizontal diaphragm 4:1 4:1 3:1 4:1 Vertical diaphragm 3'/. These additional elements must be normal to those previously mentioned and must be spaced so as to divide the diaphragm above into bays having length-to-width ratios that comply with the requirements of Table 4. »_3 • ^ Codes 1 Horizontal dlaphragmt Masonry or concrete walls 3:1 2'/::l 2:1 3:1 4:1 2:1 Wood or lightsteel walls 4:1 3V::1 2%:1 3'/. The spacing requirements of Codes 1. This rule also applies to buildings with continuous.: 1 2:1 2:1 3'/. For actual design purposes the codes themselves should be consulted and so should various trade publications such as those listed in the bibliography. blocked and nailed at all edges Plywood nailed to supports only (blocking omitted between joists) Diagonal wood sheathing (oonventionai construction) Diagonal wood sheathing (special diaphragms) Light-steel deck (continuous sheet in single plane) Light-steel deck (without continuous sheet in single plane) Poured reinforced gypsumplaster roof or floor slab Poured concrete roof.2—MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE LENGTH-TO-WIDTH RATIOS FOR DLVPHRAGMS AS GIVEN IN BUILDING COOES 1. of one such element in each 150-ft length of wall.:l 2:1 Limited by defleotion Limited by deflection 2'/j: 1 *L > length (horizontal diaphragm).:l 5:1 2'/. Diaphragm flexibility is controlled by limiting the length-to-width ratios and by limiting maximum s t r e s s e s .: 1 3'/.DIAPHRAGMS 4. only the general methods and limits of resistance will be noted for a few of the types most usually found in practice. Code 3 specifies the use. This rule applies where horizontal wood diaphragms or rod bracing systems are used to brace buildings with continuous steel or reinforced-concrete framing. Table 4.:l 2:1 2:1 3'/. Table 4.

The special diagonally sheathed wood diaphragms must conform to these same minimum structural requirements.-thick plywood (in accordance with Code 2) up to 820 lb/ft for Va-in--thick plywood (in accordance with Code 4). 2. Connections and anchorages capable of resisting the design forces are required between the diaphragms and the resisting elements. and lower than those for special. Codes 1. and comparable double diagonally sheathed diaphragms. may be used to resist shears due to wind or seismic loads up to 500 lb/ft according to Code 4 and up to 600 lb/ft according to the three other codes. are permissible for this kind of diaphragm under all four codes. In addition.4. plank diaphragm. is permitted by all four codes. permitting allowable stresses higher than those for conventional.11H DIAPHRAGMS Wood and plywood diaphragms are designed as beams so that the web (sheathing boards or plywood) will carry shear and the flanges (plates or other framing members) at the edges will resist the bending moment. 2 Each of the codes in effect classifies diagonally sheathed diaphragms as conventional (meeting minimum structural requirements only) or special (incorporating special engineering features to increase shear resistance). 140 CHAPTER 4 . joists. This information is available to the designer upon request. if test data are lacking. but they are retained in the files of the code authority. Openings and edge conditions. s t r u c tural analysis according to certain assumptions which show that the shears and deflections are below certain limits may be accepted. boards which are laid at 45° to the studs. These are minimum structural requirements. Under certain conditions the upper limit can be raised still higher.by 6-in. to values ranging from % to V of the above figures. and 4 rely on official full-scale acceptance tests/'^''^"^^ on the basis that the important structural properties of a steel-deck diaphragm (especially its load-deflection characteristics) may not be in many cases s a t i s factorily determined by a rational analysis. Allowable shears for welds are also specified. resistance to shear is reduced depending on the nail spacing. reinforcement. as a diagonally sheathed diaphragm. Boundary members at edges of such diaphragms must be designed to resist direct tensile or compressive chord s t r e s s e s and must be adequately tied together at corners. Pljrwood diaphragms^•^^•^•^^ with blocking (wood nailers between beams or joists for fastening the panel edges) detailed according to code can be assumed to resist seismic shears ranging from a lower limit of 124 lb/ft for y4-in. with welded seams at the edges of each sheet. Shears up to 300 lb/ft depending on the panel ratio. In addition. These shears vary with the configuration of the panel. when blocking is omitted from plywood diaphragms and the panels are arranged so that the load is applied perpendicular to the unblocked edges and to the continuous panel joints. require complete detailing to show that the shearing stresses will be developed. Poured gypsum decks (reinforced) are accepted as diaphragms on a test basis''*^^ similar to that prevailing in the case of light-steel deck diaphragms. When test data are lacking. These individual rulings are not presented in the code itself. Such special diagonally sheathed diaphragms. Diagonally sheathed wood diaphragms in conventional construction are fundamentally 1. Code 3 also utilizes rulings based on tests. This results in the granting of definite maximum allowable shears for a diaphragm of a particular cross-sectional configuration when certain welding details and other features are fully specified. However. Code 3 permits an analysis which is similar to that for reinforced concrete but which is modified to account for the lower structural properties of gypsum. and anchorage to boundary members are specified.by 8-in. The use of steel-deck diaphragms. or 1. Minimum thickness. which materially affect strength. or rafters and which are nailed to them and to the boundary members with a specified number of nails through each board at each bearing. the component of the axial s t r e s s in the boards acting normal to a boundary member must be accounted for in the design of the boundary member itself and in its attachments. Code 1 states that. Code 2 defines a 2-in.

obviously on the basis of the poor performance of this material in strong earthquakes. This code also restricts the use of reinforced hollow masonry to nonbearing partitions unless all cells are filled. The codes also specify minimum slab thickness. Design methods specified are those used for reinforced concrete but are modified for the conditions and working s t r e s s e s appropriate to masonry. Such anchorage is required by Code 4 to be capable of resisting the calculated horizontal forces due to wind or earthquake with a minimum force of 200 lb per Lineal foot of wall. In addition. and 4 apply this requirement to all pile foundations. the use of this material is r a r e in earthquake areas. GENERAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 141 . Codes 1. 2. L. These are designed for an axial tension or compression equal to 10% of the vertical load carried by the heavier of the two footings connected. Structural Separation Typically the codes require that adjacent buildings be structurally separated (1) by a minimum distance that is specified arbitrarily in the particular code having jurisdiction and (2) in a manner that is satisfactory''*^^ to the building official who issues the building permit. Where precast construction is used. A part of the horizontal steel is required to be concentrated in bond beams and footings and at tops of parapet walls. Foundation Ties In the case of major structures supported on pile foundations. The ties can be formed by an interconnecting grid network of reinforced-concrete struts or structural steel shapes encased in concrete.10D. provided the stresses do not exceed specified values. All codes require both vertical and horizontal steel at certain maximum spacings and in minimum amounts expressed as percentages of the wall cross-sectional area. Masonry Shear Walls Masonry shear walls are usually constructed of reinforced brick or reinforced concrete. all codes specify requirements for the joints between the precast units.*"'^ I. whereas the Code 3 provision applies only to pile foundations involving poor soil conditions. However. and 4 have no requirements prohibiting the use of unreinforced masonry. Codes 1 and 4 require such ties for all isolated footings where the soil has a bearing value less than 2000 Ib/sq ft.111 Reinforced concrete is the most rigid of conventional diaphragms and has the most liberal panel-ratio limitations. Codes 1. Codes 1 and 3 restrict the allowable shear as a function of thickness and support spacing.MASONRY SHEAR WALLS 4. Working stresses vary with the strength of the units and with the type of inspection provided and are lower than those used in the design of reinforced concrete. The statements made in this section are also applicable to masonry walls other than shear walls. the codes require foundation ties under certain conditions. Code 3 completely disavows the use of unreinforced masonry. In other respects the design of reinforced-concrete diaphragms follows that for conventional reinforced-concrete construction. All reinforcing must be completely embedded in the grouting material. Anchorage All seismic codes require that concrete or masonry walls be positively anchored to all floors and roofs that provide lateral support. Tjrpical separation details are discussed in Sec. 2. J. However. K. The codes place restrictions on the spacing of lateral supports in terms of slab thickness. separation r e quirements are waived. if the building complex is properly designed to act integrally in resisting lateral forces. 4.

20 g. health. a dynamic analysis will give better design forces than those specified by building codes. For example. The seismic resistance of a structure depends not only on the horizontal forces assumed in the design. it must be remembered that building codes are frequently revised. as well as the preparation of alternate designs and cost estimates. designs based on equivalent static lateral forces. 1.4. With these limitations in mind. Seismic damage very often results from superficial t r e a t ment of the details needed to transmit the loads. It is very difficult.2D. Seismic Zoning Provisions The inherent lack of precision in assessing seismicity of a site and the uncertain influence of local geology have previously been discussed in Sees. Dynamic analysis can possibly be justified only in the case of very special structures. however.31. For ordinary structures. and public welfare by regulating and controlling the design. In the event of a strong earthquake. a reinforced-concrete slab with specified minimum thickness and reinforcing may be used in lieu of the grid network. critical elements of conventional electric power generating plants in seismic areas are sometimes designed using a seismic coefficient of 0. and 3.9. but also on what is done with those forces. 4. these coefficients will not always prevent overstress and especially not in structures with low damping and few uncounted sources of reserve strength. Use of Seismic Coefficients Whether the code coefficients are acceptable or not depends (1) on an estimate of the consequences of possible damage due to the use of such coefficients and (2) on the cost increase incurred by provisions for larger seismic forces."^'^^ The lateral-force coefficients of codes are minimum standards and are not intended to prevent overstress. where the installation must continue to function during and after a strong earthquake. in other cases it may require the investigation of a complete chain of events that are triggered by structural damage. In important cases it is not uncommon to use static lateral-force coefficients considerably higher than code values. This r e striction is not considered unreasonable. are satisfactory if it is recognized that some damage may be incurred in the case of e s pecially strong ground motion. property.12 RELATION OF BUILDING CODES TO REACTOR DESIGN As an alternative. Refinement in choosing the proper seismic force should not be undertaken at the expense of providing complete load paths of consistent strength. 1. if such provisions are required to hold damage within tolerable limits. Requirements for considering minimum seismic forces in areas where they are now ignored would have an important effect in improving 142 CHAPTER 4 . For structures that are to be designed so that the s t r e s s e s will remain within elastic limits during earthquakes of specified intensities. construction. but with the restriction that no zone in the United States can be considered entirely immune from earthquakes. as specified in building codes. and certain equipment specifically regulated herein. A. I.12 RELATION OF BUILDING CODES TO REACTOR DESIGN The stated purpose of codes is to "provide minimum standards to safeguard life or limb. location and maintenance of ail buildings and structures within the city. Furthermore. in view of the proven fact that historically stable areas do not necessarily remain so. it is believed that the seismic zoning map in Fig. it results less often from lack of p r e cision in estimating the magnitude of the earthquake forces to be used in design. 1.10 can be used as a rough guide in estimating relative seismicity. to make a dynamic analysis of a structure that is overstressed into the nonelastic range. B.IG. use and occupancy. quality of materials. and therefore the code provisions discussed in the foregoing s e c tions merely represent the status at the time this chapter was written. In some cases the answer is immediately obvious.

The average spectra of Figs. minimum earthquake provisions would be no better than none at all. A comparison of this maximum magnitude with the magnitudes of the earthquakes at San Francisco. which apply to Zone 3 conditions. which are often not even checked for wind loading. 1940.25 0. 4. 1. especially those housed within structures.24 are based largely on the records of the El Centro earthquake.22 but that the intensity for Zone 0 be increased to that applying for Zone 1. These records are often considered to represent the strongest probable ground motion for Zone 3.11D.19 to 1. 4. even for masonry buildings. where more definite information is not available. 2. However.12B the methods of supporting items of equipment. This is a marked improvement. 1. A minimum seismic requirement would in many cases result in d e s ^ n loads. even if damage occurs.3—RELATIVE INTENSITIES FOR VARIOUS ZONES Damage zone 0 1 2 3 Relative intensity. It is probable that a structure designed to resist an earthquake of the El Centro 1940 intensity (maximum probable earthquake for Zone 3) with slight structural damage could GENERAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 143 . in which it was indicated that an upper limit to the magnitude of an earthquake appears to be M = 8. Table 4. is shown in Table 4.33 g. In these cases the use of minimum seismic requirements at least provides load paths that would otherwise be lacking.7. magnitude was also discussed in Sec.24. The reduction of the relative intensity below that specified for a given damage zone.3. They can also be used in connection with the spectra of Figs. 1. In the design of nuclear reactor projects to be located in seismically active areas. It may be argued that. to approximate spectral values for other zones by as suming that the ordinates to the spectra curves are proportional to the Z values. previously described in Sec. Z. 1. The probability of occurrence of earthquakes vs.3 are the multipliers. On this basis the relative intensities for the various zones would be as shown in Table 4. Such a reduction usually cannot be justified by the accuracy with which the relative intensities can be evaluated. in view of the very violent earthquakes which have infrequently occurred in supposedly stable areas. may not be good practice. on the basis that the site is remote from known faults.5 1 The values in the second column of Table 4. which are less than those due to wind.2E. The answer here is that lack of earthquake provisions sometimes p r o duces conditions and practices that result in no positive means whatever for resisting lateral forces in key parts of the installation. it is suggested that the relative intensity of earthquakes in damage Zones 1. which is the most intense ground motion (in the United States) for which accelerograms are available.19 to 1. and 3 of Fig. 1940. The maximum horizontal acceleration of this earthquake was 0. The maximum intensity of ground motion associated with the maximum earthquake cannot be accurately established but is estimated by Housner to be from two to three times that of the El Centro earthquake.24.SEISMIC ZONING PROVISIONS 4. 1940. and El Centro. 1906.4. From this it follows that the ordinates to the spectra for such an earthquake might be two to three times those shown in Figs. Z 0. 1.25 0.10 be as specified in Ref.19 to 1. since it increases the chance of survival from zero to some finite amount. They are used as indicated in Table 4. the services of a seismologist should be used in evaluating seismicity.1 to obtain static seismic coefficients.

E. 1949. When a more refined approach is applied in cases where the properties of the structure can be accurately estimated. 1946. 1953. 1st ed. C. 4. San Francisco.. although major rehabilitation might be required. Table 4.. Chicago. W.12 Concrete Masonry Design Manual. Hudson. During 1952. Reinforced Brick Masonry and Lateral Force Design.8 L.4 D. W. 4. 144 CHAPTER 4 4. Title 21. 4th ed. Bowman. and.7 Frequency per 200 years 0 1 63 C. Structural Engineers Association of Southern California. 1906 El Centro. 1950. E. Inc. Los Angeles. Modern Designing with Steel. these provisions may provide answers in situations where a rational solution is impractical. 4. California. VoL 3. Bull. Pacific Fire Rating Bureau. 2. although they are often arbitrary. 1950. Detailed Seismic Provisions of Codes Many of the practices required by the detailed seismic provisions of building codes have been developed through experience. D. 4-3 Recommendations—Earthquake Resistant Design of Buildings. revised 1950. Vol. Only in r a r e instances would it be feasible to provide a resistance sufficient to withstand an earthquake of this magnitude with no damage. Housner. The Macmillan Company. For this reason they can be used as a guide in the seismic design of reactors. 1955. Where code static seismic coefficients are used. Tech. Kaiser Steel Corp. Bull. New York. Plummer and J.4—COMPARISON OF EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDES Earthquake Maximum San Francisco. 4. Soc. A. Afford. New York. Statistically Indeterminate Structures. Concrete Masonry Association. and G. Theory of Modern Steel Structures.7 L.. San Francisco. New York. 4. Maugh. L.7 3.. 1958.4. 171. Seismol. Portland Cement Association. 4.2 6. 4. Measured Response of a Structure to an Explosive-generated Ground Shock. 1. 1955. Sutherland and H. Am. Department of Natural Resources.. John Wiley & Sons.9 H. Housner. No. Structural Theory. 3250 West Sixth Street.11 California Administrative Code. J.10 Horizontal Bracing Systems in Buildings Having Masonry or Concrete Walls. it is reasonable to increase allowable stresses above code values. John Wiley & Sons. Grinter. Blume. 1940 Magnitude 3. Washington. Public Works. W. Housner. C. Bull. (1954). revised ed. Sacramento. 4. Division of Mines. 4. May 1957. Calif. The Design of Structures To Resist Earthquakes: Earthquakes in Kern County.5 G. L. State of California.2 H.6 G. REFERENCES Analysis of Small Reinforced Concrete Buildings for Earthquake Forces.. No. 33 West Grand Avenue. Structures and Tank Towers. the allowable stresses should not exceed those specified in the detailed provisions of the code. 1955.. Inc.1 .12C DETAILED SEISMIC PROVISIONS OF CODES also survive the ground motion of an earthquake of magnitude 8 without collapse. C . Behavior of Structures in Earthquakes. II. Structural Clay Products Institute. 4. State of California.

Bull. (1955). Soc. Earthquake Revealed Defects in Design. Am. 4.. and Its Aftershocks.20 San Francisco Building Code. 4. J. February 1955. 3. Structural Engineers Association of Southern California. S. of Am. Moran. B. Tacoma. Portland Ore.. 2. 1950. 4. Uniform Building Code Association. Detroit Steel Products Co. Steinbrugge and D.16 Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACI 318-56).17 Tilt-up Construction. 1960. Structural Engineers Association of California. 1957. Tech. 4. 2250 East Grand Boulevard. 1958. H. 4. No. Trans. Bull. Los Angeles.24 Fir Plywood Design Data..18 A. Eng.21 Los Angeles City Building Code. Japan..REFERENCES 4. Seismic. 4. Detroit 19. Am.27 S. No.44(2B): 2nd pt.14 K. The Latino Americana Building. 1950. Wash. J. Los Angeles.. Merritt. Robertson Co. Douglas Fir Plywood Association. Paper No. Bull. Seismol. 610 South Broadway. January 1955. 4. Structural Engineers Association of Southern California. Tokyo. 1957. 2777. Barnes. Steel Q — Floor Tested as a Diaphragm. 4.. News-Record (1957). 4. 4. 2330 West Third Street. in Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Convention. Coronado. Detroit. or 18263 West McNichols Road. Box 4754. Calif. Barnes. Tests for United States Gypsum Co. P. Wash.25 S. Tacoma. Soc. Zeevaert. GENERAL STRUCTURAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 145 .. Report on H.15 H. 1949. Mich. Structural Observations of the Kern County Earthquake. Extracts from Report on Tests of Poured Gypsum as a Horizontal Diaphragm. Concrete Inst. 1958. Robertson Co. Degenkolb.. Sixth Avenue. 1952. City and County of San Francisco. 4.19 F. Inc.26 Fenestra Building Panels — Fenestra Diaphragm Design. 4. Wind. H. 1888 S.. ADDITIONAL REFERENCE MATEIUAL Proceedings of Second World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Civil Engrs. H.13 Good Practice in Engineering Design and Construction with Reinforced Concrete Masonry. O.22 Uniform Building Code. 4. Science Council of Japan. Pacific Coast Building Officials Conference.. Tech. 4. 610 South Broadway. V. Bomb. (1954). Douglas Fir Plywood Association. W. F. Redford Station. Los Angeles.23 Technical Data on Plywood. An Engineering Study of the Southern California Earthquake of July 21. B.

and the response determined is that of the model.chapter 5 SEISMIC-RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR SIMPLE TYPES OF STRUCTURES FIGURES 5. Shears. These models may be systems having one or more degrees of freedom. Moments.4 55 5.1 5. S 10 Two-Story Frame. Vertical Section Through Vapor Container. The determination of seismic effects on a structure using dynamic methods requires simplifying assumptions and idealization to formulate a problem that lies within the capability of known methods of solution. 5. or 146 . Stress-Strain Curve Deformation of Support Structure. in effect. S 12 S. However. Models tor Three-degree-of-freedom System. From this viewpoint a solution can often be considered adequate if the model and analysis chosen indicate only the main general features of the actual structural motion. The success of this idealization obviously depends on how well the physical properties of the model duplicate those of the actual structure. In general.2 Moments and Shears. regardless of differences in the behavior between model and structure.1 INTRODUCTION In this section simple structural types are classified according to the number of degrees of freedom of motion involved.3 5. 5.11 Cantilever Chlnmey. TABLES s.6 57 5. the fact that an earthquake may be considered as a random phenomenon e s tablishes an upper limit to the accuracy attainable. Mode Shapes. Two-degree-of-freedom System. Dynamic methods of analysis based on the earthquake spectrum are presented for each class of structure and demonstrated with simple numerical examples.2 5.14 5 15 5 ig 5 17 Cantilever Chimney. Momenta and Shears from Unit Olsplaeements. These simplifications. these approaches emphasize some of the special techniques appropriate in application to components whose integrity is vital to the prevention of a nuclear incident. Two-story Frame. pressure-vessel-suiH»rt Structure.3 Beam Constanta.13 5. Cantilever Chimney. Two-story Frame.l Values of Critical Damping. involve the substitution of a model for the structure. SlD|0a-story Frame. appropriate to structures consisting mainly of masses concentrated at one or more definite levels. Models for Two-de«ree-of-freedom System. Many of the principal structures involved in reactor installations can be classified as simple types indicative of the kind of model used to represent their dynamic behavior. System.9 Models for Ona-degree-o£-freedom System.8 5. 5. the simulation may not be adequately provided by a simple model if the actual structure is complex. Models for TrsnslaUonal-RotatlotuU. 5. Dtsplacemeots. CBntilever Chimney.

(2) There are statistical variations in spectra of the earthquakes of the same intensity. Resultant vs. Typical yield s t r e s s e s are usually higher than the minimum specified values normally used. 1. This limit would occur only in the improbable case in which the hypothetical single-mass oscillator used in deriving the spectra would reach its maximum response to each component accelerogram at the same instant.19 to 1. it may not be unreasonable to design for a single component of motion when the resulting e r r o r is accepted as being within the limits of accuracy attainable by computation. Finally. CONSIDERATIONS IN USING THE SPECTRUM METHOD Choice of Spectra For purposes of illustration the examples in this chapter are based on the spectra of Figs.24 have been used. as discussed in Sec. 1. In the following sections. S. 4. These are component spectra. The maximum s t r e s s in a simple oscillator resulting from the twocomponent motion would have an upper Umit of VT times that produced by a single component.19) is 1 ft/sec. Based on these considerations.50 ft/sec. dynamic methods of analysis are presented for the rigidbody type. one for each component.12B. it is recognized that there can be important cases where absolute safety is imperative. In this report the smoothed average spectra of Figs. A more realistic value of this ratio probably would be about 1. the following considerations are involved. for lumped-mass systems with one and two degrees of freedom. for each mode considered. (3) Variations in structural properties from those assumed can cause e r r o r s in r e sponse which might exceed 20%.1 they may be elastic bodies. the limit-design approach is applied to the inelastic response of a structure with one degree of freedom. For example. 5. Reasonable values of lOOJ (damping factor in per cent of critical) appear to be as shown in Table 5. These values are further increased by rapid strain rates occurring under dynamic loading conditions. A simple numerical example is presented for each type to illustrate the method of analysis. which may justify designing for the two-component spectra simultaneously.2. or they may be a combination of the two. which are considered to represent the maximum probable earthquake for zone 3 conditions. and for elastic bodies. The discussion of spectra and their implications in this report refers to a single component. with computations carried to slide-rule accuracy. the value appropriate to zone 2 would be 0. In assessing the importance of the error resulting from the use of component spectra. appropriate to structures with essentially uniform mass d i s tribution. These spectra require modification so that they may apply to other zones.24.INTRODUCTION 5. (1) It is impossible to predict the intensities of future earthquakes. Although such a philosophy has been adopted in this report. if the S value for zone 3 (as obtained from Fig. Damping Factors The spectrum method requires the assvimption of the fraction of critical damping. and for zones 1 and 0 the S value would be 0. Component Spectra It is customary to use records of horizontal acceleration components measured in directions 90° apart to obtain two spectra. At present there are very little data on which to base such an assumption. C.2 A. and it must be kept in mind that a structure will at the same time be excited into vibrations by the perpendicular component.1. 1.25 ft/sec. A very stiff structure firmly attached to the earth can be represented simply as a rigid body. B. SEISMIC-RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR SIMPLE TYPES OF STRUCTURES 147 .19 to 1.

* welded Bare steel structures. Thus the structures in (a) and (c) can also be represented by a mass with a compression-tension spring. m-. For example. m. A part of this force is contributed by the shear in the tower itself and is identified with the spring constant k. the flexural spring in (b) of Fig. with lateral translation prevented at level b. is numerically equal to the horizontal force. k.5 For Simplicity it is recommended that f be assumed the same for each mode.1 is equivalent to the model in (d) of Fig. 5. supporting masses ma and mb. as discussed in Sec. D. and k f Similarly. when level a is translated a unit distance with level b restrained. that must be applied to the structure in (a) of Fig. As a second illustration. k'^. the guyed structure in (c) of Fig. a flexural spring of constant. representing the tower. lOOj.. elevatedt *Bare signifies no fireproofing. the total force developed at level a is the sum of kb. is the sum of k'. 5. and a compression-tension spring of constant.1 to give a unit horizontal deflection at the top of the columns.1 is the equivalent of that in (d). The mass. The k values shown in Figs. H. The structure. consists of three frames 148 CHAPTER 5 . The structure in (a) can be represented by the model in (b). Similar considerations apply to the two mass systems in Fig. Its spring constant..3 is shown a more complex structure. 5. k'. H.1 to 5.2D STRUCTURES AND EQUIVALENT MODELS TABLE 5. owing to one-fold structural dissymmetry. 5.6.6. An exception might be made in the case of elevated fluid containers. The spring constant kb is the horizontal shear in the upper story of the structure in (a) which results when level b is displaced laterally a unit distance.3 to 2 2 to 3 7 15 to 40 0.1. The spring constant k j i s the horizontal shear in the lower story which results from a unit lateral displacement of level a.1.1 —DAMPING FACTORS Type of structure Bare steel structures. The remainder is contributed by the horizontal component of the r e action developed in the guys and is identified with the spring constant k'.* riveted Concrete structures Masonry structures Fluid containers. with level a restrained. The structure consists of the mass. in which it is a s sumed that the horizontal shears in each story depend solely on the relative lateral d i s placement of immediately adjacent levels. produced by a unit displacement of the mass. or the spring force. tSee Sec. in the model is equal to that in the actual structure.1 to 5. 5. A model equivalent to (d) is shown in (e). 5. The total horizontal force induced at level a is the sum of k J and kb.1 represents the columns of the actual structure in (a) of Fig. required to produce a unit horizontal deflection at the top of the tower. where the guys are a c counted for by springs with constants k'a and k{. and k^. representing the guys. 6. in which. with lateral translation prevented at level a. The total horizontal force required at level b to produce a unit translation at that point. vibrations in direction x can be accompanied by rotation about vertical axis z. 5.5. 5. and the model in (f) is the equivalent of that in (b). k. % critical 0. ground supported Fluid containers.2. The sum of these two spring constants represents the horizontal force. The model in (e) of Fig. Structures and Equivalent Models Figures 5. The guyed structure in (c) is represented by the model in (d).4 are presented to demonstrate in some detail the concept of r e p r e senting a simple lumped-mass structure by a dynamic model. 5.4 represent the spring constant. In (a) of Fig. 6.

5. (d) (e) (f) Fig.H. wr (a) */}I7(b) ^}/W\| ^^ ¥|A| ^^ 3vwv| '^^'^^j a '^ «? ^ 7777T. TTTTTfr (b) W^ 0 k+k' 777777. (e) (c) (d) Fig.1—Models for one-aegree-of-freedom system. . 77777. 5.2 — Models for two-degree-of-freedom system. \m\ Ifffn (a) 777^.

4 — Models for three-degree-of-freedom system.y (a) /f/^/(/ hfOc^^ (b) Fig.3—Models for translational-rotational system. . (a) -^a = ^JcXc * Kb^b ^ Ka)/a Fig. 5. 5.

at any level.3 capable of resisting horizontal forces acting in their respective planes and connected to a trussed diaphragm in plane FC. respectively. in the range of 0. representing a small reactor-containment vessel.7 x 10^ in. Maximum stresses at top of footing Assume that the concrete is reinforced and well bonded to the steel shell. which are directly attached to a rigid foundation. Typical of this type of structure are containment vessels and pressure vessels of low height-to-diameter ratio. and the two side frames.5 due to an earthquake having a maximum acceleration of 0. with three degrees of freedom. a unit displacement at any given level can cause significant horizontal forces at levels beyond those i m mediately adjacent to the displaced level. is included as an illustration of the static-analysis procedure.14) (30. The double subscripts in (c) of Fig. T. Under these circumstances the total force acting at each level is not simply a function of the tributary spring constants.RIGID-BODY STRUCTURES 5. maximum accelerations for any degree of damping are obtained in oscillators with periods of vibration.4. 1. Example 1 Determine the maximum shear. It is also evident from Fig.^ I-r = Ic + nis SEISMIC-RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR SIMPLE TYPES OF STRUCTURES 151 . The frame in plane EG is assumed to have no lateral resistance. 5.. of equal rigidity. liner plate. Under these circumstances the maximum horizontal acceleration of the structure is the maximum horizontal acceleration of the ground.j is the force at level c due to a unit displacement at level a. k<. k.05 sec..33 g. 5. This is the condition assumed in the usual static "% g" type of analysis. In strongly coupled structures with two or more degrees of freedom. represented by the symbol H with a single subscript. a horizontal shear is induced which is proportional to the weight of the structure above that level. 1.3 is shown a dynamic model simulating the actual structure. are located in planes AF and DG. The total force at any given level. the two side frames.14 (28) (2) + 10 (3. and resulting stresses in the s t r u c ture shown in Fig.4 denote force per unit displacement. In (b) of Fig.1) (1/12) = 176 + 78. Thus k^^ is the force at level c due to a unit displacement of level c. and kf are associated with the diaphragm.21 that. Ignoring the %-in. the transformed area in terms of concrete is A j = Ac + nAs (n = 10 = assumed ratio of modulus of elasticity of steel to concrete) Aj = 3.2 to 0. a good approximation of the earthquake effect is obtained by assuming T to be zero.8 = 254.2. Consequently vibrations induced in direction x will be accompanied by rotation since the center of mass and the center of rigidity do not coincide. Spring constants k^. is shown in Fig. the first letter indicates the level at which the force is measured. 5. bending moment.3 RIGID-BODY STRUCTURES As shown in Fig. and the second indicates the displaced level. Solution Values of moments and shears are given in Table 5. The following example. This is equivalent to assuming a structure of infinite rigidity. 5.21. and the frame in plane AC. 5. is the sum of those contributed by the displacements at all levels including the given level. when T is less than about 0.8 ft^ = 36. and.4 sec. One frame is located in plane AC. A system of this t]rpe.

33 19. kipst (3.7 131.5 7.0 291.1)2 (Q 5j ^^/^j) (30.14) (3.1 = 57.15 0. 5.2 19. tone kip equals 1000 lb.2 —MOMENTS AND SHEARS* Distance to center of gravity from top of footing.14) (3. 152 CHAPTER 5 .5 Moment about footing.14) (3.15 Dead load. see Refs. ft-kip 432 144 2670 982 4228 Element Steel hemisphere Steel cylinder Concrete hemisphere Concrete cylinder 0.5—Vertical section through vapor container. 5.49 0.9 = 369 = 397 Dead load xO.5 22.2.! ft 22.14) (30.0 2 =882 *For reinforced-concrete notation.5.49 0.05 7. TABLE 5.1 and 5.3 RIGID-BODY STRUCTURES So'-t'CCof/'sfes/ sJ>e// s/ie' Fig.1 121. {Full fixity is assumed to occur at top of concrete footing.1) (15) (1/12) (28)2 (0 5j ^3) (28) (15) (2) = 58. §Assumes that the distance from the base of a thin hemisphere to the center of gravity is one-half the mean radius.

7 x 10^ fcmax. The low seismic stresses indicate that. of a one-degree-of-freedom s y s tem relative to the ground is given by Ymax.-.. I. in this case. ymax.133 g.1 has been shown^"* to be the ordinate. SEISMIC-RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR SIMPLE TYPES OF STRUCTURES 153 . 5 4 STRUCTURES WITH ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM . there would probably be no cost penalty in designing for the assumed seismic coefficient which is greater than the code value since other loadings would apparently govern. Approximate I = A . 1.250. S.2 O.19.30) = 7.1) where ? is the maximum energy per unit mass attained by the structure. The term on the left-hand side of Eq.22. more severe loading conditions.X T a r e a X CIniean 5. = P (l + ~ T ) •• A T = . which is to be expected in structures having a large amount of reserve strength for other.2) = 72 p s i Stresses shown are compressive. 5. According to Fig.STRUCTURES WITH ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM For an annular ring. = 10 (7. = eccentricity of the load (c = distance to extreme fiber) .10 or 0. and amount of damping. this would give a maximum acceleration of 11 ft/sec^ or 0. As shown in Eq. The seismic stresses are low.2 psi f s ^ . which exceeds the maximum acceleration of the earthquake by less than 1%.4 o ^-^ . = 24.70) = 4 1 psi fc„to.170 ft'4 = 542 X 10" in = 1^/10 ^ inS i„ AT i r ' = T^ = o^t^/ \°M = 148 X 10^ in.5 in.34 g for a structure with 7% of critical damping. depending on whether the code authority would choose to classify the vapor container as a tank or as a building. 1. G._.^ ^ ^ ) = 24. f. = H i i 2 8 ) ! .. = 10 (41) = 410 psi fsmin. to the velocity spectrum corresponding to a given accelerogram. The code coefficient of Ref. 36.0 (1 . is estimated to be about 0. 8920 ^ o = 26. Z i ! o H ) ! = 17. = ^ 2 ? (5. 5.0 (0.0. = 882 X 10^ (l + ^ . period of vibration.02 sec.70) = 24.0 (1 +0. Comment The fundamental period of this structure. the maximum velocity.3 would give a maximum acceleration of 0.DI X 10 (r = radius of gyration) M ^ ~ ^~ 4228 QQo ~ 4-79 ft = 57. .2. based on the assumptions of the problem and computed from the Rayleigh approximation in Sec.

2) The relation between y^ax. (3) Compute the maximum acceleration. Y = S Y ^ S W (5. and the maximum deflection. The system can be used to represent such structures as one-story buildings and single-story platforms carrying equipment loads. a max. a max. = S (5.2 ft/sec^ W k = spring constant (lb/ft) = force (lb) required to cause a 1-ft deflection = — Yst yst = static deflection of the spring which would be caused by a force equal to the weight of the mass w = -=• = circular frequency (radians per second) The procedure for determining the seismic response of a single-degree-of-freedom system consists of the following steps: (1) Determine the period of vibration.. multiply the maximum acceleration by the mass of the system. F.^ Z =s X = £ (5. is given by the following simple equations: .19.4) The period of vibration of the system (which must equal that of the actual structure it represents) is obtained from the following expressions: T =2 .5. ymax. when S is in ft/sec. and the maximum deflection.x. of the system and estimate the fraction of critical damping. or. (2) From a spectrum curve.n\ amax. T. 5. anuix. k.3 and 5. alternatively.3) y =.. =ymax.. on the structure.4. ymax. y | or T = 27r V — m = mass ^ W /lb sec^\ g V ft / (5-6) (5.5) W = weight (lb) g = acceleration due to gravity = 32.. It should be noted that. 27r _ 2jr _ / . relative to that of the ground. ymax.4 STRUCTURES WITH ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Consequently Eq. 5. 154 CHAPTER 5 . is in ft/sec^ and ymax. is also in ft/sec.1 can be stated simply as y. This equals the maximum velocity of the mass. such as that in Fig. (4) Compute the maximum inertia force applied to the mass by multiplying ymax. by the spring constant. from Eqs. for the values of T and t in step 1. The following example illustrates the application of the procedure to a simple singlestory rigid-jointed frame. This is the maximum seismic force. read off the value of S.. and absolute maximum acceleration. 1. S. is in ft.

7) 1 + 2 (133. deflection.6—Single-story frame.6. 5. 5. 4 - zo'-o" r. 5.^) hc= height of columns (in. Assume hinged bases and 2% critical damping.5. page 7. r -• ' ' ' ' < ' i . assume that the mass of the frame is accounted for in the 15-kip uniform load supported by the girder. 1. Solution From Eq. For convenience. 5.7 (240) 6 (3 X 10*) (109.88 in.2) (180) = 6.84 sec V 386 155 ^" T = 6.28 SEISMIC-RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR SIMPLE TYPES OF STRUCTURES . /6.19.*) Substituting values 15.6 T = 27r / ^ g The static deflection from Ref. is given by ^« 6EIc V 2Ighcj where W = dead load (kips) E = modulus of elasticity (kips/in.^l33.Zin< CV^^'^-15. c •^ i > II A L Pimed 1L^ Ptnned Fig.4 Determine the maximum acceleration. %.0 (15)^ (1728) 109.) Ic= moment of inertia of column (in.STRUCTURES WITH ONE DEGREE OF FREEDOM Example 2 5.*) Ig= moment of inertia of girder (in. horizontal force. based on the earthquake spectrum in Fig. and seismic bending moment in the steel rigid frame shown in Fig.) ilg= length of girder (in.88 _ 0. .0 kips 3 .

5 5 STRUCTURES WITH TWO DEGREES OF FREEDOM . / ? / ^ / . An example of this type would be a tall rigid mass supported at the top of a single vertical column fixed at the base. in some cases tilt may be significant and should be considered. 156 CHAPTER 5 .84 sec. 5. page 204.133 g required by Ref.3 and 5. Reference 5. = S . This is a fairly typical comparison of the resistance required to maintain elastic response with that required by code coefficients (for a structure with low damping).5^ = 2. F„ r^ 6.0 6. The analysis presented is usually considered to be satisfactory when the motion of the supported mass consists of translation with negligible tilting.5 times the 0. 1.0 kips Seismic moment MBA = ~i~ (15) = 52. =ky„ .4 amax.0 15.7 — Two-degree-of-freedom system. two modes of vibration are possible. 5.21) = 7. and an analysis of the response requires the determination of the mode shapes. ^( 2ir The maximum seismic force is given by Eq. as in Fig. periods of vibration. and spectrum values for each of the two modes.88 7.5 ft-kips The maximum shear corresponds to a static coefficient of 0. ^ k = :15-0 .88 (3. In a two-degree-of-freedom system.3 for a zone 3 location.0 ^ = 15.=' J-^O MASS MODEL (a) OEFLcCnON PATTERNS AND HORIZONTAL FORCES (b) ly SI gris- Fig. 1.21 in. such a system a c quires a second degree of freedom. = S Y = 2. 5. derives periods of vibration and mode shapes for this case. and Appendix E considers the earthquake response of a similar system. ^7777.5 STRUCTURES WITH TWO DEGREES OF FREEDOM For 100? = 2 and T = 0.7. 5.20: .''®yWV^ 777777777>.0 ft/sec' T 0 84 ymax.6. which is 3. V7?V jcy.0 ft/sec (Fig.. The frame of Fig.281 2 ) = 3. Owing to the tilting motion.5. From Eqs.47 g.0 -6. 5.6 meets this requirement since the small axial deformations of the columns do not permit appreciable tilting. S = 2.-. However.19).

PERIODS OF VIBRATION AND MODE SHAPES

5.5A

The maximum possible velocity, deflection, and acceleration of each mass are obtained by summing the contributions of each mode. A. Periods of Vibration and Mode Shapes The periods of vibration and the mode shapes may be found by the procedure outlined below for the two-mass system shown in Fig. 5.7. (1) Deflect each of the two levels separately a unit horizontal distance, y = 1, with the remaining level restrained against horizontal movement. Calculate the horizontal restraining forces, k, which must be applied at each level to maintain the deflected shape of the structure. (2) Determine the two natural frequencies, w, and the period of vibration, T, in terms of the k values and the masses, m, at each level using Eqs. 5.7 and 5.8. (3) Determine the two mode shapes by substituting the w values into either Eq. 5.9 or 5.10. The two natural vibration frequencies, ti^n, in terms of the restraining forces, k, and the masses, m, are determined from the following equation, derived in Sec. G.3:
2
U)

1
= —

•-

2

kaa , kbb ^ ^ / k a a _ k b b \ ^. 4 kab kba ma mb V yma mb/ ma m b j

^^,^^

For the first mode n = 1, and for the second mode n = 2. The period of vibration, T, for each value of <*)„ is given by

The amplitude, <p^n> at level a, which determines the mode shape of the Ireely vibrating system, is given by either of the following equations, derived in Sec. G.3:

4>^n=„_ 7 T r~' : ^l2 , (kaa/ma)
(kba/nib)

_

-(kab/ma)

(5.9)

The amplitude at level b is assumed to be unity {(pbs. = 1). The symbol k indicates the force per unit displacement; the first letter of the double subscript denotes the point at which k is measured and the second denotes the point which is deflected. Thus kaa denotes the force at level a due to ya = 1, and kab denotes the force at level a due to yb = 1. By Maxwell's law, kab = kba- Values of k used in Eqs. 5.9 and 5.10 are to be given positive signs when acting toward the right, so that, in general, kab and kba should be substituted in these equations with a negative sign when kaa and kbb are assumed to be positive (see Fig. 5.7). B. Maximum Response As shown in Sec. G.4, the maximum response of the structure of Fig. 5.7 is obtained for each of the two modes in terms of participation factors, K, given by Eqs. 5.15 and 5.16. For the first mode ni =% ^ (5.11)

SEISMIC-RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR SIMPLE TYPES OF STRUCTURES

157

5.5C

EXAMPLE 3
;7 , - — ^ (Aal=7bl • 0al yal = KiSi

(5.12)

For the second mode
yb2 = ^ (5.13)

ya2 = - ^

<t>^2 = yb2 • '^a2

(5-14)

In the above equations
ma0ai^mb ma<Pu + mb ma^a2 + mb ma0i2 + mb (5_15)

(5 16)

For each mode the maximum inertia force, F, acting on each mass can be expressed in terms of the spring constants, k, and the maximum deflections, y, as follows:
Fbn = kbtybn + kbayan F^„ = kabybn + kaayan (5-17) (5-18)

Alternatively, each of these forces can be calculated as the product of the mass, m, times its maximum acceleration, w|. The following example applies the foregoing procedure to a simple two-story rigidjointed frame. Example 3 Determine the maximum deflections, horizontal shears, and seismic bending moments in the frame shown in Fig. 5.8, based on the earthquake spectrum of Fig. 1.19. Assume hinged bases and 2% critical damping. For convenience the mass of the frame is assumed to be included in the concentrated masses acting on the girders. Solution The values of k are determined in Fig. 5.9 using a moment distribution procedure. From Fig. 5.9 10 000 , 1 ^ ^ = 3-2^02) = 25.9 lb sec^ in. '

kaa = 14,200 lb/in. kbb = 9,320 lb/in. kab =kba =-10,600 lb/in.

158

CHAPTER 5

EXAMPLE 3
20'

5

J
C I-41.7in.* (6UfZCi)
^kips

2kipt

2k'pt

ji'ipt

2-;o^i"

I-56.4k'>
I'41.71/1"

(.eW^ZO)
claps 2.5'''f"

3

L

25^'" !=> 133.2in'* QOiV^ZS) £

^kips

2'/S'"P^

J
M09.7irt'*

iO

I-t09.7in*

(.awsn

—mr.
Pirned

W7.
Pinned Fig. 5.8—Two-story frame.

Frequencies are given by Eq. 5.7 >J-=kaa + kbb .p A / ^ ^ " 2 ma mb V\ma ^^'°i mb/ I 1 ^^'' ''^ ma mb

Substituting values
0,2 =

14,200 ^ 9320 ^ //'14,200 38.9 25.9 Vl 38.9 ^2.., 28.5

9320^ ^ 25.9/

-10,600-10,600 38.9 25.9

^2 ^ 725-T 668

a;|= 696.5

cji = V28.5 = 5.34 r a d s / s e c ; Ti = 27r/wi = 1.18 sec 0)2 = 7696.5 = 26.4 r a d s / s e c ; Tj = 2^0)3 = 0.24 sec Mode shapes are given by Eq. 5.9
_ •^"^ -(kab/oia) (kaa/ma)-0)2

Substituting values when 0)1 = 28.5 0al =+0.81 and, when J{ = 696.5, 0a2 = - 0 . 8 2
SEISMIC-RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR SIMPLE TYPES OF STRUCTURES

5.5C

EXAMPLE 3

CALCULATION OF SPRUNG CONSTANTS ^DISTRIBUTING
SIGNS STIFFNESS MOMEfJTS Posi/ife entfmomen/a(Js c/ocku^se on f/ie memier S/iffnfss fac/orforamem/>eretfua/sj

FIXED E^DlyiOMEl^TS
EUs/ic curve ofdef/ecrecZ/rtirr
naipf.

Dis/riiu/ioir/ic/vr/oraimme/'/a/ajom/e^ua/s ^ j /rom a

!'4niif-

'.U

I
A

' ;

Mats a l'l$32m*

I
4

DEFLECTION Def/echon a/ore enJofafxecfmfmier

/an^en/ e/rotvn a///re o/ier eire/of //le free/memier: /Hf r t U^MIx 20''240'

ELEVATION OF FRAMB J'/ZO' ///v//ain fia/ifone enJof/ie rntmier is /imfet/ //len //le Jef/echon of//le /imgeJ e/rjfom //le hngen/ /»l/te mem/iei a///re ficeJ enJ u/i//oe: M ^ # rf^itf<>/''n^/f<r/>oi7

y

y^M

for)

M^im
HATFElFl/AT/ONOff/^AJlilE

HINGED END T/e end momen/ rt^uirta /a jjnauee um/ro/a/ion a/one end of a prrsma/ie Beam /lairmj //le /or ena /iinftais 4. as ^rea/ OS if //re nir enjafare fixed, tKrond/rrp/y oecofnes 75% ofrie fie re/a/ii^e sriffneTS ^e/er urAen r/re /to- enJis Jri/rgec/

sriTrness ficror (/ i^a/crej u/fi/c/i app/ies uften if is h xed. //e/rre for a 25% «<W //sfrriuforr /ir/ory ore de/erm/ned.

nrem/)er ivi/A / / ^ /!ir en J free /o ro/a/e, /ie J ^vAe/e is reJuref

Tien r/ren is no fired- enJmome/r/ or carry- oyer momgn/ a///le pmnee/gnt/a/re/ /fe /oior ofana/ys/s is ree/uced Syi^METRY Since //ris fame is symrrre/rrca/ /Ae po/n/s ofinf/ec/ion of/Ae /jeoms fa//on //le cen/er //ne /a6e

of /ne frame fur//ier simp/i'ryinf /Ae /a&er o/^ana/ysis, because //I's a//oivs amemen/a/srr/ot//ii}n con/r/iree/ wfrcA ini/a/t'es an/y one fa/fof//re r£/y's A/eacJiendofeac/is^an, amj y ^ =./'.• /rame. //lejom/s

comjou/e //reFEMi/oe/o//ie/oac/of//ia/s/xmtvi/^

assumee/fixer/

men y^:mO"

'Men _>^ = / "

ani/

w

"C:

m^^6f3-IO'jJ^^=S2/iirhps f C/20) mf^6(3-IC/')J^~52!intas ^-2(3-10') ^,-305inkips

-M J £ '.J, I
+M .-M

7
CHAPTER 5

F i g . 5.9 — T w o - s t o r y f r a m e , m o m e n t s and s h e a r s from unit d i s p l a c e m e n t s (Refs. 5.7 to 5.9). 160

EXAMPLE 3 CALCULATION OFSPRIMO CONSTANTS BYD/STRfSUTm
DISTRIBUTION FACTOFS (Usm^ symme/ry)

5.5C

FIXED EMD MOMENTS Rela/ive

Jom/B Memlxrs BA

JoinlC Nffiers CJ

Rela/iiv

//J
^/20 U^

Dtsfnhu/ion fac/r>r Q.S04 0J% ZDis/fhr/'smlOCO

/A
120 ../in.=.l7Q. zdJ-dSS
lH'*UZm.kips

Disfribuf/on facfor

0279 0S09 0.212 lOidfacls-IOOO

C8

BC-

IW-Z80

S.

N
si
^

^1 1

5 ^ ^

120" ^
(•/'

-yy

tc
^T
^ ^ !,

1^/200

CS 3C !20 = 466 hps
M'-HOSmkias - \

1 i- i- 1
<5\ ! X

1 ^V

Nl

^1
1^

1 +

1.

1

1 +
1.

?
5

rr
4 7 CASE I: y^'lia

1

(6-7^= "eS l/s?/72
^j

=932lr,ps
160 'Q6Z8krps

II
^'Vs

i
^ ^ ? 5

iad= 2fl/*l/ )

§
>?

'lOeirips

^ ^ i

120' i Slllid

1

^ G ^s 5S? "3 i. 1

TT

:?

I/' 1/'
'527

378+258 /20
kips

i

r(ig;-d7iirii/rs

n

4^ •IC
45

^/06hps

IN

^sf

33/

+

^ ^

^1 ^

I
CASE E.
••^

' 183 kips

m

'142 kips

• Im

T

Fig. 5.9—(Continued) SEISMIC-RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR SIMPLE TYPES OF STRUCTURES 161

5.5C

EXAMPLE 3 Horizontal First mode: 0)1 = 5.34 r a d s / s e c , (p^i = +0.81, Ti = 1.18 sec Si = 2.0 ft/sec for f = 0.02 (Fig. 1.19) Using Eqs. 5.11 and 5.12, with K values from Eq. 5.15
m a ^ a l + mb Si ma<^al + mb 0)1 38.9 (0.81) + 25.9 38.9 (0.81)'^ + 25.9 2.0 (12) = 5.02 in. 5.34

deflection

yai = ybi-^ai = 5.02 (0.81) = 4.06 in.

Second mode: 0)2 = 26.4 r a d s / s e c , <^a2 = -0.82, Tj = 0.24 sec S2 = 0.95 ft/sec for S = 0.02 (Fig. 1.19) Using Eqs. 5.13 and 5.14, with K values from Eq. 5.16 _ _ 38.9 (-0.82) + 25.9 0.95 (12) ^^^ 38.9 (-0.82)2 + 25.9 ^ 26.4 = (-0.115) (0.43) s -0.05 in.
ya2 = yb20ae

= -0.05 (-0.82) s 0.04 in. Figure 5.10 shows schematically the two mode shapes.

