This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.

Find out moreFahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23)

Table of Contents............................................................................................... i Acknowledgments ..........................................................................................iii Unit – I: Transmission Line Theory ....................................................... 1-10 1.1 1.2 Microwave............................................................................................. 2 Transmission Line................................................................................ 2 1.2.1 Characteristic Impedance .................................................... 3 1.2.2 Equivalent Circuit for Transmission Line ......................... 3 Traveling Waves................................................................................... 4 Impedance & Admittance .................................................................. 5 Transmission Line Parameters .......................................................... 5 Incident and Reflected Waves............................................................................ 6 Transmission Modes ............................................................................................ 7 Discontinuity in Transmission Line.................................................. 9

1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

Unit – II: Propagation Characteristics..................................................11-18 2.1 Propagation Characteristics ................................................................... 12 2.2 Sources of Attenuation ............................................................................ 12 2.2.1 Conductor losses ................................................................ 12 2.2.2 Dielectric losses .................................................................. 13 2.2.3 Hysteresis losses ................................................................. 13 2.2.4 Mismatch losses .................................................................. 13 2.2.5 Losses due to radiation...................................................... 14 2.3 Reflection Coefficient .............................................................................. 14 2.4 Standing Waves ....................................................................................... 15 2.5 Smith Chart .............................................................................................. 16 Unit – III: Transmission Lines...............................................................19-26 3.1 Coaxial Transmission Line ............................................................... 20 3.1.1 Defining Equivalent Circuit Components....................... 20 3.1.2 Attenuation ........................................................................... 21 Field Configurations on Coaxial Transmission Lines ................. 22 3.2.1 Higher-Order Modes........................................................... 23 Waveguide Transmission Line........................................................ 23

3.2 3.3

Unit – IV: Microwave Sources & Detectors........................................27-33 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Microwave Sources .................................................................................. 28 Klystron...................................................................................................... 28 Multi-Cavity Klystron Amplifiers ........................................................ 29 Reflex Klystron ......................................................................................... 29

Microwave Engineering

Table of Contents

Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23)

4.5 Backward Wave Oscillator (BWO)........................................................ 30 4.6 Detection of Microwave Signals ............................................................ 31 4.7 Detector ...................................................................................................... 31 4.7.1 Crystal Detectors.................................................................. 31 4.7.2 Square Law of Crystal Detectors....................................... 32 4.8 Indicators ................................................................................................... 33 Unit – V: Microwave Mixing .................................................................34-43 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Introduction to Mixers ...................................................................... 35 Theory of Mixing................................................................................ 35 Conversion Loss ................................................................................. 37 Parametric Amplifier......................................................................... 37 Parametric Up-Converter ................................................................. 38 Parametric Down-Converter............................................................ 39 Manely – Rowe Power Relation ...................................................... 39 Negative Resistance Parametric Amplifier ................................... 40 Harmonic Frequency Conversion................................................... 41

References ......................................................................................................... iv

Microwave Engineering

Unit – 01

Transmission Line Theory

1.1 1.2 Microwave Transmission Line

1.2.1 1.2.2 Characteristic Impedance Equivalent Circuit for Transmission Line

1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8

Traveling Waves Impedance & Admittance Transmission Line Parameters Incident and Reflected Waves Transmission Modes Discontinuity in Transmission Line

Microwave Engineering 1.1 Microwave

Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23)