FIRST A^ODE
Fig. 5.10—Two-story frame, mode shapes. 162

SECOND AiODE

CHAPTER 5

EXAMPLE 3 Horizontal First mode: shear

5.5C

Using Eqs. 5.17 and 5.18, F = seismic force (inertia force acting on the accelerated mass) Fb = 9.32 (5.02) - 10.6 (4.06) = 3.80 kips Fa = 14.2 (4.06) - 10.6 (5.02) = 4.50 kips Second mode: Fb = ±9.32 (-0.05) ± 10.6 (0.04) = ±0.89 kip Fa = ±14.2 (0.04) ± 10.6 (-0.05) =±1.10 kips Maximum Fb = 3.80 + 0.89 = 4.69 kips Maximum Fa = 4.50 + 1.10 = 5.60 kips Maximum shear in second story = 4.69 kips Maximum shear at base = 3.80 - 0.89 + 4.50 + 1.10 = 8.51 kips Seismic moments

First mode: MBA = -27.5 (4.06) + 9.43 (5.02) = -64.5 ft-kips Mac = 31.4 (4.06) - 26.6 (5.02) = -6.2 ft-kips MBE = - ( - 6 4 . 5 - 6.2) = +70.7 ft-kips McB = -McD = -20.0 (5.02) + 21.3 (4.06) = -13.9 ft-kips Second mode:
MBA = T 2 7 . 5 (0-04) ± 9.43 (-0.05) = T1.6 ft-kips

MBC =±31.4 (0.04) T 26.6 (-0.05) = ±2.6 ft-kips
MBE = T ( 2 . 6 - 1.6) = T 1 . 0 ft-kips MCB = - M C D = T 2 0 . 0 (-0.05) i 21.3 (0.04) =±1.8 ft-kips

Maximum seismic moments: MBA = - 6 4 . 5 - 1.6 = - 6 6 . 1 ft-kips Mgc = - 6 . 2 - 2.6 = - 8 . 8 ft-kips MBE = 70.7 + 1.0 = 71.7 ft-kips MCB = -McD = -13.9 - 1.8 = - 1 5 . 7 ft-kips The maximum seismic moments shown correspond to a sidesway to the right in the primary mode. Since reversal of motion will occur, for design purposes signs should be assumed to be either positive or negative. It is instructive to note that the maximum shears correspond to the use of a static seismic coefficient of 0.47 g in the upper story and 0.34 g in the lower story. Reference 5.3 for zone 3 conditions would require static seismic coefficients that are only about 30% as great (0.133 and 0.109 g for upper and lower stories, respectively). The design of this
SEISMIC-RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR SIMPLE TYPES OF STRUCTURES 163

5.6

ELASTIC FLEXURAL MEMBERS

frame is such that there is negligible plastic deformation. It is evident that the frame is more costly than one designed using code coefficients. However, a lighter frame designed using code coefficients would depend for survival on energy absorption through inelastic response, resulting in a certain amount of structural damage. 5.6 ELASTIC FLEXXmAL MEMBERS The recent publication of tables for normal modes of vibration of beams having various end conditions'''" permits the rapid determination of maximum seismic effects in flexural members of constant section. Elastic bodies, such as flexural members, can vibrate laterally in an infinite number of natiiral frequencies. If the vibration is harmonic, then for each such frequency the deflection curve of the beam assumes a definite shape which is called the normal mode of vibration. The mathematical expressions defining the shapes of the normal modes are known as characteristic functions. For each type of flexural member with given end conditions, there are an infinite number of these functions. The tables of Ref. 5.10 give the relative ordinates, (p, to the deflection curve at selected points along the span and successive derivatives that are proportional to the slope, bending moment, and shear acting on the beam. The discussion to follow presents the basic equations applicable to elastic flexural members and adapts them for use with the tables of Ref. 5.10. A. Equations for Flexural Members From Eq. 1.31 the maximum possible seismic deflection, y, at any point on a structure, is obtained by summing the contributions of each mode as follows: y = EnKn-^nW ^ ^ ^ 7 (5.19)

where ?n is the maximum energy per unit mass attained by the structure. As discussed in Sec. 5.4, the expression V 2?„ is the ordinate, S^, to the velocity spectrum of the earthquake for a single-degree-of-freedom system of period Tn and with the same damping as exists in the flexural member. Consequently Eq. 5.19 can be written y=L„K„</)>)^S. and for any mode, n, y,= K„0jx)5ks, (5.21) (5.20)

The bending moment, Mn, and the shear, V„, at any point on a structure for a given mode, n, are of primary interest. Differentiating Eq. 5.21 twice, multiplying both sides by EI, and incorporating the term ^l gives the value of the maximum bending moment
_ d^yn KaTaSn , / 1 dVn\ M,= E I - 3 - = - EI/32 U - - ^ dx^ 2TT \^l dx^ / „„„, (5.22)

The term jS^ (defined in Eq. 5.29) is introduced to provide notation for the term in parentheses, which is consistent with that of Ref. 5.10. Note that the iS^nterms cancel. V, = EI j T - = — dx'' 2iT 164

1 dV, Elffi b s dx^ Pi

(5.23) CHAPTER 5

/-',

\

27) ^^-^^^ "(^'^2^^^^)'^°" The term i3n depends on the end conditions and is related to the circular frequency of vibration. Equation 1. c^ " (^J)^ V EI (5 29) ^^-2^' where mi is the mass per xmit length.27 uses the value of Kn in a general form.6A Using the notation of Ref.24) (5. <pa. in the following way: ^ = T =-2iL. alternative expressions are'"'' 1 r^ 1 d^<pn Equation 5. the other end free One end clamped.V a ^ . Wn. 5. and (p'" are given in Ref.10 and 5. The term Knis sometimes called the participation factor. the other end supported Both ends of beam free 2aa/0al [V/SnJl] [(-1)°''^ v a l + T .11.25) Tabulated values of <pa. 5.1 + 2a!„] [la^/jS^i] [1 . Tn.10. satisfy the orthogonality condition used in Refs. which states that />^dx=Jl This particular normalization is used in this document only in connection with the K„ values defined in Sec.1] 0 165 Kn SEISMIC-RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR SIMPLE TYPES OF STRUCTURES .EQUATIONS FOR FLEXURAL MEMBERS 5. 5.V a i .30 applies only when the normalized modes.(-1)"] [V/Sai] [(-1)" / o T + T .^^'^°)'^° V. In the special case of constant EI.21 to 5. and the period of vibration. 5. 5.^/iZ. the other end supported Both ends of beam clamped" One end free. where the primes denote differentiation with respect to jSnX. <P1. With this notation Eqs. as follows'"'' End conditions One end of beam clamped.10 for various points along the span.6A. parenthetic terms in the above equations are defined as follows: 1 d^<Pn Ad^ 1 d'c^n p3 ^„3 =K =K (5.26) M„=(^°Y.'•'^•'•'^ having values for various end conditions and assuming constant EI. (5.23 become y„ = ( ^ ^ ^ ) < ^ n (5.

28 can be expressed in terms of Dnin the following forms.33.33 are identical with those obtained using Eqs. Example 4 Determine the curves of maximum deflection. 5. evaluate the beam constants ^„. from Sec. and earthquake spectrum considered (such as that given in Fig.28 or. and shear using Eqs. 5. The results obtained by Eqs. and moment for the cantilever chimney shown in Fig. and V are obtained by summing the absolute values of each mode.31 to 5.5. Common types of structure to which the foregoing analysis can be adapted are cantilever elements such as chimneys and pressure vessels. (4) Combine results for each mode to get the maximum possible values.6B EXAMPLE 4 Tabulated values of oin and ^nfor various end conditions are given in Ref. B. The following example illustrates the application of the procedure to a stack of uniform cross section. 5. 1.28. 5.31 to 5. (2) For the T„. WQ.6J Tn^ Kn 166 2TT V EI 2a n CHAPTER 5 . (pa.19. and <pa.10. to be considered.28 gives the following expressions for use in calculating the chimney response: Vn--= Cn0 Mn = CnEI^(/)J Vn = C„EI/3i</)n« -Iso . Solution Substituting the value Cn from Sec. Assume full fixity at the base and 5% critical damping. n. 5. (3) Evaluate for each mode the maximum deflection. shear. Calculations are to be made for the first three modes only. 5. Eqs. Kn. Tn. damping values.26 to 5.10. Equations 5. determine the values of S„. 5. moment.26 to 5. which have previously appeared in the literature:'•'^''•" y-'=Ei(^r°" Mn = ^ ^ D „ %=^^^^D.1 for the expression KnT„S„/2. 1. 5. The procedure for determining the seismic response of a constant section beam or other flexural member is as follows: (1) For each mode. 6. ^'-''^ (5. The maximum possible values of y.26 to 5.r in Eqs. (pn. alternatively. The term (2jr/Tn) (Sn/g) is sometimes caUed the load factor. M.26 to 5. 5.11 using the spectrum of Fig.32) (5.19).33) where w is the load per unit length (w = mig). Dn. The factors /Snand Knand the values (pS and (pn at selected points along the span are conveniently obtained from Ref.

00 x 10^ lb in.14) (8.14) (7.28 (0.2) = 0.511 lb sec^ in.0) (1/32.11—Cantilever chimney. the envelope moments tending to be higher by a considerable percentage in the SEISMIC-RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR SIMPLE TYPES OF STRUCTURES 167 . even though some are negative.12 to 5.0) (1/32.76 X 10' in. mb= (3.111 lb sec^ in.3. = 1.28 0. .0) (1/12.EXAMPLE 4 5.65) = 4.08 sec Beam constants for the first three modes are given in Table 5.~^ Brick lining ^-3 Weight of brick in a wall is 120 lb ft"''.400 lb sec^ in.667) (120) (1/12.~^ Neglecting I of brick lining EJ.07 X 10^) 5. 5.(inside diameter)''] 64 I. because the envelopes are obtained by absolute summation. = 3.40 lb for 1-in.2 Weight of steel is 3. = (30 X 10^) (0. ms = (3. 5.14 are shown without regard to sign. x 1-in.40) (1/12.^ T„(i3„i)=' = 2n 6. x 1-ft-long volume.6B 4" SfemJ ft d'-C^lD.04) (0. The shape of the moment envelope deviates considerably from the moment diagram obtained on the assumption of a uniform lateral loading that would produce the same base moment.2) = 0.28 X 10' V iH 6.28 x lO'^ lb in.176 X 10*) = 5.-^ Total mass per inch of height mi = ms + mt = 0.511 (120)" (2.^ E.33) (0.500) (3. Comment Numbers in Figs. 3" Ffrebrick lining Fig. •Fixed bos* Steel shell _ 7r[(outside diameter)'' .

273 0.004 in.1 .794 -0.5 X 10' lb 0' 2.29 X 10^ in.73 0.894 -0.07 s e c 0. and the mass.9 1. For an important structure where some over s t r e s s will occur.460 0.034 0. 5. 6 3 4 --1.427 1." -2.000 c^" -1.715 0. as demonstrated in Fig.034 0.S 0.'"'^ By way of comparison.790 0.25 0. <p.000 tf.602 --0.000 0.679 0. 7 9 0 -.209 0.273 0.128 0.-lb 13.922 1. upper portions of the chimney.02 0. This energy 168 CHAPTER 5 .436 -0.679 0.44 X lO' lb 0 ^ ^ 0i a 2a/|3l = K T m)^ St TKS/2ir = C CEI^* CEI^' x/i 0.922 0.7 1.000 1.8 0.347 -1.12 f t / s e o 3 1.179 --1.0 X 10' lb Third mode1 5.20 g.427 --1.990 0. / s e c 0.0 0. S.452 -1.052 1.7 LIMIT-DESIGN APPROACH The earthquake effect on structures with low damping.000 0.000 0.1 0.-lb 3.3—BEAM CONSTANTS* Beam constants F i r s t mode 1.-lb 30.5 sec.209 1.457 2.456 0.000 •For values of (31.179 0. 6.8 X 10-* 163 X 10"' ) 7.52 0.0 . of the structure by Eq. 1. 1.451 1.2 to 0.20.78 4 .43 i n .2 0. 5.367 --1.860 -0.000 0» 2. 41'.55 X 101-8 34.182 1.456 1.048 0.185 0.01 X lO' in.27 g.315 -0.091 0. moments in chimneys calculated by superposition of modes are sometimes reduced to a c count for the overestimate of higher mode effects. m.602 1.140 -1. t F r o m Figs. 1.0 I n .091 -0.000 * 0.869 -1.647 -0. / s e c 0.052 0.71 X 10-* 2.3 0.44 0.349 0.47.21.46 X 10'-3 29.965 1.034 0.0 <t> 0. and <>" see Ref.431 -0. a.19 and 1.40 i n . 4. 5 2 = 1. 23.414 1.052 1.415 -1.45 f t / s e c = 5.5.037 -2. The limit-design concept provides this capability for simple structures'*'* such as those laterally braced with tension members.457 -.88 3.052 --0.000 Second mode 3.7 0.007 -1.6 0.69 22.140 -.206 -0.' 1.090 -0.867 0.193 0. it is desirable to be able to estimate the amount of plastic deformation and the reserve strength of the structure. The accelerations involved can approach 1 g when elastic response is maintained.512 1.10 g would be damaged.468 -1.3 X 10"'9 4.241 -1.039 -0. of a given earthquake can be estimated in terms of the ordinate to the velocity spectrum.725 2.10.948 -1.16 s e c 1.31 X 10"' 1.4 X lO' in. 3 1 5 -.0 . whereas a stack similarly designed for 0. The use of code seismic coefficients under these conditions will result in cost savings but may also result in damage in the event of a major earthquake.19 s e c 0. some codes'*^ specify 0.367 1. U.7 LIMIT-DESIGN APPROACH TABLE 5.451 1.000 1. 0 8 / 3 .182 1. using code allowable s t r e s s e s .23 X 1 0 . A stack designed for 0.959 0.039 1.00 0.048 -2.999 -1.10 g for stacks''^ and o t h e r s ' ' " r e quire 0.460 0.128 0.512 1.000 *' 2.20 g.000 «"• -1.85 61.466 -1.827 -1. and providing for the resulting seismic forces in these circumstances may be very costly in the case of heavy structures. In practice.4 O.000 <P 0. would probably survive an earthquake of the intensity assumed in this example without significant overs t r e s s . is maximized when the period of vibration of the structure ranges from 0.59 in.185 0.725 1.5 f t / s e c = 18.0 .00 0. 9 4 8 0.634 -0. Energy Considerations The energy input.072 in. / s e o 2. The base moment in this case is equal to that computed on the basis of a total uniformly applied static horizontal load of 0.0 1.25 X 10"•3 10.

13—Cantilever chimney.12 — Cantilever chimney. ) D i s p l a c e m e n t Envelope Fig. 5.ENERGY CONSIDERATIONS 1st Mode J 5. Shear Envelope SEISMIC-RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR SIMPLE TYPES OF STRUCTURES 169 .7A 2nd Mode 3rd Mode 4J o ^N 1 ^4 CO o A 'W Displacements (in. displacements. Ist Mode Shear (kips) Fig. shears. 5.

'*'^ Caution should be used in assuming the number of members that are regarded as being fully effective as energy dissipators. with vertical columns supporting a mass at the top. general nonuniform stretching of anchor bolts has been observed in the case of tall cantilever fractionating columns after a major earthquake. The earthquake motion excites the system into a number of cycles of alternating motion.14—Cantilever chimney. For example. in the limit design of a rodbraced structure four tiers high.7B DUCTILITY 1st Mode Moment (in 1000 inch k i p u n i t s ) Fig. although the amounts of stretch in the two sets of rods are not necessarily equal. Moment Envelope is stored as elastic strain energy. This ratio. In the case of a structure laterally braced with tension diagonals. B. it would be reasonable. to consider the energy absorption of only two tiers. the total permanent deformation can be roughly estimated in certain cases. The number of increments and the amount of deformation per increment cannot be determined by using the limit-design method given here. Each diagonal becomes effective as an energy dissipator whenever the stress becomes sufficient to cause inelastic stretch. is called the ductility 170 CHAPTER 5 . in the present state of knowledge. regardless of the direction of slope. as long as response is elastic.'"'^ Stretching of the rods of opposite slope is also usual. but. /i. V. when plastic deformation occurs. a portion is dissipated as plastic strain energy. moments. 5. the shear reversals in any given panel due to the excursions s t r e s s all the diagonals in the panel. Similarly. Ductility The ductility of a member can be measured by the ratio of the deflection or strain at impending collapse to the deflection or strain at yield. D.5. However. each excursion above a certain amplitude producing an increment of plastic deformation in the structure which dissipates a part of the energy input. This conclusion is supported by the observed fact that the permanent stretch observed in diagonal bracing rods of tank towers after a strong earthquake is not confined to those sloping in the same direction.

D. U.34) where c is the safety factor. The use of a safety factor resulting in a design that is considerably lighter than that obtained using code coefficients may be unwise. as demonstrated in Example 5. from 20 to 100. The value of jx for a structural-steel tension member may be very large. For a structural-steel flexural member secured against secondary types of failure. estimate the required member sizes. V.PLASTIC STRAIN REVERSAL 5.'*"''*^' In important structures where such members are to be used as energy absorbers. C. If c is about 3. Very little is known about the effect of such strain reversal on the energy-absorbing capacity of flexural members. (3) Estimate a value for S from a spectrum such as that in Fig. Plastic Strain Reversal It is important to recognize and avoid situations involving alternating plasticity or reversal of plastic strains. the results are comparable to that provided by code requirements in many cases. applied in such a way that the plastic strain energy provided is some multiple of that required. T. D = c(U-V) (5. the following steps summarize the limit-design approach: (1) Assume an allowable plastic deformation. E. from Eq. D. Instability The plastic strains in a structure subjected to a strong earthquake can cause horizontal oscillations of very large magnitude. which can be a value of the fiber strain in the members or a deflection of the structure. A minimum limiting value of S corresponding to T = 0.5 sec is suggested. based on the chosen percentage of critical damping and a roughly estimated period of vibration.47 and the required energy dissipation from Eq. (5) From the preceding step.7C factor. U. This is the type of action that can be illustrated by the breaking of a piece of thin metal due to its repeated flexing in opposite directions. This may be important in the case of a s t r u c ture supporting a heavy elevated mass since the resulting eccentric moment caused by horizontal displacement of the mass decreases the seismic resistance of the supporting structure.19. 1. Safety Factor A safety factor is necessary in using limit design. Decide on the number of energyabsorbing members to be considered and the required safety factor. 1. it is advisable to make certain that no cross section is subjected to plastic strain reversal. All joints must be capable of developing the strength of the weakest member connected. (2) Calculate the elastic strain energy. may range from 8 to 40 or more. SEISMIC-RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR SIMPLE TYPES OF STRUCTURES 171 . That is. tJ. (4) Compute the energy input. The ductility factor for compression members should preferably be assumed as unity. and the energy. This destabilizing effect may be accounted for by increasing the total energy input. Select the appropriate percentage of critical damping.34. Careful detailing is required when plastic strains are involved. F. Procedure In general.'*'**'*'^ The ductility factor for reinforced-concrete members depends on the ratios of tensile and compressive steel and may be as h i g h ' ' " as 30. Caution should be used in assuming high ix values to avoid intolerably large deflections. 5. which can be dissipated in plastic deformation.

19.-lb) 2 " " " 2E f2 D = fy(e„ . and results are compared with those obtained by other methods.19. . a yield s t r e s s of 33 ksi. If E = 3 x 10^ psi and fy = 33. Since e^.7002A ft-lb CHAPTER 5 . and compare the results. Assume that upset rods are to be used. (7) Revise member sizes if required by the results of step 6.-lb) D+V 2|i . an allowable s t r e s s of 33 ksi. and 2% critical damping (3) A static seismic coefficient of 10% g using an allowable tensile stress of 26.15 under the assumptions stipulated below. ./in. (i = €^/€y = 0.1) LSA = ^ (2^ _ 1) LSA (in. (1) Limit-design considerations using the spectrum of Fig.1) LSA (in..0011 = 18. This procedure is demonstrated in detail in the following example. a safety factor of 3. and. V = 1 ^ LSA = ^ L2A (in. 5. e^ = ^ = 1.7G EXAMPLE 5 (6) Determine the maximum lateral deflection of the structure.1) LSA = -^ (|J.7 ksi Neglect leg deformations in estimating the period of vibration and energy-absorbing capacity. D + V = 33.1 x 10"^ in.-lb) f f ^ V + D = . 1.16 elastic energy per cubic inch of rod = area under s t r e s s .-lb = 18. allowing for instability effects.000 psi. Example 5 Size the steel diagonal bracing rods for the pressure-vessel-support structure shown in Fig. with L = 340 in.p (2tx .€y) LSA = fyCyda . Solution (a) Energy capacity of structure From Fig.ui./in.0OOLA in.s t r a i n curve.ux D + V = 218. 5. an ultimate elongation of 2%.000 X 0.02 in. and a modulus of elasticity of 3 x lO' psi (2) Dynamic considerations using the spectrum of Fig. 2% critical damping.02/0.-.200SA ft-lb D+V D= 172 18 200SA 17.^).2.5. 1. = 0.1 where SA is the cross-sectional area of four rods (in.2 ..1) (340) (2A) oo.0011 ^2 X 18.

17—Deformation of support structure. Fig.16—Stress-strain curve. i' Ws H »jwm (a) ^wrrrmr WffWW °f}fW»» (b) Fig. 5. 5. 5.EXAMPLE 5 5 ^0n0r/0\- Sloe view eso view Fig. SEISMIC-RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR SIMPLE TYPES OF STRUCTURES .15—Pressure-vessel-support structure.

200 = 3060 (2M . M = 6.5002A) = 102. this slightly overestimates S.17 y = Le i i = i ^ = ^ e y M = ^ y = 0.485 in. thus in this case the effect of the secondary horizontal shear due to the vertical load eccentricity is negligible.33 in.17. for T between 1 and 2 sec and 2% critical damping.OOIM = 0.2) " ^^'^°° " ' ^ ' ' Required rod size Using a safety factor of 3.25SA = 1. D =3(U-V) 17.5. 5.044M = 0.1) L2A = H .7G EXAMPLE 5 Energy input From Fig.044M (ft) (O.-lb = 3060 (2M . Energy input U = | | . secondary horizontal shear.7002A = 3(34.^ per rod Use 1%-in.1 as a good average.2M^ + 34. H'. 174 CHAPTER 5 .2M^ D + V = ^ (2M .1) (340) (1.500 (0. M = 6.1) in. due to vertical load.15002A A = 0.) .3 in.= 2 (32. y = 0.19.08 and y = 3.1)^ . Since T < 1 sec. If U' is neglected. Maximum horizontal deflection From (a) of Fig. W. 5.600 .485) (4) = 36. use S = 2. ° 2 2 A M 2 i i (2M . which is conservative WS^ 500 (1000) (2.2 in. 1.700 (2M .-diameter upset rods (area A = 1.-. U' = 12.-.044M)^ = 24.D ft-lb U' + U = D + V 24.275 ft = 3. is given by H ' = ^ a Resultant increment of energy input is From (b) of Fig.25.^).529M (in.200 .D Solving..

: Sa = 24. 5.500 kip= 500 lb v = L ' — = ^ .88 .-diameter upset rods. Therefore the secondary shear is about 10% of the total.19 without exceeding the 2% rod elongation by more than 3%. A = 8. ^ „ v^t „ vT65 6.485 x 33 x 0.65 . a 24. Solution (b) From (b) of Fig. „ .76 = 380 kips 1.28 0.EXAMPLE 5 This shear is Wy -f= 500x0. for T = 0. oU Use 3'/4-in. Horizontal shear = 500 x 0.5 ft/sec 2 From Fig.L^ HL 1 _ L^H ^ ^ b b^ b b A E b ^ (340)^ (500) ^0. This design is equivalent to a code design using a static coefficient of about 11%. 20 =6.3 kips.4 ksi < 33 ksi o. This conclusion implies that the structure is realigned and that rods are retensioned before undergoing a further shock of the same intensity.-diameter rod. .756 ^ = 2^ g = 2 ' ^ i 8 ^ = i : i 7 A = ^ r Try 3'/(-in.414 Rod load = 380 x — — = 269 kips 269 Stress = T-— = 32. if a 1-kip horizontal load is applied at the to^ H = 0.7G Maximum shear = horizontal component of two rod loads = 2 x 1. 1.0113 .17.707 = 69.5 :. 1. SEISMIC-RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR SIMPLE TYPES OF STRUCTURES 175 .21.0113 5. .87 kips = H ' 5. Rod size is adequate to withstand three shocks of the intensity corresponding to Fig. (240)2 (^) (3 X 10') A ^'^' y„ = horizontal deflection due to a 500-kip horizontal load at the top yst = 500 X 0.30 VA'=2.275 „ . J = —in.26 and 2% critical damping.

in some cases. The resistance required is about 7. combined with that from other simultaneous loadings.12. it is not uncommon to provide a higher degree of seismic resistance in critical elements of conventional electric-power generating plants than would be prescribed by earthquake provisions of building codes. which include structures and equipment essential to continuous operation. For noncritical components that are not absolutely vital to continuing operation. Critical components. in." a limited amount of damage and plastic yielding from the maximum probable ground motion can be considered acceptable. In general. ^ Use l%-in. 4. the design of these structtrres should be such that the effect of this ground motion.12 may serve as a guide in preliminary estimates of relative ground-motion intensities.414) = 35.SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN DESIGNING SEISMIC-RESISTANT NUCLEAR-REACTOR STRUCTURES Solution (c) Horizontal shear = 0. For this reason. but to a lesser degree.10 (5) (100) = 50 kips Load per rod = 50*" (1/2) (1. The economy in assumptions a and c is obtained at the expense of considerable p e r manent deformation in the structure. reactor structures (both buildings and equipment) whose failure could cause release of fission products might be considered to constitute a category of very critical components which could be termed "category 1" (see Sec. % g 11 76 10 Rod diameter.5 times greater than that required by assumptions a and c. lY^ 3'^ 1% The penalty in attempting to maintain elastic response (assumption b) is evident. The temporary shortage of electric power caused by earthquake damage to a conventional power plant is of limited significance compared to the potential threat to the public which might result from fission-product release possibly occasioned by severe earthquake damage to a nuclear reactor. are designed for seismic factors higher than code requirements. 4. Comparison of results Assumption (a) Limit-design method (b) Spectrum method (c) Use of static-load coefficient Equivalent. would cause a resultant stress that lies below the yield point. Structures in nuclear-power-reactor installations which are important to reactor operation but whose failure would not involve the release of fission products. which can be termed "category 2. In this category.3 kips 35 3 Required net area = r r ^ = 1.3A). the discussion in Sec. 3. also require special consideration. 176 CHAPTER 5 .^). For estimating the strongest probable ground motion and seismicity. which.485 in. building-code requirements may be used in design. The components of this category should be designed so that the probability of failure approaches zero under the strongest probable earthquake ground motion.-diameter upset rods (area A = 1. might not be functionally a c ceptable. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN DESIGNING SEISMIC-RESISTANT NUCLEAR-REACTOR STRUCTURES Seismic-resistance Requirements As previously stated in Sec.32 in.

For structures meeting this requirement.STATIC. and Limit-design Methods Three approaches have been considered in aseismic-structural design: (1) use of static coefficients. as would be the case for structures in category 1. which is a function of the amount of plastic deformation considered to be acceptable. an allowable s t r e s s in tension or flexure approaching the static yield point of the material may be considered. accomplishing results with the least amount of effort. Assignment of allowable stresses should reflect the accuracy with which the seismic loading is evaluated. DYNAMIC. However. the structure and coupling should be sufficiently simple to permit a realistic estimate of the properties needed for analysis. but the adequacy of the structure is measured by its energy-absorbing capacity.8A. " comprises service and support structures not vital to reactor safety and operation. which can be termed "category 3 . However. the result may be no better than that obtained using an estimated static coefficient. Otherwise. In common with the spectrum method.'*^ As a prerequisite to the use of any method based on dynamics. (2) a method based on dynamics. No general rule can be stated to cover this situation since considerations other than those of a seismic nature make this a matter that should be decided by the designer. a vessel in an elevated position is a system having one or more degrees of freedom and will often experience an increase in seismic effects. some cracking and plastic yielding can be anticipated under strong ground motion. and (3) a limit-design method. AND LIMIT-DESIGN METHODS 5. and should be used for structures in the nuclear reactor field which are of lesser importance. as in the case of some structures in category 2. and where it is also desirable to have an assessment of the remaining reserve strength. Thus static coefficients may find application in any of the three categories defined in Sec. When limit design is applied. 5. the use of seismic reqtiirements in building codes is appropriate. with significant damage perhaps occurring at maximum probable ground-motion intensities. use of static coefficients is the only appropriate alternative where it becomes impractical to estimate with confidence the structural properties required for a dynamic or limit-design analysis. Dynamic.8B A noncritical category. It is recommended that the static coefficients be not less than the code values. Each method is appropriate under certain conditions and should not be applied indiscriminately. the stresses being higher when the loading is more realistic. This is e s - SEISMIC-RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR SIMPLE TYPES OF STRUCTURES 177 . Static. In this category. B. C. the limit-design approach also requires reasonably accurate estimate of structural properties and is appropriate where some yielding is acceptable. The spectrum method may also be warranted when a negligible cost penalty r e sults from designing so as to maintain elastic response under the higher calculated seismic loads sometimes resulting from spectrum analysis even though elastic response may not be mandatory. Application of limit design to yielding flexural members is subject to more uncertainty than that involved in its application to yielding tension members. Static coefficients at present receive widespread usage. as compared to those encountered when the same structure is directly anchored to a rigid foundation in firm ground. Vessels and Shells It has been indicated that vessels attached to a firm foundation could be expected to experience about the same acceleration as that of the ground itself. This is true regardless of the importance of the structure. in uncomplicated cases where the spectrum approach is used. When structures are designed in this way. In addition. the static yield s t r e s s of the material is used. use of the spectrum method of this report is appropriate when it is important that the response of the structure remain within the elastic range.

It would probably vary with the s t r e s s intensity. Seismic-induced malfunction of the reactor may indirectly cause s t r e s s e s in the vessel as a result of increased internal pressures which are additive to the stresses caused directly by seismic motion. Such bracing would have to be designed for very high seismic factors. the weight of the reactor. biological shield. and other interior equipment. Shielding Structures Support considerations similar to those previously discussed for containment vessels apply to massive. It is improbable that an aftershock of intensity comparable to that of the main shock would occur within one or two days of the main shock. the main problem resulting from the elevated position (aside from larger seismic forces) becomes possible soil overstress and tilting or differential settlement of the support structure due to the large seismic overturning moment. D. Shielding walls with a core constructed in blocks consisting of vertical wood and metal lamina sandwiched between metal facings have an indeterminate. it is often permissible to consider such a structure as a rigid body.5. about 50% or more. intersections of abutting shielding walls or intersections of shielding walls and the top shield may have to permit relative movement under temperature cycling. When supported directly on the ground. It is probably unnecessarily conservative to combine maximum values of the internal pressure and seismic stresses since they would probably not coincide in time. would be essentially that of the facings (which would probably be continuous plates spanning between wall botmdaries) resulting in large deflections when the ratio of span to plate thickness is large. if any flexibility exists in the structure. When this condition exists. Since it is usually not feasible to prevent core slippage. due to heat losses. but very low. The stresses from internal pressure would probably occur after the main earth shock had passed and could decay with time. However. Similar constructions combining metal and wood may also be susceptible to such slippage. a very rigid load path can be effected which may be quite capable of functioning elastically under seismic forces. The effect of seismic stresses in increasing leakage rates is unknown.8D SHIELDING STRUCTURES peciaily true when the structural elements provided for resisting horizontal forces are relatively flexible members with low damping. combining concrete with metal. For example. in the range of 5000 psi or less in the case of structural steel. perhaps 50%. seismic resistance unless special features are incorporated to permit shear transfer between lamination and between blocks. this type of construction should be avoided if seismic integrity is a design consideration. and it might be negligible when these s t r e s s e s are low. the aftershocks immediately following the main shock are usually much less severe than the main shock. Under these conditions it is considered reasonable to combine with the maximum internal pressure only a fraction of the maximum seismic s t r e s s . Flexibility requirements for the alleviation of thermal stresses may result in an articulated construction that may be unfavorable from a seismic standpoint. Furthermore. The resistance to loads applied normal to the plane of the wall. may require that relative interlaminar slippage be considered unless special measures are taken to ensure bond capable of transferring the necessary shearing forces across the contact mterface. for example. where the load is sufficiently intense to cause slippage. heavily reinforced shielding structures of concrete. to entirely prevent plastic deformation in the event of a strong earthquake. 178 CHAPTER 5 . When a massive support structure is provided beneath the elevated vessel to carry the vessel. Laminated constructions. seismic-induced flexural tension may be sufficient to require reinforcing steel in addition to that needed for thermal or other considerations. which would reduce the continuity normally characteristic of monolithic reinforced-concrete construction that is usually relied upon for load transfer under seismic conditions.

When it is extremely important that no overstressing be permitted and when the structure is simple enough that its periods of vibration and damping factors can be reliably estimated. This agrees with the observed prevalence of failures in reinforced-concrete chimneys at levels above the third point in height. Solid brick linings supported on corbels at frequent intervals are preferable from an earthquake standpoint to perforated brick linings with a large corbel spacing. Tall cantilever stacks of either constant or variable section. with its supports. In this category. are administration buildings. garages. but numerical integration processes are generally required whenever the stack section varies. Linings of pneumatically applied. The equipment item. much of it consisting of attempts to simplify the aseismic design of such structures. for example. the bending moments based on dynamics are typically greater than those corresponding to the rigid-body assumption. are subject to amplification of seismic effects. 5.50 g or more.24). The building-code seismic requirements of Ref. and definitely require special treatment. but it may not be satisfactory when applied to stacks that taper in cross section or thickness.14 and 5. It may originate from external causes. based on a dynamic analysis.22 to 5. at sections in the middle region and above. is usually a structure with small damping and a short period of vibration. Application of the spectrum curves to elevated stacks or those of variable section involves the determination of the shapes of at least the first three modes of vibration. Equipment and Piping The usual seismic problem with respect to equipment is the prevention of malfunction. can provide increased seismic resistance where their use is otherwise feasible. such as support failure. These routines can be performed by hand computation. Therefore the structure must be designed for an unusually high seismic factor. the use of the earthquake spectrum is recommended in determining the earthquake effect. mounted on a flexible supporting structure. often 0. Such malfunction may originate internally. some damage could be expected. Conversely. and maintenance facilities.8E E. F. 5.'*" Chimney linings should receive special attention when continuous operation is mandatory after an earthquake. owing to sensitivity to earthquake motion of the internal parts. to maintain elastic response to strong earthquake motion.3 are considered to be appropriate for these structures. An analytical method is theoretically possible for the case of an elevated stack of constant section. 5. or metal linings of special alloy steel. warehouses. as previously discussed in the case of vessels and shields. but a greater degree of protection for these structures would have little economic justification. heat-resistant concrete.EXHAUST STACKS 5. In tall flexible chimneys it is typical to find that the calculated bending moments in the lower portion. Auxiliary Structures Auxiliary structures include buildings whose structural integrity is relatively unimportant to the function of the reactor.6 is satisfactory for the design of cantilever stacks having a constant cross section anchored directly to a foundation on firm ground. As has been emphasized previously. but they are very time consuming and involve a tremendous amovmt of detail that is more efficiently handled by electronic computers. Exhaust Stacks The method presented in Sec. are less than those computed by considering the chimney as a rigid body subjected throughout its height to a uniform acceleration equal to the assumed maximum ground acceleration. G. SEISMIC-RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR SIMPLE TYPES OF STRUCTURES 179 . The subject of seismic effects on tall stacks has received considerable attention in recent technical literature (Refs.

Use of the electronic computer to evaluate stresses in highly redundant piping systems is a recent development that often makes it practical to consider the entire piping system as a single structural entity. which largely reduces the coupling. Laterally flexible equipment supports are sometimes used. In this zone a coefficient of 0. for which no generalizations are applicable. In those piping-system designs where thermal stresses p r e dominate.1 g seems appropriate for equipment of a minor nature where the cost penalty in using 0. The need for flexibility in piping to accommodate thermal movement often tends to be incompatible with the requirement for restraint to resist seismic effects.8G EQUIPMENT AND PIPING When the supporting element is a structure that responds as a rigid body. Under these conditions the procedure of Sec. simplification results when bracing can be provided near each elbow which approximates the condition occurring in a series of straight runs. Since piping often joins numerous pieces of equipment. If functionally acceptable.4 applies. In this case it is often possible to approximate the seismic r e sponse of the equipment as that of a system having one degree of freedom. a very complex coupled structural system would result if the piping were rigid. Usually. the points at which the equipment is attached are subjected to essentially the same acceleration as that of the ground itself. due to lateral ground motion normal to the axis of the pipe. overlapping assumptions. Under these conditions seismic resistance is provided primarily by the piping itself. such as dead load or wind. or hydraulic snubbers which permit slow thermal movements but which act as solid supports under transient loads. Under these conditions seismic resistance can often be obtained by (1) designing the equipment supports to carry the entire tributary horizontal seismic force and (2) providing sufficient flexibility in the piping to accommodate the differential movements involved without overstress. apparendy for the purpose of eliminating the flexible joints in the piping which would normally be required to provide foi thermal movement. to permit an increase in allowable s t r e s s e s used under nonseismic conditions. such an increase readily permits tolerating high seismic factors in many cases. For zone 3 conditions it does not seem advisable to use a coefficient of less than 0. study of simplified versions of the structure. or other means suited to the time available. judgment. laterally unsupported pipe loops in a vertical plane presents a more complex problem. it is reasonable. limit stops instead of solid supports. An effort should be made to keep the structural system simple enough so that its r e sponse can be determined in a rational and straightforward manner. can perform the rigid-body type of analysis for seismic stresses in which the exciting force at any point in the system is propor180 CHAPTER 5 . 5. Programs that are capable of determining stresses due to static forces. 5. problems of thermal expansion require flexibility in the piping. In such cases this leads to the use of widely spaced lateral stays.5. and it may be extremely difficult to evaluate in all but the simplest systems. to which the procedure of Sec. requiring consideration of ground motion both normal and parallel to the plane of the piping. the equipment and the support structure can frequently be idealized as a system with two degrees of freedom. Obviously this cannot always be done. Long. however.4 can be used to estimate the r e sponse of the equipment. Seismic stresses in runs of straight piping. As in the case of building structures. when considering seismic forces acting on piping systems. with stresses due to pressure and dead load being fairly low. The designer must then estimate the proper seismic factor by more refined analysis. When the support structure is elastically coupled to the ground. are rarely critical when it is possible to provide lateral support at each vertical support.2 g would be significant and where failure would not jeopardize important functions or human life.2 g for equipment items of major importance.

... II. 1957. J. C. Vol. Cast-iron pipe and fittings a r e vulnerable to earthquake effects. which have been extended to solve dynamic problems. Felgar. The use of ductile pipe materials. Sutherland and H. 5. Am. 1956. 1958. L.14 5. Texas.11 5. Inc. steel pipe and fittings should be used. Where the hazard from rupture is great. Bureau of Engineering Research. revised edition. American Concrete Institute (P. S. University of Texas.4 5. D. Princeton. Tables of Characteristic Functions Representing Normal Modes of Vibration of a Beam. A. Statically Indeterminate Structures. Jr.8 5. J. J. 1946. Inc. New York. New York. The Ronald P r e s s Company. Williams and C. New York. 4913. Inc. the seismic performance of buried pipe depends strongly on factors related to soil properties. Circular No..15 SEISMIC-RESPONSE CALCULATIONS FOR SIMPLE TYPES OF STRUCTURES 181 . bedding. 3rd ed. Calif. Soc.7 5. 4th ed. Am. Timoshenko. Inc. design. may be capable of determining seismic stresses more p r e cisely through the use of the spectrum technique. Robert P. Austin 12. July 1. D.. Proc.. Box 4754. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Moran and J. 44. 1949. Van Nostrand Company. Am. D. J. or 18263 West McNichols Road). Paper 1563 (March 1958).. F.. E. Los Angeles 14. Pacific Coast Building Officials Conference. 1950. J.. 1955. 1954. John Wiley & Sons. Maugh. Proc. Structural Analysis by Dynamic Load Parameters. 14. 1937. Dana Young and Robert P. pipe material. Civil Engrs. Mich. and restraints such as penetrations into structures. Earthquake Response of Elevated Tanks and Vessels. Detroit 19. D.2 5. Felgar. Bureau of Engineering Research. L. N. 610 South Broadway. Uniform Building Code. Earthquake Design Criteria for Stack-like Structures. Structural Design in Reinforced Concrete. . REFERENCES 5. S. New York. Uniform Building Code Association. Cheney.. Vibration Problems in Engineering. Princeton. J r .12 5. Vibration Problems in Engineering. Rinne. 1949. A.. type. E. Concrete Inst.13 5. 610 South Broadway. Redford Station. Bowman. and workmanship of joints. H. January 1953. Grinter. Engineering Research Series No. Cheney. University of Texas Publication No.. The Macmillan Co. Pipe-stress programs.. (July 1956). in Proceedings of the World Conference on Earthquake Engineering..6 5.5 5. The earthquake performance of threaded joints is also poor. John Wiley & Sons. Van Nostrand Company. Calif. formulas for Integrals Containing Characteristic Functions of a Vibrating Beam. 2nd ed.9 5.1 Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete (ACl 318-56). Examples of unfavorable environments are shallow depths of burial in unstable ground and poorly compacted fill over improperly bedded pipe. C.. Civil Engrs. Timoshenko. In addition to earthquake intensity. E. O. D.3 5.. L. Inc..REFERENCES tional to the mass at that point. N. Paper 1696 (July 1958). The movement of buried pipe is essentially that of the surrounding soil. flexible couplings. Cutts. whether this occurs under normal service conditions or under earthquake ground motion. Los Angeles City Building Code. and similar provisions for differential movement are needed for a high degree of integrity in buried pipe systems.10 5. Los Angeles 14. Structural Theory. The cost of this added precision should be weighed against the anticipated benefits of the more refined analysis. E. Response Spectrum Techniques in Engineering Seismology. Hudson. Theory of Modern Steel Structures. Soc.

22 ACI Committee 505. Soc. Thurlimann. Department of Civil Engineering. C. 5. Steinbrugge and D. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Beedle. L. S. September 1955.quakes. Trans. and L. G. Beedle. Ketter. (1956). 5. and Its Aftershocks.24 N. S. 5. E. Soc. Moran. Science Council of Japan. Tokyo. B.17 K. 1956. Newmark. BulL Seismol. Lehigh University and American Institute of Steel Construction. 86. W. Proceedings of Structural Engineering Conference on Plastic Design in Structural Steel. Sanks and J. 1956.20 L. An Engineering Approach to Blast-resistant Design. Fritz Engineering Laboratory Report No. Civil Engrs. V. Design and Analyses of Tall. 5. Johnston.23 G. 1952. Isada. Concrete Inst. H. J. 5. 5. Plastic Strength and Deflections of Continuous Beams. F. Am. Limit Design of Structures to Resist Earthquakes. Concrete Inst. Knudsen. 182 CHAPTER 5 . J. Housner. (July 1956). October 1957.19 N. in Proceedings of the World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. Proposed Standard Specifications for the Design and Construction of Reinforced Concrete Chimneys. 9. Lecture Notes. Housner. B.21 K. L.16 G.REFERENCES 5. 5. Am. Am.25 Proceedings of Second World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. M. in Proceedings of the World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. M. An Engineering Study of the Southern California Earthquake of July 21. Summer Course. 1960. 5. Tapered Reinforced Concrete Chimneys Subjected to Earthquake.18 R. Am. Plastic Design in Structural Steel. and R. Earthquake Resistant Design Based on Dynamic Properties of Earth. Lehigh University. 44(2B): Part II (April 1954). Progress Report No.. 5. (January 1953). Yang. University of Utah. F. W. Woolley.

3 6.Mi MJ Maximum displacement of Wj. Excluding Bottom Pressure. Cylmdrlcal Tank.10 6. Curves tor Ground-supported Tanks.7 6. HS^/A. h. vs.) *In the case of a cylindrical tank. NOMENCLATURE* Aj dmax./h vs. (Nomenclature listing continues on next page. respectively. R/h. h. Rectangular Tank. R/h. EBP F Fj. R/h. hi IBP k ki ko Jl m Mo. 6. h j . One-half length of rectangular tank wall. h. these quantities apply to the particular width used in computing W. Maximum water-surface displacement. Including bottom pressure (including the effect of the dynamic fluid pressure on the tank bottom).. Mass of vibrating body. Cylindrical Tank. Rectangular Tank.2 6. W. Vertical distance from the tank bottom to Wj. WJ.4 6. due to Po and Pi. l/h.U 6-12 S 13 S-" «-lS Rectangular Tank. Excluding bottom pressure (excluding the effect of the dynamic fluid pressure on the tank bottom)./h vs./h vs. and Wi. Including Bottom Pressure. Acceleration of gravity. h.9 Dynamic Model for Fluid ConUiner Supported on the Ground. Cylindrical Tank. Total seismic force (F = FQ + Fi). Rectangular Tank.5 6. Rectangular Tank. Elevated Water Tank Showing Mode Shapes and Inertia Forces./W vs. Seismic forces on WQ and Wj (inertia forces due to acceleration). Dynamic Models tor Elevated Fluid Container. R/h. 1/h: Cylindrical Tank. Fi g h ho. Height of water surface above the bottom of the tank. due to PQ and Pi. h. Overturning moment on a horizontal plane just below the bottom./W vs. Elevated Water Tank. h. l/h. Modified Mo value corresponding to equivalent weight Wj. respectively. R/h. JUh: Cylindrical Tank./h v. TABLES «•! «-2 Calculation ot Convectlve Forces.6 6. Excluding Bottom Preseure.A vs./W vs. Rectangular Tank. W. Wo/W vs. Spring constant for WQ. 183 . Spring constant for Wj. Including Bottom Pressure Cylindrical Tank. Bending moment on a horizontal section of the tank just above the bottom. Slender Ground-supported Water Tank. in the case of a rectangular tank. Spring constant. whereas. R/h.8 6. i/h.1 6. Iflh/Aj vs.chapter 6 DYNAMIC PRESSURE ON FLUID CONTAINERS FIGURES 6. This could be the total width or a unit width. W.A »a i / h . respectively. the equivalent weights WQ and WJ and the corresponding forces and moments apply to the entire tank.

These forces are equivalent to a vertical couple that is additive to the bending moment previously described and combine with the bending moment to create the overturning moment acting on the supporting structure.5il or h > 1. 1). which is the sum of the dynamic fluid forces acting on each side of the tank. In the case of a slender tank with h > 1. respectively.1 is assumed to be fastened rigidly to the tank walls at height ho above the tank bottom). 184 CHAPTER 6 . For convenience the overturning moment is computed by increasing the vertical arm of the force P to allow for the vertical couple acting on the tank bottom. Maximum horizontal acceleration of the ground during an earthquake. Static deflection due to a unit horizontal force. This moment is resisted by a vertical couple consisting of compressive fiber stresses in the tank wall on the side that resists outward forces and tensile stresses in the wall on the opposite side. The force P acts on the tank at some distance above the bottom and creates a bending moment. respectively. The method presented in this chapter evaluates these quantities and provides an estimate of the maximum vertical displacement of the water surface. based on the assumption of a plane water surface. is numerically equal to the horizontal shear on a section just above the bottom of the tank. F.yi yst 9h p 0on Wn 6. This force. P.7). Mass density of fluid. A multiplier in the expression for daix. Weight of fluid in a specified width of a rectangular container (width measured normal to the length. Modified Po value corresponding to equivalent weight WJ. A resultant force. The shear and bending moment are of structural interest in their effect on the tank walls and attachment to the supports. at a section just above the bottom. instead of adding this couple separately to the previously computed bending moment. and MJ.6. Gross equivalent weight to produce the impulsive force P" on the tank wall (Wo plus tank weight and tributary weight of the support structure). Dynamic fluid forces are also generated on the bottom of the tank. Angular amplitude of free oscillations at the fluid surface (see Fig. Period of vibration.1 PQJPI PJ Q R S T t Uo W WQ INTRODUCTION Impulsive and convectlve forces. The shear and overturning moment have a similar importance in their influence on the supporting structure. INTRODUCTION The horizontal acceleration of a fluid container generates horizontal hydrodynamic forces acting outward on one side of the tank and inward on the opposite side. (The corresponding forces. is created which tends to translate the tank horizontally. defined as the maximum displacement of WQ when Wo and Wi act as a two-degree-of-freedom system in free vibration.Radius of cylindrical tank. hJ. Circular frequency of free vibration for the nth mode.) Equivalent oscillating weight to produce the convectlve force Pi on tank wall (Wi is assumed to be fastened to the tank walls by springs at height hi above the tank bottom). Amplitude ratio for the nth mode. Equivalent weight of fluid to p r o d u c e the i m p u l s i v e force Po on the tank wall (Wo WJ Wi yo. and moments are designated PJ. Ordinate to velocity spectrum. WJ also includes the weight of constrained water. Total weight of fluid in a cylindrical tank. Time for which seismic deflection is evaluated. arms. with the maximum displacement of Wi assumed to be unity. Maximum displacement of Wj and Wi. M.5R.

This force is defined as a convectlve force. h". These considerations lead to the idealization shown in Fig. this case is designated by the term EBP (excluding bottom pressure). W*. Accelerations of the tank induce the impulsive forces PQ and the convectlve forces Pi shown in (c). of the water s u r face (slosh height) and the horizontal force exerted on the walls. 6. 6.4. whereas the larger value is distinguished by the term IBP (including bottom pressure). 6. This would usually be either the total width or a unit width. responds as if it were a solid oscillating mass flexibly connected to the walls. the mass then exerts a maximum horizontal force directly proportional to the maximum acceleration of the tank bottom. Again assuming that the tank itself behaves as a rigid body. in the case of a rectangular tank. the overturning moment is computed by increasing these vertical arms to allow for the moment of the dynamic fluid forces acting on the bottom.. Nomenclature is given at the beginning of this chapter.3. The weight of the tank and the effective weight of the supporting structure are usually small compared to the weight of the fluid.3.2 The mathematically precise procedure for determining seismically induced fluid pressures developed in a tank is very complex. Assuming that the tank moves as a rigid body. these quantities apply to the particular width that was used in computing the fluid weight W. As previously stated. FORMULAS FOR TANKS SUPPORTED ON THE GROUND The equations given below for impulsive and convectlve forces and their related quantities for both rectangular and cylindrical tanks have been developed by Housner. of weight Wi.GENERAL APPROACH 6. of the horizontal excursions of the mass relative to the walls determines both the maximum vertical displacement. The acceleration also induces oscillations of the fluid. Pi. however. 6. and a summary of formulas is given in Sec. the results are sufficiently accurate for engineering use.8. When a tank containing fluid of weight W is accelerated in a horizontal direction. M". vertically oriented tanks of uniform rectangular or circular section (see Appendix F for derivations). and moments. Consequently the approach presented in this chapter^*' is based on simplifications that involve some approximation. 63 . The smaller value does not account for the dynamic fluid pressures on the bottom. This force is identified as an impulsive force. They are conveniently accounted for by increasing Wo to obtain a modified weight. with the bottom and walls undergoing the same acceleration. DYNAMIC PRESSURE ON FLUID CONTAINERS 185 . foot-kip-second units are used. has two distinct numerical values. The method applies to flat-bottomed. ho and hi. since it involves fluid motion. In the case of a cylindrical tank. the smaller value being used to evaluate the bending moment on a plane just above the bottom and the larger value being used for determining the overturning moment on a plane just below the bottom. Any dimensionally consistent system of units may be used. in which a certain portion of the fluid. contributing additional dynamic pressures on the walls and bottom. a certain portion of the fluid acts as if it were a solid mass of weight Wo in rigid contact with the walls.^'^ They are restated here in simplified forms and in order of the calculation steps listed in Sec. in which the tank in (a) is replaced with the unsprung and sprung masses represented by weights Wo and Wi. dmax. in (b). 6. respectively. In the examples p r e sented. whereas.2 GENERAL APPROACH 6. For identification purposes in the formulas of Sec. Curves representing these equations graphically are presented in Sec.1. Consequently each arm. the equivalent weights Wo a-id Wi and the c o r r e sponding forces and moments given by the equations apply to the entire tank. the maximum amplitude. P". a r m s . with corresponding force. Pp. The dimensions ho and hj locate the resultant forces Fo and Pi and determine the moment at the tank bottom. Ai.

63 . (o) Dynamic equilibrium of horizontal forces. 6. 188 CHAPTER 6 . o ^ 05P„ (c) Dynamic Model Dynamic £aulfihrium Forces of Morizonial Fig. (a) Fluid motion in tank.1—Dynamic model for fluid container supported on the ground. FORMULAS FOR TANKS SUPPORTED ON THE GROUND ' Undisfurbed fT Oscillahng «/ofer \ wafer surface / \ surface {a) ffui</ Motion in Tank 0J? as/j asR '^IHrP O. (b) Dynamic model.SP.

12) ho=-Th (EBP) (6.4) . the motion of both the foundation and the t a n k i s e s s e n t i a l l y that of the ground.58 j-) Pi = Wiflh sin wt 0.2 Wjfl^ sin wt 0.9) (6.58j] ^ - (EBP) (6. 6 . 5 8 ^ tanh (l.10) e.1) W.15) W = 0. Rectangular tank Cylindrical tank tanh _ w.21) (6.84-^ sinh ft cosh cosh ^ ' - aBP) 1.e4|sl»l. W (6.58-rsinh i (6.58g ^ ^ 0) = —7-s tanh i hi) (6. 6.22) 6.16) cosh ^ ' - li!!i cosh (EBP) (6.W^(^7) .4 TANKS SUPPORTED ON THE GROUND (h/J? or h / R ^ 1.318 5.13) h ~8 tanh m n \ n -1 (IBP) (6.tanh (l. 0 W i^^f) /35 (6.84i) 2 _ 1.r e f e r e n c i n g the equation n u m b e r s in t h i s chapter with c o r r e sponding equations in Appendix F and Ref.5271 c o t h U ._^K) W ^1 n^l (6.TANKS SUPPORTED ON THE GROUND A tabulation c r o s s . 58 ^ j (6.84-|-] (6.2.1 i s p r e s e n t e d in Sec.5) w 0.17) 1.18) l.01 (IBP) (6.6) ('•»^l)-' ( ' • < ) SSjsinh (l.8) (6. .19) 9h = 1 . 5 8 j ] (6. 8 4 | ) Pi = 1.4 . = 1 . F .408R coth (l-84-^] (6.5271" tanh ( l .7) 4i=i (••°4).14) Po=Uo W tanh s (6.11) w^e^R (6. I^ a -1 (IBP) (6.20) (6.5) When a tank i s sitting on i t s foundation at ground level. T h e r e f o r e the weight Wg DYNAMIC PRESSURE ON FLUID CONTAINERS 187 . 5 3 4 ^ t a n h ( l .(l.3) tanh ^f h/_u. 6.2) ho=Th h^^l h 8 (EBP) (6.

5Jl or h ^ 1. 5. being equal to the maximum amplitude.1] is obtained as the product Wgiio/g.5R. 6.4 or by Eqs. Example 1 A cylindrical tank 26 ft in diameter and containing 15 ft of water is supported on the ground. to which the considerations of Sec. the procedure for calculating the forces and water-surface displacement caused by an earthquake is as follows: (1) Calculate WQ and the two ho values. the resulting value of ymax. from which the quantity S may be obtained for the appropriate damping from a spectrum such as that shown in Fig. 5.21 for T = 0 or from a tabulation such as Table 1. uo. The weight Wi. Determine impulsive and convectlve forces and moments and displacement of the water surface. obtain the gross equivalent weight W" and the corresponding ho values.1 responds as a rigid body (Sec. Pi.4 TANKS SUPPORTED ON THE GROUND in the dynamic model of (b) of Fig. (5) Calculate Wi and the two hi values. one excluding the dynamic fluid pressure on the bottom and the other including the dynamic fluid pressure on the bottom. 5. at the water surface. from WJ.2. Assume its response to be based on the spectrum of Fig. and the convectlve force. dmax. PJ. T. of the oscillations of Wi relative to the tank walls. 1. determining the maximum seismic horizontal acceleration. (above its original level) from the values of u> and di. Ai. of the displacement. The force Pi can be computed either as indicated in step 4 of Sec. (8) Compute the maximum water-surface displacement. with Vi^o critical damping. | ^ = — V ^ = ^ ^ = 0.602 (496) = 298.4 is applicable. being flexibly supported. and shear at the base of the tank.12 „. responds as a single-degree-of-freedom system. and the period of vibration. with h ^ 1.6. 9h.10 or 6.3) undergoing a maximum acceleration Uo. Equation 5. (4) Determine the impulsive bending moment at the base of the tank and the impulsive overturning moment using the hJ values in step 2. 6.21. and the maximum bending moment.. The force Po [(c) of Fig. one excluding the fluid pressure on the bottom and the other including the fluid pressure on the bottom.5 kips 188 CHAPTER 6 . 6. ^ W = ^(13^) (15) . The total horizontal shear at the bottom of the tank is the sum of Po and Pi. u). Ai. Wg = 0. equal to the maximum ground acceleration of the earthquake.19. The example given below illustrates the application of this procedure in detail.19. 6. from a spectrum curve such as Fig. the angle of free oscillation. (3) Obtain the impulsive force. overturning moment. 1. Height hg = 3/8 h when the effect of fluid pressure on the bottom is ignored.4 apply. (7) Using S. 1. (6) Obtain the natural frequency.602 h 15 tanh ( / 3 ^ ) 13 tanh ( V I . Solution Impulsive force From Eq. When a tank is supported on the ground. compute the maximum amplitude. (2) From the above value of Wo and the tank weight.^ 1 ^ = 496 kips.

TANKS SUPPORTED ON THE GROUND 64 .63 ft From Eq.5 + 21 =319.15.6) = 1120 kip-ft (IBP) Convective force From Eq.4 (10.1 iio = 10.33 (319.63) = 594 kip-ft (EBP) M? = 105.45 ft (EBP) 189 DYNAMIC PRESSURE ON FLUID CONTAINERS .33 g (see Fig.16 Wi = W (0.63 1.8 4 . 6.6 ft/sec^ = 0.318)^ tanh ( l .318) I I tanh /^1.14 ho = h6' = 7 tanh (EBP) ^f H) . 6.5) = 105. For simplicity. 1. assume the 21-kip tank weight to be acting at the center of gravity of Wg.84 i | Sinh (l.| ] = 496 (0.sinh cosh = 1 = 0.63 (15) = 9. The gross value of Wg is WJ = 298.84 II) hi = 0.5 kips Using Eq.4 kips Mf = 105. using WJ instead of WQ Po'= —W? = 0.4 (5.17 cosh I 1 ^ ' - = 133 kips •»4)- 1. 6. 6.13 ho = hf = ^ h = I (15) = 5.84 ^ From Eq.84. 6.21 for T = 0) From Eq.

84-^-2.01 " 1.5 (11.84i|) hi = 0. .6. ' • " • ' y .2 (133) (0.M A ) 2. 5. c .98 sec o) 2.84 1!)= 4. 2 .19 using '72% critical damping) ymax.141 From Eq. 277 271 2.2) = 252 kip-ft (EBP) (IBP) 190 CHAPTER 6 .44 (. 6. ^ 00^1.45) = 212 kip-ft Ml = 22.5 kips (setting sin wt = 1) Ml = 22.4 TANKS SUPPORTED ON THE GROUND Using Eq.18 h.84 I I ) = 0.4) Fro]m Eq.11 S = 2.11 = 1. 6. l ^ ! ! tanh (IBP) (-4) . 8 4 ^ ) = 1.2 ft Using Eq.^ ' t ^ h 11.5 (9.21 Pi = 1.746 .19 ..6 (Fig.23 ft (see Eq.84l|si„h(l.84i3inh(.2 Wi^h sin wt = 1. 6.534 ^ tanh (l. ( ' ..141) sm wt Maximum Pi = 22.01 =1 1 iiZ -—=0. = 2. 1.. 5 3 4 ^ t a n h ( l . 6.746 (15) = 11.84) cosh 1.20 9h = 1 .84?^ 1-4.11 < _ T = — = : r 7 7 = 2.6 2.

the total overturning moment is 1372 kip-ft.141) 13 ~ ^ HS.5 = 127. Pg.84 ft above its undisturbed level. with WJ^ generating the impulsive force PJ..5R below the fluid surface and supported on a solid mass extending from the fictitious bottom to the actual bottom.) In a rectangular tank where the depth of the fluid exceeds three-fourths of the d i s tance. The concept of dividing the tank into upper and lower zones does not apply in the case of equivalent weight Wi and related quantities.8).5 Displacement of water surface Using Eq. the water surface rising 1. The action of the lower portion is represented by the actual weight below this level. It also generates a maximum convective force of 23 kips acting on the tank wall. located at its center of gravity.408 (13) coth (-4) 32 2 4.Si or 1. For purposes of evaluating the impulsive force. 6.44 (0.PROCEDURE FOR SLENDER TANKS SUPPORTED ON THE GROUND 6. The procedure of Sec.6 to 6. 6.4 + 22. 25.9 kips Summary The ground acceleration of 0. 65 . which results in a maximum bending moment of 212 kip-ft on the tank wall and a maximum overturning moment of 252 kip-ft. This results in a maximum bending moment of 594 kip-ft on a section of the tank just above the base and a maximum overturning moment of 1120 kip-ft.98 sec. These continue to be a fimction of the full depth of water. 6.25 g. PROCEDURE FOR SLENDER TANKS SUPPORTED ON THE GROUND (h/i or h/R > 1 5 . This shear corresponds to a seismic coefficient of 0. 5.408R coth w^9hR 0. This actual weight and Wg are combined into a single weight WJ at an arm h^ above the actual bottom of the tank.33 g generates a total impulsive force of 105 kips. This force causes the fluid to oscillate with a period of 2.22 0. 84 ft Maximum bending moment on the tank at a section just above the bottom: MJ + Ml = 594 + 212 = 806 kip-ft Maximum overturning moment: MJ + Ml = 1120 + 252 = 1372 kip-ft QBP) (EBP) Maximum shear at base = P? + Pi = 105.15 in the solution (see Sec. DYNAMIC PRESSURE ON FLUID CONTAINERS 191 . the entire mass of fluid below this depth tends to respond as a rigid body as far as impulsive pressures are concerned (see Sec. Thus the total bending moment on the tank is 806 kipft. the container can be regarded as a tank with a fictitious bottom at a datum l. The following example illustrates the procedxire in detail and demonstrates the uses of Figs.3). between walls or in a circular tank where the depth exceeds three-fourths of the diameter. and the maximum horizontal shear at the base is 128 kips.4 is applied to the portion above the datum to determine unsprung weight Wg and levels hg above the datum. 6.

h = 30 ft.2 (139) (0.21 ft (see Eq. 1.R-l 5.14 l-534Ai . 6. 1.6. using 0..5% critical damping.143) (13] 1 1.9 sin OJt = Maximum Pi = 23. Solution Since in this case h/R = 30/13 = 2.5.89 ft 192 CHAPTER 6 . ^ 1-534 (1.5R = 19.37 (see Sec. 6.1). 5.5 ft. 6.21) ^ ^^^^3 13 From Eq. R/h = 0.2.667 W = 7r(169) (19.2 4.56 (0.433 W = 7r(169) (30) ( ^ ) w = 2. This is shown in (a) of Fig.5) ( ^ ) Convective force = 646 kips R = 13 ft. and the water in the lower 10. h = 19.6 to 6.9 kips From Eq.4) cj 2. The calculation of convective forces is based on the full depth of water (Table 6.5 ft is assumed to move as a completely constrained fluid in calculating the impulsive force. . This assumption gives the following data: Impulsive force R = 13 ft. R/h = 0.8) 1 "^ """• gco^9.143) sin oit = 23.5 ft is considered to be in fluid motion. Base response on the spectrum of Fig. Determine seismic forces and moments on the tank and displacement of water surface using Figs.21 Pi = 1.15. S = 2.14 277 = 993 kips T =-777 = 2._.19. „.94 sec. 6.3 32.19) = Ai — = 1 ^ = 1.5 PROCEDURE FOR SLENDER TANKS SUPPORTED ON THE GROUND Example 2 A cylindrical tank 26 ft in diameter and containing 30 ft of water is supported on the ground.6 ft/sec (from Fig.3 > 1. only the upper portion of water with a depth of 1. 6.

—wV^ ?93hp! tti''S4a/(ips n.9k/ps ^ .Z77Jbfis. r—MV—^=fS9k/ps H^'4f3f(ips O —VVW^ 3Sh'ps Waf'er in motion r "^ lo -^ "1 Zonsi'rained P" iii&iittV W \ Wei'sf on CM 347/ldfis V't^^>^V^^\.T3.2 — Slender g r o u n d . DYNAMIC PRESSURE ON FLUID CONTAINERS 193 .H^'./3S^ips.^ V ^4 •^ (b) -77^.W^ Di'rti'iiiiii^iiiw 2 S ' Dia. •^^77^ F i g . (a) Ci^^ . 6.PROCEDURE FOR SLENDER TANKS SUPPORTED ON THE GROUND 65 .s u p p o r t e d w a t e r tank.^^^ vi^m — W W .

12 F i g . 6. — = 4.6.626 ( 1 3 ) ^ 5 3 ^^^^^.^^ from Sec.71 (646) = 458 kips ^ . 6.7 F i g .15 Value of parameter Calculation Wo = 0. then from (a) of Fig.534) .2.8) *See Sec.21 for T = 0) From Eq. 3 1 .1) = 552 kip-ft M5' + Ml = 4012 kip-ft 194 CHAPTER 6 (EBP) (EBP) . 2 5 ) .3 + 10.33 (840) = 277 Mps Maximum bending moment on a section of the tank just above the base: MJ = 277 (12. .33 g (see Fig.» . 5 ) = 7.14 (993) = 139 kips ^ • " • " -^=0. 1.. 6.77 (30) = 23. 6.13 F i g .77 Q = hi = 0.4 ft (EBP) 4^=0-78 h ^ / " ^ 1. for simplicity.( 1 9 . The following procedure shows ho 'V^r and its location hj are obtained: Assuming the steel weight of 35 kips to be concenu aced at half the water depth.5) = 11.5) (62i4) = 347 kips.6 Eq.14 F i g .8) Q* ^ 0.31 ft (EBP) (IBP) ho--= 0.58 n h- = | . • . 6.25) + 35 (15) _ h? = " " ° ^^^-^ ^ ^"-"^ : .5) = 3460 kip-ft Ml = 23.8 for definition of Q.58 (19.5) + 347 (5.3 ft Wi = 0.78 (30) = 23.7 ft 840 (EBP) (IBP) 10 fi uo = ^ g = 0.15 the impulsive force due to WJf is Po = —W? = 0.6 (1. 6. .^.5 PROCEDURE FOR SLENDER TANKS SUPPORTED ON THE GROUND Table 6. 6. Weight of constrained water = J7(169) (10.p^.5) ^^3^47 ( 5 .1—CALCULATION OF CONVECTIVE FORCES Figure or equation F i g . ^^ . 6. 6." ho = 8 h ^=0. 35 ( 1 5 ) ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ _ 458 (11.1 ft h j : = 0. 10. Wjr = 458 + 347 + 35 = 840 kips ^ „ ^ 458 ( 7 . " ' '"•'"" ' -^^ '^'" = 14.9 (23.56 (multiplier from Sec.534 Ai (IBP) w' = 38. 6. 6. 6.13 F i g .

6. ki. 5. Ref. It also generates a maximum convective force of 23. resulting in the following equation: k i = ^ f6.5 apply. In the case of a support structure consisting of a diagonally braced tower. The value of ki is conveniently found by transposing Eq. This convective force causes the fluid to oscillate with a period of 2.3) is a two-degree-of-freedom system. The fictitious springs joining Wi to the tank walls in Fig.9 (23. hg. The value of w so calculated determines the spring constant. 6.9 ft.6 The ground acceleration of 0. (See. Thus the total bending moment is 4012 kip-ft. 10. and the flexibility of the supporting structure must be considered. These numerical r e sults are shown in (b) of Fig.9 = 300. undergoing a maximum horizontal acceleration equal to that of the ground. 6. The water surface rises above its original level by 1.5 and expressing T in terms of u>. and o) are independent of the support conditions and are obtained from the equations of Sec. Sec. or Ref. to which the equations in Sec.2.94 sec. 6. Ref.) Frequencies.2.9 kips. 6. using the well-known method of virtual work.9 kips. page 19. In the case of the ground-supported tanks previously considered. 5.29 g. defined as the horizontal shear developed in the hypothetical column joining Wg and Wi when Wi is translated horizontally through a unit distance with Wg restrained against translation. kg.PROCEDURE FOR ELEVATED TANKS Maximum overturning moment on the tank: M? = 277 (14.33 g generates a total impulsive force of 277 kips. 6. and the maximum horizontal shear at the base is 301 kips. Summary (IBP) (IBP) 6. 6. This shear is equivalent to a seismic coefficient of about 0.4. 28. The weight Wg is connected to the ground through a similar hypothetical column representing the support structure and having the same spring constant. of the two-mass system.4) = 560 kip-ft MSr + Ml = 4630 kip-ft Maximum shear at base = PJ + Pi = 277 + 23. the total overturning moment is 4630 kip-ft. ki. The resulting model (Fig. page 37. Sec. the weight Wg (or WJ') was assumed to be rigidly coupled to the ground through the tank walls. which results in a maximum bending moment of 3460 kip-ft on the tank wall and a maximum overturning moment of 4070 kip-ft. Wi. and maxiDYNAMIC PRESSURE ON FLUID CONTAINERS 195 . which produces a maximum bending moment of 552 kip-ft and a maximum overturning moment of 560 kip-ft. periods of vibrating mode shapes.23) Spring constant ko is defined as the horizontal shear in the hypothetical column joining Wg to the ground when Wg is translated horizontally through a unit distance with Wi restrained against translation. When the tank is mounted on an elevated supporting structure. kg can be obtained by computing the horizontal deflection of Wg under a given static horizontal force acting through that point.3 or the curves of Sec. The properties Wg. hi. 6. the coupling to the ground is no longer rigid. for example.8. forming a direct coupling between Wi and Wg." Sec. 7-2. 6 6 PROCEDURE FOR ELEVATED TANKS .1 have been replaced with a single hypothetical column of the same stiffness.7) = 4070 kip-ft Ml = 23. page 175.3.

= kbb = ki kab = kb.25) (6.66 .16 if the following quantities are used: ma W„ (6. = ki It should be noted that.. PROCEDURE FOR ELEVATED TANKS ZAarZR -^J^^ TVV^ (a) (b) (c) Fig. 6.24) mb g koki (6. mum deflections of the system can be found from Eqs.26) (6. In computing the maximum vertical displacement. contributed by the second mode. of the water surface is the algebraic difference of the maximum horizontal deflections. For each mode the amplitude Ai (maximum deflection of Wi relative to Wg) used in calculating the maximum angle of free oscillation.22: ' For rectangular tanks = QA 196 (6. 6.28) K.27) (6. as in the case of ground-supported tanks. y. the following expressions should be used rather than Eqs. 5.29) CHAPTER 6 .7 to 5. of the water surface.11 or 6. Quantities to be determined are obtained by summing the contributions of the two modes. the weight WJ r e places Wg in the calculations when the tank weight or that of the support structure is taken into account.3—Dynamic models for elevated fluid container. of the two masses. Q^. d^ax.

. of the fluid surface. hi.18). and dis260' -J max-22' ^ h'IS.2C for suggested values). (5) Combine values for the two modes so as to maximize values of F and dmax. and compute spring constant kg from a deflection analysis of the supporting structure.4—Elevated water tank. Consequently it is reasonable to use 0.O' Wl'ISSh'ps "vArliiLhAr %'3I9.23. maximum angle of free oscillations. induced in the structure.5% critical. The procedure for calculating Wg. 5. whereas the second mode is primarily motion of the supporting structure. possibly in the range of 0. 9h. (2) Evaluate m and k values from Eqs.4. The additional calculations necessary to complete the analysis are summarized as follows: (1) Calculate the spring constant ki from Eq. 5. 6.24 to 6. 6. (p. whereas that associated with the motion of the supporting structure may be considerably larger. F (see Eqs. as shown in Fig. for the first and second modes. dmax.5% critical damping for the first mode and a value for the second mode appropriate to the type of structure involved (see Sec. maximum displacement.17 and 5. Determine maximum deflection. hg.m3^'ff '1^0' 844 (b) Fig. obtain S values from an earthquake velocity spectrum. Ai.10 to obtain natural frequencies. 6. 5.28 and substitute the resulting quantities in Eqs. Usually the first mode involves sloshing almost entirely.Skips -k. (4) For each of the two modes calculate the horizontal forces. From the T values. Wi.19.16.4) is supported on a steel tower. 5.7 to 5. T. 1.. DYNAMIC PRESSURE ON FLUID CONTAINERS (c) 197 .30) The damping associated with sloshing action is quite low. and amplitude ratios. seismic shear on the tower. such as that given in Fig.The procedure is illustrated in detail in the following example. 6. using the assumed damping factors.PROCEDURE FOR ELEVATED TANKS For cylindrical tanks = 9hR 6. using Eqs. periods of vibration.11 to 5. (3) Determine the maximum deflection of Wg and Wj for each mode. and «^ is identical with that used for ground-supported tanks. of the fluid surface. co. Example 3 The tank described in Example 1 (Sec. 6.6 (6. and maximum vertical displacement.

94 kip sec^ft-i nib = .6 PROCEDURE FOR ELEVATED TANKS placement of the water surface.94 9. = 1 ^ = 1 ^ = 9. 6.28 m.33 = 862.24 through 6.33 . contents.14/ 9. 18. Solution From Example 1 Wf = 319. A deflection analysis of the tower indicates that a horizontal force of 844 kips applied through the centroid of the unsprung weight. Ti = — = 3.44) = 18.33.6 ft above the tank bottom.33 18.00 sec CJi cj? = 87. + .^ ) +4lS«bkba.33 //862. 5.6.33^18. oj^ = 4. .5% critical damping for the first mode and 2% critical damping for the second mode.^ ± V C ^ . Mode shapes From Eq.33^ 4.5 Solving wf = 4.33 kips/ft kab = kba = ki = 18.007.5 kips. WJ.19.33 4. 1.14/ 4. and tributary weight of the tower framing acting at hg = 10.44 In this example the value of WJ' is assumed to include the total weight of the tank. would cause a horizontal deflection of 1 ft at that point. T .33 18.94 4.33 kips/ft kbb = ki = 18. 6.14 y 9.33 kips/ft ko = 844 Mps/ft From Eqs.33 18. = 9.g = ?TT = 4-14 kip sec^ ft' r 'b 32. using 0. Lma mb V \mb mb/ mamb. 862. = — = 0.673 sec 198 CHAPTER 6 .94 U.14 * \ \ 9.23 W 133 kj = _ i j^2 = _ _ (4.//862. Response is to be based on the spectrum of Fig.5 p i 2 .7 (^2 ^0. .09.2 k „ = ko + ki = 844 + 18.SSY . uji = 2. o).94 4.14 wS =0. Wi = 133 kips.35.33 kips/ft Using Eq.

70)^ + 4. ^^ " ma0a'2 + mb • 9.18 For the first mode Fbi = Fu = kbtYbi + kbJai = 18. 5.94 '^° substituting values of (J)\ and 0^2 0al .3094) + (-18.3094) + 862.70) = 0..94 862.94 (..33 9.05223 (1.72 kips 199 .93 ft/sec using Tj = 0.70) + 4.94 (0.00 sec and 0. «/ yb2 = yi2 = .46 kips Fat = Fgi = kabybi + kaaYai = .9 kab 0an = 0on 6.0293 ft = deflection of WJ For the second moc'.0108 ft = deflection of Wi ya2 = yo2 = yb2 • 0a2 = .0224) + 4.0293) = 23.33 2 9. 5.33) (0.14 For the first mode Ybi = yii = ^ = ^ " W ^ = ^-'^^^ ^* = deflection of Wi yai = Yoi = Ybi • 0ai = 1-31 (0.0224) = 0.18. 3 3 (1.19 Si = 2.14 . 5.70 Maximum response From Eqs.^KjS. .18. -0.15 and 5.^ = 9^3 = .0293) Tower horizontal shear DYNAMIC PRESSURE ON FLUID CONTAINERS = = 1.94 (.^ *• .33 (1.94 (0.001 0a2 = 002 = 0.11 through 5.6 _ kaa ma 2 _ ma 18.16 ^ ma0ai + mb _ 9.0.5% critical damping S2 = 1.2020 ft = deflection of WJ Maximum seismic forces and shears Using Eqs.673 sec and 2% critical damping Using Eqs.93) „ ^ino t^ A .17 and 5.18.b« (0.0108 (.PROCEDURE FOR ELEVATED TANKS Using Eq.26 kips 24. 1.14 " "•' .1 8 .14 " ~ °-°^^^^ From Fig.6 ft/sec using Ti = 3.0224 = -18.0224)' + 4. 5.14 ^ ma0li + mb ~ 9.0.ma0a2 + mb _ 9.

39 kips Tower horizontal shear Maximum tower horizontal shear = 24.2128 ft 9.90 .0108) + (862.0 .6.534^tanh(l.408 (13) coth i 5/ = __ ^ 'Je^'^ For the second mode All = -0.408R coth (l-84-|-) 0.33) (0. having individual spring constants of 844 and 18.33 (-0.673 sec for the two principal modes.6 PROCEDURE FOR ELEVATED TANKS For the second mode Fb2 = Fi2 = kbbyb2 + kbaya2 = 18-33 (-0. 6. 9 0 kips Fa2 = Fo2 = kai^b2 + KJ^i = 18.„« Using Eq. 8 4 f ) =0.147 Using Eq.. 0 2 4 (13) = .0 .3 kips/ft of lateral deflection.0.00 and 0.„.5).2020 = -0.59 ft The equivalent system for this tank-tower structure consists of the 319.31 = 1.(.90 ft 4. = 1.33) (0.22 0.0108) + (-18.49 Maximum water-surface Using Eq. For the first mode All = 1.3094 . = 9h • R = .0. 3 1 ft Maximum displacement = 1.2801 ft 9 H = 1 .0108 ..2020) = 174.20 eH=1.147) ( 1 3 ) " ^ (zO^).„i|).84|-) where Ai^=yb„-y^„.21 kips displacement d^.0.5-kip equivalent dead weight of water and steel and the 133-kip equivalent oscillating weight of water.0293 = 1.49 kips = 195. obtained from combining the two mode shapes. r e spectively.35 (0. The system vibrates with computed periods of vibration of 3.72 + 170.30 dmax. 6. 6. The maximum water-surface displacement is 2. 6. 200 CHAPTER 6 .534 = 170. is 195 kips. = h^) . The maximum seismic shear at the base of the tower. n ^ = 1.3 .„. 5 3 4 i : f | ^ tanh ( l . The contribution of the second mode to the total displacement is much lower than that of the first mode (see Fig.2020) = ..2 ft above the undisturbed level.

3kips !744k\ FIPST MOOS (a) SECOND MODE (b) Fig.38 g. However. one with the web vertical the other with the web horizontal. ranging in size from 5 to 7 in.5—Elevated water tank showing mode shapes and inertia forces. Diagonals are upset rods varying in diameter from 2 in.SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN DESIGNING SEISMIC-RESISTANT FLUID CONTAINERS 1.5. 6. Sufficient freeboard should be provided to prevent wave action from damaging the roof when the tank is full unless the roof is considered expendable. contains results of such an investigation. page 75 et seq. struts are double-channel members.. its response to an earthquake of 33% g could not be estimated using the procedures for elevated tanks described in this chapter. The shear at the base of the tower is equivalent to that resulting from a seismic coefficient of about 0. A 10% g design might survive a 33% g earthquake through energy absorption due to over s t r e s s . in which case. in the bottom panel.9kips 6. as discussed in Chap.309' 3. This example is a further illustration of the large amount of strength required to maintain elastic response of a structure with low damping. in this case. Observations of the behavior of circular steel tanks supported directly on the ground indicate that a primary cause of damage during earthquakes is the lack of sufficient r e DYNAMIC PRESSURE ON FLUID CONTAINERS 201 . in the top panel to 2% in. Reference 6. Measurements of the vibration characteristics of water towers have been attempted. 5. protective framing is needed for critical piping within the tank. thus s t r e s s e s are within the yield point under the 38% g static horizontal force representing the effect of the earthquake.7 I. and a limit-design approach. Damage to floating roofs can be anticipated when sloshing becomes severe. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN DESIGNING SEISMIC-RESISTANT FLUID CONTAINERS A ring girder or its equivalent at the top of a circular steel tank is required to provide stability against excessive distortion due to the lateral forces generated by the a c celerated fluid. having a maximum a c celeration of 33% g. pipe. The analysis for elevated tanks in this chapter assumes that the response of the tower is elastic under earthquake ground motion. This water tower is much heavier and stiffer than a conventional water tower designed for 10% g. Legs are 10-in. Consequently the tower properties were selected to match this a s sumption. would be needed.

which is limited to values of 3 sec or less (Fig. This often causes buckling of the tank wall and forces the base angle at the junction of the wall and tank bottom into the soil. Length of the stiffeners is established so that. In the case of reservoirs or very large tanks. The weight of the contained fluid in steel tanks can be effectively utilized to resist uplift from the overturning moment if the bottom of the tank is adequately stiffened for this purpose. elevated tank shells with small height-to-diameter ratios transmit smaller seismic forces into the tower than shells with large height-to-diameter ratios.SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS IN DESIGNING SEISMIC-RESISTANT FLUID CONTAINERS sistance against uplift. This can be accomplished through internal stiffeners. sliding. based on the elastic limit. anchor-bolt stretch. Inconsistent margins of safety can result when the conventional working stress approach. with uplift impending. CHAPTER 6 . or footing uplift. such as tees. the period of the sloshing motion may be very long. This is due to the dynamics of the fluid motion. this initial stage being considerably shorter than 30 sec.19. Because of insufficient uplift resistance. This alleviates the severe local bending s t r e s s e s at the junction of the wall and bottom on the uplifted side and relieves compressive stresses on the side opposite the uplifted portion. laid on the bottom and extending radially inward from the tank walls. Under these circumstances a reduction in the spectral values is appropriate. The limit-design approach (see Chap.ver. Use of a continuous concrete perimeter footing tends to minimize damage from overturning moments. perhaps 30 sec or more. Possible trouble spots in reservoirs are potential damage to the roof due to sloshing and damage to embankments from settlement. howe. This long period indicates that the sloshing amplitude is affected strongly by the ground vibrations that occur some time after the start of strong ground motions. or erosion from sloshing. the tributary weight of the water above will supply a downward reaction at the wall which exceeds the computed net uplift force. a value of 50% appears to be reasonable when the period of the sloshing motion is about 30 sec. Prevention of uplift makes the entire tank perimeter effective in resisting the tilting moment. In theory. with the stem welded to the bottom and to the tank wall. This is beyond the range of the spectra presently available. 5) is useful in such an evaluation. indicating that the forces used in the design were too low to prevent overstress. the tilting (overturning) moment created by the impulsive force of the contained fluid generates a large vertical compressive force on the side opposite the uplifted portion. 1. Investigation of the collapse condition is needed to determine whether energy absorption through inelastic stretch of the diagonals can occur without prior failure of the legs. struts or connections. often resulting in their complete collapse in major earthquakes. Tower-bracing and tower-base details of elevated tanks are also frequently damaged when designed using a seismic coefficient of the order of 0. A rational estimate of this reduction cannot be provided. The intent of this scheme is to limit the separation of the tank wall from the foundation to a negligible amount so that a horizontal section through the tank at the base remains essentially plane under seismic loading. Sliding of the tank is unlikely unless the coefficient of friction between the tank bottom and the subgrade is unusually low. Leakage is a possibility in reinforced-concrete reservoirs through wall and bottom joints if these joints lack sufficient flexibility to accommodate relative motion across the separations. The seismic performance of elevated tanks designed for wind only is poor. for example).10 g.^'^ This is especially true for thin-walled tanks with large heightto-diameter ratios. Seismic damage to elevated tanks is usually identified with the supporting tower rather than with the tank shell itself. is used in the design of elevated tank towers without considering conditions at impending failure. Accelerograms of severe earthquakes indicate diminishing ground vibrations after the initial stage of strong ground motion. The weight of the fluid can also be utilized through friction to resist the horizontal forces generated by the earthquake.

7 Curve Wg/W vs.13 6. i/h (EBP) hi/h VS. R/h (IBP) Wj/W vs.4.5271 coth A (6. (6.6 6. the effect of the d i s placements on the vertical r i s e r extending from the bottom of the tank to the ground must be considered.58 J) Defining Q as follows: For rectangular tanks Q =0.408Rcoth ( l . for rectangular and cylindrical tanks. 6.58 tanh ( l .8 When inelastic stretch induces large lateral displacements. respectively. 68 .| ] DYNAMIC PRESSURE ON FLUID CONTAINERS . 6.15 Multipliers Figures 6.8 6. i / h hi/h vs. Table 6.2.CURVES FOR TANKS SUPPORTED ON THE GROUND 6. 6. These curves.3.19) H) 203 For cylindrical tanks Q =0. R/h (EBP) hj/h vs.2—CURVES FOR GROUND-SUPPORTED TANKS Rectangular tank Figure No.8 4 .10 6.2 = ^ ^anh (l.7 6.5.a„h(l. which are based on the equations of Sec.84|) /27 a. especially if the r i s e r is laterally stayed to the tower at each bracing level.^ ('-'' R) (6. 6..3 and the correlation of desired quantities to the parameter i/h or R/h.15 can be used to simplify the calculations of w^ and d^ax.:Jl/h (IBP) Jl9h/Ai vs.J}/h Curve Wg/W vs. R/h hj/h vs.20) Rectangular tanks P = 1. Equation No.6 6.8) '^^ = R ^ . are listed in Table 6.12 6.11 and 6.14 6. R/h (IBP) Re^/Ai vs. i / h (IBP) Wi/W vs.9 Cylindrical tank Figure No. 5 8 ^ Ai \ i/ Cylindrical tanks | i = . CURVES FOR TANKS SUPPORTED ON THE GROUND For expediency in analysis. R/h hg/h vs. Elimination of the stays at certain levels and use of flexible connections at the top and bottom may be necessary to avoid dangerous overstress in the r i s e r . by using the multipliers derived from the following formulas repeated from Sec. curves are presented in this section. R/h 6. (6. A/h hg/h vs.11 6.9) Equation No.

R / h . ^ A'fr^fcr/i 0/J /mpi//s'/ye f^r^e 0.708 0.0 2.7 — R e c t a n g u l a r tanlv. cylindrical tank. R / h .4 \ \ - \ —% 1 1 .0 3.5 ^ iTf - 0.2 ^ 0.0 5. Fig. Wg/W v s . Wg/W v s . 0.o.6 — Rectangular tank. 6. S \ . c y l i n d r i c a l tanit.6 \ \ '-\ \ /fecfa/7fi/7ar ra/iTci -w -= — ~ 7 0. hg/h v s . i / h . jJ/h.0 6.1 6.3 „ li k- \ \ .0 4.7 — -\ 0.0 i"f—Fig.0 O 0. [ . hg/h v s . 6.a — 0.667 1.

VJ \ - X\.CURVES FOR TANKS SUPPORTED ON THE GROUND 6. " ^ . - 1®^1 J il ^ 1 1 •^-c. Q' c > d Q C3 1 1 1 i \ \ \ 'a II ¥ .^ " ^ ---> • ^ ^ • - * a NQ <0 > Q ''I d •i1^ DYNAMIC PRESSURE ON FLUID CONTAINERS 205 .^ !i lo tf5 1 i y > T) a 03 fl t\l IT) 1 / — — • — • <<i ^ <\J <*3 o •* <) « (0 c > ci a —-c?!-*: K! Q :^ d d Q N. < ^ 1^ ^j <\i o N.8 — 1 1 1 pc s " ! xl^^ I 1 1 *— - It ^ ^ _ _ -— . d ««3 (o lO a >o <o d > 10 (0 o Q c.

8 CURVES FOR TANKS SUPPORTED ON THE GROUND n~~ / / / * / ^ 1 / / / .§ 1 \ 1l o \ \ \ \ / ( O 206 CHAPTER 6 .^ it > O' <5 » •-^ --.. ^^ 1 H - \ k 'Vl-c.. . 00 • \ N. • ^ r " ^ ..®^- ^ >'? ' 1 vK>.: 1 A 3! llllilll 1 / ^ • ^ ^ \ < o ^1 . ^ ^ 1 i"^ 1 1 1 N. .6.

N /o I m/i(/.84i)-/ L84^9/j/i{/. . * h\\ o 4 ^fir cose exc/ui7/ng pressure cv! io -/^om - /(EYSECr/Oi/ Co/ii/ecffye /tfrre 1 [ 1 • 1 / / / ) / / / • - -wm-w-\.S4^) / / / / 1 1 1 1 1 .0 R h 3. 6. W. 6. hj/h vs.0 6.3/8-^ 7<Ts.0 \ V Fig. /? . \ 10 2.0 4.0 5. excluding bottom pressure.S4l) > sT-? Fig. R/h.^ " ^ ^-^ 0. 1 h _ ((EY S£Cr/OA/ Con/ecr^'ye farce 1 1 1 \ \ \ .12—Cylindrical tank.0 5./W vs.0 ./t[/.0 6.0 h 3.( • ^ ^ .13—Cylindrical tank. R/h. 2.0 4.

15—Cylindrical tank.f7. \ /fressc/re en /be>^i>rn Co/.0J ' / /.14 — Cylindrical tank. hi/h vs.I.84^) - '^r^ pv^ I* H?-. including bottom pressure. R/h. ^ je/royf^ ) ^ / 4 1.0 40 50 60 Fig. R/h. .^^ ^=i 0. V / / 1. ' fi '^C/^T/ nir JI.0 3.2 \ \ ^ A • cesA(/»r^)-2.IIL//V • / 0.2 ut\/ K. 6.84pin/.4 ^ 1 i.4 10 / / t 1.C 1 10 2.16 12 — "^ \ /?$i / C^/f Z .0 2.0 60 1. Fig.0 5.0 \ \ \ k_ / / I '•' 06 \ \ s.t/fc//Ve/hrce 1 X ^ " ^ / / eysfcr/o/i7 1 1. 6.0 30 4. R^h/Ai vs.

The Macmillan Company.. Maugh. W.? ^ If) (6.. Earthquake Investigations in California. REFERENCES 6. 1936. Soc. An Engineering Study of the Southern California Earthquake of July 21. respectively.4 6. the following expressions for w^ and Q are obtained: For rectangular tanks « .=4.31 and 6. and R are in feet. 6. 6. ^ (6. from Eqs. S. respectively. 1934-1935.6/R.626R. 209 6.833i or 0. U. where i.6 DYNAMIC PRESSURE ON FLUID CONTAINERS . Seismol.11 or 6.11 or 6. by Jlen/Ai or R^h/Ai from Fig. ^ Q (6. 1949. L. Am. Theory of Modern Steel Structures.15 by 32.32) 1 u^XR ^ From the above formulas. New York. Sejsmol. Am.11 and 6. 44(2B): Part 2 (April 1954). John Wiley & Sons. Special Publication No. U.3 6. 201. Coast and Geodetic Survey.2/Jl and 38.2 6.31) <^\l ^ For cylindrical tanks d„nax. Statically Indeterminate Structures.. used in obtaining dmax. 6. John Wiley & Sons. V.. For cylindrical tanks me. Housner. F. Washington. L. Dynamic P r e s s u r e s on Accelerated Fluid Containers. Inc. H. Structural Theory. Bowman. Moran. Government Printing Office.1 6. New York. D. 4th ed. C . Similarly the factor Q. K. can be found by dividing the value of 0. L. Sutherland and H.5 G. Ui Hence w^ can be obtained by multiplying the value of Idh/^i or R^h/Ai from Fig. S. and Its Aftershocks. 1952. Vol.15. Steinbrugge and D. Bull.22 can be written as For rectangular tanks Q dmax.. Soc. Inc. E. Department of Commerce. Bull.32. 47(1): January 1957. Grinter. 1950. C. 1946. New York.REFERENCES Equations 6. H.

currently. Streae Va. Maximum Conceivable Accident.7 Thaonttcai A r a u ai Earthquake Effact for a Modified-NtorcalU InUneity of V. and the accident model is purely hypothetical. Time In Vapor Container After a Maximum Credible Accident. progress in the design and operation of reactors has served to reduce the probability of accidents from many sources.chapter 7 REACTOR HAZARDS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE ON EARTHQUAKES FU3URE8 7. 7.1 Thermal Stored Energy of Coolant. In judging the safety of a new reactor and its site. and appropriate design provisions. protective instrumentation. Most reactors are designed to contain a postulated maximum credible accident. Preaaure Ve. The fundamental criterion for the siting of the reactor.3 Energy Releaaed from Reaction of Varioua Reactor Materlala with Water. Maximum Credible Accident. the following terms (listed in decreasing order of severity) will be used.-n> Pipe.5 Reaulta of Cloaed-aystem Sodium-Air Reactions.1 7.4 Typical Energy Releaae (or Rupture of Primary Container.3 7. it is necessary to evaluate and minimize all the factors that may increase the possibility of uncontrolled release of radioactivity. In the past decade. a major earthquake assumes relatively greater importance as a possible cause of accidents. thus. Central California.0 Preeaure la Plant Container After Main Coolant Sjratem Rtqitura Equivalent In Area to a Shear <rf a lS-in. It is guarded against by administrative control.4 7. TABLES 7. This accident involves the release of all or almost all available energy. 7. This accident is that which might occur with a finite probability and is triggered by understandable mechanisms. It is possible to design reactors. Heat Releaae in Vapor Container.2 7. Maximum Probable Accident. 7. and the administrative operating procedures is the "maximum credible accident.2 Approximate Welghta of Reactive Material In Primary hoog ot Varloua Reaotora. 7.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR REACTOR SAFETY The worst accident that knowledgeable persons would judge as having a small but recognizable probability of occurrence has been established as the basis for evaluating the relative safety of reactors. This accident is that which might occur with a fairly high probability. the design of its containment." For the purpose of this report. often without excessive cost increases (particu- 210 .5 7. Theoretical Araaa d Earthquake Effect for a Modified-MercalU Intenalty of V. Southern CalUomla. Building Preeeure and Temperature After Preeaure-veaael Rupture. Quantltjr ot Sodium Exploalvely Ejected Into Experimental Reaction Veaael. 7. 7. Peak Preaaure and Temperature Va. In this case the mechanism for triggering the accident cannot be postulated. The mechanisms for triggering it are well understood and include human error.

Although from the governmental point of view on public safety the deciding factor regarding the potential damage to a nuclear facility may be the possibility of escape of radioactive material from the site boundary as a result of earthquakes. nonflammable. The basic problem is that the prompt physiological and ultimate genetic effects of radiation on the human require that his exposure. therefore. REACTOR HAZARDS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE ON EARTHQUAKES 211 . or spray systems Use of reactor systems with small amounts of stored energy Factors that determine the suitability of a site for the location of a specific reactor include: Population density Meteorology Hydrology Seismicity Geology Exclusion radius Many other factors are also involved. The need for containment of reactors. which partly determines the rate at which power can increase b. Self-imposed design and operating standards are often more exacting than governmental requirements. supplementary cooling. Rate at which heat can be transferred out of the core High operating pressures and temperatures Factors that tend to decrease the hazard include: The degree of containment of possible releases of fission products Selection of heat-resistant. and the extent to which the maximum credible accident and subsequent events could disperse the fission products. insofar as it decreases the following: a. is primarily dependent on the amount of fission products existing in the reactor core. such as stand-by electrical power supply. Factors that tend to increase the potential radiation hazard of a plant include: The power level and length of the fuel loading cycle that determine the fissionproduct inventory The speed of control action and the inherent nuclear factors that alter reactivity relating to the magnitude of a possible power excursion Core design. although it is impractical to assign exact probabilities to the chain of many unlikely events that would result in the final radiation hazard. another stringent criterion is imposed by the facility operator.1 larly in the more compact plants). as well as contamination of his environment. a qualitative judgment can be made.GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR REACTOR SAFETY 7. In choosing reactor sites to be consistent with these criteria relative to earthquake occurrence. when it is desired to build a specific reactor type on a given site. dousing. nontoxic materials that do not become activated under irradiation Protective instrumentation Blast protection Administrative controls for all operating conditions and standardized procedures for all nonoperating conditions Emergency systems. be minimized. the proximity of the reactor to human habitation. each reactor complex should be studied separately and all pertinent factors evaluated. Thermal capacity c. Neutron lifetime. therefore. so almost no physical or functional damage is acceptable. He ordinarily requires a maximum utilization of the reactor. which will not incur damage of a hazardous nature during the worst postulated earthquake (the magnitude of earth motions being held in manageable upper limits by limits to which strength of rock formations can resist energy accumulations).

water-cooled reactors. hazards analyses could single out the severe earthquake (even though the maximum credible accident may not involve an earthquake at all). This is true for reactors under construction as well as for older plants. This trip level is primarily to combat brief surges. Notable in this respect have been the SPERT. The many automatic protective devices and instruments and the improved mechanical design of control rods have largely eliminated the possibility of a power excursion with sufficient energy release to exceed the fuel-element heat capacity in the normal reactor environCHAPTER 7 . earthquakes take a more important role in deliberations r e garding safety. (3) the resistance of pressure vessels and containment structures to internal explosions. (Heterogeneous. plant-only basis after an initiating incident. and (4) fission-product-release studies under simulated accident conditions. therefore. a certain amount of radioactivity may be available in many systems. The reason for the nonnuclear safety studies lies in the fact that the initiating mechanism for fission-product release is not necessarily a nuclear excursion.EARTHQUAKES AS CAUSES OF REACTOR FAILURES EARTHQUAKES AS CAUSES OF REACTOR FAILURES Accident Initiation During the past 10 years. Normally. external to the fuel elements. Severe damage from earthquakes or sudden release of energy stored in pressured systems fall in this category. in identifying a credible event that could precipitate the release of large quantities of fission products to the atmosphere. Early speculation on the causes of reactor accidents focused on human actions as having the highest probability of precipitating a disaster. As human e r r o r is minimized as a probable instigator of severe reactor accidents. Other research includes (1) transient heat-transfer considerations. (2) conditions under which molten reactor materials explosively react with water. overpower safety-trip levels are set between 110 and 125% of maximum rated power and rarely above 150%. may be caused by maloperation of nuclear controls. which accompany increases in fission density. Human actions can be controlled to a certain extent. A power increase by a factor of 2 or 3 is generally sufficient to produce melting of fuel elements. There is beginning to evolve a body of pertinent literature firmly based on experimentation. and plant design provides safety features to prevent accident initiation due to human e r r o r . and Godiva experiments encompassing kinetic behavior over a wide range of operating variables. BORAX. and the continuing programs will include additional core types. as a result of prolonged radiation. this may be significant to safety on a localized. although most considerations apply to all reactor types). or mechanical causes. discussion will be based on this type. In fact. However. will probably represent the most prevalent class of reactors in the United States in the near future. Very large fission-product releases occur only if the fuel-element cladding melts or is otherwise destroyed (exposing irradiated fuel) as a result of the initiating mechanism. considerable sophistication has developed in the analysis of the maximum credible accidents to which reactor complexes may be subject. and melting under sustained power increases is prevented by additional controls. such as heat fluxes at which vapor blanketing of the fuel element in liquid-cooled reactors occurs with concurrent decrease in heat transfer and subsequent melting. KEWB. Heat-transfer requirements for reactors cause them to be operated with a small safety factor for heat removal. The accident may be due to chemical. Where the maximum credible accident is primarily nuclear in character. in which improvements in design have eliminated earlier causes for concern. actual transient tests on several types of reactors have been conducted. These programs have already delineated safe areas of operation of many reactor-core configurations. EBR-1. with their relatively large amounts of stored energy. Power Increase increases in reactor power. thermodynamic.