Microwave is a descriptive term used to identify the electromagnetic waves in the frequency spectrum, ranging from 30 MHz to 3000 GHz. This corresponds to the wavelength of 10 mm to 1 m (or 3 mm to 1.3m). This means that microwave have very short wavelength, and high frequencies. The microwave fills the part of electromagnetic frequency spectrum between conventional radio wave and optical wave or infrared waves. Microwave engineering is also called engineering of information and applied electromagnetic of electronics. Microwave signals propagate in straight lines and are affected very little by the troposphere. They are not refracted or reflected by ionized regions in the upper atmosphere. Microwave beams do not readily diffract around barriers such as hills, mountains, and large human-made structures. Some attenuation occurs when microwave energy passes through trees and frame houses. Radio-frequency (RF) energy at longer wavelengths is affected to a lesser degree by such obstacles. The microwave band is well suited for wireless transmission of signals having large bandwidth. In communications, a large allowable bandwidth translates into high data speed. The short wavelengths allow the use of dish antennas having manageable diameters. These antennas produce high power gain in transmitting applications, and have excellent sensitivity and directional characteristics for reception of signals. S.No 1 2 3 4 5 Name Metric wave Decimetric wave Centimetric wave Millmetric wave Decimillimetric wave Abbreviation VHF UHF SHF EHF EHF Frequency 30 – 300 MHz 300 – 3000 MHz 3 – 30 GHz 30 – 300 GHz 300 GHz – 3000 GHz Wavelength (λ) 10 m – 1 m 1 m – 10 cm 10 cm – 1 cm 1 cm – 1 mm 1 mm – 0.1 mm

Characteristics: Increased bandwidth Ability to use high gain directive antennas It gives direct signal transmission (as in Radar) In comparison to radio and infrared waves, microwave ranging from 1 MHz – 10 GHz are acceptable to propagate freely through inside sphere of the layer surrounding the earth (ionized) Short wavelength simplifies the design and installation of high dielectric antenna. Antenna directivity depends upon antenna aperture and wavelength.

1.2

Transmission Line

The material medium or structure that forms all or part of a path from one place to another for directing the transmission of energy, such as electric currents, magnetic fields, acoustic waves, or electromagnetic waves is called transmission line. Examples of transmission lines include wires, optical fibers, coaxial cables, rectangular closed waveguides, and dielectric slabs. When analyzing a transmission line it is generally assumed that the cross-sectional geometry is constant, forming a uniform transmission line. If there is a change in the geometry at any point, there will be a “discontinuity” in the line. As the uses of electromagnetic spectra increases, telecommunication bandwidth requirements increase, and equipment must be designed for higher frequencies. As the frequency increases, the value of components used in networks keep decreasing. As one approaches ultrahigh frequencies, the values of inductors and capacitors become so small that the ordinary techniques are not usable anymore.

2 Unit – 01: Transmission Line Theory

The repetition time is called the period. the velocity is also expressed in SI units. Nothing gets hot as a result of supplying energy to this resistance. The normalized impedance. The velocity of waves on the line is given by the expression velocity = (wavelength)/ (period).2 Equivalent Circuit for Transmission Line To understand completely the behavior of signal propagation on transmission line. but only on the line geometry and material construction. All that happens is that energy is transferred from the generator and stored temporarily in the transmission line. 1. all you need to do is to increase either or both of the inductance/meter or the capacitance/meter. electromagnetic waves will be carried down its path. At some later time. The Characteristic Impedance. convey it elsewhere. The lossless transmission lines absorb energy or power from a generator. and the repetition distance is called the wavelength. but don't dissipate it.Savart law it does have inductance. What goes in must come out. An inductance is defined current carrying conductor forming a magnetic field around itself that delays a voltage. The inductance/meter can also be increased by enclosing the conductors in a lossless non-conducting magnetic material (maybe ferrite) but this is more difficult. To slow down the waves on the transmission line. Electric and magnetic fields are formed between and around the conductors. Using these SI units for inductance and capacitance. Since a piece of wire does establish a magnetic field around itself. and convey it from one place to another. the "characteristic admittance" Yo = 1/Zo Siemens. nondissipative impedance”. meters/sec. Since the conductor can have finite 3 Unit – 01: Transmission Line Theory . and the "normalized admittance" = 1/z = (Zo)/Z. it is not enough to understand the voltages between conductor and currents carried in the conductor. according to Biot. is actually “lossless. it can be extracted and returned to the generator.) It does not depend on what is connected to the ends of the line. If it can't come out anywhere else it must come back to the source ("generator" end).2. Transmission lines store energy. At a single frequency. 1. the current is in phase with the voltage and the impedance is real. Similarly. possibly a great many transit times later. and their behavior and their field configuration are also very important. respectively.Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) On a transmission line carrying alternating current signals.1 Characteristic Impedance The ratio of voltage (between the wires) to current (along one wire and back along the other) has dimensions of impedance or resistance. This circuit contains a series inductance.2. If a signal is applied to a uniformly long transmission line. The velocity of electromagnetic waves on transmission line is equal to 1/ LC where the inductance and capacitance are taken for unit distance only (Henries per meter and Farads per meter). Voltage exists between the conductor and current flows through them. on a lossless line. Another way to slow the waves down is to coil up one of the conductors. The capacitance/meter is increased most easily by encasing the conductors in a dielectric having permittivity greater than unity. A small section of such type of transmission path can be analyzed by using lumped circuits. is the ratio of the actual impedance Z in ohms to the characteristic impedance in ohms. although real and looking like a resistance. the current and voltage vary sinusoidally along the line as well as in time at a fixed point on the line. For example. a unit length long piece of parallel wire transmission line is shown in Figure 1-1 above. The waves travel a distance of one wavelength during a time of one period. or used to make a real resistive dissipative load get hot. a dimensionless number ( z = Z / Z o ). It is called the Characteristic Impedance (Usually denoted by Zo. This is the fundamental property of lossless transmission line.