Both effects may eventually cause the cladding to melt and release fission products. In swimming-pool type research reactors. . It is not inconceivable that seismic disturbances could rupture pipes or vessels and trigger this type of accident. as in the startup of a loop that has been shut down for a considerable period. Similarly. Long. which are of less concern than power r e actors due to the smaller fission-product inventory associated with lower powers. Loss of Flow Fuel-element integrity is dependent on the continuity of coolant flow in power r e actors. This secondary supply. REACTOR HAZARDS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE ON EARTHQUAKES 213 D. In many cases the pool structure is erected above ground to allow free access to experimental beam facilities at the side of the pool. rather. the shaft connections to their motive power are sensitive to the misalignments that may be produced by earthquake-induced ground movement. Large centrifugal pumps and. A power increase can also occur in a reactor with a large negative-temperature coefficient of reactivity if the core temperature is lowered by the addition of a volume of cold water. Such'fractures would probably occur in areas of fatigued or radiation-embrittled materials. where high power density is not an overriding requirement. but still within the realm of credibility. although the possibility is remote in a well-designed reactor. the fuel elements are contained in a free pool of water. seismic motions might cause erroneously low signals from the powermeasuring instrumentation (unless such equipment is installed to resist any lateral displacement that might prevent normal operation of controls) or earthquake damage might bind control rods and prevent their further insertion when they are needed to forestall an excessive power increase. and seismic considerations will continue to be pertinent. In the case of water-cooled reactors utilizing highpressure vessels. they will be dependent on continuity of forced flow. Loss of coolant is the most probable mechanism whereby a severe earthquake can initiate a maximum credible incident. when excited by earth waves. and an earthquake may precipitate such failure. However. allowing the fuel elements to melt if high burnup levels have been reached. piping. an earthquake may be the initiating event to trigger flow reductions. poorly supported runs of piping may be oscillated at frequencies close to resonance. It appears less probable. Normally a stand-by pump is also available with an emergency power source to produce at least the coolant flow r e quired for removal of the afterheat from fission-product decay in a shut-down reactor. Some reactor designs. permit natural-convection circulation of the coolant so that complete loss of pumping power will not necessarily result in melting.2C ment. There is. C. that physicad. in particular. flow being generally of the forced-circulation type. which in the past in nonnuclear installations have sometimes resulted in collapse of the tower. pumps. Reservoirs elevated on flexible supports can be subjected to large dynamic forces. if the valves and flow-control instrumentation are at all vibration sensitive. inducing swaying sufficient to rupture junctions. it is certainly conceivable that fractures of the primary loop envelope could occur. Loss of Coolant The credible major accident for most types of reactors is currently taken to be the loss of coolant from the core. In this case also a severe earthquake is an easily imagined natural event that may fracture the concrete and cause the coolant to drain from the pool.'displacement between points of support may tear open a heavy-duty primary loop.LOSS OF FLOW 7. It is doubtful that economic power r e actors can be designed in this"manner. in general. Loss of flow appears as the second most Likely event of severe consequence to be triggered by an earthquake. and heat exchangers. an additional hazard where the unpressurized emergency water supply is involved. may be subject to earthquake damage.

and consideration of the possibility may be necessary in the hazards analysis of particular reactors. due to rapid removal of control rods. Phenomena that may increase the magnitude of the total energy release are: Chemical explosions (metal-water reactions) resulting from oxidation of the molten fuel or cladding Coolant fires involving alkali metals or organic material Reassembly of the molten fuel in a more reactive and supercritical configuration Explosive combination of the hydrogen liberated by the metal-water reaction with oxygen in the air confined in the containment vessel These factors are generally much smaller than the thermodynamic stored-energy release. sudden addition of moderator to an undermoderated assembly. Fissionable-material inventory of the reactor core may be increased. certain inherent phenomena that may operate to r e turn a reactor to a noncritical condition before any excursion occurs. and thermal expansion of the core itself are examples. the energy liberated in the accident could be assumed to propel a cloud of released fission products to some altitude above the site.ENERGY SOURCES AND RELEASE MECHANISMS ENERGY SOURCES AND RELEASE MECHANISMS The stored energy of the reactor coolant (particularly in power reactors of the pressurized-water type) ordinarily is the largest source of energy that might be r e leased during a maximum credible accident. even in the event of an earthquake. although the reverse is normally true. for example. unless the nature of the release mechanisms is well understood. in some instances. These can occur. creating a leakage path to the plant environment for the fission products. In addition to the amount of energy release. and. or instantaneous removal of an ejqjeriment detrimental to reactivity. may lead to larger problems of safety due to melting of the fuel elements. The extent to which seismic disturbances could initiate or aggravate any tendency to fission-product release should be evaluated in any particular plant. however. Shock or transient pressure loadings may occur. These operate independently of any designed safety mechanisms. poisons may be withdrawn. It is conceivable that such events could be caused by earthquakes (although this is unlikely). decrease of moderator density. or the neutron leakage from the core may be decreased. Release of stored energy might thereafter breach the outermost containment envelopes (however. Other energy sources may be chemical or nuclear. Diffusion from an elevated source may. It is even possible that eventual melting of the fuel elements may result in dispersion to a CHAPTER 7 . The energy released in nuclear excursions or the sudden loss of core-cooling capability. Fission products would be released from these elements at the same time that temperature and vapor pressure of the remaining coolant would be increasing. Increase of neutron leakage. There are. dropping a fuel plate subassembly into the core. generation of bubble voids due to increased temperature. besides being a factor in any mechanical damage. produce more severe biological damage than an equivalent ground source. these envelopes are ordinarily designed to resist the maximum forces that could possibly be generated by the release of stored energy from all sources) and tend to spread radioactivity beyond the immediate plant. If all containment envelopes should be breached. The resulting forces might breach the primary containing envelopes (if loss of coolant through such a breach had not already occurred). where it may be dispersed by prevailing winds. Nuclear Energy Sources Various mechanisms have been postulated by which the power level of a reactor may be increased. these may not have been included in the design criteria of the envelopes. the rate at which the release impinges on successive envelopes is important.

energy can be dissipated rapidly enough (due to relatively long lifetimes) so that a rate of energy release approaching that of an explosion is difficult to achieve.1 7. however. Table 7.1—THERMAL STORED ENERGY OF COOLANT Reactor system SM-1 Shippingport PWR EBWRt SREt EBR-2t HRT Thermal energy. A maximum conceivable accident. From this standpoint. the neutron lifetime is extremely short (of the order of microseconds or less).3B subcritical configuration (the reverse also being possible). and it is possible for a fast-reactor core to quickly experience a sufficient number of fissions for a very large quantity of energy to be released.* l o ' Btu 2 77 9 14 154 2 Reference 7. Inadvertent. supercritical mass outside the influence of control mechanisms.6 •Primary coolant enthalpy referred to 70°r. Long-term stress existing in the pressurized primary coolant system may cause rupture if seismic vibrations or relative displacement of components should be superimposed. B. Analysis of this type of accident in a tjpical fast-power reactor suggests that not more than the energy equivalent of several hundred pounds of TNT will be liberated before the mass disassembles itself because of heat and vaporization. The escaping coolant may enlarge the rupture and perhaps create and eject missiles at a velocity sufficient to reach and pierce other envelopes that are otherwise adequately designed to contain the plant and any accidents and assure public safety. thermal reactors are relatively insusceptible to earthquake-induced malfimctions that would tend to increase the reactor power level rapidly and. In thermal reactors (those in which most fissions are caused by neutrons at low velocities in thermal equilibrium with their environment). Stored Energy In certain reactor plants large volumes of gaseous or liquid coolants at high pressures may be the major source of energy susceptible to release as a result of earthquakes. REACTOR HAZARDS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE ON EARTHQUAKES 215 . it is possible that a thermal reactor vmder adverse conditions could experience a rapid energy release greater than that in a well-designed fast reactor. which involves the melting of the fuel elements and the collapse of the molten core upon itself under the acceleration of gravity.% steam estimated for external circuit. 1 atm. rapid control-rod withdrawal or other earthquake-induced malfunctions could add to excess reactivity. The rate of increase of reactor power is governed by the excess reactivity of the core and the neutron lifetime (time from generation of a neutron to its subsequent participation in fission). the rate of increase in power is very rapid. lead to hazardous situations. In fast reactors. t Thermal energy only. This may produce a molten.STORED ENERGY 7.3 7. With a slight increase of reactivity. In addition.2 7. therefore. tFluid and steam in pressure vessel.4 7.5 7.1 gives examples of stored energy for various reactors. The energy release itself Table 7. has been postulated for fast reactors. These are typical of the factors that deserve study in evaluating the effect of earthquakes on reactors. does not include oxidation. plus 10 wt. It should be noted that there is a wide range of possible reactor types intermediate between fast and thermal systems.

The fraction of reactive metal which might oxidize rapidly in any reactor incident remains one of the principal uncertainties in hazards evaluation. thermal energy is often the greatest. tons Reactor SM-1 U 0.8 1 0 0. A considerable amount of research is now under way to reduce this uncertainty. Chemical Energy Sources Mechanical damage from violent earthquakes that do not of themselves cause a maximum reactor accident may result in bringing together reactor materials that normally are kept separated (because of their mutually reactive nature). A series of early experiments aimed at evaluating the energy release in metal-water reactions was conducted by Higgins^*' in which various metals and alloys were melted and dropped into a pool of water. Additional research is under way to reduce this uncertainty. in a tightly contained plant. and it becomes the controlling factor in the design of missile. presumably because of poor dispersion.7.3C CHEMICAL ENERGY SOURCES Will. nearly complete reaction can occur. When the metal was later dispersed into fine particles.027 14 6. 216 CHAPTER 7 . but a major uncertainty in hazards calculations lies in the fraction of energy which is likely to be released. Possible dislocations due to earthquakes should therefore be studied in hazards analyses of particular plants. leading to serious consequences. raise the pressure of the gas within the shell. the amounts of energy per unit mass which may be released from the reaction of various reactor materials with water are listed in Table 7. Table 7. C.2—APPROXIMATE WEIGHTS OF REACTIVE MATERL^L IN PRIMARY LOOP OF VARIOUS REACTORS Reactive material in primary loop. The subsequent reaction and release of energy may in turn trigger additional damage. Stored thermal energy may be added to that from the other sources to evaluate the total loads on any container or the altitude to which a cloud of released fission products might be raised if the outer container is grossly breached. The distribution of downwind fallout and direct radiation is dependent on this height. blast. However. Early experiments detected little oxidation of the metal. the minimum pressure specification for the shell is often calculated (irrespective of earthquake occurrence) on the assumption that all the released energy goes into raising the temperature and p r e s sure of the contents of the shell and that thermodynamic equilibrium is achieved. under specific and perhaps unlikely conditions. violent and nearly complete oxidation reactions resulted.1)]. Table 7.2. It is hardly conceivable that all thermal energy can be released. and containment shields (see Table 7.2 0 Na 0 0 0 27. The total amounts of chemically reactive materials present in the core of typical power reactors are listed in Table 7.4 shows the wide variation in degree of reaction assumed by several reactor designers.3 together with the additional energy from the oxidation of the liberated hydrogen. [In comparison with the amounts of energy from other sources.5 0 0 31.0 0 0 316 Graj 0 0 0 45 11: 0 0 Shippingport PWR EBWR-l SRE ORNL GCR-2 HRT EBR-2 For analysis of water-cooled reactor plants.3 2.5 Zr 0 16 1. Since a failure of the primary loop envelope is a conceivable accident.

4—TYPICAL ENERGY RELEASE FOR RUPTURE OF PRIMARY CONTAINER Extent of chemical reaction Energy ' r e l e a s e . 20% P u .07 2.39 Btu from Btu p e r hydrogen kg of Total oxide r e c o m b i n a t i o n Btut 28.2 kcal/mole 2Na + 2H2O = 2NaOH + H2 + 101.2 2 7 Thermal 7.52 0.5 3.5 3. % Hydrogen recombination 0 2.71 1.3—ENERGY RELEASED FROM REACTION OF VARIOUS REACTOR MATERIALS WITH WATER Energy r e l e a s e . the analysis of seismic resistance may be particularly important in this type of system.6 7. liberating heat as well as sodium hydroxide smoke by the reactions 4Na + 02 = 2Na20 + 99. combines with any oxygen present: 2H2 + 0 2 = 2H2O + 57. xio^ Moles p e r kg 37 11 42 43 Oxide product AljOj ZrOj UOj NajO r. high-temperature liquid sodium or sodium—potassium alloys are used as primary as well as secondary coolants.4 0 10 25 4 100% Zr 12% Zr.36 2.2 5. Because of the common occurrence of concrete in reactor construction and its susceptibility to seismic damage and dislocation.9 kcal/mole The free hydrogen.1 0.03 0.CHEMICAL ENERGY SOURCES Table 7.25 X 10^ Btu Yes 0 Reference 7.10 7.12 0.84 1. triggered by the heat of the oxidizing reaction. Sodium also reacts rapidly with concrete. 10^ Btu Reactor system SM-1 Shippingport PWR EBWR EBR-2 HRT Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor Nuclear 1 Chemical 0 4.03 12. When concrete s u r REACTOR HAZARDS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE ON EARTHQUAKES 217 .9 7.7 7.6 13 7. such as EBR-1 and EBR-2 and the sodium graphite reactors. it is apparent that any mechanical damage or dislocation of barriers isolating the coolants from the air could have serious consequences.3 7.11 7.and intermediate-reactor designs.5 7.16 8.87 37.A l Metal.10 10. tMetal—water reaction plus hydrogen explosion. it becomes another reason for the study of earthquake resistance.3C Element Al Zr U Na Btu* p e r mole of oxide 1.03 •Free energies and enthalpy. Table 7. Since earthquakes are conceivable causes of such damage.50 2.96 9. These working fluids are pyrophoric and will react with air or water.5 Yes In fast.54 0.8 kcal/mole Because the normal atmosphere contains oxygen.

Direct rupture by earthquake motion is vmlikely for metallic fuel elements.3 0.5—RESULTS OF CLOSED-SYSTEM SODIUM-AIR REACTIONS* Initial 02 content.5 10 min 1 *These data (from Hines et al.3D CONTAMINATION RELEASE faces are potentially liable to contact with alkaU metals. psig 38 34 26 8 Time to maximum pressure. it can easily be seen that the extent to which the atmosphere is actually restricted can depend upon the severity of an earthquake and the subsequent damage. Decrease of available oxygen within the containment to below the atmospheric norm of 21 vol. there are three b a r r i e r s between fission products and the environment. Hines et al. which serves primarily as a safety featvire and secondarily as shelter for the plant. If only one of these b a r r i e r s survives an accident essentially intact. (2) Secondary barrier (envelope of primary coolant system) a. produced by malfunction of control rods or by excessive temperatures due to loss of coolant flow.% was demonstrated to have little effect on maximum p r e s sure. although some empirical data exists.^*^' are reproduced in Table 7. Detroit Edison Company.35 10.5 4. vol. (1) Primary barrier (fuel-element cladding) a. Indirect effects causing melting of this barrier during power surges. D.6 1. and the third is the containment vessel. Metal-water reactions following fuel melting may add to this energy input. b.7 0. vol. the degree of dispersion is important.2 5. reactors. or amount of coolant and exceed the strength of the vessel and appurtenances. As for m e t a l water reactions.5. Seismic disturbances may affect all these b a r r i e r s directly or indirectly. might be initiated by seismic disturbances.5 5.2 5—10 sec 17. The first barrier is the fuel-element cladding.% 5-15 10—15 15-25 25—35 1 sec sec sec sec min 0. the second is the primary loop. reduced flow. Significant results of Hines et al.13) are included to emphasize the unlikelihood of any metal oxidation reaction (whether or not it is earthquake initiated) proceeding to near completion in a restricted atmosphere.3 0. Actually little is known about the parameters that limit these reaction rates. Rupture of brittle ceramic elements or thin metal seals on ceramic elements is possible.1 1 0. The effect of energy releasee on these barriers must be analyzed to evaluate the potential hazard of the plant. sec 6 10 21 8 O. the reactor probably does not become a hazard to the health and safety of the public beyond the radius of possible direct radiation effects. is 40 psig.6 1.7. a protective covering should be interposed. b. S. Table 7. 7.0 10..2 0. Contamination Release In the majority of U.4 0.0 4. Ref. remaining after ignition. Direct rupture of the secondary barrier by seismic damage is probably the most likely accident to be initiated by an earthquake.% 21.6 Maximum pressure.'*'^ have concluded that the highest pressure to expect for closed-system sodium-air reactions. regardless of the amount of sodium or the size of the reactor housing. In plants with high- 218 CHAPTER 7 . Internal pressures may arise from coolant vaporization due to power surges. but these are improbable under actual reactor conditions. but the fraction of fission products released through such fractures would probably be small. High pressures result from finer dispersions. however.

the primary system is massive and complex. In addition. direct damage of containers by destructive resonance caused by earth motion is unlikely because the fundamental frequencies of such structures do not normally fall in the critical range of earthquake-response spectra and because they are geometrically simple and ruggedly constructed. showed that mild steel of thickness T is penetrated if e = 16.CONTAMINATION RELEASE 7. gross underestimates of the p r e s s u r e s created (due to primary vessel rupture) would permit this increase. more likely. Damage due to falling objects. the pressure-vessel plug) and control-rod drive mechanisms Shadow shields and concrete linings around vulnerable components Choice of alloys not subject to brittle fracture at the operating temperature of the primary system Dual purposes may be achieved by using the massive biological shielding as a shock b a r r i e r . as would failure of vessel seals at the foundation or around penetrations due to earth motion. However. possible lines of defense against missiles include: Blast attenuation shields to degrade shock waves Hold-down devices to restrain large closures that may be blown free (in particular. it is difficult to predict the leakage rates from a large vessel. but it will not necessarily create a unique hazard unless the leakage through the final b a r r i e r constituted by the containment vessel is increased. resulting in penetration. Precipitation of the maximum credible incident by an earthquake may lead to some predicted overpressure and to release of fission products.. is considered when siting the reactor and dictating a suitable radius of exclusion. This damage may take the form of: Rupture of vessels and piping due to relative motion of plant components or to impulsive loading Damage to instrument penetrations (e. and ill-considered modifications will make the plant more subject to vibration damage with age. as well as direct radiation. model studies conducted by Zabel. or other elevated structures (3) Tertiary barrier (containment vessel) Internal pressure surges created by plant failure of seismic origin may rupture the container or. As discussed above. such as water-cooled power reactors. cranes.g. Fatigue. For instance. Supports of all components must allow for differential (or otherwise restrained) thermal expansion to permit movement while resisting oscillations caused by earth motions. missile damage by fragmentation of the primary loop. thermocouple wells. In determining the ability of the tertiary shell to resist missiles.'*'^ in which drill-steel rods were projected at flat plates (roughly simulating such phenomena as control-rod ejection). radiation embrittlement. This leak rate.3D pressure coolants. A considerable degree of conservatism is justified in guarding against missiles until more is known about the phenomenon. seismic vibrations may be significant in contributing to rupture s t r e s s e s in the primary system and hence to missile generation. in assessing potential hazards. increase the leakage rate of fission products through any existing openings. Shock waves should be attenuated to prevent secondary missile production by spallation of the concrete surface. is also possible. is a possible mode of damage. Several possibilities exist for producing this increase. However. control-rod entries.000T^ + 1500T REACTOR HAZARDS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE ON EARTHQUAKES 219 . such as an exhaust stack toppled by the earth motion. For tertiary shell. electrical circuity) External damage by falling objects such as shielding walls.

In the case of water reactors. For steels other than mild steel.7. If a missile is deformed because its diameter or its yield strength is too small. e is greater than indicated by the equation. gradually r e ducing susceptibility to further damage to containment in the event of further shocks. generally treated. surface fragment ejection may occur from a 10-ft-thick solid-concrete biological shield. The following reactors were chosen: Pressurized-water reactors PWR. the most representative of each group was considered and its maximum credible accident was taken as representative of the whole group. massive portions of the surrounding material may be accelerated. it should be understood that the structural vulner ability (of reactor containment) created by the maximum credible accident will. but acutely pointed rods can produce small perforations at appreciably lower energy than that required for penetration by flat-ended rods. Ae ^ A T CU e On whereCTUis the ultimate tensile strength of mild steel. e increases but not by more than a factor of 3.4 TYPICAL MAXIMUM CREDIBLE ACCIDENTS A series of maximum credible accidents is described here for the basic reactor types now in operation in the United States.4 TYPICAL MAXIMUM CREDIBLE ACCIDENTS where e is the kinetic energy per unit diameter of rod in foot-pounds per inch and T is in inches. The energy input will produce such a condition if it occurs within the time required for a compression wave to traverse the medium. As stated previously. into the massive equipment of the plant. Cylindrical rods with conical tips require greater specific kinetic energy to achieve penetration to full diameter. Penetration for semistatic conditions requires approximately half the energy indicated by the formula. but this can be prevented by adequate venting. or by spray cooling from a stand-by water system. ordinarily last for only a relatively short period of time. If the pressure builds up slowly. the same experimenter has estimated that if an energy release of 10^ calories occurs in a cubical reactor 6 ft on a side within 1 msec. The maximum internal pressure generated by the release of stored energy and imposed on the system will decrease with decreasing temperature within the containment structure as the heat is dissipated through the containment vessel to the atmosphere. SM-1 Boiling-water reactors EBWR Organic-moderated reactors OMR Tank type reactors NASA The purpose of detailed examination of these maximum credible accidents is to underline the event that an earthquake may trigger or find already existing at the plant. Energies for penetration at other than normal incidence are also greater than indicated. The pressure differential between the containment vessel and the atmosphere will subside. In reference to concrete spallation. 7. Because there is no typical accident covering all reactors. The following parametric variations were noted: If the support of the plate is remote from the point of contact. it is remotely possible to envisage the latter case as aftershock tremors that hit a plant where a maximum credible accident has occurred. The reactor is still vulnerable to earthquake damage (from the standpoint of public haz ards) to the degree that the containment vessel encloses a cloud of gaseous fission 220 CHAPTER 7 .

. The pressure—time relation in the plant container is illustrated in Fig. and about 65 x 10^ Btu is liberated into the plant container. based on the amount and type of fission products freed from the core. even though major internal p r e s s u r e s have subsided. a rupture of the primary coolant system.e. S. circulates in four separate loops with one steam generator per loop.e. However. Shippingport Pressurized-water Reactor The Shippingport Pressurized-water Reactor (PWR) basically consists of a reactor heat source through which primary coolant (water) is circulated and steam generators where the heat picked up by the primary coolant is used to generate steam. Usually the maximum credible accident is evaluated on the basis of the reactor plant itself. The potential leak rate can be used to estimate the escape of radioactivity to the atmosphere. A. Thus an earthquake may both initiate the maximum credible accident and trigger further damage later in water r e actors.8 psig and 280°F.000 lb of primary coolant at 534 Btu/lb of stored energy. This corresponds to about 69. When the p r i mary coolant system ruptures. the worst case was calculated. There remains the possibility that the maximum credible accident may have created minor structural inadequacies that could be greatly aggravated by aftershocks later. The possibility of similar effects of earthquakes on other than water systems should also be taken into account when seismic studies are made.4A products.SHIPPINGPORT PRESSURIZED-WATER REACTOR 7. and the number and size of any existing leak paths. and the plant container was designed for 52. There is about 145. Atomic Energy Commission to give quantitative definition to these three items. The following set of assumptions establishes the maximum case. the design pressure and leaktightness of the vessel) is in turn based on the accident. The postulated conditions are: (1) Instantaneous equilibrium flash of the primary coolant. The degree of containment (i. The total heat energy contained in the primary coolant is about 78 x 10^ Btu. A considerable amount of research is being sponsored by the U. i. because it takes a certain time for the fuel elements to heat up to the melting temperature and react with water. leaving any unvaporized coolant in contact with hot metal surfaces at the temperature corresponding to the resulting plant-container pressure (2) Continued boiling of the unvaporized coolant by heat transfer from the hot metal surface with which the coolant is in contact (3) All the hot metal surface remaining in contact with the primary coolant as long as any remains unvaporized in the system (4) Instantaneous condensation of the vaporized coolant on the plant-container shell and other cool objects located therein (5) In addition to the above. high-pressure water flashes to steam. REACTOR HAZARDS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE ON EARTHQUAKES 221 .1. These reactions would liberate additionally about 4. A metal-water reaction and burning of hydrogen resulting from this reaction was considered as a consequence of the loss of coolant. at 538°F and 2000 psig. Thus the chemical reaction has no effect on the peak pressure. which is attained almost instantaneously. corresponding to an added 2-psig pressure rise in the vapor container. which gives the maximum pressure rise in the plant container. 7.. the internal driving p r e s sure available. The primary coolant.5 X 10^ Btu. but the reduced stored energy present after the heat losses reduces the possibility that an earthquake will rupture the containment. independent of the external structure.000 Mw-sec. the assumption that one boiler is ruptured on the secondary side Based on these assumptions. the pressure rise resulting from the chemical reactions would occur well past the peak pressure.

At the rated power conditions.4B STATIONARY MEDIUM POWER PLANT NO.4 x 10* Btu. 60. The plant container (vapor shell) was designed accordingly. There is 5 x 10* Btu stored at heat energy in the primary and secondary water systems when the reactor is operating at steady state. 1 The Stationary Medium Power Plant No.5 x 10* Btu without exceeding 80% of the yield point of the containing material. iR-WATER REACTION AND MELTING OCCUR IN ALL REGIONS OF CORE HYDROGEN BURNS MELTING.4 x 10* Btu. 489°F. which corresponds to 65 psig pressure and only 56% of minimum yield strength. ZR-WATER REACTION AND HYDROGEN BURNING END. The maximum credible accident is a nonnuclear accident. 7. Figure 7. Under such conditions the internal pressure would be 90 to 95 psig. SAFETY INJECTION SYSTEM DOES NOT OPERATE.2 shows stress vs.1—Pressure in plant container after main coolant system rupture equivalent in area to a shear of a 15-m.2°F below saturation temperature at a rate of 3. The vapor container is provided with water sprays to quickly reduce the overpressure after an accident.86 x 10* Ib/hr. also a pressurized-water reactor.3 shows the pressure — time curve in a vapor container after a maximum credible accident. 1 (SM-1). The maximum credible accident postulates a set of operating conditions in which both the primary and secondary water systems are allowed to reach saturation temperature at 1500 psig and rupture the system* The energy released in flashing water is 7.000 lb of steam is generated per hour. 1 PRESSURE IN PLANT CONTAINER AFTER LAR6E RUPTURE OF MAIN COOLANT S Y S T E M LARGE RUPTURE BELOW CORE.-ID pipe.HOURS Fig.7. TIME AFTER RUPTURE . No leaks were detected when the plant container was tested at 18 psig. heat release in the vapor container. is similar to the Shippingport Pressurized-water Reactor. It will withstand a sustained overpressure of 15 psig. Water enters the core 5. 222 CHAPTER 7 . B. Figure 7. The vapor container was designed to contain 9. Stationary Medium Power Plant No. Experimental Boiling-water Reactor Water boils in the Experimental Boiling-water Reactor (EBWR) core at 600 psig. The maximum credible accident releases only 7. although it operates at a lower temperature (450°F) and pressure (1200 psig) than the PWR.

NORMAL ENERGY STORAGE 20 50 — 10 — 1 1 1 10 12 14 16 18 HEAT RELEASED. _J MINIMUM YIELD STRESS " • / y — 100 z cc < X «—MAXIMUM CREDIBLE STORAGE « . The primary coolant s y s REACTOR HAZARDS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE ON E.4 shows that the temperature and pressure would be brought down by water sprays to 125°F and 3. Figure 7. 2 The primary cooling system in Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 2 (EBR-2) is liquid sodium entering the core at 700°F and leaving at 900°F. Calculations made for a nonnuclear-energy release indicate that. The plant is equipped with a water-spray system that is actuated following such an accident. 7.4D 1 — — 1 1 1 1 1 — MINIMUM ULTIMATE STRESS 70 60 — / ' / / / / • — 200 50 3 (O - 40 tn ui 30 - 150 a: S a. the temperature and pressure in the plant container would reach 187°F and 12 psig. the pressure in the reactor vessel would rise to the point where the vessel would fail. This energy is equivalent to the energy released when 10% of the metal in the core reacts with water.2—Stress vs. the resulting pressure and temperature would be 9. D. if all the water in the reactor flashed from 600°F into the plant container at an ambient temperature of 90°F.EXPERIMENTAL BREEDER REACTOR NO. If. then.2 psig within 15 min.8 psig and 178°F. heat release in vapor container. Expulsion of the coolant can be brought about by a break in the inlet line. if some of the fuel elements for some unknown reason were to melt and react chemically with water in the core.ARTHQUAKES 223 . water from a broken reactor vessel flashes and hydrogen liberated in the metal—water reaction burns. Experimental Breeder Reactor No. Calculations indicate that breaking of the vessel would require an energy release of 1. 2 30 7. 10* Btu Fig. Another way is to assume that.9 X lO' ft-lb.

4—Building pressure and temperature after pressure-vessel rupture. mm J 10 12 I 14 L 16 100 Fig. 224 CHAPTER 7 . time in vapor container after a maximum credible accident. 7.3—Pressure vs. 120 I I 6 I I I 8 TIME.4D EXPERIMENTAL BREEDER REACTOR NO. hr Fig.7. 2 20 25 30 ELAPSED TIME. 7.

The flammability characteristics of the diphenyl indicate that it presents the greatest hazard at the highest temperature. would make it scram.4E tem has a capacity of 86. The loss of pressure in the reactor. cylindrical. The heat is removed from the coolant in an air-heat exchanger. Organic-moderated Reactor Experiment The Organic-moderated Reactor Experiment (OMRE) uses an organic medium as moderator. With a serious rupture in the reactor vessel or heat-transfer loop. A secondary cooling system dumps the reactor heat load into a cooling tower. puts an upper limit of 3000 lb on the amount of sodium to be dispersed. NASA Engineering Test Reactor The reactor consists of a 9. could cause a chemical reaction between sodium and oxygen in air. stainless-steel-clad pressure tank surrounded by concrete shielding mounted in a pool of water 70 ft in diameter and 25 ft deep. The primary coolant. F. E. Based on this calculation. The loss of coolant is. Figure 7.ORGANIC-MODERATED REACTOR EXPERIMENT 7. It is clearly a nonnuclear accident. although different from loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized-water or boilingwater reactors. Rupture of the steam system presents no danger of fission-product release. Calculations indicate that a pressure of 24 psig at 1200°F would induce a stress of 15. inherently available in the reactor to disperse the sodium. however. causing a continued fire hazard. The organic medium is diphenyl. erupting from a breached reactor in the form of jet dispersing in the air. The coolant water enters the side of the pressure vessel and flows upward in the outer annulus and downward through the fuel elements. Such an occurrence is considered to be the maximum credible accident. the building was designed for an overpressure of 25 psig. reflector. Such a high temperature would. At room temperature.000 psi in the shell. which enters the core at 500°F and leaves at 700°F under a pressure of 300 psig. The maximum credible accident is postulated as an excursion leading to core disassembly and a chemical reaction resulting from molten fuel elements.5 shows peak pressures in the reactor building in relation to the amount of sodium reacted.000 Ib/hr of steam at 850°F and 1300 psig. and coolant. The steam plant is in a separate building from the reactor building. of course. Water enters the reactor vessel at 160 psia and 159°F and leaves at 120 psia and 187°F. Large-scale melting of fuel elements is not considered possible. diphenyl is solid. and an e m e r gency cooling system would adequately remove decay heat in the core. The heat from the primary coolant is exchanged with a secondary coolant that is also liquid sodium in a temperature range of 610 to 880°F. A realistic estimate of energy. never be reached. The energies released in this type of accident are estimated to be equivalent to 400 lb of TNT exploded at the center of the core. A probable condition for the chemical reaction to occur in a violent manner is that the sodium be finely dispersed in air. Such an explosion would rupture the pressure vessel REACTOR HAZARDS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE ON EARTHQUAKES 225 . the most serious accident that can happen in the OMRE. and the shell would have the same strength from room temperature to 650°F. Saturation temperature of the coolant is 341°F at outlet pressure. the liquid diphenyl probably would be sprayed into the atmosphere as fine droplets and partially flash into vapor. The mechanism for such a dispersion may be a nuclear excursion followed by a breach of the reactor vessel and a stream of sodium jetting out through a small orifice.by 32-ft vertical. and its inelting temperature is 152''F. however. A complete reaction of this amount would raise the pressure in the reactor building shell to 25 psig. therefore. as postulated in the preceding paragraph. The secondary coolant is circulated through a steam generator raising 248. Ambient temperature will pause the dispersed vapor to condense and solidify as fine smoke or dust.000 gal.

l/mol«°C (c) EXPERIMENTAL OAFA ARE INDICATED AS FOLLOWS: 0 A AJ» EXPERIMENTAL PEAK PRESSURE (MEASURED). (e) INSTANTANEOUS REACTION (WHICH IMPLIES NO HEAT LOSS.7. THE FOLLOWING AVERAGE SPECIFIC HEATS ARE ASSUMED: C. quantity of sodium explosively ejected into experimental reaction vessel. WHICHEVER IS LIMITING. AND INFINITESIMAL PARTICLE SIZE OF THE SOOIUMI. RUN A.(N. 7. OR.4F NASA ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR 7000 3000 u 2000 1000 NOTESi CURVES INDICATE MAXIMUM POSSIBLE PEAK PRESSURES AND TEMPERATURES BASED ON: (•) 100% REACTION OF SODIUM OR OXYGEN. EXPERIMENTAL PEAK TEMPERATURE (CALCULATED FROM MEASURED PEAK PRESSURE). PERFECT DISTRIBUTION.3X|0"*t-<.7X|0"9ti CjiNijOj) » 0.31 cal/g 'C c.31 c«l/9 'c Cp(N«jOl Cp(N«l » 0.aj+3.I » 4. Fig.5 — Peak pressure and temperature vs. RUN A. INFINITE PARTICLE VELOCITY.31 Cll/J 'C « 0. 226 CHAPTER 7 .

miles 12 37 62 120 Magnitude (Richter) 5 6 7 8 These data are realistic in that they roughly correspond to average intensities vs. liquids. The following table is an adaptation of this information showing radii of areas which will experience an intensity of Modified-Mercalli V or greater from earthquakes of several magnitudes. Radius of area within Modified-Mercalli V isoseismal. Current production reactors are protected by seismometers set to initiate automatic shutdown at Modified-Mercalli V. Superimposed upon this are circles enclosing areas expected to experience intensities of Modified-Mercalli V or greater from earthquakes of larger magnitudes centered at San Francisco. Conventional process equipment is normally protected with commercial seismic switches that are activated by shocks from explosions or earthquakes of intensity Vin or greater on the Modified-Mercalli scale. assuming there is a homogeneous crustal structure. Intensity V on the Modified-Mercalli scale is described as "a few instances of cracked plaster. The power-plant data are based on Federal Power Commission Map Series M-49. but the integrity of the 100-ft-diameter containment shell around and above the water pool would be maintained. Modified-Mercalli VIII is defined as "damage slight in specially designed structures." In general. An isopleth. and the vapor container is designed for a steady load of 5 psi. unstable objects overturned. trees and other tall objects sometimes noticed. This would leave the San Francisco area dependent on such power as could be imported from Morro Bay. 7.EARTHQUAKES AND POWER-DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS 7. The power-distribution network would then have to be fed from stations as far away as Sacramento. distance from the epicenters for average southern California earthquakes. An earthquake of magnitude 8 (Richter) would produce intensities above Modified-Mercalli V even at the three above-mentioned plants. and Moss Landing if these plants had been able to operate through the severe electrical transient introduced by the shutdown of the Bay Area plants. Fort Bragg. Disturbance of poles. and gases present inside would be coi-tained. is therefore complex in form. Principal Electric Utility Generating Stations and Transmission Lines.5 and crush the concrete. and the hydroelectric plants along the western slope of the Sierras.7 shows the location of existing power plants in the Los Angeles area. 1957. Figure 7. and power reactors might follow this practice. The equilibrium overpressure from such an explosion would be about 2 psi. considerable in ordinary substantial REACTOR HAZARDS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE ON EARTHQUAKES 227 . All solids.6 shows the location of existing power plants in the San Francisco area. connecting points of equal intensity during an earthquake.5 EARTHQUAKES AND POWER-DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS The area affected by an earthquake of a given magnitude is (difficult to predict due to the nonhomogeneity of the earth's structure and the source shape. An approximation^** gives radii of isoseismals of Modified-Mercalli intensities near the epicenters of earthquakes of varying Richter magnitude. seismic disturbances creating intensities of less than ModifiedMercalli V will produce no physical damage to sound structures. the Eureka-Areata area. An earthquake of magnitude 6 (Richter) would therefore shut down all local (Bay Area) power plants if these were protected by the same earthquake criteria as current production reactors. Figure 7.

isolation from large centers of population. 7. although strategic planning.6—Theoretical areas of earthquake effect for a Modified-Mercalli intensity of V. 7. reactors should be designed to equal or improve the reliability of fossil-fuel plants. central California. Reactor systems and structures should therefore be designed with sufficient resistance to seismic shock so that. consistent with protection now given conventional equipment. fossil-fuel fired. As nuclear fuels begin to assume an increasing share of energy pioduction.6 SEISMOLOGY AND THE NEW REACTOR PROJECT Fig. thus the 228 CHAPTER 7 . and availability of power and cooling water will probably override this consideration.7. operation need not be terminated for the safety of the plant on s e i s mic disturbances of less than Modified-Mercalli v m .6 SEISMOLOGY AND THE NEW REACTOR PROJECT Seismology should enter the initial site consideration for a new reactor project. • ." This would imply little interference with the functions of a power plant where designs have taken into account the effects of earthquakes. If the project is national in scope. great in poorly built structures. Usually the site-selection area is limited to the vicinity of the operator's existing facilities. • . there may be freedom to select a seismically quiescent area. buildings with partial collapse. hydroelectric.

(1) Geological and seismological consultation regarding reactor siting for maximum displacement from known faults and optimum ground structure (2) Selection of a seismic safety factor appropriate to the seismicity of the area (3) Incorporation of this safety factor into the engineering design of critical plant components.OPERATING PRACTICES PERTINENT TO EARTHQUAKES 7. all reactor operating manuals should provide for appropriate action REACTOR HAZARDS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE ON EARTHQUAKES 229 . • . particularly: a. southern California. including inspections to be made after the event (6) Establishment of routine inspections to ascertain whether aging or mollifications have affected the plant's susceptibility to earthquakes 77 . • . 7. The following procedures are suggested to those planning a new reactor to assure that the potential hazard from earthquakes has been adequately considered. Control-rod mounting structure c. Reactor. OPERATING PRACTICES PERTINENT TO EARTHQUAKES Since no area of the United States can be guaranteed against the occurrence of a severe earthquake. Overall study of building complex to ensure accommodation or prevention of relative motion between sensitively coupled units e. pressure vessels.7 M«R8- Fig. hydroelectric. and primary loop supports b. Containment structure and its penetrations (4) Analysis of the effects of the maximum credible earthquake on the reactor's operating safety (5) Provision in operating procedures of measures to be taken in the event of a severe earthquake. exact site selection can be related only to distance from known faults and construction on the most suitable ground structure available. fossil-fuel fired.7 — Theoretical areas of earthquake effect for a Modified-Mercalli intensity of V. Emergency cooling-system reservoirs and piping d.

Periodic earthquake drills might serve well to condition the crew to p e r form automatically such special tasks as might be deemed necessary during a severe earthquake. air. Each reactor installation should be carefully studied to ensure maximum utilization of this protection. he may have time to initiate a manual scram. the shock was felt (estimated Modified-Mercalli intensity of VI) at the Hanford Atomic Power Operations site. and operators should be drilled in these procedures to prepare for the eventuality of malfunction of automatic protection devices. the situation should be anticipated by written procedures. should be strengthened and braced to prevent overturn or rupture of connecting lines. earthquake of 1949. the concept of reactor operation during a severe earthquake may appear to be daring. However. However. Lateral bracing and securing of relay racks. toxic. or radioactive fluids should. operators of weU-designed power plants. In this connection. when there is no strong incentive to keep them continuously in operation. Continued Operation During an Earthquake To the uninitiated. Wash. it is desirable that large power reactors continue in service as long as practical. the only recorded effect on the Pacific Gas and Electric system in the vicinity was the opening of a circuit breaker in one plant. circumstances other than seismic or manual scram. Manifolds of high-pressure bottled gases.CONTINUED OPERATION DURING AN EARTHQUAKE to be taken during and following the event.. where possible. therefore the operator must rely heavily on automatic instrumen tation for protection. should be designed to reduce the possibility of spurious scrams due to minor circuitry damage during seisms. Consequently. Reactors of an experimental nature. but the only noticeable effect was the erratic behavior of power-level galvanometers. explosions. such as high temperature and coolant loss. This risk can be greatly reduced by the strategic location of shock-operated valves. chemical plants. Since panic and confusion have been known to accompany and follow s e vere earth motion. instrument panels. pyrophoric. Lines carrying explosive. CHAPTER 7 . For instance. in the San Francisco earthquake of March 1957. activity measuring and monitoring equipment. which begins without warning and lasts only ^/i min or so. and other large complex installations have been. The typical earthquake. If the earthquake is very violent. if the operator is alert. leaves little time for operator judgment or manual preparation for trouble. with a magnitude of 5. It is conceivable that panic on the part of members of the operating crew could lead to reactor incidents not directly related to earthquake damage. Frequently earthquake damage is caused by fires. or spring-activated valves triggered by shock switches. often used about reactors for various purposes. in many instances. Regular plant-safety inspections should be conducted at least twice a year and should include attention to such features. automatic controls of large power r e actors should be designed to relieve the operator of the need to make quick decisions to shut down manually or to continue on the line. The most severe seismic shocks occur within a few tenths of a second after the initial shocks. unaware of earthquakes of medium intensity which caused considerable alarm in the immediate vicinity. may shut down the plant. should probably be shut down either manually or automatically during seisms. combustible. education of the operators to acquaint them with the nature. be so protected. or flooding brought about by escaping gas or fluids from ruptured or otherwise damaged piping systems. However. presumably by inertia forces due to the response of the panel supports to the earthquake stimulus. In the Olympia.. and the expected response of the reactor system to earthquake stimuli should be of value in an emergency. probable maximum intensity and duration of earthquakes. These are available either as inertially activated ball check valves or as solenoid.2 (Richter). etc. but in which an operator e r r o r plays the major role.

H.A i r Reactions?.). 14(10): 36 (1956). USAEC Report AECD-3664.3 7. of course. West et al. Rosenthal.2 7. USAEC Report APAE-2. could be employed to initiate an orderly shutdown with all controls being driven in the direction of reduced reactivity. USAEC Report ANL-5781.. Westinghouse Electric Corporation. A third switch. Hines et al. (The entire system must. W. Argonne National Laboratory. An evaluation of the specific plant complex is necessary to determine the proper location of seismic sensors and the response characteristics of their mountings. L..8 7. USAEC Report WAPD-137. USAEC Report WAPD-SC-541. a total scram is resorted to primarily to terminate fast and potentially dangerous transients originating in or near the reactor. Phase i n Design Analysis for Army Package Power Reactor. Programmed Shutdown In the operation of high-power-level. Rosen (Ed. Lustman.12 7. Zirconium-Water Reactions. Hazard to HRT Containment CeU from Zirconium-Water Reaction or D. have resulted in major disasters because the fire-fighting equipment was buried under debris or was of such a type that the failure of utilities rendered it useless. would serve to warn the operator of possible greater shocks to be anticipated. It is obvious that the nuisance of low-intensity seismic scrams would be great in an area of frequent earthquakes of disturbing but not damaging intensity. 15(12): facing 3 6 . Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor Preliminary Safeguards Analysis.). A Study of the Reaction of Metals and Water. USAEC Report CF-56-8-156. Koch et al.10 7. How Strong Must Reactor Housing Be To Contain N a . B.7B Fire-fighting equipment should be of such tjrpe and located so that earthquake damage to the surrounding environment does not interfere with its accessibility or operability. set at Modified-Mercalli Vni (an intensity rarely exceeded in earthquake history). E. USAEC Report ANL-5719. B. Small fires around oil storage tanks. Alco Products. S. August 1956. be designed to adequately withstand the sequence of shocks up to the total shutdown condition). November 1956. Higgins.6 7. Design Analysis. which will determine the threshold Intensities at which these circuits are activated. Hazard Summary Report for the Army Power Reactor SM-1. M. set to signal at Modified-Mercalli VII.11 7. A second seismic switch. Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Inc. USAEC Report TID-4562. Hazard Summary Report on the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR). Inc. M. USAEC Report APAE-10. Argonne National Laboratory. Aerojet General Corporation. Nucleonics. G. June 1957.. Description of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. August 1957. activated at an intensity of Modified-Mercalli V. Hazard Summary Report.. USAEC Report WAPD-PWR-970. J. Experimental Breeder Reactor H (EBR-II). March 1957. June 1958. REACTOR HAZARDS AND THEIR DEPENDENCE ON EARTHQUAKES 231 . REFERENCES 7. M. May 1960. PWR Hazards Summary Report.4 0 (1957). high-temperature plants of a complex nature. would complete the shutdown on a scram basis should the shocks build up to a threatened total-damage earthquake. August 1955. November 1957. May 1957. September 1957. USAEC Report HW-48800(Rev. Experimental Power and Test Reactors.1 7.5 7.. Westinghouse Electric Corporation. In all probability the data on which a choice is made will of necessity contain arbitrary elements.PROGRAMMED SHUTDOWN 7.4 7. Division of Reactor Development. Hanford Atomic Products Operation. 1. Explosion.7 7. J. S. Vol.13 Alco Products. An earthquake alarm on the anunciator panel. Nucleonics. Wittenbrock.9 7. N. A Technical and Pictorial Summary. for instance.

232 CHAPTER 7 . Division of Mines. ADDITIONAL REFERENCE MATERIAL Division of Civilian Application. Theoretical Possibilities and Consequences of Major Accidents in Large Nuclear Power Plants. Earthquakes in Kern County. California. Bulletin 171. USAEC Report WASH-740. March 1957. Department of Natural Resources. During 1952. 1. Technical Report No. Zabel. State of California. Containment of Fragments from a Rvmaway Reactor. 1955.REFERENCES 7. R. San Francisco. Stanford Research Institute. April 1958.14 N.

The overall coefficient may be a complex function of several reactor parameters and may change sign over the range of operating conditions in complex cores. 3M-1. steam bubbles generated in the coolant produce effects that may be negative. 3 2 Simplified Control-rod System During Earthquake. Decrease in density of metals and liquids as temperature increases usually implies a tendency to reduce neutron population. or generation.chapter 8 PROTECTION SYSTEMS nCURES 9. to that at the beginning. Depending on the reactor type. a tendency toward self-stabilization exists. in boiling-water reactors. physical. this effect may tend toward self-stabilization. are of fundamental importance to reactor control. foundations. arising from changes in the nuclear. 233 . processes. depending on the specific r e a c tor design. allowing little time for manual emergency measures or operator judgment. and system components be designed according to effective earthquakeresistant practices. However. which accompany increasing temperature and/or power level. or geometrical properties of a reactor. and procedures th^t might require special attention in severe earthquakes. These practices are covered elsewhere in this manual. sensitivity to such natural effects may be large or small and either positive or negative in effect upon power level.4 Starter Peixtulum Used by U S. Since incipient excursions may generally be r e garded as increasing temperature. or positive. Extended Delay from Scram Signal to Rod Motion Beftnnlng. Coast and Geodetic Survey Seismic Scram Switch Used by Aerojet-Ceneral Nucleonics. Of prime importance is the reactor automatic control system.1 Power Peak* After Startup Accident for Normal Vs. This chapter assumes that the plant is capable of survival during a major earthquake without m e chanical damage. If these changes reduce the ratio of the neutron population at the end of a neutron cycle. and it is concerned with reactor equipment. 3. REACTOR CONTROL Inherent Mechanisms Natural effects. on which heavy dependence must be placed during seismic activity since the onset of an earthquake is sudden and its duration is brief. zero. chemical.3 3. INTRODUCTION The survival of a nuclear reactor plant during an earthquake requires that buildings. as an example.

it is also necessary that the measuring and other devices (which. The net effect is an increase in the resonance capture of neutrons by U^^'. One of these is the effect of changing absorption cross section which is approximately proportional to the reciprocal of the temperature. Control circuit instrumentation responding to these parameters must remain operative at least up to the point at which other properly designed portions of the reactor system would have been significantly damaged regardless of control system operation. some reactors utilizing liquid fuel or moderator can be chemically poisoned by the addition of a strong neutron-absorbing material. hydraulic. Of course. and ensure a reasonable rate of rise to any desired power level. practical reactor control is usually accomplished by the insertion or removal of strongly neutron-absorbing material (in the form of rods) in the reactor core. Contrived Mechanisms Because inherent natural shutdown effects cannot always be accurately predicted and may be inadequate to curb reactor excursions or to maintain any particular power level.8. and stabilizing effects exist (of secondary magnitude compared to other mechanisms). producing the so-called resonance peaks corresponding to these resonance energy levels. These mechanisms must be designed to assure operation during seismic shock. Scrams can be initiated by any condition considered a precursor to unsafe operation. usually boric acid. in turn. It can be seen that some factors inherent in the nature of the fission chain reaction can produce self-stabilizing effects. the most significant conditions being excess reactor power and an abnormally fast period (a measure of the rate of power increase). the absorption cross section reaches extremely high values for those of the neutron population having certain energy levels. however. scram mechanisms are employed which disengage the rod from its drive unit. B. An additional control mechanism is generally provided in all reactors and could be used in severe seisms. In cases where rapid shutdown is necessary (such as severe seisms). Under normal conditions control rods may be either manually operated or servo driven in response to signals from radiation detectors as the neutron flux (and reactor power) fluctuates about a desired power level. Geometrical distortion of core structures as a result of earthquake shocks might cause some of the naturally occurring effects to be changed in significance. and ETR) utilize an external location operating through pressure seals. CHAPTER 8 234 . Control rods are usually mechanically driven. which usually acts to reduce neutron population (and hence the tendency to excursion) as the reactor temperature rises. control rod movement) be secure during seisms. could be resorted to when all normal control mechanisms have failed and an uncontrolled power excursion is imminent. For example. whereas other reactors (SM-1. MTR. such as the PWR or HRE. It is in the functional and structural integrity of control mechanisms under earthquakes that the major safety reliance should be placed. the extent and direction of the change are difficult to estimate. or the rods can be driven in rapidly by a stand-by source of power aside from the normal drive mechanism. These materials depress the neutron population in their immediate vicinity. The Doppler effect is related to this mechanism. utilizing electric motors acting either through mechanical. permitting free fall of the rods into the reactor core (sometimes aided by initial spring load). and they must be used early enough to prevent destructive excursions. to the solution stream.2B CONTRIVED MECHANISMS Neutron-generating and -absorbing properties of reactor materials are functions of temperature. The extent to which these are dependent upon earthquakes is not completely known but is believed to be small. Some reactors. This effect reduces the neutron population as the cross section increases. However. as indicated. or magnetic drives. for a reactor containing U^^'. restrict the tendency to excursion. This. the actual effect is peculiar to the individual reactor and cannot be relied on for safety purposes in the event of a seism. have the drive motor inside the pressure shell. EBWR.

one can assume a delay in the beginning of the free-fall drop cycle on the order of 0. When the current breaks. Since the period of these oscillations PROTECTION SYSTEMS 235 .3E) with respect to rod-drop time. The rod. 8. In the SM-1.02 sec. a detailed analysis of all probable sequences of events in this initial split second appears unrewarding. 8. but it represents a significant fraction of the normal delay in a typical reactor scram. This friction is derived from metal-to-metal rubbing.3) „ „„ Since the individual motions and reversals of the core and the control rods imposed by earthquakes are erratic both in time and magnitude. which is typical of strong-motion earthquakes as recorded by vertical component seismometers). the reactivity will be r e duced far below unity.3 A.1 g.3 A similar effect can be obtained in gas-cooled reactors by the release of boron-containing steel balls that fill reactor voids and reduce reactivity to less than unity. The effects of initial velocity of the rod at the time the magnet releases may be more significant.1 or 0. or zero velocity with respect to the earth's mass as a whole. Since the magnitude of the vertical ground d i s placement in typical strong-motion quakes has rarely been known to exceed ±2 cm.3 ft/sec. must continue upward until this velocity is reversed. once free. downward. The rod remains partly coupled to the reactor through friction forces so that the up-and-down motion of the reactor during an earthquake results in alternate increases and decreases in the acceleration of the rod relative to the reactor according to the velocity dependence of these friction forces. extending the delay after initiation of scram signal to 0. which causes a theoretical delay of 2v 2(0. will have either upward. Lateral forces will be of secondary importance (except as noted in Sec. by this time. SEISMIC SENSITIVITY OF CONTROL-ROD TYPES Freely Falling Rods In a typical reactor. Suppose a scram is initiated during an earthquake that is causing the entire reactor structure to vibrate in the vertical direction with a period on the order of 0.070 sec rather than the normal 0. the control rod.050 sec (plus the normally somewhat larger actual drop time) during the postulated startup accident is estimated^'^ to cause the reactor power transient to peak at 187 Mw rather than at 97 Mw (Fig.1). A similar delay at the end of the cycle could conceivably occur. which is not unreasonable in strong quakes.2 sec and with acceleration varying a c cordingly (±0. along with the reactor. etc. However.02 sec is small. This possible delay of ±0. B. This discussion assumes no amplification of the vertical component of the earthquake-induced ground motion. Lateral seismic forces on the rod can increase the first type of friction. 8. shaft seals. this motion may be magnified with corresponding increase in the effects described above.SEISMIC SENSITIVITY OF CONTROL-ROD TYPES 8. Should the reactor supports (such as grid or p r e s sure vessel) have earthquake-sensitive spring characteristics and small damping in the vertical direction. scram is accomplished by interrupting the current to the magnets by which the rods are suspended so that the rods are free to fall in their guide tubes. These guide tubes can initially be considered frictionless. Friction Damped Rods In most reactors employing gravity-actuated scram systems. although it would be of little significance since. Suppose that at release the rod has an upward velocity of 0. the effects of friction significantly affect rod-drop time. the effect of any change in total travel on the rod-drop time is insignificant. This should be an object of special study in assuring adequate and automatic control during seisms. fluid drag. for instance. as a worst case assumption.

1 g from strong earthquakes would be negligible.3C MECHANICALLY DRIVEN RODS 200 EXTENDED DELAY 0. hydraulic accumulator. the significance of the possible initial delay.070 SEC. SM-1.1 — Power peaks after startup accident for normal vs. whether an electrical network. holds only 236 CHAPTER 8 . However. or rotating flywheel. of course. are capable of exerting many times the necessary forces for rod insertion.8. The energy sources used for scram. thus the effects of a vertical acceleration of 0. 18 •ROD STARTS MOVING 50 TIME (MILLISECONDS) 15 20 Fig.5 sec.050 SEC. as explained here. NORMAL DELAY 0. the overall effect of these perturbations should largely cancel out. 150 tn \- < < 125 a. FROM APAE NO. can be expected to be on the order of 0. remains unchanged. 8. compared to an approximate rod-drop time of 0.1 sec. extended delay from scram signal to rod motion begmnmg. Mechanically Driven Rods Reactors that employ mechanically driven scram systems should be least affected by an earthquake. This advantage. hi o a.

that the rod is rigid. In this case the rod.2. acceleration can reverse direction several times during the rod fall. Since the lateral acceleration g' will probably not exceed 10 ft/sec^ even in a very strong earthquake. a moment after release during an earthquake. a different situation arises if the center of mass of the rod is outside the guide tube or reactor. Mechanically driven scram systems have the advantage in that the rods are still connected to the drive mechanism so that gravity alone is not relied upon to hold them in after a scram. Assuming a friction coefficient of 0. rugged. although not significant with respect to expected earthquake a c celerations (always much less than 1 g). will pivot about Rj.For instance. the effect of friction. these forces will generally be small. and inertia of rotating parts reduce the effective rod vertical acceleration^'^ to 0.1.43 g. Using the SM-1 again as an example. Actually. D. closely coupled. 1 = 2. shown schematically in Fig.2. depending on the friction coefficient and the mass of the rod. the retarding friction force will be ^ x 1 0 x 0 . study is necessary in each individual case to determine whether the magnitude of a h3rpothetical earthquake emergency might override the ordinary need to prevent internal damage to the reactor due to free fall. thus the rod could rub alternately on opposite sides of the guide tube as it descends. and such systems should be carefvilly designed for use in areas of high seismic activity. If wire ropes and pulleys are used. This effect should be negligible in a well-designed system. care should be taken to prevent fouling of the cables due to lateral whip or tension slackening during an earthquake. 8. with the greater fraction of its mass outside the guide. E.3D SO long as ever3rthing is in good working order. The earthquake-induced friction (probably less than 2 lb. and that its density does not vary along its length. would prevent expulsion of the rods from the core by escaping coolant. It is suggested that a limit switch arrangement be employed where possible in areas of strong seismic activity. as estimated above) is a small fraction of the total retarding force. such as the gas-cooled low-enrichment type. Control-rod Whip During an Earthquake Consider a control rod.2 lb This is not a constant retarding force. and mounted on a highly earthquake-resistant foundation integral with the reactor itself. the weight of the control rod and the length of travel are such that free fall cannot ordinarily be p e r mitted during a scram. possibly as the result of earthquake damage in the p r e s s u r e vessel complex. If the center of mass of the rod is within a reactor core channel or other rigid guide.). this system appears to be satisfactory for application in areas of high seismic activity. This. and the resulting reactions at Rj and Rj PROTECTION SYSTEMS 237 . In principle. 8. Very careful design is required to ensure that false position signals (a possible contributor to a chain of events leading to an excursion) do not arise as the result of lateral whip or slack in the cables during an earthquake. In these cases the rod velocity is limited by energy dissipation. Assume that the reactor is being accelerated to the left at a rate g' due to the earthquake. usually in the form of an eddy-current brake. varying from zero to ±10 ft/sec^ (max. Controlled Drop Rods In certain large reactors.CONTROLLED DROP RODS 8.. in the SM-1 the rod weighs 72 lb. built-in water drag. However. Components should be simple. the effect of the lateral acceleration will be to develop small friction forces between the rod and guide. independent of external power sources. Referring again to Fig.

When the sum of these r e actions. and rod entry may be delayed for the duration of the earthquake. MAGNET SHOE Fig.1) where w equals the weight of the rod. in the case of cylindrical rods. 8. the summation of horizontal forces is R i — •""•" + Rfi _ wx g ^ (8. a condition under which rod jamming could occur is simply derived as follows: For acceleration x to the left. ^/////////A I tr=^ / / / // With reference to Fig. In fact. which may be minutes. it will not fall under the influence of gravity.3E CONTROL-ROD WHIP DURING AN EARTHQUAKE can become large due to the lever action of the whipping rod.a or R. multiplied by the coefficient of friction.8. Square or keyed rods are therefore preferable. The summation of moments about Rj yields tj wx/J Rja = — h r . if cylindrical rods are well guided over their full length of stroke. a rotary motion may develop so that this retarding effect is continuous. 8.2) CHAPTER 8 .2. although.=^(i:-1 g \2a 238 (8. exceeds the weight of the rod.2—Simplified control-rod system during earthquake. the difference should be negligible.

g = 32. .4 Substituting Eq.e. .. and counting circuits or scalers.f[44-']=^[i-'l<or — < 1 +Aa fix or 1 . logarithmic.2 into Eq. This simplified example serves to illustrate the need for care in designing rods and rod guides. These chambers cover several decades of neutron density (say. i. Although considerable overlap is provided to permit safe transfer from one counting range to PROTECTION SYSTEMS 239 .1) (10) •^•^•^ _ 120 _ . -. which measures total ionization for a given flux rather than counting individual pulses and which is small and mechanically rugged. where |j.5 full power). Above this range.. is the coefficient of friction. chambers filled with boron trifluoride gas and fission chambers coated inside with U^^^. Pulse chambers respond to individual nuclear reactions involving neutrons and consist of two common types. In order for the rod not to jam.3. only counting-rate meters.8.1 yields . 8.REACTOR-CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION 8. a r e used. In this range. amplifiers. iiiR^ + R2) < w.1 x X = 10 ft sec~^ a ^ i (0.^r MxJ <-^ i As an example. The detector for this circuit usually consists of an ionization chamber. 8. counting-rate (log-n) circuitry is employed. and the sensing element may be m e a s uring as few as one or two neutrons per second. REACTOR-CONTROL INSTRUMENTATION Startup At startup the neutron flux may be very low. 8.4 A. which corresponds in the average case to criticality. which consist of pulse chambers. Counting-rate meters will usually reach their limit of usefulness at about 10~* of full power. although only in extreme cases could jamming occur without actual mechanical misalignment or distortion of the guides and rods. 10"^ to 1. Thus .2 ft sec"2 ^ = 0. let { = 10 ft = 120 in.H .

but.e. both ranges of instruments should receive study from the seismic standpoint. is usually employed in this range in addition to nuclear instrumentation. For this reason. wiring details. C. In areas of high seismic activity. calibrated to read power level as indicated by coolant flow rate and temperature rise. are constructed along the same lines as lower range equipment and should be no more earthquake sensitive. Control rods might be withdrawn. B. giving rise to an erroneous power-level reading. Conventional instrumentation. Exposed wiring is particularly vulnerable to this type of damage. etc. Full Power For normal operation at full power. With proper attention to lateral bracing of relay racks. static friction alone is relied upon to maintain this position. In the steady state the contribution of fission-product gammas is negligible.or automatic-control mechanisms. jamming oi the control rod itself is still a possibility to be considered. amplifiers.. although not specifically a part of control or protection systems. and other electronic gear) is sufficiently rugged to survive strong seismic accelerations in its own right. A seismometer may be broadly 240 CHAPTER 8 . gamma radiation from fission-product decay can mask the neutron flux observed from an ionization chamber such as described above. This shifting. in the intermediate region.8. the effects of practically all imaginable earthquake damage to the control system should result in automatic reactor shutdown. although more complicated. may reasonably be considered for inclusion in reactors. Intermediate Power Range From 10"'' to full power. when the reactor is subject to wide variations in power level. Seismic Sensitivity The reactor-control complex (i. 8. It is recommended that positive means of locating such instruments be adopted for good earthquake-resistant reactor practice. cabinets. might set the stage for further difficulty in the confusion usually accompanying severe shocks. Damage to circuitry and components from falling objects or shifting masses appears to be the principal threat. gas supply lines. the emergency shut-down mechanism for power reactors in areas of seismic risk should be examined critically with respect to the possibility that it. A scram circuit can always be actuated when the neutron flux reaches a dangerous level. sensing elements. Reactors are often equipped with horizontal instrument thimbles in which fission and ion chambers are located for radiation measurement. However. which could initiate an excursion to an abnormal power level. Ionization chambers are commercially available which have been shock and vibration tested for military use to much more stringent specifications than would appear necessary for seismic resistance. neutron level indicators are used to operate servo.4B INTERMEDIATE POWER RANGE another.5 SEISMOMETERS Seismometers. These chambers. Because of the fail-safe criteria to which reactor-control circuitry are designed. regardless of what power range is then current.. and one which would require the execution of emergency or last-ditch measures. although not normally a serious condition. might be rendered inoperable by extreme seismic damage. there should be no trouble in this respect during earthquakes. too. These thimbles provide a wide range of adjustment of the radial position of the chamber relative to the reactor. lateral shocks might conceivably cause the chamber positions to shift. D. In some instances. additional ion chambers are needed to separate the effects of neutron flux and gamma flux. The usual practice is to determine empirically the position that provides a full-power reading when the reactor is shown by other measurements to be operating at the rated power.

should always include the response characteristics of the mounting structure itself. Coast and Geodetic Survey and the Seismological Society of America.. The setting. To the reactor designer and operator.SEISMOMETERS 8. Lateral accelerations set the pendulum swinging.. consists of an inertial mass suspended in such a manner that it remains at rest while the earth's crust vibrates due to the passage of seismic wave trains. in its simplest form.80 •\ 0. S. 8.00 0.03 to 0. north-south.oe 0. and its action reflects the actual local effects with respect to accelerations. a system that breaks electrical contacts when shocks occur is probably preferable to one that makes contact (see Sec. and. The most widely used is the inertial or pendulum type.) 200 100 UJ =»^ 80^ 60S o 40- 1 \ \ azo \ a4o aio o. S. 8.10 sec) seismometer is of interest since such an instrument responds very well to strong shocks in the immediate vicinity.6C). and vertical displacement r e cordings.06 0.5 described as any instrument which senses vibrations of the ground under its supports. the reactor instrumentation is not insensitive to waves in the worst direction while registering weaker waves. S. a strong-motion-sensitive. contact is made with the ring. The device consists of 2. period. Coast and Geodetic Survey. Where long-term reliability is a factor.60 I 1 y OISPLAC EMENT^^ ^^. Three seismometers.L_j io!3 . completing an electrical circuit that starts the PROTECTION SYSTEMS 241 .) a swivel pendulum surrounded by a ring member with an air gap in the static state. as shown in Fig. and duration of these shocks. A trigger device to start recording seismometers. are usually used to get a meaningful record of this motion. 8.00 1. in the case of strongly directional seismic waves.v^ ^-^ \ \ \ ACCELEfl ATION^ 2 3 4 5 (3R0UN0 PERIOD (SECONDS! sS 40 O 2 « Fig.3—Starter pendulum used by U.'''-' ^ _ — . which. A complex of seismometers may be required to ensure that. (From U.. short-periodsensitive (0. which is decided upon for tripping any protective circuitry.3. has been standardized by the U. which resolve the components into east-west.04 y y^ ^ § 20 5 c \ ___>. if the amplitude is sufficiently large. Coast and Geodetic Survey (USC&GS).

This device is patterned closely after the standard starter switch used by the USC&GS to actuate strongmotion accelerometers (see Sec. Such a high degree of sensitivity may be unwelcome in power reactors if an excessive number of shutdowns result from low-level vibrations.) pletes an electrical circuit across two terminal strips. General Electric Company. accidental impact to the structure. 8.) A similar device is used as a seismic scram switch in several reactor systems. By varying the clearance the instrument can be made to initiate signals at varying degrees of earthquake intensity. 242 CHAPTER 8 . Calif. such a device may be insensitive to vertical shock and unable to distinguish between the sources of such shocks. (As noted in Appendix D.4.4—Seismic scram switch used by Aerojet-General Nucleonics.6 CtJRRENT EARTHQUAKE-PROTECTION SYSTEMS recorder.8. utilizes a brass ball that com- I " Z DIA.A Fig. Sec. corresponding to an acceleration of 0. (From Aerojet-General Nucleonics.. B. 3. 8. BRASS BALL CONTACT PLATES ^ ^ A A 1 LJ f MOUNTING BRACKET TERMINALS SECTION A . A lateral force. even though recording is not necessarily required for any reactor seismic-protection system. This switch. supports a platinum-tipped cone that swings to contact an adjustable concentric ring and complete an electric circuit. or other nonseismic vibrations. 8. Should the seismic force be oriented along the groove. This switch is very sensitive and should be firmly mounted to the reactor foundation to prevent shutdowns from spurious sources such as passing trucks.5). the rolling action of the ball along the groove increases contact resistance sufficiently to interrupt the circuit and cause control-rod release. shown in Fig. responsive to lateral accelerations from any direction. A wire-supported pendulum. dislodges the ball from the shallow groove created by the edges of the terminal strips. CURRENT EARTHQUAKE-PROTECTION SYSTEMS Aerojet-General Nucleonics Aerojet-General Nucleonics equips its small research reactors with a seismic shock switch of its own design. Vallecitos Atomic Laboratory At its Vallecitos Laboratory. 8.01/100 g. near Oakland. as described below. the General Electric Company utilizes a pendulum type seismic switch for earthquake protection.6 A.

based on the high-intensity starter design of the USC&GS.. homogeneous boiling type reactor. a protot3T)e of the UTR-10 training reactor manufactured by AmericanStandard. a lowpower device that was the only reactor then operating. is equipped with a commercial shock switch for seismic protection. aqueous. However.7. The operator is. and the warning signal has been eliminated. Two additional USC&GS units are p r o vided to trip at Modified-Mercalli V. until recently. operated at 500 watts (thermal). 8. A small. been set to trip at ModifiedMercalli n (0. was equipped with a pendulum type alarm switch similar to the USC&GS instrument described in Sec. it was replaced later with a commercial switch and was set to scram at Modified-Mercalli intensity VIII. Advanced Technology Laboratories The UTR-1. near San Francisco. The 10-kw pool type reactor at this laboratory is not equipped with a seismic alarm or scram device (as of January 1959).3-mm gap) to give a warning signal and to scram the reactor at ModifiedMercalli V (2. Atomics International 8. as described in Sec. This reactor is designed to operate at a power level of 1 watt. 8. prior to which no seismic scram device was used. since this instrument requires the making rather than the breaking of an electric circuit (an undesirable feature in safety circuitry due to contact surface aging and interference of foreign material). Recently the scram setting was changed to Modified-Mercalli IV. which is just below the threshold of minor structural damage. is employed to scram the reactor by dropping the safety rods at an earthquake intensity of IV on the Modified-Mercalli scale. in a seismically active region. This switch. of the type described in Sec. Calif.6C The reactors operated by Atomics International in the Los Angeles area (the SRE and several experimental homogeneous reactors) are equipped with a commercial shockoperated switch. The warning signal was given in the control room by sounding an alarm and lighting a panel on the annunciator board. D.7. For each reactor the instrumentation has.4.. E. in which case activation of the switch r e maining on line will initiate the shutdown. After the Tehachapi earthquake of 1952. the Water Boiler Neutron Source. Calif.7. In addition to the above safeguards. located at Livermore. is set to drop the control rods at a shock intensity of VII on the Modified-Mercalli scale. University of California Lawrence Radiation Laboratory The laboratory. A coincident signal from both switches is required to scram the reactor unless one unit is bypassed for repair or maintenance.ATOMICS INTERNATIONAL C. The instrvunents are grouped together in a single box and mounted close to the PROTECTION SYSTEMS 243 . Hanford Production Reactors All the Hanford production reactors utilize the same earthquake protective instrumentation. as described in Sec. 8. is located in Mountain View. continuously on duty. A commercial shock switch. a written operating standard instructs the r e a c tor operator to scram the pile manually if any of the following phenomena a r e observed: (1) Power-level galvanometer (light beam) spot vibration (2) Fluctuation of flux monitor needles (3) Swaying of overhead lights (4) Shaking of equipment (5) Movement of floor The entire system may be bypassed under approved standards for as long as 5 min to replace relays or perform other maintenance.6-mm gap). is equipped with two research r e a c tors for experimental purposes. however. 8. American-Standard. This warning signal would occur well below the threshold of any physical damage. F.

S. however satisfactory they may be for their intended purposes. for reasons peculiar to seismology. This slight possible overconservatism and the consequences of unnecessary shutdown of a large reactor plant. 1958) is exactly the same as that of the Hanford installation. set for an impulse of threshold intensity. are limited in their usefulness for the protection of large. the instruments are constrained to unidirectional motion of the sensing element so that eastwest. Atomic Energy Commission. For each reactor. a single such instrument will respond as readily to a maximum impulse of a small earthquake as well as to a similar impulse at the beginning of a major earthquake. Seismograph starter switches in the Seattle area have responded to such waves from Alaskan earthquakes when very few humans noted the disturbance. the designer has little choice other than the on-off seismic switch concept employed in industry for protection of equipment from shock or seismic motion and by seismologists to start fast-recording mechanisms associated with strong-motion seismometers. Such switches. and vertical components of the ground acceleration are recorded on separate instruments and are combined later to reconstruct the true record. Another type. It is. this is accomplished directly by contact of the pendulum with a bumper ring. complex reactor installations. However. The limitation of such instruments lies in the fact that. Pendulum gap-spacing checks are made every six months. A modification of the USC&GS switch actuated by vertical impulses has been developed but is reported to have poor aging characteristics. north-south. scram at low intensity is. 8. it could become an expensive nuisance in the operation of complex plants. 244 CHAPTER 8 .7 RECOMMENDED EARTHQUAKE mSTRUMENTATION In the adaptation of presently available seismic instrumentation to the task of r e a c tor protection. of no use in the intensity region above the threshold. closing the circuit. The units are inspected for r e sponse during each major scheduled shutdown. must be weighed in each individual case. Two or more instruments are needed for an alarm at threshold intensity. and coincident closure of the contacts on the other two switches (set for Modified-Mercalli V) initiates a reactor scram. Savannah River Production Reactors The protection system of these reactors (as reported by the Savannah River Operations Office. of course. However. and others based on the pendulum switch.8. can accomplish its function only once during a given earthquake. strong-motion seismometers are available with electrical output sufficient to operate a galvanometer or to impress a record on a magnetic tape. In the starter pendulum. set back (power reduction) at intermediate intensity and scram at damaging intensity.6G SAVANNAH RIVER PRODUCTION REACTORS floor. On the assumption that worse is to follow. Also. "Why not use existing strong-motion seismometers to monitor the earthquake continuously over the total intensity range and direct the reactor accordingly?" In fact. 16. may occasionally produce an unjustified reactor shutdown by responding to earth waves of long period but large displacements from distant earthquakes. requiring either manual reset or a quiescent period for the pendulum to come to rest after contacting the bumper ring. This system. available commercially. on Sept. A switch. G. One may ask. U. which is a part of the main reactor foundations. particularly one supplying base-load power. of course. can simultaneously make or break circuits by the use of intervening mechanical elements between the inertial mass and the switchgear. a safe procedure with only one seismometer. The on—off switch concept employs an inertial element suspended so that an electric circuit is activated (or deactivated) on receipt of a threshold impulse from any direction in the azimuthal plane. one initiates an alarm at a Modified-Mercalli intensity of II. three USC&GS type pendulum starter switches are used.

ADDITIONAL REFERENCE MATERIAL Ewing. M.).1 8. Inc. State of California. Lundsberg. Alco Products. Member Science Department No. not requiring the closing of contacts to complete an electrical circuit to initiate signals (3) Free of mechanical or rubbing friction between elements (4) Small hysteresis effects in comparison to driving forces (5j Rugged and reliable.REFERENCES since the reactor operator is generally more concerned with the magnitude of lateral a c celerations rather than with the direction of their origin. Department of Natural Resources. A.03 to 0.. L. USAEC Report APAE-Memo-97. Earthquakes in Kern County.. This would. Alco Products. April 1957. Tokyo Imperial University. 1921. Meem (Ed. Vol. Vol. Reid. whether earthquake connected or not. recording and erasing data until a hold signal indicates data of interest are being taken. 1955. An integrated reactor-protection system could perform the following desirable functions: (1) Continuously monitor strong seismic disturbances (2) Signal its own failure or malfunction if live circuitry design is employed (3) Signal alarm to annunciator panel at an intensity level indicative of a given earthquake intensity having been reached (4) Begin power reduction at low shock intensity. During 1952. J. with minimum sensitivity to fouling or decrepitation (6) Signal output proportional to intensity of seismic disturbance so that varied reactor-control response is possible if the type of reactor justifies such protection (7) Capable of simple functional testing in the field REFERENCES 8. Earthquake Measurement.. Suggested criteria for the design of a reactor plant seismometer are as follows: (1) Period in the range of 0. Theory of the Seismograph. Manual of Seismology. Advances in Geophysics. August 1957. 1910. G. F..2 J. Division of Mines.1 sec with critical damping (2) Fail safe. California.. in California Earthquake of 1906. of course. New York. Inc. Effect of APPR-1 Control Rod Acceleration After Scram on Start-up Accident. 2. be invaluable in the reconstruction of reactor behavior after an incident. USAEC Report APAE-18. H. nondirection sensitive in the azimuthal plane. H. driving all reactivity controls at normal speed toward reduced reactivity (5) Override manual cancellation of power reduction as long as strong signals persist (6) Scram when signal strength reaches proportions indicating mandatory shutdown (7) Produce strong-motion accelerograms for comparison with other plant records to assist in the analysis of incidents This last function might be more satisfactorily accomplished by the use of an inexpensive continuous-belt magnetic tape recorder. E. II. Academic P r e s s Inc. Davison.. strong-motion instruments. San Francisco. 9. should be adequate for the task of reactor protection. Initial Operation and Testing of the Army Package Power Reactor APPR-1. Gallagher and T. C . 1955. 1883. PROTECTION SYSTEMS 245 . The magnetic tape technique suggests the possibility of a simultaneous record of other important reactor parameters in the abnormal r a i ^ e during an earthquake or other transient disturbances. J. Bulletin 171. Silks.

.

1. The existing SM-1. and conservative practice should be followed. the influence of local geology is at best uncertain. to illustrate the effects of seisms upon an SM-1 type reactor system.l SITE CHARACTERISTICS The Stationary Medium Power Plant No. 1. successive designs may be required to withstand the seismic loads of nearly any credible location. Even for those sites selected after due consideration of available geological and historical seismic data. was intended to operate.19 to 1. A. Although the prototype is located at Fort Belvoir.10. particularly locations remote from the ordinary sources of power or fuel. 1 TABLE A. located at Fort Belvoir. 247 .Appendix A SEISMIC CONSIDERATIONS PERTINENT TO THE STATIONARY MEDIUM POWER PLANT NO. it would be unrealistic to anticipate ideal conditions of geology and seismicity for each possible site. is used in this chapter as an illustration of seismic analysis considerations. assessment of seismicity is far from precise. and professional geological consultation should be employed. was conceived as a prototype to advance nuclear power design and operational technology to enable the feasible operation of successive package reactors at remote military establishments. Therefore any indication of possible overstressing of some reactor parts does not imply inadequacy of the original design.l Seismic Response of SM-1 Containment Vessel. The conclusions and calculated stress levels contained in this appendix are based upon an assumed seismic environment more severe than that in which the reactor.. 1 (SM-1). as originally designed. The earthquake experience of this site is such that seismic considerations were minor in the original design. but rather indicates only some design areas to which attention should be directed in the event that a similar plant should someday be constructed in areas subject to much more severe conditions. this chapter conservatively assumes that the seismicity of Zone 3 applies (as illustrated by the average response spectra of Figs. Considering the global scale of modern military logistics. in a Zone 1 area as defined in Fig. 1 (APPR-1).. However. Va.24). formerly the Army Package Power Reactor No. It is not possible to formulate a general rule for optimum reactor siting in a given area. Va.

a pressurizer. 5. a sampling has been selected to be representative of the seismic response. Of the 70V2-ft overall height of the vessel and footings. the exterior concrete cylinder. In this study the containment structure is taken as a simple cantilever issuing from. The approaches presented do not represent the only approach possible. and associated equipment (see figures in Chap. condenser. However. and the primary coolant piping connecting the two units. For this reason it is to be expected that the use of more refined models and more sophisticated techniques could give results that vary appreciably from those presented here. but they are not intended as model calculations applicable to all systems. As discussed in Sec. More important. with corresponding variations in complexity of analysis and differing end r e sults. The final clear interior of the shell is 32 ft in diameter and 52 ft in nominal height. and for which a seismic history is not available. and related piping. the center of gravity of the containment vessel. however. containment vessel. The interior of the shell is lined with 2 ft of concrete. so that a positive identity will exist between ground and containment vessel motion. The principal structural component of the vessel is a vertical. regardless of the method used in evaluating response. the separate steam generator.33.) The response will generally be elastic. Containment Vessel The containment vessel encloses the nuclear reactor. Two methods are appropriate to the investigation of containment vessels: (1) the spectrum method and (2) the coefficient method (in which. and at those features requiring a high degree of integrity to maintain biological and structural safety during seismic disturbances. so that the results of highly simplified solutions may be entirely adequate. The exterior concrete cylinder and containment vessel a r e structurally separated by 1 in.2 A. is embedded below the ground surface. nor necessarily that which is most desirable. Structural calculations covering pertinent items are presented in Sec. The shell bears upon the footing through a circumferential base ring at the level of elevation 27. idealization and simplification are necessary to synthesize the model needed to represent the structure dynamically.2 BUILDING AND CONTAINMENT RESPONSE BUILDING AND CONTAINMENT RESPONSE This investigation has been directed at those features of the building. cylindrical steel shell with hemispherical ends. Rather. 24'/2 ft. and their common footings has been determined to be within a few inches of the ground surface.-diameter bolts. and generator are housed in the adjacent building and are connected to the steam generator by a secondary piping system piercing the containment vessel. No attempt has been made to perform an exhaustive analysis of every detail of the SM-1. coefficients are selected with regard to the maximum acceleration of the ground motion. A. or 35% of the height. These calculations further illustrate the application of some of the techniques outlined in the preceding chapters. 3) which have been demonstrated from past experience to be susceptible to seismic damage or malfunction. The review does not attempt to evaluate stresses other than those of seismic origin. The spent-fuel storage pit is also exterior to the containment vessel. 248 APPENDIX A . A. The spectrum method described in Chap. together with appurtenant equipment such as pumps. The exterior of the shell is enclosed within a 3-ft-thick cylindrical concrete wall extending up to the bottom of the hemispherical head. The base ring is anchored to the footing concrete with 16 equally spaced 1-in. 5. however. at those features which are unique with nuclear power reactor plants. which is in turn surfaced by a light steel linmg. it must also be remembered that the varying properties of earthquakes impose a severe limitation on the rewards of extended refinements in analysis.1. it is loaded from within the containment vessel through a small-diameter spent-fuel chute. and limit-design methods are not applicable.A. 5 is well suited to the investigation of seismic behavior. The turbine. of fiber glass insulation. Each feature investigated can be represented by models that differ in complexity and configuration.

1.049 17.24.19 to 1.3. ** Deflection at level of junction of cylinder with top hemispherical head relative to base.l —SEISMIC RESPONSE OF SM-1 CONTAINMENT VESSEL* Method Coefficient from code| (C = 0.33) Itemt P e r i o d (first mode) Base moment Base shear Deflection** ("Concrete f +• f. t t Computed from uplift using 50% of dead load. is 0. § Coefficient selected from averaged response spectra to conform with maximum ground acceleration of 0. as a cantilever beam independent of the exterior concrete cylinder. Example 1.2 92 *SM-1 is located in a Zone 1 earthquake region. such coefficients would materially underestimate the seismic response. f(. Calculation procedures for the coefficient methods conform with those described in Sec. Psi Psi Psi Psi Response spectrumll 0.2A and intimately associated with. J ^a ^ ' b l ISteel ("Concrete 1 Steel Units Sec In. which. Alternatively the calculations required in using the spectrum method can be avoided by using an appropriate seismic coefficient. If the containment vessel has a very short period of vibration so that it may be assumed to be a rigid body. t The symbols have the following meanings: f is the direct axiai stress. The coefficient is then selected to conform with the maximum acceleration of the ground. with broad base sections of adequate strength to assure full and continued elastic response during seismic motion. 1. but calculations have conservatively assumed Zone 3 conditions for illustrative purposes. 5. and fyis the average shear stress.24). is ^ the flexural stress.25 X 10"^ r-55 U3n r-550 I130tt 6. Table A. Table A. the ground. however.9 69 7.15 X lo" 238 f-39 l-2Tt f-390 1-23tt 3.33 g. Calculation procedures for the response spectrum method included solving for the shape of the first mode and determination of the corresponding period of vibration.7 37 17. The following assumptions are pertinent to all calculations: (1) The steel containment vessel is free to vibrate about the level at elevation 27.9 X lO-* 596 f-56 ll5tt f-560 ll49tt 9.33. Alternately.CONTAINMENT VESSEL A.33 g. taking damping at 5% of critical.1 X 10* 451 9.-kips Kips In.133) Coefficient from spectrum§ (C = 0. (2) The inner concrete liner is well bonded to the steel shell. called the base. The StodolaNewmark method of numerical integration was used and verified within acceptable limits using SEISMIC CONSIDERATIONS PERTINENT TO THE SM-1 249 . for atypical rigid-Dody structure.l is a comparative summary of seismic response calculated by the preceding methods. {Representative coefficient from current building codes. f Averaged response spectra (Figs.19 to 1. The method is applied in conformity with the averaged response spectra of Figs. an arbitrary coefficient could be taken from building codes. f^i fbis positive when tensile and negative when compressive. from the averaged response spectrum. the motion of the structure may be a s sumed to duplicate that of the ground.

and. However. the final design of the SM-1 included the use of a stainless-steel liner in the spentfuel storage pit. and they should be expected of other reactor containments exhibiting these compact characteristics. the use of code coefficients could result in unrealistically low calculated values of stress. which corresponds to a tension of roughly 11 kips in each 1-in.2A CONTAINMENT VESSEL the Rayleigh method (see Sec. On the other hand. These high soil stresses result from the compact and massive configuration of the SM-1 containment vessel. G. with a generously scaled envelope. local stress in design details). leading to possibly inadequate structural details. susceptible to infiltration into distribution systems for general consumption. Dead-load soil-bearing values under the containment-vessel footings were found to be 5500 psf. However.4). However. whereas base shears by coefficients are high when compared to those calculated by the r e sponse spectrum method. Since the response spectrum method was not applied to the vapor container as a whole. Both bending and shear deformations were considered. Loss of water could also result in the melting of highly irradiated spent-fuel elements. Conversely the engineering involved in the spectrum approach is appreciably more tedious.) The exterior location of the spent-fuel storage pit necessitated a projection of the containment footing. 250 APPENDIX A .000 psf. with the coefficient taken to conform with 33% g. while their resultant moment arm has been increased. The coefficient should be selected to conform with the maximum ground acceleration. as previously described. a possible governing factor in the selection of remote sites or in standardizing an all-around design. As explanation for this type of structure. and large differential loadings. For this condition. the soil bearings were found to be of more ordinary magnitude (Appendix B. Cursory examination of the SM1 has indicated that the design of this feature is probably adequate. the more rational response spectrum method indicates that the inertia forces inducing shear at the base are somewhat attenuated by the slight flexibility. may often cause major cracking of the footing or supported structure where insufficient care has been taken in design. These stresses were calculated from the overturning moments obtained using the response spectrum method. Coefficients selected from the spectra to conform with maximum ground accelerations will yield very close approximations to base moments for this structure. soil-bearing values were found to increase to about 14. effecting a stress of about 20. and dead load and overturning are directly additive.2 and Refs. The stresses indicated by the response spectrum method are more of the secondary order than of the primary order. Considering containment-vessel anchorage. use of the coefficient method is recommended for this and directly comparable structures. high soil s t r e s s e s . maximum bearing s t r e s s e s under the circumferential base ring are obtained with seismic-overturning additive to the full vertical load. Maximum anchor -bolt tensile stresses are obtained with seismic uplift reduced by 50% of the vertical load. Obviously then no construction-cost penalty accrues through use of this technique. for the EBWR. including such items as the concrete outer wall and footings. since results of this precision are not warranted. Experience has indicated that such irregularities in massive footings. which would lead to fission-product release to the environment. base shears will be materially overestimated by this method. Table A. together with shrinkage s t r e s s e s .l demonstrates that the earthquake stresses of the SM-1 containment vessel are generally negligible.A. When considered with seismic overturning. This results in a bearing stress on the concrete of about 80 psi. usually only maximum values are of interest.000 psi through the root of the thread. indicating the necessity for foundation materials of excellent stability. Thus base moments determined by the two methods are approximately equal. (with Zone 3 conditions applied to our essentially Zone 1 design). so that differences in results obtained by the three methods a r e of little consequence. Cracking of an unlined spent-fuel pit or one lined with brittle tile would allow percolation of contaminated water into underground courses. if stresses should reach significant levels (for example.-diameter anchor bolt. the overturning moment used for the determination of soil pressures was obtained from the more convenient coefficient method. a practice to be recommended in most cases.3 and 6. 6.

(4) The support structure and details are adequate to maintain full elastic response to ground motion of the intensity indicated by the averaged spectra. The pressurizer is supported on three 6-in. and a pressurizer connected by a 4-in. The connecting element of most interest is the s e c ondary piping system conveying steam from the generator within the containment to the turbine in the adjacent building. The 4-in. as well as to translate with the top of the stanchions. Although this value is well below the normal yield point for type 304 stainless steel. as is consistent with the concept of separation. Primary System The primary system includes the reactor vessel. this rotation is small.-diameter pipe was investigated for the condition where one end of the pipe was held stationary and the other end was allowed to translate with the pressurizer. (2) The natural period of vibration was determined to be about 0. incorporates provision for expansion and contraction. it is considered sufficiently high to warrant the conclusion that this pipe should be investigated for damage after a strong seismic shock. 5. Although bolt extension allows the steam generator to rotate about the top of its support. and the primary piping loop and vessel rotate with the steam generator. (2) Motion of the steam generator is tangential to the reactor vessel. a steam generator. the steam generator may be considered as mounted on a flexible support. the preceding analysis of the pressurizer showed the effects of this freedom to be negligible.-diameter pipe stanchions that cantilever approximately 10 ft from the floor. The manhole extension bridging the two buildings is supported wholly from the vessel. The steam generator is rigidly tied to the reactor vessel through the stiff primary piping loop.-diameter pipe stanchions cantilevering about 4 ft from the floor. As a simplification.2B A structural separation is provided between the containment vessel and operations building.PRIMARY SYSTEM A. All components are enclosed within the containment vessel and all derive support from a common mass of concrete. The steam-generator support is similar to that for the pressurizer. This piping follows a circuitous path. pipe.-diameter hightensile bolt extending down through each stanchion to firm embedment in the concrete base. However.4. leaving only the steam-generator support available to react to the inertia loadings.3 in. The equivalent static loading at these intensities is 72% g. Stresses thus determined were combined with the 1200-psi internal pressure to obtain principal tensions of approximately 16 ksi. (1) The seismic activity tends to induce motion of the steam generator radial to the r e a c tor vessel. so that the system can be regarded as a single-mass system with one degree of freedom. The pressurizer is anchored with one 2y2-in. It is comprised of four 6-in. thus it sufficed to assume the properties of a single-degree-of-freedom system. Ex- SEISMIC CONSIDERATIONS PERTINENT TO THE SM-1 251 . B. These conditions present the following possible modes of movement for analysis. and this motion is restrained both by the primary piping loop and by the steamgenerator support. Practically all the lateral deflection is due to the flexural deformation of the stanchions. and the reactor vessel mounting is such as to prevent translation while allowing rotation about the vessel's vertical axis. piping loop with two coolant pumps joining the reactor and generator. as described in Sec. a 12-in.43 sec. This system of anchorage affords the pressurizer the freedom to rotate about the top of its support owing to bolt extension. The load carried by these load paths is determined on a relative rigidity basis. and will absorb any relative seismic displacement between its t e r minal points with no difficulty. (3) Maximum deflection at the top of the support was found to be about 1. Results of this analysis are as follows: (1) The effect of the pressurizer rotating about the top of the stanchions was found to be negligible.

20 sec. This second scheme would create restraint against free thermal movement of the steam generator. or about 75% g. The pipe stresses are probably overestimated in view ot the grossly simplifying assumptions necessary to the analysis. Assumption (1) indicated the more severe response and was selected as the basis for the subsequent detail analysis. is as follows: The natural period of vibration for the second (tangential) mode of translation was found to be 0.3. the resulting complexity of seismic response necessitated individual analysis of each unit without direct regard to the structural properties of the other. with the inner tank a void (see Sec. Another effective alternative would be to tension the bolts sufficiently to provide the fixity needed for developing bending moment at the upper end of the stanchions. which might limit its desirability. The results are as follows: (1) Both inner and outer tanks were found to maintain elastic response. diagonal bracing could be used between stanchions. Modifying assumptions were such that the results are believed to be representative. (2) The tank was considered a simple fluid container filled with water. The inherent stiffness of the steel cylinder justified a rigid-body analysis. Such strengthening would further attenuate stresses in this short-period s y s tem by decreasing the period of vibration. shield cylinders. Analysis of the inner tank presumed it to be a structurally isolated element cantilevering from the concrete base and furnishing lateral restraint only to the inertia loads of the enclosed reactor vessel and upper water shield. etc. If space permits. This resulted in an inertia load of 29 kips.3.14 sec. which is based on the assumption of elastic response.-diameter high-tensile bolts extending through floor-plate shear lugs. Overstress invalidates the spectrum analysis used. Response of the steam-generator support.33 g. (see Sec. Example 1). was 0.2C PRIMARY SHIELDING ample 2. Primary Shielding A water shield envelops the reactor vessel. although both inner and outer tanks attach to a common 2-in. as described in Sec. when combined with the 1200-psi internal pressure. 5. a similar analysis yields: (1) The period of vibration for the first mode of the single-mass system. special inspection after a strong shock would be warranted. (3) Stresses induced in the primary piping by this mode of translation. yield a principal tensile s t r e s s of roughly 13 ksi. this value is again well below the yield point for type 304 stainless steel. Anchorage for the inner tank is furnished by four 3-in. Example 1.4. ' however. floor plate. Example 1). Response of the outer tank was considered under two overlapping assumptions: (1) The water in the axmular space was considered a rigid mass. with primary piping as a spring acting with the stanchions. Even if the indicated 13 ksi should be attained. No direct anchorage is afforded the outer tank. uncertainty regarding the magnitude of the deflection and its effect on the connected piping in a severe earthquake could be minimized only by strengthening the supports to assure elastic response. but possibly conservative to some extent.A. with the inner tank housing the reactor vessel. C. where the steam generator is restrained radially by the primary piping. As with the pressurizer pipe. The water shield filling the annular space between the two tanks is supplemented by seven concentric steel shielding cylinders. with motion tangential to the reactor v e s sel. The support structure and base details were found to be overstressed. with the lateral coefficient selected to conform with an acceleration of 0. 5. Although the tanks are connected at their tops with a steel cover. 252 APPENDIX A . In the first mode of translation. with no regard given the inner tank. with the pipe stanchions acting as simple cantilevers fixed at the base. or 53% g. (2) The maximum inertia load was computed to be about 20 kips. Containment for this shield is provided by two concentric steel tanks. 6. If the facility were located in a highly seismic area instead of its present location.

. The modification is reportedly wind braced and is said to have minimal wall openings. as determined in a manner similar to that described in Sec. are supported by concrete framing structurally separated from the building proper. (However. In addition.TURBINE AND GENERATOR SUPPORT A. clip angles connecting the top and bottom beam flanges to the column) furnish the lateral resistance of the frame. The design is for a level site. for which the corresponding loading conforms to 35% g. D. structural isolation is maintained. so that the tanks may be considered effectively secured against sliding. This framing includes a heavy concrete slab bearing the turbine and generator at the second-floor level of the operations building. 5. so that material reserve strength is available from wall panels acting as vertical diaphragms. one is of only 2. These values are nominal. such a system is reported to have been incorporated in the arctic modification to the operations building.. This uplift extends over 85% of the outer tank periphery and is of a complex nonlinear behavior. Operations Building Framing The operations building is an irregular structure.25 in. less irregular structure that is inherently earthquake resistant. the anchor-bolt shear lugs would also suffice of themselves for this purpose. This frame is two bays wide and two stories in height. Analysis by the averaged response SEISMIC CONSIDERATIONS PERTINENT TO THE SM-1 253 .e. Turbine and Generator Support The turbine and generator. Maximum soil-bearing stresses were found to be about 1400 psf for gravity loadings and about 4000 psf for gravity loadings combined with lateral loadings.8 ft effective length. however. Example 2). obviating the potentially troublesome condition at Fort Belvoir where first-story columns are of unequal length and carry disproportionate lateral shears.2D (2) The inner tank anchor bolts are not effective in restraining uplift of the edge of the outer tank.05 sec. Determination of the response was in conformity with the averaged spectra applied to the support as a system with one degree of freedom (see Sec. The slab is supported by six concrete columns extending down to an isolated spread footing. they can be avoided in future designs by a more rational distribution of anchorage.01 in. Stresses calculated for this condition were found to be within the normal working range of values for a conventional design. principally of two stories. Maximum deflection of the supporting slab is only of the order of 0. with simple steel framing. including simply the direct bolting of the outer tank to the floor.) No attempt was made to analyze the prototype structure as a whole. Example 3.5C. stiff column was found to bear a disproportionately heavy share of the aseismic effort. for two-degree-of-freedom structures. (1) Analysis by Response Spectrum Natural periods of vibration for the first and second modes of translation were determined to be 0. considering the better classes of foundation material necessary for support of the adjacent vapor container and full elastic recovery of the soil after seismic perturbation appears probable. Although the consequences of such uplift are difficult to a s s e s s . as opposed to the sloping site at Fort Belvoir.29 and 0. although housed in the operations building.4. Since the minimum separation from the operations building is 1. the frame investigated is considered to be a representative sampling of governing conditions in the principal members. however. E. The arctic modification is a smaller.. Of the three columns supporting the second floor. (3) Friction of the bottom plate with the concrete floor would be just adequate to prevent translation of the tank without regard to other restraints. disregarding rotation of the footing. No complete system of seismic-resistant design features is immediately apparent in the plant design studied in this report.19 sec. and this short. So-called wind connections (i. 5. The period of vibration for the structure was computed as 0.

at the present time. Thus some overstress could probably be tolerated in those instances where failure would not involve the release of fission products (see Sec. the significance of any r e sulting overstress must be assessed from the standpoint of the consequences of failure. A. c.20 g. Static Resistance of Equipment Items If reasonable allowances for stresses other than those of seismic origin a r e made. respectively.A. For this case.8A). with the exception of the base plate. the technology of this method has not been advanced sufficiently to account for cyclic plastic reversal as related to total energy dissipation and ultimate strengths when considered with random motions. G. (3) Limit-design Methods Where dynamic analysis indicates large-scale plastic behavior. and seismic difficulty would be reduced. (2) Analysis by Code Coefficients Coefficients were applied in conformity with the Uniform Building Code for Zone 3 seismicity. For these loadings the following results are obtained: a. results obtained by spectra have little significance and function principally as a basis for the designer's considered judgment. The overstress might be significant only if the facility were located in a highly seismic area instead of the present site. where large-scale plasticity is prevalent. Two of the three columns in the upper story and the short column in the lower story are stressed beyond the yield point.3 REACTOR SYSTEM In this section the SM-1 system is examined with respect to seismic vulnerability.9% g through the upper and lower levels. Had all columns been of equal length. this static coefficient is often used in designing critical features of conventional power plants in areas of high seismicity. for the previously noted critical column and the second-floor beam connection to this same column. All except one of the lateral-moment connections and the base connection for the overstressed column undergo plastic deformations. Significance of Overstress Most of the structural elements investigated have periods of vibration such that the horizontal accelerations induced by a strong earthquake would be a large percentage of the acceleration of gravity. It must be recalled that a required condition for application of the response spectra is continued elastic behavior. Consequently limit-design methods must be used with caution in such cases. As stated in Sec.2F SIGNIFICANCE OF OVERSTRESS spectra for these periods yielded equivalent lateral loadings of about 220 and 70% g through the upper and lower levels.3 and 10. the resulting shear distribution would have been more equitable. For installations in regions of high seismicity. However. b. as with this frame. F.12A. respectively. 254 APPENDIX A . Only those areas considered to be seismically sensitive are considered. All beams maintain full elastic response. It was found that all stresses were within the values assigned by code for these conditions. limitdesign methods would appear to be applicable. it a p pears that most of the overstressed equipment items can resist a static horizontal force of 0. 5. This provided for lateral loadings of 13. 4.

but the raising is found to be insufficient to create serious nuclear perturbations because of the attendant formation of steam voids. even in the event of a major secondary loop rupture during an earthquake. the reactor power automatically decreased from 10. Loss of Power During Earthquakes As with nearly all nuclear power stations. main components and piping appear to be structurally capable of withstanding severe earthquakes. and the pressurizer heater will go off.3A No damage or malfunction of the control rods is expected for severe earthquakes. is used here. as demonstrated by the experiment described in Sec. It was verified that the reactor automatically kept itself barely critical by its negative-temperature coefficient of reactivity and that no boiling took place in the core. the control rods will automatically scram. Nuclear Perturbations For the SM-1 the small core size and positive positioning of the fuel elements between the upper and lower grid plates provide a sturdy assembly that is capable of withstanding strong shocks. In the Hazards Summary Report for the SM-1 (Report APAE-2). Should a complete loss of power occur.2. Loss of Heat Sink During Earthquakes In a simulated loss-of-heat-sink experiment. Thus. the SM-1 is provided with emergency power (in this case. About the only failure that could occur during an earthquake SEISMIC CONSIDERATIONS PERTINENT TO THE SM-1 255 . Energy Release As stated in Sec. in which the safety rods fall by gravity. there should be no serious damage to the reactor core. E. In Report APAE-2 (Hazards Summary Report for the SM-1). Heat loss from the primary loop lowered the temperature in about 1 hr to a point at which the reactor became barely critical again. There would be no reactivity changes due to voids so long as the pressurized-water loop is intact.6 Mw to 100 watts in about 17 min as the small temperature rise of the coolant decreased the core reactivity. B. it is stated that a major rupture of the exit coolant line may cause a temporary raising of the control rods. If there is a complete loss of power. With no scram or movement of the control rods. After 10 min the control rods were pulled out just enough to make the reactor critical. the turbine throttle valve was closed suddenly (it is presumed that the primary pump was kept operating during this test). D. F. C. A. Transient Load Demand During Earthquakes During severe seismic disturbances a power station may experience either a sudden load increase or a sudden load decrease. In a test the reactor power dropped from 10 Mw to 100 watts in about 7 min.3C and by a test in which the load was increased from 225 to 2050 kw in about 75 sec with no adjustment to the plant. with the modification that some friction is encountered in the seal bearings of the drive shaft. tests have shown that the negative-temperature coefficient of reactivity of this pressurized-water system leads to power self-regulation and that natural-convection cooling is sufficient to take care of fission-product decay heat. Misalignment of this shaft is not expected to be sufficient during an earthquake to cause significantly greater rod drop time.CONTROL RODS A. thereafter it regulated itself through its negative-temperature coefficient. the nuclear excursions postulated of nonearthquake origin are not sufficient by themselves to rupture the primary loop. A. The generally acceptable fail-safe scram feature. In either event the SM-1 is capable of self-regulation. a battery set). all pumps will stop. Control Rods A.

Metal-water reaction is not deemed likely in the SM-1. Since the SM-1 appears. In the event of such unlikely damage. Instruments should be checked electrically and mechanically. for remote sites such as those where SM-1 systems may be used. Usually after an earthquake.4 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE WITH RESPECT TO EARTHQUAKES A written operating procedure and drills should be used to minimize the possibility of operator panic during an earthquake. in general. one could make a survey incorporating nondestructive tests to detect large cracks hidden from view. 1-11 12-16 17-19 20-29 30-34 35-46 256 APPENDIX A . the maximum energy release will be of the order of that postulated for the maximum credible accident in the Hazards Summary Report for the SM-1 and hence can be contained in the vapor container. A.4 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE WITH RESPECT TO EARTHQUAKES is that due to a combination of seismic forces and a brittle fracture from long-term irradiation or faulty material. In addition to visual observations. it is advisable to make a systematic check of the reactor plant for damage. A. it may be advisable to continue operation during the seism.A. Item Vapor container Pressurizer Steam generator Reactor vessel and shield tank Operations building: Turbine—generator support Building proper Sheet No. Equipment and places that should be checked are indicated in the preceding analyses.5 STRUCTURAL CALCULATIONS Various components of the SM-1 system and the sheets on which calculations appear are given below. The standard procedures should provide instructions for this eventuality. able to withstand strong earth shocks.

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19 to 1. B. an exhaustive analysis of all power-plant elements has not been attempted. 1.l TABLE Seismic Rupoiuc o( tha EBWR Containment VesuL B. Thus it may be considered characteristic of a number of future commercial installations. B. as represented by the averaged response spectra of Figs. geological consxiltation should be employed for each prospective site. using care in selecting those components potentially subject to seismic damage. As with the SM-1. a study of the earthquake-resistant facets of the EBWR must presume any location pertinent to possible power demand.Appendix B SEISMIC CONSIDERATIONS PERTINENT TO THE EXPERIMENTAL BOILING-WATER REACTOR B.10 places the present site in Zone 1. however. Therefore any indication of possible overstressing of some reactor parts does not imply inadequacy of the original design but rather indicates only some design areas to which attention should be directed in the event a similar plant should someday be constructed in areas subject to such more severe conditions. To provide a conservatively based study. In actual practice. with the size of the facility being selected as a minimum suitable for extrapolation to the commercial ratings of succeeding large central-station units. thus minimizing the need for providing special antiseismic features in the original design of the EBWR.5. The conclusions and calculated s t r e s s levels contained in this appendix are based upon an assumed seismic environment more severe than that in which the reactor.l SITE CHARACTERISTICS The Experimental Boiling-water Reactor (EBWR) was built to further the understanding of the boiling-water reactor concept through experimental operation. the seismicity of Zone 3 has been adopted here.24. a zone of minor earthquake damage. a sampling of representative conditions has been studied. as originally designed. Structural calculations are given in Sec. No attempt has been made to evaluate stresses of nonseismic origin. Calculations made in arriving 303 . except for size. was intended to operate.2 BUILDING AND CONTAINMENT RESPONSE As with the SM-1. Figure 1. and economic and political considerations may dictate a site in seismicaliy active areas.

these are not intended as model calculations to be applied to earthquake analysis of all reactors. The center of gravity of the containment vessel. with the qualification that bending moments are a close approximation to the actual. at about mid-height of the containment vessel. or of the order of 0.00) independently of the steel shell. the deflections at the level of the top of the concrete liner (elevation 754.00) were determined as 0.02 in.5. at a height of 26 ft above the main floor.00-ft level of elevation. and spent-fuel storage are wholly contained within the containment vessel. the concrete lining is reduced to 1 ft. The upper portions of the concrete liner are separated from the steel shell by a varying thickness of Flexcell insulation board. Although the periods of the EBWR shell and liner are respectively. of Flexcell separation. or 49% of the height. (2) The inner concrete liner is free to vibrate above the main floor level (elevation 730. Thus the arguments favoring the coefficient method of analysis for the SM-1.B. This situation differs from that of the SM-1 with respect to the shell and inner liner. and the results are presented in Table B. even more so than with the SM-1. footings. with the coefficient conforming with the maximum ground a c celeration (~ V3 g). condenser. For reference. The containment vessel is a vertical. Assumptions (1) and (2) are seen to be substantiated when they are considered with the more than 1 in. Above the main floor level. The natural periods of vibration. associated equipment and piping. Containment Vessel The turbine.00-ft level of elevation independently of the inner concrete liner. From these periods applied in conjunction with the averaged response spectra. 55 and 15%. it is enclosed by an irregular. respectively.056 sec for the steel shell and concrete liner.011 in.00. the steel shell acts in unison with the concrete liner in consideration of their intimate contact. Below the main floor level. and. The exterior ground surface is at elevation 729. fuel-transfer operations. is embedded below the ground surface. B. A. so that.. the level of the main floor. The analysis has been performed by this coefficient method. first modes.076 and 0. cylindrical steel shell having a diameter of 80 ft and an overall height of 119 ft and a hemispherical top closure and an ellipsoidal bottom (see figures in Chap.00. and enclosed structure and equipment has been determined to be approximately 23 ft below the surface. and shears are somewhat overestimated. APPENDIX B V . truss-supported concrete ceiling. for both the shell and the liner.2A CONTAINMENT VESSEL at conclusions stated in the following paragraphs are included in Sec. the shell is lined with 2 ft of concrete. a positive identity will exist between the ground and containment-vessel motion.049 sec). Of the 123 ft overall height of the vessel and footings. are applicable here. generator. however.l. were calculated to be 0. the outer concrete wall of the SM-1 was structurally separated from the enclosed shell and liner in recognition of this differential expansion.011 ± 0. However. Above the main floor level.011 in. thus maximum deflection of the shell relative to the liner is only 0. 3). they are still relatively inconsequential in regard to the extreme response experienced by less rigid structures of longer period. is at elevation 730. longer than the period of the SM-1 contairiment vessel (0. Determination of the maximum response of the containment vessel was predicated upon the following assumptions: (1) The steel shell is free to vibrate about the 727. (3) Below the 724. actual bonding is minimized by a coating of bituminous paint. the steel shell and the concrete liner have been structurally separated to minimize the effects of differential-thermal-dimensional change of the shell relative to the liner. about 60 ft. However.

This more severe latter condition was assumed to prevail. tThe symbols have the following meanings fj is the direct axial s t r e s s . However.CONTAINMENT VESSEL Table B.00 ft) In . The least values of soil-bearing stress result when rotation is about a horizontal axis m the plane of the footing-foundation interface. Maximum containment-vessel s t r e s s e s are of the same order of magnitude as those of the SM-1. Maximum credible values of soilbearing stress result from rotation about an axis one-third the embedded depth above the footing-foundation interface.2A Itemt Moment (Concrete < „^ . Although it is not possible to exactly describe the distribution of overturning moment to the two reacting couples. The second is the consequence of passive soil pressures acting in a horizontal direction upon the vertical projection of the containment vessel in a manner similar to the behavior of a "flagpole" footing. The footings of the SEISMIC CONSIDERATIONS PERTINENT TO THE EBWR 305 . Fracture of the pit would permit seepage of contaminated water only to the interior of the containment vessel and would not result in the possible degradation of subterranean water supplies. Although the EBWR Is Essentially a Zone 1 Design ) Section Mam floor (elevation 730. yielding a distribution of about 80 to 20. thus maintainmg the required isolation. The air lock bridging the two structures is supported entirely from the steel shell. fj ± fb is positive when tensile and negative when compressive.1 X 10* 6 28 X 10* -114 -12§ -368 24§ 922 144 28 76 Lower bend l i n e | (elevation 693 00 ft) 157 2 X 10*1 -187 2§ -1870 17 § 3680 41 410 B. and fv is the average shear s t r e s s .33 g.-kips Psi Psi Kips Kips Psi Psi 23.k i p s In. The first is the usual vertical couple generated immediately under the footing.l —SEISMIC RESPONSE OF THE EBWR CONTAINMENT VESSEL* (Zone 3 Conditions Are Assumed. Unlike the SM-1. and soil-bearing s t r e s s e s were calculated to be 4200 psf for a vertical load and approximately 8300 psf for a vertical load combined with seismic overturning. some reasonable limits can be established. Seismic overturning is resisted by two reacting soil-stress couples. ITotal moment on composite section. JMaximum stresses occur at junction of steel cylinder with lower ellipsoidal head. For this condition the distribution is about 60 to 40 between footing and passive pressure couples. it is recommended that fuel pits of future installations be lined with stainless steel to avoid the risk of water loss through cracked concrete since undetected water loss here could lead to melting of highly irradiated fuel assemblies. with consequent release of fission products. § Computed from uplift reduced by DO'^C of dead load. The containment vessel is structurally isolated from the adjacent service building by a continuous separation. (Steel rConcrete fa±fb 1 Steel (Concrete \Steel (Concrete (Steel Shear fv •Coefficient selected from averaged response spectra to conform with maximum ground acceleration of 0. fb is the flexural s t r e s s . the spent-fuel storage pit of the EBWR is housed within the r e a c tor containment.

The containment vessel has sufficient reserve strength so as to be little affected. a base shear of 84 kips was obtained. a principal stress load of approximately 1700 lb per linear inch was obtained. a generally acceptable value. they extend down to undisturbed soil. continuous footings. respectively. together with the items of internal equipment. The support system is well conceived and. Direct shear across the joining weld was found to be 190 lb per linear inch.B. turbine. with subsequent impact between the masses of containment vessel and service building during seismic motion.. B. Under normal conditions the condenser is supported from the turbine exhaust flange by a structural weld joining the flange to the condenser neck. The diverse nature of the footings for the entire reactor complex (e. This bending induced a load of about 1080 lb per linear inch.-diameter anchor bolts. Equipment and Supports The reactor core is enclosed in a vessel having a diameter of 7 ft and an overall height of about 31 ft. Closing of the separation. The pressurizer vessel is supported by four pairs of brackets arranged symmetrically about the circumference. should effectively restrain the vessel during seismic disturbances. together with varying soil-bearing s t r e s s e s . adjacent to the upper end of the vessel. This arrangement effectively prevents translation of the vessel's upper end. would increase the possibility of damage to this structure. is approximately 120 kips.3. The analysis was that for a rigid body subjected to an acceleration of 33% g. while allowing the springs to roll with thermal expansion. 306 APPENDIX B . Translation of the lower end of the vessel is prevented.2D. B. by four sway-bracing lugs restrained by parallel plate yokes welded to the shield form. When an acceleration of 33% g was applied to the combined operating weights of the generator. A mounting stud with a cotter-pinned nut at each end passes through each bracket. and. As discussed further in Sec. The lower end has an ellipsoidal closure. This was not expected to be of major magnitude and was not investigated. as well as expansion in a radial direction.2B EQUIPMENT AND SUPPORTS service building are generally of massive construction. The main condenser. roughly.-diameter and eight 1-in. in the area of the filled excavation adjacent to the containment vessel. with the least desirable effect being the closing of the structural separation. When the maximum axial load of 1660 lb per linear inch was combined with the shearing s t r e s s . is a 5300-sq ft single-pass. The upper end of the vessel is closed with an indexing plug and shield assembly that allows selective access to the vessel's interior for fuel handling. founding at the same level as the vessel footings. divided water box. The turbine and generator are mounted to a common base secured to the main floor with eight 1V2-in. A torsional shear may be induced by the eccentricity of the condenser mass with the supporting weld. and the support framing. which in turn bears on the support s t r u c ture framing. plate would be stressed to. The thickness of joined material is probably adequate since even '/i-in. surface type unit with operating and flooded weights of 81 and 141 kips. only 7000 psi. and mat footings). including the extensions of the control-rod thimbles. and condenser. the service building is of a type sometimes deficient in seismic resistance. assuming adequate design. spread footings. C spring. The dry weight of the pressurizer. in a manner similar to that shown in Fig. suspended in a horizontal position directly below and parallel to the turbine. This arrangement permits vertical thermal expansion of the vessel. 4. Axial s t r e s s from vertical loading was determined to be 580 lb per linear inch. Bending across the exhaust flange and condenser neck was calculated to be 4200 in.-kips.g. The anchorage is adequate for this shear within the normal working limits prescribed by building codes. indicates possible differential settlement. Each bracket bears on a cylindrical C spring.

Maximiun acceleration of the dryer from the averaged response spectrum was determined to be 40% g.-diameter steam lines between the reactor and turbine. Bending stresses in the pipe were approximately 40 ksi. this is probably an understatement of the true maximum total stress because the simplified solution disregarded complex eccentricities inducing torsional and shearing effects. Such bracing would effectively stiffen the presently flexible supports so that the vacuum tank and supports would qualify as a rigid-mass system.33 g. inducing a base shear of about 10 kips. This area should be rigorously inspected after severe earthquakes. the reacting force is furnished by the 6-in. they are probably adequate. Further. The vibration period of the tank as a single-mass system was determined to be 0. Four integral angle legs support the tank 3 ft from the floor. they yielded 43 ksi. This necessitated the assumption that the tank was filled with water. Considering motion of the dryer normal to its longitudinal axis.3 kips.PIPING STRESSES B.diameter U bolts in such a manner as to provide no restraint to lateral translation of the vessel.78 to 0. a fundamental period of vibration of about 1 sec. located in the 3-in. with reduction of seismic response from 0. Each leg has a simple base plate anchored with a V4-in. the response spectrum method loses significance when the structure passes into the plastic range and best serves as a basis for the considered judgment of the designer.3 kips per leg. Piping Stresses The steam-dryer emergency cooler is an item that may cause high piping stress during seismic disturbances. 5. The uncertainty in regard to aseismic adequacy could be avoided by using adequate diagonal bracing. Results of this analysis (with Zone 3 conditions applied to an essentially Zone 1 design) indicate that: (1) Supporting angle legs are stressed in bending beyond their ultimate strengths. When the bending stresses were combined with internal pressure stresses of 3 ksi. Calculations indicate that the pedestals are of sufficient strength to maintain full elastic response when the ejectors are subjected to an acceleration of 33% g. Example 2). 307 SEISMIC CONSIDERATIONS PERTINENT TO THE EBWR . It is suspended below the main floor with two 1-in. (2) Maximum uplift is 13. C.-diameter by 72-in. a 5-ft-diameter by BVj-ft-high vertical steel cylinder. This unit.31 sec (Sec. As discussed for similar behavior of the SM-1 operations building (Appendix A).0 kips) = 4. a maximum acceleration of 78% g is obtained. as a first approximation. These lines were considered to be equivalent to a simple beam. anchor bolt. is a 36-in. Results of the investigation of the simplified system yielded. yielding a weight of 13 kips. If such deformation should occur. a value in excess of the yield point for the carbon-steel material. Since the supports meet usual code requirements. reactor feedwater line. Considerable simplification was necessary to arrive at the dynamic model.33 (13. The vacuum tank. hence. When the response spectrum is entered with this period. use of sections stiffer than the present leg angles would also strengthen the structure and attenuate response. with the inertia forces of the dryer applied as a concentrated load between the quarter and third points of the span. Alternately. the affected s t r u c tural units should be replaced and the assembly realigned to prevent progressive damage from future strong shocks.2C The air ejectors. is closed by ellipsoidal heads. are supported from the condenser floor by two reinforced-concrete pedestals approximately 3 ft in height. with some allowance for permanent deformations. installed in the main steam system between the reactor and the turbine. Since the base shear would then be r e duced to only 0. inducing an inertia load of about 4 kips. postseismic inspection of this unit should be made. The operating weight of the vacuum tank was not known. far in excess of the capacity of a y4-in.-long cylindrical vessel with ellipsoidal heads at each end.4.-diameter bolt. only nominal bracing would be required to maintain elastic response.

major tensile effects may be induced along panel boundaries and the edges of openings . 4. Such walls. the coefficient method was used. This portion is of simple steel framing. Below and including the main floor. If the attachments are assumed to be inadequate. In an existing building. Unreinforced-concrete-tile filler walls have a poor seismic history. The energy dissipation associated with failing masonry or with repeated plastic reversals has not as yet been sufficiently described for working applications. are not ordinarily amenable to rational analysis. and the indicated adverse conditions could be readily avoided in future installations located in highly seismic areas by the following: (1) Provision for direct and positive restraint of lateral translation of the vessel (see Fig.2D SERVICE BUILDING The above stresses resulted from applying Zone 3 conditions to an essentially Zone 1 design. so that the response would change accordingly.B. The previously described methods of studying structural response are generally inapplicable in such cases: (1) The averaged response-spectrum method is dependent upon continued elastic behavior. with brick-faced unreinforced-concrete-tile filler walls and with precast lightweight-concrete roof decking. a type of structure long recognized as being deficient in resistance to seismic motion. Service Building Investigation of the service building was limited to that portion of the building above the main floor level. although the horizontal surfaces and the diaphragm could be said to have r e mained intact. the structure is of steel and reinforced concrete. in reacting to lateral loads. the concrete deck elements. when subjected to direct lateral loading. there is the possibility of inelastic deflections sufficient to permit cracking of the supported walls. a wall may be experienced in phase. with the result that bonding between masonry units is rendered ineffective. induced moments may be of sufficient magnitude to cause physical separation of masonry units over the surface stressed in tension. These features would require considerable modification if the facility were to be located in strongly seismic areas instead of at its present site. Considering participation of the walls as vertical shear elements reacting to shearing loads in the plane of the wall. When the inertia loadings are reversed. Openings in walls should be placed and designed so as to prevent any disproportionate distribution of loads and consequent magnification of seismic effects. initially effective response could be lost through excessive deflections or outright failure. the opposing surface may also experience tensile failure. particularly in the case of cyclic loading. Considering inertia loadings normal to the plane of a wall. and it is not sensitive to seismic disturbances. Treatment as a rigid body is also inapplicable for this reason. localized plastic deformation and other energy losses were assumed to damp the seismic response to a 308 APPENDIX B .or other discontinuities. (2) Limit-design techniques are still incomplete. and the shear loadings in the plane of.2) (2) Piping runs of flexibility sufficient to accommodate the minor residual t r a n s lations of the vessel without inducement of major s t r e s s e s D. The roof diaphragm is a folded plate comprised of discrete concrete deck elements in the horizontal surfaces and of unreinforced-concrete tile through the vertical c l e r e story surface. may slip into bearing. The progressive changes in response. The inertia loadings normal to. (3) The empirical methods recommended by building codes apply to normal a s e i s mic construction and to response short of any gross failure. The seismic resistance of this assembly is dependent upon positive attachment of the precast units to the structural steel. so that the effects become directly additive. In analyzing the Service Building. undergo large-scale cracking and nonrecoverable deformations.

F. casting welding inserts integrally with roof elements for anchoring to frame.33 times normal working s t r e s s e s . Results of the analysis are as follows. In considering installations in regions of high seismicity. 4. So long as stresses due to this load are less than 1.^"''^'^ This mechanical failure created strong vibrations in the reactor building with no noticeable effect on reactor stability. Furthermore.2E lateral load of 0. A simple analysis of the forces involved indicated. thus it is believed that seismic effects are negligible in this r e spect. SEISMIC CONSIDERATIONS PERTINENT TO THE EBWR 309 . 5. it appears that most of the overstressed equipment items can resist a static horizontal force of 0. the significance of any resulting overstress must be assessed from the standpoint of the consequences of failure. The jogged end walls may experience some localized marginal failures.^"' obtained from sinusoidal variations of reactivity input. one may cite the turbine-blade failure experienced by the EBWR. Static Resistance of Equipment Items In making reasonable allowances for s t r e s s e s other than those of seismic origin. which are therefore susceptible to failure. partly as a result of the appreciable energy absorption that accompanies the possible failure of other shear walls. the use of code coefficients is considered tenable. but load transfer between offset portions ot the walls will probably result in the offset portions remaining intact. Because of its many openings.SIGNIFICANCE OF OVERSTRESS B. however. E. this static coefficient is often used in designing critical features of conventional power plants in areas of high seismicity. interior portal.133 g in the conservatively assumed Zone 3 environment. a shearing s t r e s s of 85 psi is indicated in the slender unreinforced-masonry piers of the interior portal. providing studs or dowels for shear transfer from roof diaphragms to shear walls. Nuclear Perturbations Durmg an earthquake a boiling-water reactor is subject to liquid oscillations and hydrostatic pressure changes that may create or collapse steam voids in the core. Despite redistribution of loads to the rear wall. it is presumed that the rear wall will remain intact. Thus some overstress could probably be tolerated in those instances where failure would not involve the release of fission products (Sec.3A). however.12A. which is beyond the structural capacity of unreinforced masonry. The front wall. show that the seismic periods involved are probably not significant as a factor tending toward power magnification. the front wall experiences shears of 100 psi.20 g. and providing anchor studs between masonry walls and steel columns at jambs and corners. that the change in void volume was a fraction of 1%. and rear wall can function as longitudinal shear walls. In partial support of the theory that the EBWR is relatively insensitive to vibratory motions. reinforcing and grouting of concrete tiles and mechanical anchoring of veneers. minimizing the size of wall openings to provide piers and spandrels of adequate size. As stated in Sec. B. Remedial measures for use with this type of minor building in areas of high s e i s micity could include: eliminating the offsets in end walls. Significance of Over stress Most ol the structural elements investigated have periods of vibration such that the horizontal accelerations induced by a strong earthquake would be a large percentage of the acceleration of gravity. direct comparison with seismic shocks should not be made because of the difference in vibration frequencies.3 REACTOR SYSTEM A. the roof diaphragm spans between end walls and maximum shears of 650 lb per lineal foot occur. If the interior transverse shear walls are conservatively assumed to have failed and the lateral seismic load is applied t r a n s versely to the building. the EBWR reactor-transfer-function curves.

instability may be expected in a boiling-water reactor. the seal leakage is about 200 cmVmin. stainless steel T bolts. The upper portion of the core can be made more rigid by bracing with radial spokes. A solenoid-operated roller latch connects the control-rod shaft with the screw nut. Taking these factors into consideration. For this cantilever type core support. D. the entire core assembly is affixed to the bottom grid plate. S.temperature. closing of the turbine trip-throttle valve. Under the normal operating pressure of 600 psig. 3. initial downward acceleration is imparted by a spring-loaded mechanism which.5 sec. the concrete-lined vapor container will not be breached since it is specifically designed for such a possibility. Core Structure ' In Fig.^*^ and as pointed out by J. At a radial bushing clearance of 0. one is led to conclude that the EBWR core structure appears to be adequate for seismic shocks.^'^ To date the EBWR has been operated at approximately over three times its design power rating of 20 Mw^*** and has proved itself stable. thus the fuel assemblies bear against one another and against the upper guide structure.^'^ B. low water level in the reactor. Failure of Steam System Since this is a direct-cycle boiling-water reactor.15. C. the EBWR is provided with emergency power supply.. For natural-circulation boiling the vertically aligned fuel assemblies have a locating fitting that fits into holes in the bottom grid plate. permits a scram in 0. which consists of a battery source with a motor-generator set plus a diesel-generator set. Hence continuous plant power is assured during severe earthquakes. A. Fuel plates are thick enough to withstand loads that might be reasonably expected.^*^ but a load increase greater than that amount automatically closes 310 APPENDIX B .. low . Transient Load Demand Normally about 5% of the steam is bypassed so that usual variations in power demand can be met. If turbine failure should occur and eject flying fragments. Friction is kept small by means of a breakdown labyrinth seal. which in turn is bolted to machined pads in the bottom head of the reactor pressure vessel by means of 1-in. when the rods are released from the drive nut. failure of the steam system implies primary loop rupture or malfunction of the equipment and valves. seismic stresses on the bolts were foimd to be quite low.B. Springs in the top end fitting provide lateral stability.3B CONTROL RODS At some very high power density. Control Rods In the EBWR control-rod design. the aid of pressure shortens the average scram time to 0. The operating parts of the control-rod-drive mechanism are outside the reactor pressure vessel. Jr.008 in. resulting in a latch release upon interruption of the electrical current. if such a device does not interfere with operations. Beckjord. Numerous safety precautions installed in the EBWR will scram the reactor as a result of signals caused by a rise in the activity level in the building due to steam release. together with gravity force. E.tci.35 sec. etc. F. It may be possible to p r e dict the effects of seismic perturbations by including that factor in a dynamic analysis such as that given by E. DeShong. With forced-circulation operation the lower end is modified to accept a hold-down assembly to withstand the expulsion force of the pump pressure.. Loss of Power In line with nuclear-power-plant safety practices.

Fuel-transfer System The fuel-transfer carriage was found to be seismicaliy stable. If seismic damage to the power network area should decrease the load demand.3G the pressure-regulating valves. Obvious damages will clearly be discernible.7). it is suggested that earthquake-emergency procedures be established and practiced. it may be advisable to operate at moderate power. taking its signals from a seismometer (see Sec. In the case of the present EBWR. Emergency Shutdown and Cooling System As a backup safety feature in the unlikely event of control-rod failure. Stretched bolts.4 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE To avoid the panic and confusion that may follow strong earth tremors. No damage is expected to result from seismic effects on the fueltransfer system.and high-pressure boric acid injection system is provided to poison the core. Energy Release Although the maximum credible accident (involving the release of steam and the reaction of zirconium with water) is considered to be quite unlikely even for severe earthquakes. Should an earthquake occur during some phase of fuel loading or unloading. Emergency cooling water is supplied from the overhead 15. B. Therefore. A health physics survey of the area may indicate possible radiation leakage after earthquakes.3C. For any power system a postearthquake examination of the facilities and equipment is recommended after strong seismic shocks. EBWR fuel a s s e m blies are not expected to swing with a large amplitude during the fuel-assembly lifting from or to the core. H. 8. which may be expected during earthquakes. looking ahead to future boiling-water reactor plants. can be accommodated by the power plant. automatic scram takes place. G. judging from the text of Sec. but. etc. 3. If this pressure-change rate exceeds a set limit. the reactor automatically s c r a m s . Two more pressure-relief valves a r e set to open at 725 and 750 psig. it has been used as a basis for designing the EBWR vapor container and blast and missile shields. cracks in concrete. Below this rate the operator has the choice of meeting the load demand by adjusting the control rods or of shutting down the reactor. with the closing of the normal vent system.ENERGY RELEASE B. This should be outlined in a standard operating procedures manual. the turbine-governor-valve opening increases and brings about a gradual decrease in system pressure. but care will be necessary to detect hidden flaws. with reactor scram taking place when any of the three relief valves are opened. the decision on a course of action during earth shocks could be considered optional. In that case the reactor could be instrumented to decrease power on a graduated scale. If this rate of " pressure increase exceeds a set value or if the pressure level exceeds 625 psig. I.000-gal water tank. Unless the reactor power level is adjusted by the operator. which also feeds the sprinkler system devised to condense steam released in an accident. Therefore it is concluded that transient power demands. The relief valve is set to open at 700 psi and dtunp the steam to the condenser. widespread release of fission products is very unlikely.2A covers the spent-fuel storage pit. may be noted if one consciously searches for them. SEISMIC CONSIDERATIONS PERTINENT TO THE EBWR 311 . the pressure-control valves are set to open from the resulting pressure r i s e . This overhead tank was found to be adequately attached to the reactor building roof to withstand severe earthquakes. the question of continuing the operation could well depend on the phase of operation one has reached. Those points outlined in this appendix should be reviewed. Section B. a low.

Argonne National Laboratory.6 B. Jr. 15(7) (1957). 116.5 B. Argonne National Laboratory. Nucleonics. March 1958. p. Hazard Summary Report on the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor (EBWR). A. USAEC Report ANL-5798.l J. Jr. January 1958. A.5 STRUCTURAL CALCULATIONS STRUCTURAL CALCULATIONS Various components of the EBWR system and the sheets on which calculations appear are given below. J. M. 16(1) and 16(4) (1958). S. Argonne National Laboratory. E. 16(6): 25 (1958).5 B.. DeShong. November 1957. Beckjord.. Nucleonics. B. Nucleonics. USAEC Report ANL-5781. JJ6(6): 6 8 . DeShong. Dyanamic Analysis of Natural Circulation Boiling Water Power Reactors.3 B. USAEC Report ANL-5799. Upping EBWR's Power.7 2 (1958). Nucleonics.B. West et al.. J. 1—8 9—10 11 12 13-14 15-29 REFERENCES B.4 B.2 B.7 312 APPENDIX B . Power Transfer Functions of the EBWR Obtained Using a Sinusoidal Reactivity Driving Function. Item Vapor container Condenser and turbine support Air-ejector support Vacuum-tank support Steam dryer Service building Sheet No.

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19S2. and principal machinery foundations were on piles.l C. walls. in. The floor in the transformer house settled as much as l'/.S C. All walls were finished with stucco plaster over the concrete surfaces. and lesser settlement was noted in the 342 . July 21.3 Example of IiuCrument B«havior Durlof an Earthquak*. Damafed Oll-etorafs Tank.S C. The building columns. causing severe cracking at the adjacent walls.. the second section is a light-steel frame with reinforced-concrete sidewalls and end filler walls. Calif. The former category is chosen because of the direct comparison that may be made between such plants and the conventional parts of nuclear power stations. Tranaformari Damaged by an Earthquake. C. After the March 1933 earthquake.4 C. Oamac* to Dlverston Dam Cauaad by a Landslide FoUowiog ArvinTehachapl. Damage to Pole-mounted Transformers. C..2 STEAM-ELECTRIC POWER STATIONS A. there was apparent uneven settlement of the two buildings.2 C. Earthquake. The first section is of reinforced concrete. Settlement of the floor around one boiler caused bad sagging of an adjacent roof panel and loosened the firing aisle windows that leaned in beyond the walls. Much of the data in this section was furnished through the courtesy of the following organizations: California Edison Company Pacific Fire Rating Bureau Pacific Gas and Electric Company Southern California Gas Company C.Appendix C EARTHQUAKE EXPERIENCE IN UTILITIES AND INDUSTRIAL PLANTS nCURES C. Tranaformera Moved from Storage Cabinet by an Earthquake. Petroleum refineries are included because of their functional similarity to certain nuclear installations and because this type of plant seems to have suffered more damage from earthquakes than any other on the West Coast. but the floors were of mat construction poured directly on backfill. Plant 1 Plant 1.7 Truiaformsrs Damaged by an Earthquake. The floor in the turbine room settled. consists of two sections.l INTRODUCTION The following discussion deals primarily with fossil-fuel and hydroelectric power plants and oil refineries on the West Coast. built in 1910.

000-kilowatt capacity. It is interesting to note that. The concrete structures under high tide level were ringed with continuous steel sheet piling. B. A considerable amount of breakage occurred in cast-iron pipes buried in the ground around the installation.000 gallons of water on the roof. All of the EARTHQUAKE EXPERIENCE IN UTILITIES AND INDUSTRIAL PLANTS 343 . H. Vander Heyden of the Southern California Gas Company. Minor damage to oil and water lines resulted in recommendations that these lines be run above ground for ease of inspection and repair. Plants 2 and 3 Plants 2 and 3. built about 1925. or about $85 per kilowatt based on 70. Transformer oil piping lines were broken at welded and brazed joints. The entire wall of the generator room moved slighly in a southerly direction. There was no visible evidence of fissures or subsidence in the ground in the plant area. constructed as filler walls only. complex. the piping connections to the domestic water supply tank were broken and had dropped approximately 30. formerly known as the Los Angeles Gas and Electric Corporation. Severe cracking of masonry walls occurred at wall junctions and construction joints and to a lesser degree in other areas. C. The electrical building was four stories high. operating floors. The majority of the brick walls had fallen either in or out of the buildings. A water standpipe 36 ft in diameter and 100 ft in height stretched its anchor bolts from iVig in. and the interior and exterior walls were non-reinforced brick. Both plants are supported on 40-ft piles on 30-in. The plant foundation consists of a heavy concrete mat on these piles. are extensions to Plant 1.000. with many rivets sheared and popped. The plant was designed and constructed by Dwight P. C. All the anchor bolts were stretched. The morning after the earthquake. the structural frame supporting the stack was also bent. centers. which indicated a gyratory motion of the tank. the station looked to be in shambles. with pyramidal facing for concentrated loads. these plants have undergone about 24 ft of vertical subsidence with necessary adjustments in equipment and intercomiections being made as the settling occurred. The buildings are structural steel frame. 375 ft high. The soil at the site was coarse gravel with scattered rock formations capable of supporting foundation loads of 3500 psi when contained. (This subsidence has not resulted directly from any earthquake but is thought to be a result of the removal of offshore oil deposits and the support they have afforded for coastal regions). columns and braces supporting the turbine mezzanine floor were buckled. it provided natural draft for the six boiler settings. and the water tunnels are heavy r e inforced concrete. These two plants survived the 1933 earthquake without serious damage. It is located in the City of Seal Beach on the south side of the inlet to Alamitos Bay which is about six miles southeast of the City of Long Beach and about 30 miles from the business center of Los Angeles. The structural girders. Building frames are integral with internal structures. probably well-damped. and rivets were sheared and popped. The two 35. to 2 in. resulting in a strong. The building and equipment foundation. Plant 4 Plant 4 was severely damaged in the 1933 earthquake. Excerpts from the letter are as follows: In the Long Beach earthquake of 1933. the Seal Beach power plant of the Los Angeles Gas and Electric Corporation was extensively damaged.2B machine shop floor.PLANTS 2 AND 3 C. 25 ft across the top.000-kiIowatt generating units were located on a mezzanine operating floor in the open-type turbo room and were supported on structural steel columns and girders approximately 25 ft above the main floor. The stack was of reinforced concrete. 1925 at a cost of approximately $6. and it was supported above the boiler room floor on steel columns and girders. Robinson and Company of Chicago for the Los Angeles Gas and Electric Corporation and was completed in May. Severe settlement of the blacksmith and carpenter shops resulted in these buildings pulling away from the main building about 1% in. and the screen intake house had steel piling under the foundation as a water cutoff.000. This damage is described in a letter from an eyewitness. The glass in the remaining windows was broken. in the 25 years following the 1933 earthquake.

if the stack had been supported by a concrete foundation at ground level and not carried on steel colunans. severing the electrical connections. It is of steel-frame construction with concrete walls. This damage all happened in a period of about 30 seconds. all the piping and the boilers.000-gal elevated water tower collapsed. C. apparently due to loss of suction. indicates the need for improved design of these items in seismically active areas. In fact. 2 house turbine was damaged. As noted above. the original cost was about $85 per kilowatt. earthquake of'July 21. and there was one failure of the boiler feed pumps.. near the community of Buttonwillow. The brick walls were replaced with reinforced brick. This instrument. r e mained in operating condition. in contrast to similar stations being built at that time. damaging seals and breaking access ladders. Fig. costing from $100 to $110 per kilowatt. Plants 5 and 6 In the Arvin-Tehachapi. The damage to the storage tanks. 2 exciter voltage recorder. The small damage in this plant may be attributed to the fact that the structures were all designed for lateral accelerations of 20% g. The rebuilding of the station was started within one week after March 10. 8. two power-producing plants suffered minor to moderate damage. and tied into the steel frame of the building. The cast-iron fittings and valves on the overhead domestic water tank were replaced with steel. and the principle corrections made were: The stack was cut down 177 ft and forced draft fans installed.2). but a landslide 3 miles upstream badly damaged the diversion dam and gate-control equipment (Fig. The Midway Plant. About 500 barrels of oil were spilled (see Fig.2D PLANTS 5 AND 6 reinforced-concrete work.C.000.000 kw(e)] was finished in 1948. D. A 10. resulting from rotation of the floating roofs through an angle of 15°. The top one-third of the concrete stack was severely cracked and spalled. obviously only slightly damped. C. doweled into the floors. It was the opinion of the investigating committee that the station would have withstood this earthquake with a minimum of damage and expense if the brick walls had been designed of reinforced concrete and properly tied to the steel frame. A small hydroelectric plant (Kern Canyon Hydro) suffered no damage to the powerhouse or equipment. and the electrical equipment with the exception of the transformers. is a good example of the erratic readings that might be expected from reactor instrumentation. Of interest to instrumentation engineers is the chart. It was evident that the majority of the saving was in the wall construction. The main transformers were placed on larger and heavier constructed trucks. near Bakersfield [175. as well as the mechanical equipment except one turbine generator. one turbine kept running until the operators pulled the fire from under the boilers. The Kern Steam Plant. as mentioned in Chap. Calif.3). A detailed account of this damage is given below. and if the turbine supporting floor had been properly designed of heavier construction. Two oil-storage tanks were damaged. which were mounted on wheeled trucks for easy change-out. which was taken from the No. principally because of rotation of the floating roofs. subsequent shocks caused additional bricks to fall without further damage. 344 APPENDIX C . Structural damage to the building was slight. which killed the electrical output from the station. had been tipped over against the compartment walls. The cost of rebuilding was approximately $300. suffered broken windows and cracked partitions. The steel columns and girders under the turbine floor were repaired and reinforced with additional heavy structural braces. consisting of minor spalling of concrete and separation of the bond between a steel column and concrete wall at one point. The thrust bearing on the No.l. 1952. The steel braces and girders under the reduced stack (700 tons of weight removed) were repaired. The main transformers. C.

7). C. Seal Beach Electric Plant. formerly the Los Angeles Gas and Electric Corporation. On those installations where the transformers were set without attachment on a platform between two or more poles. and falling off were greatly in evidence (Fig. Of the pole-mounted transformers.) The power-distribution system had a great many minor troubles. (Southern California Gas and Electric Company. 100 of which were scrapped because of age or damage. EARTHQUAKE EXPERIENCE IN UTILITIES AND INDUSTRIAL PLANTS 345 . ON SOME SUBSEQUENT SHOCKS MEETS OBSTRUCTION ON INNER SWING ONLY C. those on single poles fared best because they were attached to hangers.4 to C. toppling. 246 suffered minor or no damage. A total of 846 transformers were affected. Fortunately there were few burn-downs since the wires were automatically deenergized by protective equipment before shorts due to wrapping occurred.2D Fig.PLANTS 5 AND 6 NOTE. or being displaced on supports. The greatest damage to the distribution system resulted from transformers falling from platform mountings.S are indicative of this type of damage. A great deal of entanglement or wrapping of adjacent wires occurred on power-line spans. rolling. Figures C. particularly where the lines were installed slack for gauging reasons. C. and the remaining 500 needed moderate to extensive repairs. AT FIRST SHOCK RECORDING ARM MEETS OBSTRUCTION AT BOTH ENDS OF SWING. tipping over on rails.l—Example of instrument behavior during an earthquake.

C. earthquake.*•* ••"'••u- Fig. C.2D PLANTS 5 AND 6 '*_. C. Calif.. 1952.) Fig.) 346 APPENDIX C C . July 21. (Pacific Gas and Electric Company.2—Damage oil-storage tank. (Pacific Gas and Electric Company.S—Damage to diversion dam caused by a landslide following Arvm—Tehachapi.

(Pacific Gas and Electric Company.2D Fig.) EARTHQUAKE EXPERIENCE IN UTILITIES AND INDUSTRL\L PLANTS 347 . C.4—Transformers damaged by an earthquake. (Pacific Gas and Electric Company. C.) Fig.PLANTS 5 -J^ND 6 C.5—Transformers damaged by an earthquake.

2D PLANTS 5 AND 6 Fig.7—Damage to pole-mounted transformers. C. (Pacific Gas and Electric Company.) Fig. C.C. (Pacific Gas and Electric Company.) 348 APPENDDC C .S—Transformer moved from storage cabinet by an earthquake.

Many cases are reported involving tanks of a wide variety of sizes. seven 750-hp Stirling boilers were installed in a steel-frame and corrugated-iron building. Although severe cases of anchor-bolt elongation have occurred. and one oil company reports shifting of heavy pumps and motors sufficient to distort steel connecting piping. Breakage of piping. numerous cases have been reported in which tall vessels.2D La this category. In the 1933 earthquake all seven boilers were damaged. (7) Vessels and mechanical equipment.S OIL REFINERIES C. (6) Boiler plants. was frequent. as a worst case. such as distillation columns. and rupture occurred. and the corresponding end of the second tank fell off the pier. but those with buckstays remained in alignment. Tanks of this type designed for earthquake resistance have survived even in heavily shocked a r e a s . sagging floors.. The damage most frequently reported is that of shattered brickwork in fireboxes. usually by shearing resulting from lack of flexibility. particularly when the direction of the shock was parallel to the axis of the vessel. no vessels have been reported as having actually broken free and fallen over. at least. and plate gauges in which lateral movement. 2 Shell rupture Roof distortion Piping rupture Steam leakage (2) Spherical storage tanks. Many such tanks. have tipped and anchor bolts have elongated. column supported. (1) Storage tanks on the ground. The usual pattern of damage to large cylindrical storage vessels is: Vertical settlement V to 8 in. In one case. two 12-ft-diaraeter by 120-ft-long gasoline tanks. Many of these cases show evidence of a gyratory motion in which the vessel rolls around the base ring. whereas the two unstayed boilers were badly damaged and shifted sufficiently to damage the support to the stack. (3) Horizontal vessels on concrete pads. swinging 10 ft away and coming to rest on the ground. materials. No distortions or ruptures in tanks of this type have been reported. causing fractures of connecting piping (usually cast-iron). Other minor damage to boiler installations in petroleum plants have been reported. although. designed for wind load alone. Other pumps have settled. and the resulting fire destroyed three adjacent tanks and contents. were destroyed in the 1933 and 1952 earthquakes. and shifting of brickwork in control houses. The floating end of one tank moved lOV^z in. At one large refinery.PLANTS 5 AND 6 C. damage is reported according to the following classification of equipment and component types rather than being described separately for the many plants involved. However. two nearly full 2500-barrel pressure storage tanks fell because of colunm-support failure. Numerous cases of cracked concrete piers have occurred. supported on piers with only one end anchored. collapse. There have been very few cases of actual shifting or relocation of such equipment. In the 1952 earthquake. In both the 1933 and 1952 earthquakes. (5) Small cylindrical storage tanks. Five of the boilers were braced with horizontal buckstays. These units appear to have been employed in pipeline or dock loading installations. EARTHQUAKE EXPERIENCE IN UTILITIES AND INDUSTRIAL PLANTS 349 . this type container proved to be quite vulnerable. the housing of a Kinney oil pump was cracked. The most serious damage required realignment of several boilers at Huntington Beach. (4) Elevated storage tanks on structural supports. The e s caping butane ignited. were damaged.

San Francisco. 1956. World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. 1933. State of California. Earthquake Engineering Research Institute and Department of Engineering. 350 APPENDIX C . C. June 22. Structural Engineers Association of Northern California. Division of Mines. California. 1955. Earthquakes in Kern County.3.2. California.. C. June 1956. Engineering News Record. San Francisco. 0. University of California. Department of Natural Resources. Bulletin 171.REFERENCES REFERENCES C. 113 pp.l.4. During 1952. Berkeley. 1952 Earthquakes in Kern County.

Calif. cannot distinguish between settling and seismic tremors). Minor shocks have caused shutdown of lowpower training reactors equipped with very sensitive seismic scram devices. No reactors were in operation during the March 1957 earthquake centered near San Francisco. 351 . Several scrams have been experienced since the seismic detectors are set with a gap of 0. several earth tremors have been experienced at Vallecitos since 1958.Appendix D EARTHQUAKE EXPERIENCE IN EXISTING REACTOR PLANTS D. The intensities at Vallecitos have varied from Modified-Mercalli I to V and resulted from earthquakes varying from Richter magnitude 4. in January 1958. so far as is known. VALLECITOS ATOMIC LABORATORY'^-^ At the Vallecitos Atomic Laboratory. Vallecitos. no reactor operators in this country have as yet been faced with a significant seismic emergency. 8.. These were the result of minor earthquakes. This appendix is an account of the earthquake experiences of some reactor operators in seismically active areas. In all these disturbances.3 GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY. a series of apparent seismic trips were experienced. D. (The oil-damped pendulum seismic detector used. In addition. but these have since been attributed to settling of the control building.3 and Modified-Mercalli VI to VII at the source. and there have been some activations of seismic warning systems in other reactors. which is estimated to be approximately equivalent to a local intensity of Modified-Mercalli HI. the General Electric Test Reactor (GETR).. According to General Electric's records. and a small research or training reactor. General Electric operates the Vallecitos Boiling-water Reactor (VBWR).7 to 6. Most intensities at Vallecitos were about Modified-Mercalli IV.6 mm. operating an AGN-201 training reactor and a pool type research r e actor at San Ramon. such as described in Chap. which were instrumentally recorded but not felt.2 AEROJET-GENERAL NUCLEONICS^-'This company. probably less than a Modified-Mercalli intensity of ni. no damage to the system was observed. D. Calif. has had at least two earthquake-connected scrams.l INTRODUCTION Because of the relative infrequency of severe earthquakes and the newness of the atomic age.

Although these measurements are of scientific interest.1.3 352 Robert Geckler.. Wash. the Charleston.l D. The galvanometer spots were reported to have oscillated moderately. Bennett. This warning signal was attributed to the West Yellowstone earthquake on Aug. and has observed 14 abrupt perturbations. D. but the operators were not able to correlate it with any specific earthquake. The intensity was estimated as Modified-Mercalli VI at Richland. Vallecitos Atomic Laboratory. which is set at Modified-Mercalli n . there has been only one earthquake of note. Manager. and one scram on the North American Aviation Water-boiler Neutron Source [AE-6(WBNS)] was experienced from this source. J. REFERENCES D. This was the extent of the activity observed.4 ATOMICS INTERNATIONAL ATOMICS INTERNATIONAL As of July 1958 no locally felt earthquakes had occurred while any of the several reactors were in operation. S. The reactor was not in operation at the time. Burch. and the intensity registered at Hanford was approximately Modified-Mercalli n to HI. USAEC. according to a company spokesman. although there have been several earthquakes in the area since 1958 (varying from Modified-Mercalli I to IV in nearby localities). In the past 10 years there has been an additional 15 to 20 temblors below Modified-Mercalli II. 7 SAVANNAH RIVER PRODUCTION REACTORS This site reports that. with a Richter magnitude of 7. a mild earthquake occurred in the Santa Clara Valley (approximately Richter 4). 1959. presumably from compression of aquifers by seismic waves. Aiken. D. This was the Seattle (or Olympic Peninsula) earthquake of 1949. 1963. has not tripped. AMERICAN-STANDARD. the reactor alarm system. was put in service in June 1958. earthquake of 1886 was one of the most severe ever known to have occurred in the United States. and it was thought to be slightly less severe (about Modified-Mercalli V) in the reactor area. Since the installation of the seismoscope system. 1958. C . R. 17. personal communication. W. APPENDIX D . The seismicity of this region is difficult to define since the area generally is considered to be quiescent. the seismic switch did not trip. However. and. C . D.5 D. and no noticeable effects were seen. The local geological group has measured water-well level fluctuations.4 D. and some were correlated with events as distant as Assam and Israel. Earthquake-induced trips had occurred during nonoperative periods. Aerojet-General Nucleonics. ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY LABORATORIES The 1-watt University Training Reactor (UTR-1). a prototype of a training reactor marketed by the Advanced Technology Laboratories of the American Radiator & Standard Sanitary Corporation. there has been only one seismic event of sufficient intensity to activate the Modified-Mercalli n warning circuits. None of these tremors were reported at the plant site. personal communication.6 HANFORD WORKS Since the earliest operation at Hanford in 1943. The Blue Mountain and Walla Walla faults are close enough to contribute to some of the noted activity.2 D. and has operated intermittently. Shortly after the UTR-1 was put in service. Four of these disturbances were correlated with earthquakes in the northwestern United States. S. and the Ringgold formation to the east of the Columbia River lowlands on which the site is located is evidence of past seismic activity. they are not an index of local frequency or intensity.D. personal communication.

l Simplified Model of Steam Generator E. The theory and derivation of equations are p r e sented first. Furthermore. the computational effort may be systematized by the use of matrices in the solution of the equations of motion. Equation E.2) 353 . E. E .2 DERIVATION OF EQUATIONS For the case of forced transient motion. as will be shown.l can be written S ° n mijcij + S ° n kijqj = Qi(t) (E. l . followed by a detailed numerical example.Appendix E MATRIX FORMAT FOR ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF LINEAR UNDAMPED SYSTEMS FIGURE E.l GENERAL In the analysis of the response to forced input motion of a multidegree-of-freedom system. the usefulness of matrices need not be restricted to the determination of periods and mode shapes but may be extended to obtain the total solution. A basic treatment of the subject can be found in Ref. Lagrange's equations take the form d /aT\ 9U where T = kinetic energy U = potential energy t = time qj = ith generalized coordinate Qi = ith generalized force The generalized force QJt) may be an active force in the usual sense or a force generated by inertia forces resulting from forced input motions.

8) The solution is then taken in the matrix form q = *c 354 (E..] = ^(1' 92 01 A'2) 92 (E. be 9i *=[<^102.3) Coordinate vector q = qj Qi(t) Force vector f = QzCt) Let 1^.9) APPENDIX E . be the eigenvector corresponding to the rth frequency w^ of the homogeneous equation Mq + Kq = 0 thus -a)?M<^r + K.6) Let the matrix formed of the eigenvectors 0. = 0 The expanded form for the eigenvector is (E.4) 'P = <2 P (E.(t) for the contribution of each mode to the response be taken as a vector Ci(t) c(t) = C2(t) (E.(p.7) Let the time coefficients c.E.5) (E..2 DERIVATION OF EQUATIONS In matrix notation the set of n equations can be written Mq + Kq = f where Mass matrix M = [mi]] Stiffness matrix K = [k^j •qi (E.

=SiSjmij(^i'>(^'' = 0 for r = s * <pjKcl)^ = S i S j k i / i ' ' 0 ^ » ' = 0 for r '^ s both * ^ M * and *^K$ are diagonal matrices. *'^K$=|. However.3 M*c + K*c = f Then premultipiy by the transpose §^ of the eigenvector matrix *''"M$C (E.] where M. it can be shown that 0.] C = 'J'^f (E.13) Bars are used to indicate that M. The equation for the rth mode coefficient is Cr + <^h. E.ll) However. whereas the diagonal lines on the brackets denote diagonal matrices.'VLYSIS OF TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF LINEAR UNDAMPED SYSTEMS . Thus *''"M$ = f Mr J *^K$ = [• K.21) With zero initial conditions the solution for the rth mode coefficient is c.19) In this form the equations have been decoupled.15) (E.2 With this substituted into Eq.16) Equation E . {E.14) (E. are scalars. J [w^j (E. and K.) ^ j = i MATRDC FORMAT FOR AN.=——Y" (^^''Q.(t .12) (E.18) Premultipiy by the inverse matrix (*^M$)~^ (which is easily calculated since "J^M^ is diagonal) c + [w^] c = (^•'"M*)"* <l''^f or c + [CD.r ) dr Jo (E. owing to the orthogonality relations for the normal modes 4>jMcp.(t) = ^ T\.DERIVATION OF EQUATIONS E. (E.22) 355 (jjA<f>. = 4>JKCI). ^ Y " <^j'* r "^jd-) sin w.17) ^ (E. where K. U(p.IO) + * ' ' ' K * C = *'^f (E.Kr] = [ M . = (pIUcp.20) (E. l l can then be written *'^M$c + (*'^M$) [ w?j c = *'^f (E.? = ^ so that .

M.T) dT I Q2(T) sm aj2(t . and K is the stiffness matrix. i.7) dr I Qj(r) sm cj2(t . E.31) APPENDIX E ..] = Jl2l(t) The matrix format of all equations (Eq. Thus.25. it is necessary to find the eigenvalues for the vibration equation Mq + Kq = 0 (E.29) (E.23) L = [J.28) where M is the mass matrix.r(t) = / j Q / r ) sin oj/t . the complete solution is q = *[(a). if q = e^'^'c^ (E.M..r) dr (E. With an input ground acceleration.22) then is c = [(a.)-iJ *^L E.26) °22 Cl 0") "1^1 0(1) I QI(T) sin Wi(t ..w V ' ^ t j ^ = -oj^q 356 (E.(2) 92 (E. J!u(t) !!i2(t) . thereby resulting in an upper-limit calculation.24) (E.)-'J *^L The expanded form for a two-degree system is (wiMi)-i 0 or 0 (wsMz)-^ 91 ^(2) 91 92 ..9 and E.e.3 CALCULATION OF NONDOMINANT FREQUENCIES AND MODES In the application of the theory developed above.25) hi °21 il2 (E. E.E. From Eqs.r) dr Jo Jo A conservative procedure in earthquake analyses is the replacement of the integrals by their maximum value and the elimination of signs in all mode shapes.. q is the coordinate vector.30) then q = .27) C2 1 0f 0f J Q2(T) sin tJ2(t .2 DERIVATION OF EQUATIONS Let the integral be called the impulse loading i'-'\t) = i!. (E. the Qj will be products of mass and acceleration t e r m s .T ) dr and the matrix composed of these elements be called L.

^ (b j O) w K~' is the inverse of the stiffness matrix K and is commonly known as an influence matrix. Eq.34 for the eigenvalues is difficult for cases involving many degrees of freedom.CALCULATION OF NONDOMINANT FREQUENCIES AND MODES and -w^Mc^ + K<b = 0 or (-w^M + K)(^ = 0 This equation has nontnvial solutions only if the determinant i-w^M + K| = 0 E. this technique finds the highest value of 1/w^.{\] ^ ^ (E. The solution of Eq. w^..^ K " ' M ( ^ = -^ K " ' K 0 = . With a sequence of trial vectors (p.2 Wj After finding l/w\ and the corresponding eigenvector (i^.. By using the iterative technique with trial vectors on B. the process converges to the eigenvalue l/u^l with the eigenvector (p^.32 can be modified as follows: (j^Mcp = Kd) M<^ = ^ K. Unless an exact eigenvector for a higher mode i s accidently chosen.34) This determinant vanishes only for particular values.i<-i Wa W3 (E.38) where M is the mass matrix and (pj is the transpose of cp^.35) the eigenvalues can be found.32) (E. However. the process always converges to the highest value of l / w ' .37) Ci. = i r * (E.33) (E. construct a new matrix B as follows: B = K-'M . Let the eigenvalues be arranged as follows: (JJI < u l < uil < .3 (E. of w^ For each eigenvalue w^ there is a corresponding eigenvector (p^. (JJI so that jj<--'<ri<-r. The other values of 1/w^ can be found by the scheme presented below. E. MATRIX FORMAT FOR ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF LINEAR UNDAMPED SYSTEMS 357 . together with the corresponding eigenvector. E. and thus the lowest eigenvalue belonging to the matrix (M).36) (E. By using an iterative technique on K-^Mct. cb^ converted from column to row form. that is.

42) Thus the eigenvalue of B corresponding to 0i is zero.39) and continue the process until all eigenvalues are found.^ j 01 = 001 - (E. <p. etc.i .45) 358 APPENDIX E ..i .. ki.40) B<^.40 can be written _i 1 0TM0.4 ^ 4 i ^ If <p. = K-^M0. C.. of K~'M B0. when 4>. if both K and M are symmetric. = K-^M0.7 01 ^ i r . i. = cPi then (E. . E. = K .43) (E. § ^ Oil 0iM(^i w{ <px M 0 1 or . B0 = K-1M0 . * 01 Equation E. .41) (E.3 CALCULATION OF NONDOMINANT FREQUENCIES AND MODES To get the next eigenvalue. 1 but 1 K-*M0i =-T<Pi so B 0 i = ( ^ .44) (E. Matrices B. ^ 0. construct a new matrix C=B-f^')Mi^l W2J <pjM<P2 (E.i M 0 .^ = ' Wi 0iM0i However.IO by some eigenvector 0. Thus each time the highest eigenvalue is removed.e. = k.i (E. . That the matrices have this property may be seen as follows: Postmultiply Eq. In the general case.E. have the property that they take the former highest value of l/w^ and replace it by zero without changing the other eigenvalues or eigenvectors. and the iterative process converges to the next highest eigenvalue.

. The two modes consist in the rotation about the center of mass (angle 9) and in the lateral displacement (y) at the point where the column is attached to the cylindrical mass. the nth reduced matrix can be written N = K-'M-y" ^ M I M Z j m wt 0. (E. with the exception of a zero eigenvalue for 0i.44 becomes B0. Calif.4 (E. in general.49) (E. E.a — -—7. and response of a simplified model of a typical steam generator are calculated below. the periods. E. and the simplifying assumptions are: Linear relations between deflections and forces No attached piping Mass of support column neglected This simplified model is shown in Fig. mode shapes.SIMPLE NUMERICAL EXAMPLE mij = mji E. earthquake of 1940.46) (which will occur for ail conservative vibrating systems).50) As an illustration of the application of the foregoing material. = K-*M0.l.AR UNDAMPED SYSTEMS 359 . From Fig. and it is assumed that two modes of vibration are present. the orthogonality condition is 07M0^ =0 r '^ s (E. Notice that 0^ is the rth eigenvector and not the rth element of some vector. M 1 0I0[M r -^ 1 0201M 5 —f (Wj) 02M02 Wj0iM0i 0)1 02M02 Thus.l z = X + y + ee where x = input shock motion y = lateral deflection of column 9 = rotation of mass z = absolute motion of mass center e = distance from the column connection to the center of mass (E.J 1 R.51) MATRDC FORMAT FOR ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF LINE. the eigenvalues for B are the same as those for K " ' M . Notice that C can be written as 1 020IM _ V^ .48) and. M0.47) Thus 0JM0S = 0 and Eq. E. E.4 SIMPLE NUMERICAL EXAMPLE (E. The input motion is assumed to be equivalent to that exhibited by the El Centro.

including that resulting from the potential energy of deformation.49" I«7. and M the total mass so that ^-2 T = ^ Mz^ + i je^ Since z = x + y + e0 from Eq. Let T be the kinetic energy.E.600 LB CENTER OF MASS MASS MOMENT OF INERTIA. then T = 4[x + y + ee]2 + 1 Je^ In the present case Lagrange's equation can be written d /3T> = Q^ dt S^K where Qk is the generalized force. 360 APPENDIX E tr .4 SIMPLE NUMERICAL EXAMPLE WT .l — Simplified model of steam generator. 2. 27. e= x+y+«fl INPUT SHOCK MOTION LATERAL DEFLECTION OF COLUMN ROTATION OF MASS UTT7T7 Fig. J the mass moment of inertia about the mass center.'^ z» X.8xl05 LB SEC IN. (ABOUT CENTER OF MASS) £.51. E. y.86xl03|N. E.

379 ft* lb sec^ M = 27.32 x 10* Ib-ft"^ e = 55 in.33 X 10* ft-lb sec^ I = 0. "M • (E. C is the couple.58 ft The influence coefficients can be calculated 111 = 3 | j = 13.52 and E. 4 9 x 10-9 (Ib-ft)-i MATRIX FORMAT FOR ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF LINEAR UNDAMPED SYSTEMS 361 . E.55) + 'y' 9 111 = —X H2 ^22. In the present case y and 9 are the generalized coordinates. = 4. .54 and E.121 Assume for this example J = 2.53) (E.M^li*y*eS)w5 Substituting the generalized inertia forces for P and G in Eqs.56) Me.08 ft E = 30.4 • ^ so that dt \dq^ X l.54) (E.0 X 10* lb-in.y = iiiM(x + y + ee) + ii2 [Me(x + y + e'e) + j'S] -e = i2iM(x + y + eg) + i22 [Me(x + y + e9) + Jd] Equations E.52) l(5|).600 lb = 857 ft J = 49 in.53.9 X lO-'ft-lb-^ ii2 = i2i = 2 | i = 5.SIMPLE NUMERICAL EXAMPLE The spring motion in terms of the forces applied to the spring can be written y = ijiP + iijC 9 = i2lP + 122^ where P is the lateral force.~2 = 4.55 can be written in matrix form as Hi h\ hi M Me Me^ + J •y (E. The generalized'D'Alembert inertia force is E. = 4.09x10-9 16-' i 2 2 = ^ = 2 . whereas P and C are the generalized forces.Me 9 . ^22 J .(^) = ««+ y + e9) and (E. and i is the influence coefficient.

= 10^ [ 0.56 13.93 3.857 3.091 2. The iteration formula for calculating the lowest frequency and its corresponding mode shape is K ~ ' M 0 = \<p where \ = w"^ 362 APPENDIX E .E. 13.57 is now in the form K-*Mq + q = K"'f where K"' is the influence matrix which is the inverse of the stiffness matrix K.9.09 5.1 123.9 : -X(10-') 5.09 5.Me^^jJ M Me* M = 857 X 10^ l Me = 857 X I I = 3. 10- = -I0"* ^ [::.58) (10)^ + 23.9 10" .93 X 4. 5.:] Equation E.09 2.58) is now used to calculate frequencies and vibration mode shapes. 1-LTl (E.09 5.857 3.93 3. The homogeneous equation K-'Mq + q = 0 (E.9 265 9 L14.3 .3 x 10^ Thus mj.9 ^ L 5.4 SIMPLE NUMERICAL EXAMPLE SO that the influence matrix is ri3.49 £.09 2.57) which reduces to [31. 4L and LMeJ L3. •y" "y' .93 J Substituting in Eq.49J The mass matrix is [Me.93" 41.300 = 41.49 10'' 0.93 x 10^ Me^ + J = (3. E.

459J " L 70.1 123j[o.00O-| [14.000-| L14. r 0[M = 10^ [1.93 10.ooo-] L14.93] 22.93 .SIMPLE NUMERICAL EXAMPLE The trial mode shape is normalized each time so that its maximum amplitude is unity 31.1 265 123J 10" 1O"*K-'M0 = ^ 0 E.5 .000-| [14.6502 wj =80.6] " ^"-^ L0.7J " ^"-^[0.460] [3.226 22 .g 265-1 r n [l4.46j L^lJ [oA6l\ [31.3 41.6 rad sec"' . [0.93] ^•°°° = 13.i ? ^ l ^ CJi 0 i M 0 j 10*B = 31.21 X 10^ 1.' M .9 265-|ri.9 265-|ri.000] ["153.9 14.461J " L 70.665 <^[M0 = 10^ [2.93 3.1 123] [l J r31.: .: 665 226 22.I 123J LO.8J " ^^^"-^ [0.8-j ri.459] r3i.4 Let first trial vector be 0 •tl [297-1 ^23^ ri-oo-j L137J [OAGJ pi.1 123j[o.665 153.1 265 123 2.OOJ ^|-154l ^ ^^^ ri.55J 363 MATRIX FORMAT FOR ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF LINEAR UNDAMPED SYSTEMS .9 lO^K-'M = .460J <i)i0{M = 10' i.460 J [31.9 265-|ri.93-1 10 .665 22.ooo] ri53.000l ri54.14.5-| ri.460J Thus 10« = 153.21 x 10^ L0.9 265-1 ri.857 0.I 123J L0.55 Now 10«B = 1 0 « K .8 10^ 13.8 •^1 =[:: 000 460 2 0)1 .46oJ"[ 7O.1-j ri.000 0JM = 10^ [2.

2J [-0.00 -0. [-0.I9J rad W = 89"^ 2 sec"' The computed value of (p^ is not very accurate.2J 10*B Iteration for second mode 4>2 [- 0. The accurate value for the second mode for this two-coordinate problem is most easily found directly from the orthogonality relation used above as a check.g 265] p i .lJ L-0.000 i>2 -0.22J = 1.4 SIMPLE NUMERICAL EXAMPLE lO'B pl.18J Thus 10* ^ = 1.\ ''1 22.24J -1.19 .692 x 10^ when the value should be zero.93] oif = 0.24] _ <Pl .9"j [-0. The trouble is in the loss of accuracy arising in computing matrix B.9] r 1.00] _ r 1.9] r i-oo]_ r 1. 364 APPENDIX E .2 00 O. as can be seen from 1.24 0)2 [-0.4.665 .2J L-O.000 -0.0 266.9 -1.9 ~ [l4.19 -1.8 r 0.9 -0.32 L-0 22 1. It is found that 1.2J1-0. 0.18 1.357) = -1. 0[M(^2 = 10^ (2.00 -0.806 X 10' L-O. 3 122.22J 0.665 obtaining accurate values for nondominant modes can often be difficult for large order systems.E.1 I23J [14.2 0.116 <|)iM(^2= 10^ [2.

210 L I 0 0 51lJ 870.411 -0.931 E.411 _ -0.116] 0.861] (10^) (pjM(p2 = (10^) [0.J' <t^u [o.00197J L-41'7 J [-O.46i -0.a.822 MATRIX FORMAT FOR ANALYSIS OF TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF LINEAR UNDAMPED SYSTEMS 365 .861] Ol 511.00197 ] r-2670] _ r-0.[0)2] C = ($TM$)-l*Tf becomes Pi ^ f 0 6370 0 870.3 J l.000j To get Eq. r 41.822J Therefore C H.0 [13.198] (* M*)"* = 0 ($TM#)-l*Tf = 0.8 5 7 . E.0000741 0 0.490 0.OOOl (10') =[0.4 3. r .] .« ™ l _ [1 -O.56 in the right form. premultiply by the inverse of the influence matrix which is the stiffness matrix [kj.000 -0.93 L3.] [^u] [:]^H[:]=-^[:J '-Pi-f""'l-["°"l* LQJ L-MexJ L-3930J Thus m" *T.857 3.II2J L-3930J L-417 J 13.198 -0.461 i r .000 -0.0000741 1 509 0 0 0.112J • 0.SIMPLE NUMERICAL EXAMPLE (pju = [1.

1937. the responses for the two modes are sj = 0. J. e s 0. 205.r) dr .8(t . Timoshenko.079 sec. Goldstein.l.0067 sec.T) dr 1 r '2 ^932 Jo ~°-^22 ^^"^^ ^*" 932(t . Van Nostrand Company.0025 radian Thus the maximum response at the center of mass will be y + ee = 0. 366 APPENDIX E .8 i(T) s i n 7 9 .00021 + 0. 8 ( t .. E. H. Reading. ( H i m S H f X(..<t>f or ^ and e =( M 5 ^ ^ ^ f x(r) Sin 79. Classical Mechanics./O 1 r -0. S.REFERENCES and 'I = T^TTZ I 19.^ ^ I k(T) sin 932(t . Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. 1950. From the curves.18) + 0.T) dr The values under the integrals can be determined from the detailed velocity-spectrum curves CFig.r) dr _ -0. 2nd ed.. Mass.8(t . and the second mode is 1/149 or 0. REFERENCES E.) sin 932(t . Vibration Problems in Engineering. Inc.198 I 79.0056 in.T) dT then y = ci«'/' + c.00047 ft = 0. p.7 or 0. Inc.0 . P.000212 = 0..198 X(T) sin 79.T ) d T .. N.18 ft/sec S2 = 0.00088(0.0025(0.000002 « 0. D.20). For the first mode the period is 1/12. assuming 2% critical damping.02 ft/sec Ignoring signs for maximum response y s 0. 1.02) « 0. Princeton.144 in.2.

This presentation amplifies that given in a previous publication '^ and corrects errors that appeared in some of the expressions in the original work.Appendix F DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FLUIDS IN CONTAINERS SUBJEaED TO ACCELERATION nOURES Flffun 1. a detailed presentation of a workable method for predicting the dynamic behavior of the fluids is given here.4 GABormllzod Symmotrlcai Tank.l INTRODUCTION Because of the importance of fluid containers in nuclear reactor installations. For a rectangular tank w is obviously zero.y directions. F.2.l. F ^ £l«m«ot of Fig. The more exact analyses show that the pressures can be separated into impulsive and convective parts. the fluid being assumed incompressible and the fluid displacements small. The convective pressures are those produced by the oscillations of the fluid and are therefore the consequences of the impulsive pressures. CyliDdrlcel Tank. which are perpendicular to each other (Fig. by an approximate method. F. This will generate fluid acceleration u. and Jacobsen*"*^ (1949) showed that for a cylindrical tank w is zero also. F-6 F. F. The impulsive pressures are not impulses in the usual sense but are associated with inertial forces produced by accelerations of the walls of the container and are directly proportional to these accelerations.7 F. Let the walls of the container be given an impulsive acceleration UQ in the x direction. F. 01«placcm«u of OteillaUns Fluid Surfac*. the hydrodynamic pressures developed when a fluid container is subjected to horizontal accelerations.3 Elomentof Fig. Simplified formulas are given for containers having twofold symmetry.v in the x.2 IMPULSIVE PRESSURES Consider a container with vertical side walls and a horizontal bottom that is symmetrical with respect to the vertical x-y and z-y planes. F. The analysis treats. F.l). F. and it may also generate an acceleration component w in the z direction. and the specific cases of a rectangular and a circular cylindrical container are treated in detail. F.8 Oynunlc Modtl for Fluid CoaUlner Supported on the Ground.5 Free Body of Fluid Element. In the following discussion it will be assumed that the ratio of w to ii is either 367 . In the following analysis the impulsive and convective pressures are examined separately.

F.l). and let the walls be given a horizontal acceleration u. which force the fluid motion to take place in the x-y plane only. can be derived by applying Newton's law to a differential element of fluid.F. and the fluid will also be squeezed vertically with respect to the membranes.2) The equation of motion in the vertical direction. can be determined from a mass balance on the lamina shown in Fig. The initial effect of this acceleration is to impart a horizontal acceleration to the fluid and also a vertical component of acceleration. F. Physically this is equivalent to having the fluid restrained by thin vertical membranes. Thus V dx + u (h . v. where p represents the impulsive pressure. the mass of the elements is p dx dy. F. u. The net force on the element in the y direction is (-ap/3y) dx dy. as shown in Fig. that is. When the walls of the container are given an acceleration.4) APPENDIX F . so that Eq.3 becomes ^ =.3. vertical membranes free to move in the x direction. imagine the fluid to be constrained by thin.2. v=(h-y)^ (F. of fluid velocity were independent of the y coordinate.y) = (u + .y) or v = (h-y)U • (F. considering only forces arising from accelerations of the fluid.^ dx j (h .l) Differentiating Eq. Thus the second and third terms on the right-hand side of Eq. u. Furthermore. and the acceleration is dv/dt. F. This action of the fluid is similar to that which would result if the horizontal component.p ^ 9y " at ^ 368 (F. and hence the x and y derivatives of the velocities. are also small. Consider a lamma of fluid of unit thickness in the x-y plane (Fig. the membranes will be accelerated with the fluid.3 are of higher order than the first term and can be assumed to be negligible.l with respect to time. The relation between the vertical velocity. Denoting fluid density as p. F. and let the membranes be originally spaced a distance dx apart. since the fluid displacements were assumed to be small. respectively. massless. spaced dz apart. It is then sufficient to consider the impulsive pressures generated in a lamina of fluid. and the horizontal velocity. the velocities.2 IMPULSIVE PRESSURES exactly zero or at least so small that w can be neglected. F. where p is the dynamic impulsive pressure generated by the acceleration UQ. Thus 9p dv -—dxdy=pdxdyor £P=_p*: = _pf!l + !ldx^8vdy\ 8y * dt ^ ^ \9t ax dt ay dt / Now dx/dt and dy/dt are u and v.

IMPULSIVE PRESSURES F..3—"Element of Fig. dx •|—I A n y •^dx Yd^ •:. F .^^x •u Fig.2. F. l .2 y o / n z N ^ n Flu\c/ in Mot ion Cons fI vinsd FlJid h \ Y A ] ^ X Ikdx U ^_.2—Element of Fig.^^ V I Figure F .l^d:<X>'-y) L^. LJ Fig. F. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FLUIDS IN CONTAINERS SUBJECTED TO ACCELERATION 369 . F. l . (P^§§ c/y)dK3u H h-y I p*^^'^ I dv u(h-y)-\\:\(u.

and they are strictly applicable only when the surface is horizontal. corresponding to arbitrary acceleration. F. h' = l. Eq. F.ll) (F.39u (^-^^ The equation of motion in the x direction can be determined by applying Newton's law to the element of fluid shown in Fig. F. the result can be written ap 5 ^ = -phu Substituting P from Eq. that is. l l with the condition that from symmetry pJx=o = 0. p=-pUoX 370 (F. the equations can be used even when the surface of the fluid has been excited into motion. as was assumed in the derivation of Eq. l and Ref. Uo(t).2 in Eq.6 and F. Newton's law applied to a differential element gives | f = -puo Integrating Eq. [t-2lhjJ^y = -3^^%T .6 in Eq. au p y l/yVL„_ i^[^K9^• 1 ^.5l.2.IO determine the fluid p r e s s u r e s . l .7 into Eq. The equation of motion in the horizontal direction for the constrained fluid below the vertical depth h' can be derived by the method used to obtain Eq.8.9) Considering ii to be a dependent variable which is a function only of x.4. of the fluid only and considering the fluid below this point to move as though it were completely constrained [see part (a) of Fig. F.7 to the upper portion.5.SJ.6 and F. The primes under the integral are used simply to denote a dummy variable of integration. F .12) APPENDIX F . F .6 gives the impulsive pressures. Substituting Eq.IO) Equations F. somewhat better results are obtained by applying Eqs.F. F. F . having h > 1. which arise from the total time derivative of u. if consideration is restricted to small displacements of fluid.8) 0-5^u=O (F. If the container is slender. as before. p(t). F. ^-'^'^ i^J. F.4 and integrating from zero to y. l ] . (F.9 can be written as a total differential equation whose solution is'"'^ u = Ci c o s h / 3 § + Ca s i n h / 3 ^ h h (F. Assuming a known acceleration UQ. F. Neglecting the higher order t e r m s . so that the preceding equations apply to the upper portion of fluid if h is replaced by h'. Eq. F. F . F.5) Using Eq. F. with the conditions that p|y=o = 0 and u ''u(y). However. It can be imagined that a fixed rigid membrane separates the upper and lower portions of fluid at the plane y = h'.2 IMPULSIVE PRESSURES The total horizontal force on one membrane is P = /o" P dy (F.

13) The moment exerted on the imaginary horizontal membrane by the fliud above.2 ^ (ub) dx dy .4 and F.14) Constraint (b) can be described by the following equation as a function of x and the derivative of angle of oscillation 6: v=xB (F.z components of fluid velocity.2 —• (ub) dx dy ax ' The net flow into the element in the vertical direction is av .y)]. consider constraints to be provided by horizontal.IO are solved using the appropriate boundary conditions.4.5j'.12 for h' = 1.3 CONVECTIVE PRESSURES When the walls of a fluid container are subjected to accelerations..5. can be shown to be approximately equal to the value from Eq..-bg (F. (b) All fluid in the same element moves with uniform v [v = f2(x.w be the x.^ dx dy ay Since the fluid is incompressible. Consider a mass balance on this element with the motion described by (a) and (b).5 moves with uniform u [u = f. F. and this motion produces pressures on the walls and floor of the container.2b ^ dx dy = 0 ax ay or l. F.3 (F. Hence . and let the motion be constrained as follows: (a) All fluid in the element shown in Figs. F. F. F.2b .CONVECTIVE PRESSURES The moment exerted on the horizontal membrane by the constrained fluid is. the net flow into the element in the horizontal direction is . This implies that the generation of fluid velocity is restricted essentially to the fluid in the upper part of the slender container. rigid membranes free to rotate as shown in Fig. using Eq. the fluid itself is excited into oscillations.v. F.15 states that the vertical velocity of a fluid particle is the same as that of the point on the membrane with which it is in contact.| p u o l ' ' F.. To examine the first mode of vibration of the fluid. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FLUIDS IN CONTAINERS SUBJECTED TO ACCELERATION 371 . F. Referring to Fig.15) Equation F.6 and F.(x.y)]. which is true only if d is small (see Fig. if Eqs. = [^ pxdx = .4). M. the volume 2b dx dy remains constant.y.„. Let u.12. F.

F.3 CONVECTIVE PRESSURES Z-Zax/S sy/77nre/r/caJ ^v?/"—> Fig.F. }—*'2iu£/v-f-2!^(uoJd'<ay 26^c/x SECTION A'A 372 APPENDIX F . F. S£Cr/ON (J 'R for zylindncai hnks) lafy Zhuay—^{ Fig.4—Generalized symmetrical tank.S—Free body of fluid element.

17. au ^ b' ae p ax "? ay i j b(x')x' dx' . F. F.15 in Eq.16. can be deduced as follows. y.— d y d x d z . F. the appropriate equations of motion could be written for the particular shape of container under consideration. Eq.{ to x.i (F. F.22) where b' = db/dx. respectively.— dzdxdy = 0 or az \dx dy) Thus.21 with respect to x. F.CONVECTIVE PRESSURES F.15 and F. Eq. Substituting Eq.15 into Eq.23) Integrating Eq. F.22 and av/ay from Eq.17) (F. It should be noted that 6 is a function of y and t but not of x.Z -2 — ? i f £b(x')x'dx' (F. u = . Eq. W = .3 The usual equation of continuity can be derived from a mass balance on a differential element of volume. The boundary conditions on the fluid motion are as follows: u=0atx=±l w=Oatz=0 e = 0 at y = 0 e = ^h at y = h (F. Substituting Eq. Differentiating Eq.5. at a particular time. F. dx dy dz. In a manner similar to that of the preceding section. F. F.19 is required by the zero vertical velocity of the fluid at the floor of the container.— d x d y d z .X 1^ ay (F. with Eqs. the rotation of a membrane is a function only of its vertical position. and z directions.21) where x' is the dummy variable for integration between limits zero and x.18.20) Equation F. F.14 states that the fluid in the element of Fig.14 and integrating from . ^=-^^ az f bx'dx' b^ ay J.18 results from a consideration of symmetry. F. applicable to any prismatic tank having twofold symmetry.19) (F. has zero horizontal velocity. F. F.24) 373 DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FLUIDS IN CONTAINERS SUBJECTED TO ACCELERATION . Summing the net volume flows into the element in the x.5 moves with velocities u and v that are independent of z. A general solution.18) (F. F. using Eq. Therefore.23 from 0 to z. like that shown in Fig. F. au av aw .17 states that the outermost fluid element.16. using Eq.i ^ rb(x')x'dx' D 9y J-i (F.

26 and F. F.27) v=-|pge^ jrx^dxdz=|pg0^ By Hamilton's principle.25) Substituting u. For the element of volume (xeh)dA.26) where I. and F. =X. 374 APPENDIX F . 6 r-.24 into Eq.29) 6 P (T . 1 + z' m dx dy dz (F.x^dxdz dx dz (F.29 in Eq.28) The potential energy of the fluid is obtained by summing the contributions from each element of fluid in the disturbed surface. T =2P / J j (u^ + v^ + w^) dx dy dz (F. v. displaced an average height (l/2)(xeh) from the undisturbed level. F.15.x='dA = /Jj_'.21.31) (F. the potential energy is dV=-pgx2egdA and the total potential energy is (F. ^'^ (F.~n < F. F.30.V) dt = 0 (F.25.32) Examining the second term under the integral separately. due to its average displacements from the equilibrium level.pl or r \lJ' + K I'S] dy-e9il^ dt =0 (F. and w from Eqs.3 CONVECTIVE PRESSURES The total kinetic energy is the integral over the volume of the kinetic energy of the fluid elements. F.30) Using Eqs. F.

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for which Eq. with the condition. ae X b(x')'^ *2b^® (F.0)=0.y.J) and a decrease of pressure on the opposite wall of •puoh 'I 2 Ih V3 tanh VI ^ h (F.43) If p is known. the forces and moments on the walls and floor of the container can be determined readily.puoh / 3 (F. from symmetry. F. F. on the tank bottom (y = h) of ^sinhVlPb = .y.4 Integrating Eq.y. on one wall (x = .z). F . F. iio.45) J cosh VI I- ^sinh_V3^ P = .41 from (0. the boundary conditions for the impulsive pressures are u = iio at x = ±}.RECTANGULAR CONTAINER F.6 and F.46) ^coshVsi h The wall acceleration. Pb. l . sinh/3^ n h 2 \h p = . thus produces an increase of wall pressure.44) cosh VI7h Using Eq. f^^. F.47) and produces a bottom pressure.7.49) DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FLUIDS IN CONTAINERS SUBJECTED TO ACCELERATION 377 .48) .1 and (F. F.4 RECTANGULAR CONTAINER For a rectangular container of unit width as shown in Fig. that p(0.IO gives cosh / S u =Uo (F.44 in Eqs.piiQ "7= tanh V3 (F.0) to (x.PUoh -5cosn V3 The total force acting on one wall is the sum of those acting on the walls at x X = + Jl and is given by h^ P = .puo (F.

47. . given by ^»-8''^2P l4 = 1^ Mtanh/fi V3 8 . ri-i(f)' -1^ ni-m\ dy dy and its distance above the bottom is ho=h-y=-h (F. ^ 0 ^ ^ . from Eq. F. M. the correct total moment on the tank is given when the equivalent mass mo is at an elevation above the bottom.48.53) In the case of free oscillations of the fluid in the fundamental mode for a rectangular tank of unit width.F.puoh — cosh V3 tanh V 3 ^ h 0 I ^ sinh V3 — dx ^^ h = .55) APPENDIX F 378 . at which the resultant force acts i s .. The magnitude of mo is. y. Eqs.28 give (F.49. were fastened rigidly to the walls of the container at a height (%)h above the bottom. F.4 RECTANGULAR CONTAINER Note that the forces act in the same direction on both walls due to the increase of pressure on one wall and the decrease on the other wall. F. The total moment (clockwise) exerted on the bottom of the tank is.50) It is seen that the overall effect of the fluid on the walls of the container is the same as if an equivalent mass of the fluid.52) Including this.puoh^i 1 - ^l (F.1 (F.54) a . F.^ 1 h (F.27 and F. The distance. using Eq. using Eq. mo.51) where m is the total mass of fluid. ^ i 3 = ^ ^ s (F. 2P 2 . =1 xpb dx = .

. as shown in Fig. F.56 in Eq.p i l V e b S i n c o t (F.4 Sinh . .P 2- i/x^lae •3\iJlay (F.58) (F. F. — ^ s m wt (F. •x'dx'=-i(l2-x2) P = .59) By Eqs.43. F. from Eqs.60) Using Eq. given by V _ „ ae =xe f 1 .56) V2i (F.6. F. If mi oscillates with a displacement given by Xi = Ai sin wt (F.2 2.RECTANGULAR CONTAINER Thus J-^= Jou)' ^^^ ^^^.15. F. j2 / 5 ^ " .57) The velocity at any point in the fluid is.^-^^ ^'^ ^-^^ become F.62) sinh VaX The total force on one wall (x = 8) is p« dy = . / | l = 9^ sinh "TTh sin iiJt (F.21 and F.42 and F.64) DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FLUIDS IN CONTAINERS SUBJECTED TO ACCELERATION 379 .de (F. 1 .60. ." T2 0 T2 Pw = p— y-T j ^ u^Oh sin cut 3 '2 (F.61) 21 The pressure exerted on the wall of the container (x = 5) is cosh JIL1 .63) The total force 2P exerted on the tank by the fluid is the same as that which would be produced by an equivalent mass mi that is spring mounted.

66) or miAi=-pJ!^eh Substituting I^. and Q from Eqs.67) ^ 1 5 ^ W F ^ ' ' sinh^2 .2 l i n h i Z j l ^^^2 .2. F. and F. . t sinh V 2 J ol /5 h (F.26.63 gives 2 miAidJ^ sin wt = . F.68) i miA^iW^ cos^ wt = 3 V 5 Pi^^i-^^ cos^ wt coth V | J J »l 2J 380 APPENDIX F .miXi = miAiui^ sin ait T = 2 miXi = •: miAiw^ cos^ wr Equating F and 2P from Eq.6-^Dynamic model for fluid container supported on the ground.56 into Eq. y 5 h .p^'w^Sb sin wt 0 (F.55.66 and F. F.68 gives —^ CJ^ COS^ UJt dy Vfj (F. F. F. / -y = ^V|pi'eycos^'^tcoth Equating Eqs. the force against the tank and the kinetic energy of the mass are F = . K. F.4 RECTANGULAR CONTAINER -AAAAAAM^)-^AA/MA- i / Fig.F.65) (F.54. 2 j3.

| Equations F.2CjXsinwt P u ./5 .73) The pressure exerted on the bottom of the tank is.74) The moment about the z axis due to this pressure is ^^= £ y/lpi'^ PbX dx = Jg V2 2Q h Sin cut Sinh (F. =^ =h/1- 2P Vffdvfl'Vf^^.72) T h e elevation of m i above the bottom to p r o d u c e the s a m e m o m e n t from E q s .-|''X(i|.69) v^:w|| H^-v|^) (F.""Pwydy 2 .72 i s given by the following equation.75) >2 S DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FLUIDS IN CONTAINERS SUBJECTED TO ACCELERATION 381 . t / l .V f t ^ V | ^ . sin a)t /5h sinh V o l 2{ (F. p.^ ^ (F.69 give At=9h (F.-V|f (F.V | i .4 or ^••fv!p>x(^)cou.=|V|p<'"x[f-KiJ (F.)Vif.61.70) . F. The moment exerted about the negative z axis from pressures acting on both walls of the tank is.67 and F. M w = 2 /. X s i n ..RECTANGULAR CONTAINER F.63 and F. from Eq./5 y ^ sinh V o l = fph83. F. T h i s equation does not take into accoimt the effect of fluid p r e s s u r e on the t a n k bottom. from Eq. F.71) where m is the total mass of the fluid.62.

cosh /5h hi=Mw_lMb^j^.The actual displacement of the fluid surface can be determined from the pressure at the plane y = h. Hence the vertical displacement of fluid surface at any distance x from the center line of the tank is d = Ph P(g + xe. when the container is subjected to arbitrary horizontal acceleration.=14P^'-\ J 3UJ p^ dx . /7^ dx -^fdx fd) ' x&^ pdx Cd) 'Fig. F.4 RECTANGULAR CONTAINER Taking into account the fluid pressure on the tank bottom.77) Appljring Newton's law to the element shown in Fig. F. the modified value of hi is.78) 382 APPENDIX F .61.7 — Displacement of oscillating fluid surface. From the motion of mi. . F.) (F. ?. F. can be computed readily.75. the oscillation of the fluid in the fundamental mode can be determined from Eqs. By Eq. F.7. which is due to the weight and inertia force of the fluid above this plane. (F. F.63.70 and F.71. and F.l_ 2P V2J!^ : l . F.pgd dx = x6^pd dx X 1/xY sin at coth V 0 0 2 1 (F.76) The response of the system shown in Fig.F. from Eqs.73.6. which give the relation between Ai and O^.

Pw = . The pressure p„ exerted against the wail of the tank and the pressure p^ on the bottom of the tank are.^ ( 0 1 / 3 cos « t a n h ( / 3 5 ) (F. Higher modes of vibration are not considered in the analysis.80) The preceding expressions are not convenient for calculating the total force exerted by the fluid. the following equation. as an approximate value: d™„. based on Eq.56. The following modification of Eq. F.48. and the equations of the preceding section will apply. F. Jacobsen''*^ (1949) has shown that an impulse UQ does not generate a velocity component w in the fluid.8.79) nr sinh VT-^ p.79 gives very accurate values when R/h is small but somewhat overestimates the pressure when R/h is not small: Pw = .81) DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FLUIDS IN CONTAINERS SUBJECTED TO ACCELERATION 383 . F. Each slice of fluid may therefore be treated as if it were a narrow rectangular tank.78. However. F. is based on the free vibration of the first mode. F.puoh Z . from Eqs. / cr \ h It should be noted that the foregoing computation of d^ix. Obviously in this case the fluid pressures calculated by Eq. the fluid.78 and setting x = 1 and sin cot = 1.77 and F. F. is to be computed for these higher frequency forced vibrations.78c) The shortcomings of this approach can be indicated by calling attention to the fact that a free water surface cannot have a downward acceleration greater than gravity.5 CYLINDRICAL CONTAINER Consider a cylindrical tank similar to that shown in Fig.9hU)^ sin cut (F. F.78a in Eq.p u o h ^ J cosh VS^h (F. and let the fluid be constrained between fixed membranes parallel to the X axis. subjected to horizontal acceleration Uo. with the membranes shown in Fig.62 will not be applicable to the free surface condition.70. may have very large accelerations if the frequency of vibration is large.p U o h h 2\hy / 3 tanh (Vl?^ cos «) n (F. hence steady-state forced vibrations of the tank at frequencies higher than the natural frequency of the first mode are handled only approximately by the foregoing analysis.4. "mix.5 By Eq. thus in this case the membranes do not actually introduce a constraint. with Fig. = . = M = | A i t a n h V f j (F.8.47 and F. F. e'h = .78a) Substituting Eqs. F. F. This gives. F. should be used instead of Eq.CYLINDRICAL CONTAINER F. If dmax. F. the maximum displacement of fluid surface for a rectangular tank is obtained.

given by tanh (V3 ^ ) mo = .=-. the resultant force exerted on the wall is -h /-2lT P = Jo Jo P " ^ °°^ '^ ^^ ^'^ Hence .— =p7rR^h — — VTR = tn tanh ( V T | ) — VTR (F.. Using this expression.83) 384 APPENDIX F . F..^ cos^ 0 d0 dy tanh ( ^ ^ ) (F.HV.^(^5)jr'|"k4(0 = .82) The force exerted is the same as if an equivalent mass mo were moving with the tank.puoffR'h — .F.8 — Cylindrical tank.5 CYLINDRICAL CONTAINER C f y SSCT/ON Fig.

and F. F. the mass mo should be at a height above the bottom.3r ^ dM..t a n h / 3 ^ j d. F. ho = .CYLINDRICAL CONTAINER F. Eq. F. and d. z =R sin (p.tanh .84) The moment exerted on the bottom of the tank due to the pressure acting on the strip shown in Fig. F. given by Eq.27.80.85) Substituting 1 = R cos (p..87) For the free oscillations of the fluid in the fundamental mode. = R cos <p d<^. =^ 1 (F. (F.82.81. F.50. F. . ^ piioh'(V3 . F.39 give 'R /•it/2 r ' cos' 0 dr d0 = —r- (F. from Eqs. using Eq.88) K=2 j ^ r R2 sin 0' cos 0' d(R cos <p'f (l + | cot^ (pj d(R cos (p) 27 (F.^ ^ j c o s '2A d(t> u'i^^\ <^ "^"C •^^-^o^'^if^-'^^) ho=^h + Mb (F.38.28.84 and F. F. F.86) Including this.89) DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FLUIDS IN CONTAINERS SUBJECTED TO ACCELERATION 385 .. .8 is.85 becomes ^ • . and with the simplification used in Eq.5 To exert a moment equivalent to that exerted by the fluid pressure on the wall.1 puoh'R .\ / ^ R and the total moment is given by . the height of the mass mo above the bottom of the tank to give the correct moment is. = . xpb dx dz = V3 r ^ x sinh V3 — dx -pu«h -Y dz J_j cosh V3 -^ = .h 3 8 (F. Eqs.

2 5 y (J s m cjt •' sinh (F. ^ z^ b' where b = VR2-x2 . ae (F.^ 386 (F.5 CYLINDRICAL CONTAINER (F.43.3 cos^ < . F. F.91) a? = .sin^ pj cos p ? WTh^ sinh V .94.95.90 and F.V T R ' ^ ——y^^sinct sinh 8 R 7? (F..^=|V^tanhV-^Using Eqs.X (F.94) /T X 1 / x V 1 X /z Y p-VjpH'ei 5 ./27^ . F. (F.90) 2 _g .95) y 8 R Using X = R cos <p and z = R sin (p in Eq.92 into Eq.F.96) APPENDIX F . F. . the pressure on the wall is /3 / 1 1 \ "^"^^ V aT R V R ^ sin a)t Pw = V 8 P^^^h ( 1 . .g .93) J-R o Using these expressions.5 ( 5 ) . the pressure becomes =-ip«'[-H-i(ij-ii(i)i ay Substituting Eq.92) and the pressure in the fluid is given by ^ _ ae [ f" B(x') ./27h o.-» .

103) Equations F.97) This force is the same as that produced by an equivalent mass mi oscillating in a horizontal plane with motion Xi=AiSina)t ' (F.tanh V . F.102 and F. F.101 gives mi (^-lOl) (F./27 „ 3 . and F./27h 25-/27 R^ ^ -i/27 h °^^ = 144 V y PR'tanh V .105) 387 .= j ^ V ^ m .97 and F. as for the rectangular tank.88.99 gives miAi = ^ p R ^ 0 b Equating Eqs.89.26.103 give tanhV-g-R ^ ^ V T R 257r.96.CYUNDRICAL CONTAINER The total horizontal force exerted on the wall is. K.5 \ I cos^ 0 d0 dy (F.lOO) Substituting \ . P = Jo Jo Pw^ <^°s <p d<p dy ^ ni.= 0 .100 and F. /-h cosh V | ^ R / ^^'^ • 8 R =^ pR*ehU)2 sin ojt 1 1 F.102) iiAHlVpRVe^cothVI I (F. F. F.3 . F = miAicu^ sin ct)t T = -^ miA^cj^ cos^ cjt (F.. F. 3 1 8 ^ tanh V ? I n 'on where m is the total mass of fluid in the tank. and Q from Eqs. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FLUIDS IN CONTAINERS SUBJECTED TO ACCELERATION (F. F.t coth V Y I Equating F and P from Eqs. u -. the kinetic energy of the fluid is T = J V 5 R'pe^'^^ cos a.90 into Eq. using Eq.99) (F.98) The force against the tank and the kinetic energy of the mass are.

/ coshV^^ + ^ \ For oscillations in the first mode.— t/o 1 r* . due to the pressure on the walls.107) The pressure exerted on the bottom of the tank i s .^^ ' ^ ^ . F.r^ . 2 ^\ X J j ^ ST .lll) (F. This equation does not take into a c count the effect of fluid pressure on the tank bottom.78.96. A = h / l . w^ sin cut n n^ (r' «/o ^ ^^-'"'^ ^ 1 r= 3 ^ sinh -y-r. M„ = j^ " jT yp„ cos 0 R d(^ dy ^ 2ii /•h /»2l. ^/S" r. h .2o fx 1/xV Ix/zV] cj^sincjt . ^'' .90 and F. F. F.97. F. is. using Eq. .T sin^ 0) cos" 0 d0 dy S 8 R 1/27 y = t ^ Vf PRV^sin.„„^ Pb= V a P R X R .p cos 0 sin"^ 01 cos 0 dr d0 = — V g P R X W ^ sinhV_j^ Taking into account the fluid pressure on the tank bottom. F. / 3 „5„ oj^sin cjt .97 and F. d = . cosn . F.t/Vf 1 . /»h cosh V-g-R // .5 CYLINDRICAL CONTAINER The moment exerted in a clockwise direction about the floor of the tank.106 is given by the following equation.2 R R — .. F. the displacement of the fluid surface can be determined from Eq.F.3 R .109.cos^ < ..106) The elevation of mi above the bottom of the tank to produce the same moment from Eqs.95. from Eqs. p(g+xeh) Using Eqs. -rr ^ J 1 ..^ * — ^ \ (F. from Eq.112) APPENDIX F .95. ^ ^ ' ^ \ (F./3 ^. the modified value of hi i s . e^ =-9^0)^ sin cut 388 (F. and F.T S T F I JsmhVyThis exerts a clockwise moment about the bottom of the tank given by ^b = /A P b ' " ^ = X'^ fo' PiT^ cos <pdT dcp .107.

F .r* CORRESPONDING EQUATION NUMBERS F.6 (F. is computed for higher frequency forced vibrations.114) Substituting Eqs.'sw In a manner similar to that used in the derivation for rectangular tanks.9 Appendix F F.6 6.104. the following equation.50 F.115.84 ^ (F.13 6. Hence for each equation there are three different numbers.10 6.16 6.70 F.17 6.113. and sin cut = 1 in Eq. F .51 F.78C.4 6. F. F.l is given below.1 6.63 F.12 6.3. the maximum fluid pressure at y = h is Ph = ^ _ 0. This gives.105 F.20 6. its corresponding number in Appendix F and in Ref. F.14 6. 6. substituting X = R.112 and F.llSa) For further clarification. l l l . l .408pR''cu-=eh h tanh 1. F. F. the maximum fluid surface displacement for a cylindrical tank is 0.115 Reference F.82 F.18 6.llO F. Chapter 6 6. as an approximate value: • ^ 6 ^T 21 V^ 8 ' R (F.11 None Chapter 6 6.84 F.57 F.8 6.408R (F.22 Appendix F F.4 presented in connection with Eq. Chap. F. F.91 F.115) fe-^)*-^^-«^l When dmax.53 F.l 34 35 36 33 41 41a 43 37 41 40 None DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF FLUIDS IN CONTAINERS SUBJECTED TO ACCELERATION 389 .21 6.76 F.104 F.2 6.19 6.107 F. refer to the discussion in Sec.71 F.6 CORRESPONDING EQUATION NUMBERS The equations required for numerical computations in the analysis of fluid containers are designated with different equation numbers in two sections of this report and in Ref.5 6.113) --v|pHx[i-K0-ii(i)1=-(vfi).49 F.97 F. For convenience in locating the derivation of each equation listed in Sec.83 F.78b Reference F. 6. z = 0. F.73 F.l 18 17 20 16 26 27 28 21 26 24 6.114 in Eq.7 6.87 F. based on Eq.15 6.3 6. should be used instead of Eq.

. Soc. S.2 F. Housner. Karman and M. 390 APPENDK F . 1957. W.4 G. New York. Applied Mechanics-Dynamics. Inc. 1940.. Bull. Mathematical Methods in Engineering.260. Seismol..30. L. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York. Seismol. D. T." ? REFERENCES REFERENCES F. Am. Soc. Van Nostrand Company.l F.3 F. Biot. G. 47(1): (1957). Inc. Housner and D. 39: 189-204 (1949). Impulsive Hydrodynamics of Fluid Inside a Cylindrical Tank and of a Fluid Surrovmding a Cylindrical Pier.. Hudson. p. Am. W. Bull. p. Dynamic Pressures on Accelerated Fluid Containers. E. Jacobsen.

G. Time Curva.m z (G. G. where c is the damping coefficient.) The single-degree-of-freedom system shown in Fig. I.2 G. Diaplacemeu-ttme Curve for Oaciilator.3A et seq.3 OtM-dafrae-of-fraAdon) Sysum.2) 391 (G. The absolute acceleration of the mass is (y + z) and hence from Newton's law m(y + z) = . G. The damping device exerts a force . 1.l — One-degree-of-freedom system.l) . the mass by the rod.Appendix G MISCELLANEOUS DERIVATIONS HGURES 0.k y .l BEHAVIOR OF A SINGLE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM (Derivation in support of Chap.c dy/dt. Baa* AccalaraUon Va.k y is exerted on Fig. Sec.1 a.c y or my + cy + ky = .l has a mass m supported on a weightless elastic rod whose spring constant k is such that a force .

G.l

BEHAVIOR OF A SINGLE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM If the equation is divided through by m, it can be written y + 2irf + <ji\y =-z where '^ = 2 ^ = ?'^o m t = fraction of critical damping The free vibrations of the system are described by the equation with z set equal to zero: y + 277y + wgy = 0 (G.4) (G.3)

This is a linear differential equation with constant coefficients, and, as is well known, its solution is y = e-"'(yo cos a;t + i i l l 2 ° sin cot) where yo and yo are the displacement and velocity at time t = 0 and a; =yluil-Tf =0)0v'l -t^ (G.5a) (G.5)

As is seen from the solution, the period of vibration is _ 2jr ,_ ., (G.6)

T=— If there is no damping (77 = 0), the period is T =—
CJo

If the system is at rest and if at time t = 0 the base is given an acceleration z that lasts for an infinitesimal time, dt, the base will attain a velocity increment z dt. Since the mass was initially at rest, it follows that at time t = 0 + dt the mass m will have a r e l a tive velocity and displacement increments dyo = - z dt
yo = o

Equation G.5 gives for the resulting free vibration displacement increment dy=-^^^—sinwtdt
OJ

(G.7)

A continuous base acceleration z can be considered to be composed of a succession of increments z dt, as shown in Fig. G.2. The response to the increment z dt at time T is given by Eq. G.7 if (t - T) is written instead of t: dy = - 1 e-"*'-" sin w(t - r) dr 392 (t > r) (G.8) APPE^fDIX G

BEHAVIOR OF A SINGLE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

G.l

The response to a continuous z is given by summing the response produced by all the (z dt)'s. Hence the response at time t is

y = _ r ie-"''-"'sin a;(t-T)dT

(G.9)

Fig. G.2 — Base acceleration vs. time curve.

The velocity is given by differentiating Eq. G.9 with respect to t:

iZ = _ r ze-''<'-^> cos w(t - T) dT
dt
JQ

(G.IO)
Jo '^

Equations G.9 and G.IO can be put into convenient forms by means of the trigonometric relations sin (e - <p) = sinO cos <p - cos 9 sin 0 cos {d - (p) = cos 6 cos 0 + sin 9 sin <) / Expanding the trigonometric terms in this manner and then combining terms give y = - i (A sin w t - B cos wt) = - — V A ^ + B^ sin ( w t - a ) j =-{A +^ BJcos wt - ( B — ^ Ajsin wt
= _ J1 + i /AFTW cos (wt - fi)

(G.ll)

(G.12)

MISCELLANEOUS DERIVATIONS

393

G.l

BEHAVIOR OF A SINGLE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM tan a B A Btan /3
U) Ui

A

A +1 B

A= r ze"'^'-^' cos wT dT
B = / ' ze"'^'"'"' sin WT dr
•'o

The absolute acceleration of m can be computed from Eq. G.l: m(y + z) = - k y - c y = -mwo - 2m77y (y + z) = -ai§y - 2;^^ Substituting from Eqs. G.ll and G.12, y + z = iiii (A sin wt - B cos wt) + +
2TJ ( B 2T;LA

+—

B ] COS

wt

- ^ A^ sin wt

From Eq. G.5a this can be written

y +z

-"[('-^)**^]^'»"'-"[('-^>-^]'°'"'
(G.13)

Combining terms reduces this to y + z = w(l + ^ J V A ^ + B^ sin (wt - y )

where tan y =

\

CiJV

to)

(I_4)A.2ZZB
\ to)V to)

The response of the system i s thus described by the following equations:
y = T A ^ T B ^ sin (a)t-Q!)

Y=-Jl+X^A^+B^ ' t o ;

cos (ot - /3) t;

(G.14)

(y + z) =to;f 1 + ^ j V A ^ T B ^ sin (to;t - y)

394

APPENDIX G

BEHAVIOR OF A SINGLE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEM

G.l

These equations can be put into an alternate form by means of Eq. G.5a and the following relation: i(A^.B^)(l.^) = With these equations there is obtained y= /2e sin (ujt - a) toJo

y = - /2€ cos (to)t - /3) y + z = W V ^ sin (to;t - y) o For moderate amounts of damping,to;oand u) have practically the same value and « 1 When the displacement is calculated from a recorded strong earthquake ground motion, its variation with time is found to be as indicated in Fig. G.3. The potential energy of the system is

V = I ky^ = I k [-y^V2i sin (to)t - a)]
or V = mc sin (wt - a)
(G.15)

_t. /

^n</a'*>pfd)

/

Fig. G.3—Displacement-time curve for oscillator.

MISCELLANEOUS DERIVATIONS

395

G.2

PERIODS OF VIBRATION AND MODE SHAPES The relative kinetic energy of the system is KE = i my2 = i m [/27 cos (to;t -/3)f or KE = me cos^ (to)t - /3) The sum of the potential and the kinetic energy is V + KE = mc [1 + sin (j3 - a) sin (2to;t - a - 0)] (G.17) (G.16) (G.16)

For earthquake ground motions it is found that A and B are approximately equal; hence a and 0 have practically the same value, and therefore sin iff -a) is small compared to unity. The total energy is thus closely given by me = V + KE = y (A^ + B^) (G.18)

G,2

PERIODS OF VIBRATION AND MODE SHAPES (Derivation in support of Chap. 5, Sec. 5.3) Much of the work in applying the spectrum method to elastic systems involves determining mode shapes and vibration periods. Simple, explicit solutions are available for one- and two-degree-of-freedom systems; but more elaborate procedures become necessary in the case of more complex structures, if modes higher than the first are to be considered. Often only the first mode is important, and in this event a convenient approximate solution can be obtained by using Rayleigh's principle. ^'^ In a conservative system (one without damping) performing simple harmonic oscillations, the sum of the kinetic and potential energy is constant at all times. Consequently the maximum kinetic energy of a vibration mode when passing through the rest position is equal to the maximum potential energy of the vibration mode in the extreme position. This property can be used to calculate the approximate frequency of vibration if an approximate mode shape, (p, is known. The first vibration mode for an elastic body, such as that for a beam, is discussed below as an example. From Eq. 1.23, using n = 1, the undamped vibration for the nth mode can be described by the following equation: yi ~ Ci0i(x) sin ui^t where yi = the displacement component at any point, x, supplied by the first mode Ci = the amplitude coefficient for the first mode 01 (x) = the first mode shape ijji - the circular frequency of the first mode t = time The maximum absolute value of yn, occurring when the sine term has its maximum value of unity is y„=C,0„(x) so that, returning to general notation, Eq. G.19 can be more simply written as yn = yaSinto;at (G.21) APPENDIX G (G.20) (G.19)

396

PERIODS OF VIBRATION AND MODE SHAPES

G.2

By successive differentiations of Eq. G.21 with respect to time, the velocity and acceleration are obtained in terms of y„ as Yn = <AJn cos
yn = -WnynSin

to)t
to)t

(G.22)
(G.23)

Maximum values, y^and y^, occurring when the trigonometric terms are unity, are given by y = '^^Fn yn=-toJ^y„ (G.24) (G.25)

The maximum kinetic energy, KE, of the nth mode can be found by summing the products of mass per unit length times maximum velocity squared throughout the beam length. This leads to the following expressions: KE =0.5 l^ m j ^ d x where mj is the mass per unit length of the beam. Substituting from Eq. G.24, KE = 0.5to)2 J^ m^yl dx (G.27) (G.26)

The maximum inertia force acting on a unit length of the vibrating structure varies linearly with displacement from its maximum value of -mj^yiat maximum displacement to zero as the displacement passes through zero. The maximum potential energy per unit length stored in the structure occurs at maximum displacement and is the product of the average inertia force times the maximum displacement, so that the total maximum potential energy stored in the entire structure is PE = 0.5 / (-mjyi) yi dx (G.28)

Equating kinetic and potential energies from Eqs. G.26 and G.28 and solving for 'JJI: . ,2 _ /o qyi dx !t mj^yj dx where q = -mjjyi (G.30) It is useful to note that q is numerically equal to the force that would just hold the structure in a static displacement, yi. Equation G.29 will give an exact solution for the fundamental period only if the inertia load q and the deflection yi based on q have a constant ratio at all points along the structure. However, approximate results can be attained for the first mode by using Rayleigh's method, which utilizes an approximate deflection curve satisfying the boundary conditions, instead of the exact curve. In one approach utilizing Rayleigh's method, the load q is assumed to be proportional to m|, implying a uniform acceleration y of the whole structure, and the resulting deflections are computed. If the acceleration is some fraction, j , of gravity, q becomes q = mj(jg)=]W where w is the weight per unit length of beam.
MISCELLANEOUS DERIVATIONS
397

(G.31)

PERIODS OF VIBRATION AND MODE SHAPES

Defining y as the static deflection at any point x, due to the lateral load jw, and replacing yi with y, Eq. G.29 becomes

<.]= ie i
Since
n, 2)7
«i

/n wy dx 2^ /o' wy' dx

(G.32)

(G.33)

(G.34)

\jg ^0 ^

<^/

The factor j is often taken as unity, and the resulting deflection curve is that of the structure loaded laterally by its own weight, sometimes called the one-g deflection curve. If it is not convenient to evaluate the integrals, the structure can be divided into segments, and summations can be carried out. When a structure can be represented by a series of lumped masses, Wi.Wj.Ws, without violating the assumptions implied in deriving Eq. G.34, the fundamental period is given by Ti = 2ff

/ S' Wy2 V
° /

(G.35)

The y values in Eqs. G.34 and G.35 can include components due to flexure, shear, or deflection and rotation of supports. An alternative approach, often used in applying Rayleigh's method to flexural vibrations of beams, consists in assuming a shape of the deflection curve and expressing the potential energy in terms of the second derivative of the deflection. This leads to the following expression in lieu of Eq. G.28: PE =-i / El(?-^) dx

4/'KS)

(G.36)

This equation holds for variable as well as constant EI. The following equation, corresponding to Eq. G.34, results from substituting y for yi in Eq. G.27, equaling the resulting expression for kinetic energy to the potential energy from Eq. G.36, and expressingto)iin terms of Ti by means of Eq. G.33:
Ti =2?7

/„ wy^ dx

(G.3 7)

jg / EI(^T d^
Equations G.34, G.35, and G.37 are only useful for approximating the first mode and are not generally valid. It is a much more difficult task to derive good approximations for the shapes of the higher modes. However, for many structures the higher modes contribute very little to the stress. If the structure is of the type where the higher modes are significant they must be included in the analysis. A method of successive approximations attributed to Stodola on page 162 of reference G.2 is convenient for determining the "exact" shape of the first mode and the corresponding period of beam vibration; this method can be greatly expedited by a numerical
APPENDIX G

•f'

DERIVATION OF FREQUENCY EQUATION FOR A SYSTEM WITH TWO DEGREES OF FREEDOM

G.3

integration technique devised by Newmark.^'^"''** The Stodola method can also be adapted for finding higher modes by incorporating a "sweeping" or "purifying" process that eliminates the tendency of the lower modes to make the procedure nonconvergent (see references G.2, G.3, G.5, and G.6). Gossard*^*^ presents a further modification of the Stodola method for finding higher modes. These are all tedious processes. Various other methods are used for determining higher modes. An adaptation of a method attributed to Holzer and Myklestad, utilizing a single set of repetitive operations, provides a fairly simple solution for multistory "shear" type buildings of moderate height.'''' The procedure can be performed using longhand calculation and can also be applied to flexural members.'^'^ Matrix algebra is another approach often used. This includes the formulation of a set of simultaneous equations involving either deflection due to unit forces (flexibility matrix) or forces due to unit deflections (stiffness matrix). Matrix algebra is then used to solve the denominator determinant of the set of simultaneous equations, which yield the natural frequencies of the system.^^•''''•" The solution is often carried out using electronic computers (see Appendix E). Minhinnick^'" presents a critical summary of various methods for finding mode shapes.

G.3

DERIVATION OF FREQUENCY EQUATION FOR A SYSTEM WITH TWO DEGREES OF FREEDOM (Derivation in support of Chap. 5, Sec. 5.3) From Fig. 5.7, using the sign convention that positive forces act toward the right, the static horizontal force H, at levels a and b required to impose deflections y^ and y^, is Hi = k„ya - (-k^bYb) = k „ y a + k^byb (G.38) Hb= (-kb^yj + kbbyb = kb^y. + kbbYb From Newton's second law: H +mjr, = 0 "^^ Hb + °ibyb = 0 After substitution of Eqs. G.38 into Eqs. G.39, niaya + k « y i + k>byb = o (G.40) ^byb + kb^y,+ kbbyb = 0 Assuming that the vibration of each mass is a simple harmonic motion with the same given frequency, io, but with different amplitudes, A^ and Ab: y^ = AjSin to;t (G.41) Yb = \ sin to;t With Eqs. G.41 and their second derivatives substituted into Eqs. G.40 and the common term sin to)t divided out: ( k „ - m^to)^) Aa + kab Ab = 0 2, . ~ kb,Aa + (kbb -mba;^) Ab = 0

(G.39)

(G.42)

MISCELLANEOUS DERIVATIONS

399

G. the first indicating the coordinate and the second the associated frequency. requires two subscripts.mbto)^) .^„ ma (G. resubstitution of a value of to.^)(kbb . It is also customary to normalize the amplitudes in some manner. 2 1 ^aa ^ kbb ^ -y/f ^ « ' ^bM 4 ^ab^ba ma mb V \ma nib/ mamb (G. Only the ratio of the amplitudes is determined in this way..to. 0b2 is the amplitude of coordinate b for the second frequency (second mode). G. The determinant of the set is (kaa .45) 0an _ 0 a » = 1 <Pbn ma ^" . The roots of this characteristic equation (G.42. Since there is a different mode shape associated with each frequency. Solving for uj^.kabkba = 0 or a)^_u.46) kbb ^ mb kba 0an _ 0 a n = 1 0bn ^l ma Each of these equations gives the same result. the most common p r a c tices being (1) to make the largest amplitude have an absolute value of unity or (2) to make one of the amplitudes have a value of unity.43) It should be noted that Eqs. so that one can be used as a numerical check on the other in computations. For this two-degree system.DERIVATION OF FREQUENCY EQUATION FOR A SYSTEM WITH TWO DEGREES OF FREEDOM This set of simultaneous equations has the trivial solution Aa = A b = 0 and a nontrivial solution only when the determinant of the coefficients of the A's vanishes. yielding equations identical to Eqs.42 for the ratio Aj/Ab. G. G.0 \ma mb/ nia °lb ^aUlb (G.44) After the two frequencies are calculated from Eq.42 will yield a ratio between the amplitudes Aj and Ab. 0bi = <^b2 = 1 Solving both parts of Eq. i. G. Kab (G.43. <p.mato. into either of Eqs.2fc+^)_^^+^^.46. APPENDIX G . The second normalization is used in this particular case.e. the mode shape. The amplitudes of the mode shapes are denoted by (p's instead of A's to indicate that some sort of normalization has been used. Equating these expressions gives Eqs.44.43 can be derived without considering determinants by solving each of Eqs. G. the amplitude of the b coordinate is taken as unity for both frequencies. G. For example.43) are the natural vibration frequencies of the system. the absolute value is determined by the initial conditions imposed on the vibrating system by the forcing functions.

Earthquake Engineering Research Institute. Aeronaut. n. Civil Engrs. McGraw-Hill Book Company. L. Rayleigh's Principle. Beskin and R.m3. Natl.5 G. Inc.52) REFERENCES G.DERIVATION OF PARTICIPATION FACTOR FOR A SYSTEM WITH TWO DEGREES OF FREEDOM G. 401 G. y„. x.49 to a s y s t e m with two m a s s e s . Higher Modes of Vibrations by a Method of Sweeping.47) Jo (pi{x)dm For a structure that can be idealized as a system of lumped masses..50) where n = 1 for the first mode and n = 2 for the second mode.m0 Applying E q . G. den Hartog. Trans. the participation factor is given by Sj. New York.4 G. C. n. A. Rosenberg. Am. is given by Eq.6 MISCELLANEOUS DERIVATIONS . N. J. 1522 (February 1948). Deflections. the maximum displacements of the two masses become. Numerical Procedure for Computing Moments. m * S5. N. from Eq. Tech. Proceedings of the 1956 World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. 4th ed. and for any mode. Using Eq.n (G. Inc. 1956. M. with t h e value of <p^ s e t equal t o unity: KnTTT ma<Pan ••• m b (G. Design and Analysis of Tall Tapered Reinforced Concrete Chimneys Subjected to Earthquake. Kn. Bickley. Calculation of Uncoupled Modes and Frequencies in Bending or Torsion of Non-Uniform Beams. Houbolt and R. of an elastic multidegree-of-freedom system structure at any point.7. without violating the assumptions implied in Eq.47. r e s u l t s in the following e x p r e s s i o n .l G.27 is expressed as (G.3 G. mi. page 1161 (1943).25: yn=Kn0n(x)— where the participation factor. for each mode.. New York. G. and Buckling Loads.. Aeronaut. ma and mb. Note No. Sci. P. Dover Publications.m2. Mechanical Vibrations. 4.2 G..4 G. G. 5. Anderson. G. Newmark. J. such a s that shown in F i g .. J.51) y an = ^ «an = ybn0an (G. M. V o KnSn y ^ . Isada.4 DERIVATION OF PARTICIPATION FACTOR FOR A SYSTEM WITH TWO DEGREES OF FREEDOM The maximum seismic deflection. Advisory Comm.48. Soc.." to. page 597 (November 1946). Temple and W. 1. 1956.

119: 194-201 (1954). Advisory Group for Aeronautical Research and Development. 2nd ed. 1940. G. Salvador!. T.9 W. New York. A. N. ADDITIONAL REFERENCE MATERIAL T. Biot.. T. G. Vols. 1953.7 M. University of Illinois. Minhinnick. S. 1958. Rept. The Theoretical Determination of Normal Modes and Frequencies of Vibration. G. Advisory Comm. D.. Natural Frequencies of Building Frames with Flexible Girders (M. Inc.. Am. Mathematical Methods in Engineering.. Inc. Princeton. Thomson. J.. 2nd ed. L. Karman and M. a Discussion by J. New York. Civil Engrs. Trans. Mechanical Vibrations.. Natl. V. I and 11. APPENDIX G . Van Nostrand Company.S. Vibration Problems in Engineering. Inc.REFERENCES G. 36. Blume. Englewood Cliffs. G. W.IO S. Gossard. Inc. Dover Publications. 1073 (1952). thesis). Aeronaut. J. North Atlantic Treaty Organization. 1955.. No. Paris 16. Palais de Chaillot. Rept. Prentice-Hall. Soc. 3rd ed. An Iterative Transformation Procedure for Numerical Solution of Flutter and Similar Characteristic-Value Problems.. Earthquake Stresses in Shear Buildings. S.. A. J. G. U I. Sutcliffe. N. Rayleigh..8 M.. Timoshenko. France. McGraw-Hill Book Company. The Theory of Sound.

2 GRAPHITE CORE The response of the graphite pile. However. assuming a constant base acceleration. with the remainder of the necessary tension developed by movement between the blocks. was found to be higher than 0. several comments with respect to the primary coolant loops. and thermal support sleeve. when an estimated damping factor of 10% of critical was applied to account for nonrecoverable energy lost due to relative motions of core components. and the outer tiers will probably bridge somewhat as the rings tighten.000 psi for stainless steel. with provision for a safety factor of 1. 403 . as determined by approach (1). A. 2 H.33 g when determined with minimal damping. the required area of a single hoop section must be at least 3. fuel-handling equipment. boron curtain. the response was reduced to about 0. and supportsleeve assembly since the preliminary design concept""' is not sufficiently detailed beyond these areas to allow comprehensive evaluation of the plant as a whole. and with numerical integration performed with due regard to inertia forces and energy considerations For the pile configuration designated by the ORNL report. pressure vessel. control and fuel rods. It may further be noted that it will not be possible to completely prevent the inelastic movement between blocks by initial tensioning of the garters since there will be space between blocks due to dimensional tolerances.72 sq in.Appendix H SEISMIC CONSIDERATIONS PERTINENT TO THE ORNL PROPOSED GAS-COOLED REACTOR NO. pressure vessel. Restraint by Garter Rings Possible engineering approaches to the investigation of garter rings include: (1) A static solution based on the assumption of sufficient pre-tension in the garter rings to prevent inelastic movement between blocks (2) A pseudodynamic solution based on the assumption that the garter rings exhibit no initial tension and that the necessary girdling force is developed by the geometrical changes incidental to inelastic movement between the blocks (3) A dynamic solution presuming some initial girdling force. roughly approximated as a single-mass system.l INTRODUCTION In this appendix analysis is restricted to the reactor."•' with seven garter hoops.5. H. This area was based upon a representative yield stress of 38. and biological shield are presented.33 g. However.

Although the coefficient of static friction between polished steel and graphite blocks is not immediately available.1. (3) Spline material should exhibit shearing strengths of. items such as those briefly described in Sec. D.H. five times that of graphite and should be selected with due regard to the nuclear characteristics of the reactor. H. motion would be limited by the auxiliary struts. with reduction of the safety factor from 1. C. and this arrangement appears to be satisfactory. Horizontal Shear Transfer The horizontal shear transfer between layers of the GCR-2 core graphite has been provided by a boss and recess type of key. Provision for the positive transfer of shear from the lower course of block to the base plate through means other than simple friction is desirable. When compared with the assumed seismic coefficient of 0.5 to about 1. Consequently lurching of the pile would not result in emergency conditions.F may have to be considered in other reactor systems. This maximum deflection and the incidental stresses will not materialize. Without such pretension a slightly higher stress would be experienced by the rings.33. (Although the ORNL report""' anticipates negligible radiation growth in GCR-2. The significance of these members is that garters constitute fully effective restraining devices only when pre-tension can be provided and maintained. However. it is seen that the base may slide unless some keying system is employed. For these conditions: (1) Although the graphite pile could be expected to lurch slightly. however. with well-fitted splines. Factors complicating the provision of pre-tension in Gas-cooled Reactor No. and seismic activity would not be sufficient to disrupt the pile.) The ORNL report proposes multitube girdlings to accommodate these factors. the coefficient for sliding friction. Shearing loads are not high. for the assumed condition of no initial garter tension. when the struts and reversal of the ground motion are taken into account. Uplift The necessity for uplift restraint mechanisms can be avoided if the pile is proportioned so that the resultant of seismic and dead loadings falls within the kern of the 404 APPENDIX H . these deflections and nonrecoverable displacements are believed to be insignificant. say.2B RESTRAINT BY SHEAR KEYS Using the ring areas calculated by approach (1) and disregarding the proposed auxiliary struts. 0. B. so that no loss of heat sink would be expected. Restraint by Shear Keys Desirable characteristics for restraint by shear keys include: (1) Keying should be furnished by continuous splines. the deflection at the top of the pile was indicated by method (2) to be of the order of 14 in.36. From consideration of the foregoing arguments.2. although deflections of the splined pile will probably be largely of an inelastic nature. may be used as an approximation. 2 (GCR-2) include thermal expansion and possible radiation growth. restraint of the graphite pile with garter rings would appear to be applicable in areas exhibiting minor to moderate seismicity. (2) Splines should run horizontally at each course level in the interface of each vertical joint. (2) Moderate seismic activity would not be expected to disrupt load centers or damage well-designed steam or coolant loops. The rigidity of the splined pile will probably be sufficient to prevent large seismic loads upon the garters. Splines so installed and supplemented by pre-tensioned garter rings will lend considerable continuity to the system.

SEISMIC CONSIDERATIONS PERTINENT TO THE ORNL PROPOSED GCR-2 405 . the types of materials used in manufacturing (which can include both natural graphite crystals and those resulting from different coking processes and several different binder materials). Since the trend of gas-cooled reactors is toward higher operating temperatures to achieve improved operating efficiencies. To a certain extent this return r e sults in a healing of radiation damage. so that the significance of dimensional growth could be decreased still further if necessary. and the healing proceeds concurrently with the accumulation of more displacements and a tendency toward growth. Since the GCR-2 pile temperatures may be a minimum of 460°F.MISCELLANEOUS H. and the total irradiation dose. Some of the migration results in atoms moving back to equilibrium sites within the lattice. The occurrence. for a circular base and the assumed seismic coefficient of 0. with h = 0. Miscellaneous The bottoms of the lower course of blocks have been indicated as radiused to provide for the differential thermal expansion between the graphite and the steel base plate. Graphite exhibits an increase in the rate of migration (and consequently in the possibility of healing) at temperatures near 400°F. it will also allow some seismic rocking. the uniformity and spectral distribution of the radiation flux. which would have to be evaluated in view of the continuity and rigidity afforded by the garters and other r e straints. and extent of shrinkage are sensitive functions of the following parameters: the temperature at which irradiation occurs. the manufacturing process (which includes mechanical effects such as molding or extruding). rate. 3 ^ h <-D 4 where h is the height of the graphite pile and D is its diameter. there would exist periodic opportunities to shut down the reactor at the times of refueling and to apply a source of heat to accelerate the healing process without the concurrent accumulation of more damage.2E base.33. In addition. a considerable annealing of radiation damage is to be expected. F.""' and the appropriate design measures were taken. The GCR-2 reactor. meets this requirement. a migration of displaced atoms continually goes on within the irradiated material. To satisfy this condition. although these sites may be other than their original location. graphite growth is not likely to be a large problem in systems of this type. anisotropic shrinkage rates parallel and perpendicular to the main orientation of the crystals. which results in the separation of the graphite blocks. the crystal size and degree of alignment imposed by the process. In general. It should be noted that growth is not the only phenomenon that can be exhibited by graphite under irradiation. This displacement and growth is the well-known Wigner effect. E. the history of periodic shutdowns and annealings. Although the radius accommodates this movement.714D. the temperature and duration of furnace-curing the graphite. Radiation Effects on Graphite (General) It has previously been noted that provision was made in the GCR-2 system to accommodate any growth in the overall dimension of the graphite core components which could result from continued neutron irradiation and cause displacements of atoms from the crystalline lattice. Under some circumstances a considerable shrinkage can occur which might require special design considerations to maintain the structural and functional integrity of a graphite core both under normal operating conditions and under seismic loads. hence it is felt that graphite growth is a small problem in the GCR-2. The amount of such growth has been found to be small for the graphite and environment of the GCR-2.

The p r e s ence of the differential shrinkage (if there is a gradient of shrinkage over the cross section of a component) can also induce in such a core component a tendency to bow or twist and therefore to press against its neighbors or against any support devices that might have been included to provide seismic restraint for the core as a whole. Two more general characteristics of graphite may be briefly noted here since they can affect the stress and deformation that may be present at any given time and place within the core. and shrinkage begins from the earliest exposures. The shrinkage continues with no limit under increasing irradiation (provided no intervening periods of pure annealing occur). The possibility of such interdependent stress generations obviously requires careful consideration in seismic analysis whenever the particular temperature and flux characteristics. These may perhaps exemplify relations broadly applicable to other graphites. At the present time not enough experimental data exist to fully define these characteristics in terms applicable to all graphite. in addition to those caused by the internally generated stresses originally due to the differential shrinkage. these stresses could be existing at the time of an earthquake and could modify the susceptibility of the graphite parts of the core to earthquake-induced s t r e s s e s . In addition. cracks. undesirable gaps.) If not previously annealed. if the period of growth is short. Third. which could modify the susceptibility of the supports to seismic loads should they occur. type of graphite. Under some circumstances APPENDIX H . it is impossible to generalize upon the magnitude of shrinkage effects which might be seen in specific reactors. but. for temperatures above 300°C no noticeable period of growth occurs. three overall relations have been noted. differential shrinkages among adjacent fibers. these shrinkages would produce stresses analogous to those caused by thermal gradients. The pressure of the graphite upon such structures would naturally create stresses in the supports.2F RADIATION EFFECTS ON GRAPHITE (GENERAL) With so many variables to be considered. within any piece of graphite. however. the rate of shrinkage is considerably greater parallel to the main orientation of crystals within the piece than it is in directions perpendicular to the orientation. (Naturally. It should be emphasized. and the graphite ultimately becomes smaller than its original dimensions. that not enough experimental data exist to ensure that these three general trends can be applied to all graphite reactor cores. or other discontinuities could develop within a graphite core structure. core geometry. and structural design indicate the existence of significant amounts of unannealed or restrained differential shrinkage. the restraint imposed upon the graphite to prevent the tendency to bow would impose stresses upon the graphite (as would restraint of a tendency to dimensional change in any material). which could potentially impair the operating performance of the core (such as by binding control rods m distorted "channels). owmg to the unavoidable self-imposed internal restraints involved. Such restraints could also be intended to prevent excessive core deformation (caused by the tendency to bow). Second. nonuniform shrinkages can occur so that there could be generated. although this generality is not assured. the period of growth is relatively short-lived. if there is any significant spatial nonuniformity to the flux to which the graphite is subjected. shrinkage would probably predominate. The susceptibility of the graphite core to seismic loads would therefore be further modified. The total final shrinkage is therefore potentially much larger than any growth accumulated. so far as has been noted in the Hanford tests. differential growth could produce similar effects. for temperatures up to 300''C growth due to irradiation occurs only over the initial lower levels of total dose. Experimental data on many tj^es of reactor graphite are still lacking. First. and the changes in dimension could naturally complicate the problems of providing intimate and continuous support. Additional structural restraints and supports could therefore become necessary. for a particular t}rpe of graphite being tested at Hanford Laboratories. In turn. As an illustration of the data that are available. If shrinkage is permitted to accumulate unannealed. and before long the increase in dimensions reverses and shrinkage begins. from the standpoint of seismic design.

Preliminary study of deflections indicated that. and thermal support-sleeve system was evaluated by use of an approximate single-mass system.3 graphite can exhibit a tendency to creep under s t r e s s . and distortion is minimized by cruciform keys and grids at the top and bottom of the columns and by circumferential bands around the core exterior. Because of the obvious complexity of the graphite shrinkage problem and the current lack of experimental data. However. By lumping the masses at their common center of gravity and considering the thermal support sleeve to extend to this center of gravity. where large stresses tend to accumulate as a result of differential shrinkage or other causes. the efficiency of any structural supports provided to resist seisms may be affected. considering the relative stiffnesses of these structural elements. There appears to be a limit of such creep which graphite can undergo without fracture. it is estimated that about 60% of the load contributing to lateral deflection could be attributed to the mass of the graphite pile.""* H.PRESSURE VESSEL AND THERMAL SUPPORT SLEEVE H. With this damping the response of the single-mass model was deterSEISMIC CONSIDERATIONS PERTINENT TO THE ORNL PROPOSED GCR-2 407 . it is conservative to neglect its effect. The amount and rate of creep are functions of temperature. and the degree to which creep may be taken into account in stress calculation is at present uncertain. Since overall flux gradients and shrinkage will vary considerably throughout the core volume. where the stresses that can accumulate during core life are obviously within the structural capabilities of graphite. more or less independent of the stress level involved. In consideration of the predominant effect of the graphite mass. positions of the columns are maintained. pressure vessel. it may be desirable to consider the self-relief that graphite may have experienced during the entire history of core life as adjacent fibers within graphite components accommodate themselves to stresses generated by differential shrinkage and by the core supports. it was found that this model closely duplicated the deflection characteristics of the prototype.3 PRESSURE VESSEL AND THERMAL SUPPORT SLEEVE As previously mentioned. If large amounts of creep cause cracking of the graphite. and type of graphite. over 90% of the lateral deflection was attributable to the thermal support sleeve. the designer may choose to investigate creep as a factor influencing long-term structural stability and susceptibility to seisms. On the other hand. Analyses of the EGCR seismic aspects have been pubUshed. In determining the stresses that may exist in either the graphite core or its supports at the time of an earthquake. Since creep generally tends to limit the accumulations of s t r e s s . The duration and rate of such creep and the total amount of elongation that graphite can undergo before a fracture occurs have not yet been fully determined"-^'"•'' by experiment. no generalized seismic recommendations can be given here. an estimated damping factor of 10% appeared to be reasonable. the response of the graphite pile. a close investigation of the creep characteristics of the particular grade of graphite involved would be required to permit a fully confident use of creep in structural calculation. The general stress-and-strain situations just described were present in the design of the EGCR core"*^'"''and its restraints. s t r e s s level. one may cite the Experimental Gas-cooled Reactor (EGCR) being constructed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. considerable analysis would probably be necessary to define the extent of cracking and the seismic-design measures that must be taken to maintain core stability despite cracking. as an example of the pertinence of such problems to seismic analysis and reactor designs. The maximum strain that graphite can withstand (if large amounts of creep are found to be possible for a particular graphite in a particular environment) may be just as significant in structural analysis as the maximum stress accumulated. In this reactor the graphite core is in the form of large self-supporting columnar elements. Further. this course is the obvious and conservative one. At any rate.

Pinned joints are common to these alternate schemes at the junction of the support and the vessel. dead load. were found to be the largest of the four cases studied. Consequently there may be varying eccentricities in the seismic load path. Support-sleeve Stresses An analysis was made for the four principal loading conditions on the sleeve: thermal. the thermal support sleeve was found to be a reasonable design concept. These stresses were determined to be localized in the area of the jimction of the support and the vessel and. pressure. It has been determined for this case that a reinforced plate thickness of 1. compared to the assumed seismic coefficient of 0. when combined with those of dead load. fabrication. A. Maximum bearing values on concrete of about 1300 psi were obtained at the base ring plate for the combination of dead load and seismic load. so that thermal stresses are not additive to pressure-induced stresses and are correctly combined with only those of dead load and seismic. As with the pressure vessel. Of these schemes the thermal skirt was found to be superior in rigidity. These combinations were found not to govern the design. and in simplicity of detailing. C. increasing the pressure-vessel plate thickness over the support sleeve adequately provides for such increased s t r e s s . the A-frame support exemplified by the Calder Hall Reactor was considered. nevertheless. dead load. resulting in localized moments and discontinuity stresses in the vessel. nor even reasonably close to the surface. were found to govern the skirt design.5 times the typical plate thickness will reduce stresses at the support sleeve to a level comparable with typical membrane conditions. The rollerbearing support (for example. Thus it would appear that no difficulty will be encountered in supporting and anchoring this vessel configuration to resist seismic loadings. Corresponding maximum anchor-bolt tensile stresses were about 2000 psi through the root of the thread. in the efficient use of material. B. utilizing material in an inefficient manner and requiring more complex design than the skirt. The analysis disclosed no unusual or difficult conditions of s t r e s s . and seismic. Pressure-induced s t r e s s e s . Discontinuity stresses at the support sleeve are somewhat increased by seismic loading. a circular concrete-bearing wall receiving the vessel through a more or less continuous ring of rollers) would require complicated design 408 APPENDIX H . Pressure-vessel Stresses Primary loading conditions in the pressure vessel include pressure. and seismic loadings.35 g. a 50% lateral loading increases the membrane stresses only 9. The combination of these stresses with seismic loads will not govern the design because of the increased allowable stresses generally permitted under transient seismic conditions. This area is sufficiently removed from the junction of the support sleeve with the pressure vessel.33 g used for investigating the reactor. Support-sleeve Alternates Two support configurations were considered as alternates to the thermal skirt: the flexible column and the roller bearing. Thermal stresses are largest at the end of the skirt insulation. and the ORNL pressure vessel appears to be adequate. Membrane stresses are determined primarily by pressure loadings. Consideration of the flexible column arrangements resulted in an almost solid ring of columns in lieu of the simple skirt.H. caused by dilation of the vessel. It will not generally be possible to place the pin within the surface of the vessel. Seismic loadings have only small effects upon membrane s t r e s s e s .5% for a 3-in.-thick shell.3A PRESSURE-VESSEL STRESSES mined to be about 0. In addition. and erection. Thermal stresses will not be developed since the support sleeve attains the same temperature as the pressure vessel at their junction.

misalignment of vertical slots occasioned by shifting could effectively jam fuel elements. Irrespective of the type of support. the sleeve arrangement is to be preferred for antiseismic design. The second and third possibilities can be removed by providing rod guides over areas where the rods might be free-hanging or cantilevered at the time of seismic lateral loads.5 FUEL-ELEMENT AND CONTROL-ROD MALFUNCTION A. out-of-phase deflections of the pressure vessel. System Deflections (1) The seismic deflection of a well-constructed. Even nominal relative displacement of upper and lower portions of the horizontal fuel-hanger slots could clamp the hangers. (2) The static deflection at the top of the pressure vessel (under an assumed 0. biological shield. even a well-splined graphite pile should provide adequate shear transfer to the steel base plate (compatible with provision for the differential thermal expansions of steel and graphite) to minimize gross shifting of the core. and externally supported graphite pile. All the mechanisms by which localized failure or shifting of blocks can occur have not been completely defined. Solution of problems of this nature would require more detailed information on the system. as an example. possible seismic causes may prevent control rods from entering the graphite pile: (1) misalignment of the rod and its channel due to shifting pile. p r e venting further entry. the splines. the less will be the seismic response. approaching the ground motion in the limit.4 PRIMARY SYSTEM: DEFLECTION-INDUCED LEAKAGE Preliminary details of the primary system were insufficient to permit a full analys i s . Since the charge tubes will have about a 1-in.4 details to provide for the conditions of vessel dilation. As previously noted. B. and therefore no misalignment of fuel and cooling holes with their serving charge tubes is anticipated. Control-rod Malfunction Three credible. For this case the more rigid a system can be made. and vertical and lateral loading. and (3) the whip-kinking of a partially inserted rod. as already described. H. Under seismic loads SEISMIC CONSIDERATIONS PERTINENT TO THE ORNL PROPOSED GCR-2 409 . of course. (2) swinging of a free-hanging rod.33-g seismic load) was calculated to be about 0. would have to maintain the necessary internal stability and relative positions of the core components. D.25 in. Control-rod Suspension The proposed GCR-2 control-rod suspension is of stainless-steel stranded cable wound on a drum driven by both electric and pneumatic motors. but. however. H.PRIMARY SYSTEM: DEFLECTION-INDUCED LEAKAGE H. Since the thermal sleeve method of support affords greater rigidity than the alternates. clearance relative to the biological top shield. C. and steam generators will possibly occur. The first possibility can be discounted by adequate pile design. although principally of an inelastic nature. no problem of charge tube shearing or malfunction is expected. thermal expansion. the seismic response of the pressure-vessel system will favor the extreme left-hand side of the response spectrum. Fuel-element Jamming Fuel-element jamming is directly related to the stability of the graphite pile. is thought to be negligible. splined.

6 BORON CURTAIN cable fouling on the drum is possible. Parts 2-4: Plant Design. USAEC Report CF-61-3-69. L. Nov. sizes and connecting details would generally be in excess of requirements dictated solely by s t r e s s . The Effects of Fastneutron Irradiation and Bowing Characteristics of the Graphite Columns. Maxwell. 1962. but the use of a stationary drum with a rotating feed head and appropriate braking can eliminate this difficulty.2 Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company.116-124. The bogie is subject to possible seismic overturning (as evidenced by the overturning of a railroad engine and cars during the 1906 San Francisco earthquake). USAEC Report ORNL-3224. Study No. It is immediately apparent that. 15. A slack-cable sensor may not be adequate for control of the rods. H. the remaining thick.8 TOP BIOLOGICAL SHIELD IN SEISMIC INTEGRITY Holes through the central portion of the top biological shield are not significant in determining its integrity as a seismic diaphragm. H. Design techniques are available to the engineer for resolution of these problems. May 1961. Shaw. Moore and W.7 FUEL TRANSFER TO POND The fuel transfer to the pond is made in a coffin carried by a railed bogie traveling through a tunnel. 1961.5 F. REFERENCES Oak Ridge National Laboratory. J. H. EGCR Core Structural Analysis. H. USAEC Report ORNL-3102. 1-4).l 410 APPENDIX H . H. 11-227. The ORNL Gas-cooled Reactor. although final designs might make this provision. E. Carver. but adequate design measures can easily be taken to assure satisfactory operation. as are flexing of the cable (which may be rendered more significant because of possible radiation embrittlement of the cable) and intermittent false readings transmitted to the control system whenever cable slack develops during vertical accelerations. if a rotating drum is used.3 S. Part 1: Summary Report. should the whole central portion of the shield be removed. Effects of Seismic Vibrations on the Experimental Gas-cooled Reactor. Flexural failure of the cable is unlikely and can easily be accounted for by using suitable endurance limits based on any available radiation-damage data. and R. of course. R. annular diaphragm is still possessed of unusual lateral rigidity and strength. In an auxiliary structure of this type.4 Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Gas-cooled Reactor Project. pp. remove this source of concern due to seismic loads. June 22. Quarterly Progress Report for Period Ending March 31. 1960. the relatively high inertia may render the system susceptible to cable fouling. H. and replacing this concept with a more effective monitoring system will. D. April 1958.H. H. USAEC Report ORNL-2500(Pts. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For example. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. H. April 1961.6 BORON CURTAIN The ORNL proposed boron-pyrex curtain appears to offer no seismic design problem. The tunnel is not submerged. Witt. Analysis of Graphite Core Structure for Experimental Gas-cooled Reactors. A.

4. 7.12A Component spectrum. 4.SB Allowable stresses. fuel element. 7. fluid.6C Analysis.4F. 4. influence. 1.2A.2C Design. 3. 5.3C.6. 1.2A Chamber. 2. Multistory. cost.3C vertical.3H Building codes. 4.4G. D Damping. 4. Appendix B Bracing.3. 8. 3.3G. 4. 2.3D Coolant. 7. 4.2A. 4. fission.2D D Damage.4G.10D B Beams.8D Construction. 8.2A Arcuate structure. 8. 1.8B seismic.1. 4. separation. 2. 5. 3. Appendixes E.4C.6A. 5. I. 8.•\seismic structures. 1. 4. 4. 4.3A. 6. precast concrete.2A . F Dynamic forces. 1.IA. 2.6D. 4.6 Corrective code revision.2F.7G Breeder Reactor.3. 4.11H Concrete shield.7B. 4.2. fault.4D Chemical fire. 2. limit-stress.3C.6D .2 Asiatic arcs.7. 7. 5. appendix E reactivity. 1. 5. 4.11H Differential motion. 7.6D. 4. 3. 4. natural-convection. 1 Arvln-Tehachapi (Calif. 4. reinforced.6 Diaphragm. 1.4 pulse.3C Doppler effect. 6. maximum credible.10.1 Alpide Belt. 7. 1. F 411 c Center of mass. 4.3B. 8.10D setback. 4.3C.4H.10B symmetry of.IC. 4.6D Blast shield. I.2B Army Package Power Reactor See Stationary Medium Power Plant No. 2. 4. -Appendixes E. I. 6. 4.-Atlantic ridge. 7. horizontal.4D Building.1. 5.2C. 1.3E Cross section. 3. 2.2 Couplings.10B Containers. 8. 3. 7. Appendixes C. 5. 4.2E.3. 1. aseismic structures.IF spectrum. 4. 5. 8.8E Ciroum-Pacific Belt.7 Dynamic analysis.SB. 3. 5. 5. 7. 4. C.3A Accelerogram.2. 7.3. 3.3G Chemical explosion. l. 5.1 Aftershock.6D. 1.2B Arctic Belt.3E.3.2C.2B.3E Center of rigidity.11D vibration.4 Crumple joints. 1. 4. 1. Appendixes E. 7. 4.10B tilt-up. neutron. 4.SB seismic.1.7B. 3. 5. 4.6 Dip. 2. 4.SB.1. flexible.11 seismic.4D Cooling. Appendix F Containment vessel.10B.3A primary loop. dynamic.10B Cost.2F.2. 7. rod. 7. 3.10B Construction joints. 7. fire. 7.7C static method of.IC Accident. 4.) earthquake.2A. 1. 5.3. Appendix C .11A.IDA.3E.2B Concrete. 1. F Aqueous Homogeneous Reactor. 1.3.3.2B.6A.3.4 Charleston (S.3C. 7. I.3A Coefficient.) earthquake. 4.11A Buildings. 4.INDEX A Acceleration.7B.3C. 5. I. 8.8A. 2. 3. 4. 7.2C emergency. 7. 8. 7.4 ionization.8 Differential settlement.3A. 4. 7.3D Boiling-water Reactor.2B.2A seismic. 4.3B Chimney. 4.2A Ductility.4C.IA Displacement spectrum.

7. 3. 7. 7.4B.3. 8. Appendixes C. I. 7. 7. 1. 7.4D.7 insurance.3E.IA frequency. 7. 4. 4.1. 2.1 G Gas-cooled Reactor. 4.3 depth of shock.10D Fuel-element damage.2D. 7.2A San Andreas. 7. release of. 7. 6. 3.7A Epicenter. 1.6H zoning.SA Fission product. I. 7.2.IE.4D.1 Earthquake.4F. 7.2A Influence coefficient. I.E Earth. 4.4D.31.2 intensity.6 Fragmentation. 7. 4.4 Fission process.7A Fission chamber. 1.2B. Appendix C Charleston (S. 7.4D hydrogen.IA. I.6A. 7. 8. I.1.1.7 seismic.1.SC Homogeneous Reactor. Appendixes E.3B Ground failure. 4. Appendix H Graphite moderator.11D distribution. 7.2A focus.2B Horizontal beams.2. 4. 2.).IA. structures. 5. 7. 4.6 Embrittlement.SC. I. 7.3C.5 Long Beach (Calif. 3. I. 3.IC. S.12B energy release. l.IA. 4. 7.4A.IE.SB coolant.2. Appendix C magnitude. 7. reactor earthquake.lA Forces. 2.6D Fluid containers.3. Appendixes E.2C. 2. 1. I. 2.2.1. S.2A. 7. 3.6A.2A. I.2.2A.IA.2D Emergency shutdown.4C. 7. 1. 7.2E. I.2A.3A.6 Hollywood Storage Company building.1.4B.4D Instrumentation.3G. F lateral. 6. 3.3C. 1.2 Instrument thimbles. 3. 8.2B mantle.4D Fire hazard. 5. 8.S. 7.IA Fire.2A.SC. 5. 1. 5. 2.3B vibrational. chemical.IE.7B. G.).IC.3A. 7.5C 412 .3A.3A Fault dip.8B Floors.3A geography.3A epicenter.2. 1. 1. 3. l. 7.31. 7. 2. 7.4C. Appendix H Gravity. l.2. 3.IG. 3.4E.ID.IG.3G probabQity.4-8. 2. 1. 6.3D. 2.4E.4D Explosion.2. 2.3G classification. 7. 2. influence of local. I.4C.lA experience.3E. 1. 2. 5. 7.3 nuclear. l. dynamic.7A Energy. 7. I. 1. I.5 F Fast Reactor.2B Fault.7.12B Elastic rebound.3A.5 Exhaust stacks.3E.3D. 3.2D.31.3B Energy absorption. random. 5.3 I Indian Ocean Belt. 7. 4.2C. 3.2A design loads.2D. I.IA Fault strike. 3. 2. 8. fire. Appendix B Experimental Breeder Reactor. 8. I.2D. D fault. 1.).2F.3A steam.1.3A Function. I. Appendix E Influence of local geology.1. Appendix F Focus. 2.6 Emergency power.2 El Centre (Calif. 1.).3D. 3.2B. 3.SC. 2. 8.IOC.1.3A stored. 1. 2. 8. I. I. chemical. earthquake.1 instrumentation.11B Foundations. 1. 3. 1. radiation.IA. 7. 3.6D Hydrogen explosion. 2.1 El Centre (Calif. 3.3A. l.6 Influence matrix.2C. 3. 8. 2. 7.10E Graphite. 7. 1.IC.4G.2B.12B Elevated tanks. 1.1 valves. 6.1A Flexible couplings.IA Fault trace. 7.S. 2. I. 7.3A Fuel-element melting.4A. 1.7A Hazards summary report.6 Emergency spray system.6 Glass breakage. 4. C ) .IA. 7.2.) earthquake. 4. 7. crust.2E spectrum.1. 8. 1. 4. 7. 7. 7. l. 2. 7. l. 7. 1.2D Emergency cooling.SD Frangible joints. chemical. 1. 2.8E Experimental Boiling-water Reactor.SC. 2. Appendix F Fluid oscUiatlon.5 New Madrid (Mo. Appendix H Graphite keying.1.4-8. 4. 3. 2. 7. l. 7. 1.3C earthquake.2D. 8.2C. 1. 1.1. 4.4B H Hazard. Appendix H Geology.3. Arvin-Tehachapi (Calif. 8.7B.

11B.SE.10D separation.3F Material properties. Modlfled-Mercalli.2C.HE Motion. 7. 1. emergency. 1. 4.2 413 .ID R o s s i . I.) earthquake. 5.SB. structural. Appendix H Pressurlzed-water Reactor. 7.3A Joints. 7. 7. 7. 4. 2.SE Mass matrix. 7. I F . 7.3G.3A. 8.A Pendulum starter.4C. 7.SD. T. I. 4. 7.2A Melting of fuel elements. Appendix E Masses. live. 4. 3.2D Random function.4. G.SB. 7. 7. 4. iS.3A New Madrid (Mo. .1 Map.3. 7.10D frangible. 2.2A coefficient. 4. I.ID Intensity spectrum.6D. 7. 7.HE Lateral forces. I. 4. Appendix E vibration.6. differential.2D.6 Period of vibration. I.4 Isoseismal. seismic.4E Overstress of soil.7C Loads. 7. Appendix B control. 1. Appendixes E. 1. 5.2A Reactor.4.11B Overtuning moment. l.2C.5 Mass. S. earthquake. 4.10B N Natural-convection cooling.2A. 8. 3. 8. Appendix A Plastic strain. 3. 4. 7.SC. I. 5.5 Mantle. 5.SA. boiling water.11B Limit-stress design.2D Precast concrete construction.) earthquake. graphite.SA. 2. shape. 8. overtuning. 2. reactor.IC M Magnitude. 4. 1. 3.IC. 8.IB.Insurance.9A Pulse chamber. S. S.IA.SD Mode. 1.ID. I.3G.3B Production reactor.3G Nuclear explosion.Appendix D Programmed shutdown.8A threaded.5. 4.3. 1.2 Ionization chamber.2A.IG. 3.2C Neutron cross section.4E Modified-Mercalli intensity scale.4C Missile penetration. Appendix E Pile oscillator. 7. 4. 7.2.2D. Appendix H organic.2D. 8. 1.IC Reaction.2.6F.SA. 4. 4.6C. 5. 4.1 Rayleigh waves. I . l.4C Reactivity.3. 2.IE.2B. l. center of.A. Appendix E Model.7. 3. 3.3. 4. 2. I.A.F o r e l .4A. 7.2 Maximum credible accident. 4. 4.2. 5.6D wind.7 Properties of materials. 5. 1.9A Matrix.5A.4 Radiation embrittlement. 7. 8. S.3. 7. 7.11B Long Beach (Calif.10A Kamchatka Peninsula.3C Piping.S.10B. 3. 4. 3.2 Intensity of earthqualce.SA Oak Ridge Gas-cooled Reactor (GCR-2). 5.A. I. construction.4E.2A.5. 3.1 Mediterranean-Transasiatic Circle. 4.3. 7.ID INDEX Pamir-Baikal Belt.8 Multidegree of freedom. I. 5. Appendix E Multistory buildings.5A. earthquake.. 2.10B crumple. 4. 2.11D tributary. 7.2. influence.3A Kurile Islands. 8. 7. l. 7. 7. Appendix C Love waves. 4.1 Moment. 8. stable. 4.5 Isostasy. Appendix A Primary loop damage.5..2B Power. I. Appendix H Organic-moderated Reactor. 2. l. 4.5 Intensity scale.7B.SA.10B Pressure-vessel support.3B.7C Poison.5A. 4.2C.SB.3A. 2. 8.2. 5. metal-water. 1.3D.1 Moderator. 1. S.5A. 7.3A Metal-water reaction.6G. 4.SB. 8.4C.7. 4. 7.2A Neutron lifetime. 7.6A.

6. Appendix D research. 6.2.5 map.2A Rigidity. D instrumentation. 4.5. I. Appendix A Statistical limitations. 5. 8. 4.5.2A Circum-Pacific.4 Seismometer. exhaust.6C.3A Response. 5. 3. 8. 5. 8.5.7.5B.2.7C Stress reversal. 7.2A. 4. 4.5C Scales. S. 4.IA Structural model. 7.SA.6 switches.SC. 8.4H.2F. 5. I. 4. 5. 4.S. 4. 8.S. Appendix A structures. 8. D Experimental Boiling Water.2A.2. 6.4G.6 Stationary Medium Power Plant No.2.3.ID Seismic. S.11H stabilization.IB.3A. Appendix A Sloshing In tanks. 1. 8. 7. 7.8A.11H Shield. S. 7.4C. 8. 5.2E reglonalization. 7.10B. cost.IA. Appendixes A.2D. 4.SB. 4. 4. 2.4H.3 center of. Appendixes E.IC. 1 (SM-1).4C.2A.3.6 sloshing in. 4.SD reactor. plastic. failure.2. 2.2 resultant. programmed. 3. 2. 4.4E.HA coefficient.1.SC.4D Stationary Medium Power Plant No. reactor.IC zoning.SB temporary reactor. 7. I. I.5. 5. 4. 3.10B. 1.4A.SB. 4.SC earthquake. 7. Appendixes E. 4.2A.3E. Appendixes C. elevated.5.2D T Tanks. 8.6D.3G.10B. Appendix A production. 2.2D. 8.6G. 4.2. 8. 3. S.2B displacement.2D shield. 8. 7.5.2.2A.IC.11B settlement. 2.6 Shutdown.2. 4. l.SE damage. 1. 8.4F.2C. 1. 7. S.6C. 4. 4. Appendix H Switches.2B earthquake experience.2B velocity.7G Rift zone. 4.7B. B Reflector control.1 intensity. 5.3.4 resistance. 4. 3.2A.SE Shock switches. 7. structural.SD.6 Static method of design.6.S. 3.2. 7.5. l.2A. 2. arcuate. 8. acceleration.8E Starter pendulum. 7.2.SC. 4. 5.2F.6 soil. S.4E period.5 probability. 4.11.IC. 1. differential. 8.3B Arctic.6C.2.ID s San Andreas fault. l. 4. 1.4C.2A. l.ID Modified-Mercalli. 7. I. 8. limit design. 2.4D. 5.7. 5. 4.2.4 safety factor. 2. 7.3F Stacks. l.8D.7B.8D. S. 3. 4.SD.5.4D. 2. 1. 2.2B pressurized water. 3.7C Stress. 4. 7. 2.1.IE.3.2A. 5.S. 8.IG.10D Separation joints. 7.10B. 2. Lawrence. 2. 3. I. fault. 2. 5.11B overstress. earthquake measurement.4B.IB. 7. pressure vessel. 5.7A Supercrltlcallty. building code. 6.ID R o s s i . 7. 7.2B poison. 7. 7. l. 1.2F. 5. 4. 4.2B Rod bracing. 2. 3.4B Steam explosion. Appendix B Experimental Breeder.2B organic moderated. 4. 7. I. 7.SG.6. 7.2B.6 Symmetry of buildings.6 working stresses. alpide. 3.7B.6. S. 4.12B Seismic belts.3B siting. structural. 1 (SM-1). 7.2D .2B. 4. S.6A.4A.10D Structural symmetry.6D R o s s i .F o r e l . 7. 2.2. I. 8. 4. 4. 8.A Pamir-Baikal. 1.4A.3A Indi£m Ocean.5 Separation.SB. 7.12. 8. 8. 1. Appendix A sodium cooled.7 Strike. 1.6C. 6. l.2D.7B St. blast. 2.4C. 1. S. 5. l.2B aseismic. 8. 5. S. l.SA Strain. 3. 2. 8.11H Shear walls.SC Stable masses. 3.1 Structural response. 1. I.2 energy absorption. 8. 4. 3. 3.8A. 8.SC.2.10A. Appendixes C.8A Settlement.6F.9C. 5. 3.10B. 5. l. 4.2E.2D. 2.4 INDEX .7A. 6. l. 4.6A. 5. 8. 4.11H Release of energy. 5.7 Siting. F Structural separation.4. seismic.4B. 7.2B.1.4B.6 shock. 4. 1.3A.4D fast.IC. I Soil.12A coupling.control rod. I.2F.2B gas cooled. F Resultant spectrum. 5. I. I.11B waves.4 SM-1 reactor See Stationary Medium Power Plant No. 2.3G. 4. 2. 3.2A 414 Seismiclty. I.7B Spectrum.2B Reinforced concrete. S.2D Structures.2.3A Support. 1.2D. 4. 1. l. 2. 8. 4. 2.10. 4. 7.3.4G. 4.4G.F o r e l Intensity scale. 5. Appendix H homogeneous. 7.SC component. 4.

7.3A Vessel. seismic. 5.3H mode. I. I.2A Temporary reactor shield. 4.SB.3D. I. 4.IA Transaslatlc Circle.8C. l.Tectonics. 4.3.2A. rift. shear. 5. 7.2A.l. fault. 1.IC Waves.IC Velocity spectrum.SE Thimbles.IC seismic.. 4.10B.1.3A. 8.6 Wave velocity.IB Wind loads. Appendix E Z Zone. l. 2.4D Threaded joints. 7. 5. Appendix E period.3B.10A Tidal waves.11H Water-metal reactions. 1. I. 6. containment. 2.SE. 4. I.2A. 7. 1. 5.12B INDEX . 1. instrument.3.3C Vertical acceleration.11B V Valves. 2.lB Tilt-up construction.4C Water tower.SB.2A. 3. Love. building. 2.5A.3. S.10B Trace. 4.7B Zoning.7A Void coefficient.2A Tributary loads. l. 4. earthquake. 2.5A. 7.IC tidal.3E. 4.SE. I.11B Working stresses.SE.SG.HA. l.SA Vibration.6D Tsunami. S. earth waves.5A. 8. 3. 1. 7. 4.IC Rayleigh. 5.SD Vessel pressure.2A W Walls. 5. I.4A. 5. I. l. 4.6D Trusses.2C.6H Velocity. 8. 8.IB Vibrational energy. 4.6C. 1. 4. seismic.

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