The two conductors are a finite distance apart. v f where v = velocity of propagation in free space. In Giorgi (MKSA) system. so parallel capacitance would describe this effect sufficiently. f = frequency of oscillation ε r = relative dielectric constant of the medium the wave is traveling in.) The voltage wave on a uniform. Figure 1-2. capacitance in farads/unit length. and conductance in mhos/unit length. shows this wave at three successive instants in time. 4 Unit – 01: Transmission Line Theory . however. the two waves will be propagated without any change in magnitude or shape. (Note that the crest of the wave progresses down the transmission line. Figure 1-1: Unit-length piece of parallel wire and its equivalent lumped-circuit model.Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) resistance. where 2π = 360º. It can be imagined that a transmission line is built of an infinite number of infinitely short lengths of this type of “two port” networks cascaded one after another or connected in a tandem situation. Wavelength can also be defined as the distance in which the phase changes by 2π radians. regardless of their shape. resistance is measured in ohms/unit length. The following formula shows the relationship between the various factors which determine wavelength: λ= 1 εr . the velocity will be reduced by the factor 1 / εr . Figure 1-2: Traveling wave. 1. The length of the wave λ is defined as the distance between successive points which have the same electrical phase.3 Traveling Waves When a sine wave is applied to an infinitely long transmission line. A dielectric medium keeping the two conductors a constant distance apart can have dielectric losses. inductance is measured in Henries/unit length. and. a series resistor will define it adequately. where εr is the relative dielectric constant of the medium. in a medium other than free space. These waves have different electrical characteristics. and they from some parallel capacitance. In free space a wave will travel 8 with a velocity of approximately 3 × 10 m/s. This wavelength depends upon the frequency of variation of the wave and dielectric constant of the medium through which the wave is traveling. lossless transmission line is always accompanied by a current wave of similar shape. the wave will propagate along the line.

only series components are measured.4 Impedance & Admittance Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) In transmission systems.5 Transmission Line Parameters The four components of equivalent circuit of a transmission line are divided into series and parallel groups defining the impedance and admittance of transmission line. The impedance of the circuit can be measured as shown in Figure 1-3. with output shorted out and input open-circuited. Since the series elements are left open. It is desirable to analyze the series and parallel elements of the equivalent circuit separately. only parallel components will be measured. respectively. The parallel circuit components are shorted. Impedance can be expressed as Z = R + jwL = R + j 2πf 0 L Figure 1-4: Admittance of the equivalent circuit. Y = G + jwC = G + j 2πf 0 C 1. Two parameters can be derived using the impedance and admittance expressions. Kirchhoff’s law allows us to add impedance in series and admittance in parallel configurations. impedance relationship takes a leading role in defining propagation characteristics. It is convenient to define propagation constant as γ = Z × Y = ( R + jwL)(G + jwC ) Since the square root of the product of two complex numbers is also a complex. Figure 1-3: Impedance of the equivalent circuit.Microwave Engineering 1. the propagation constant is generally expressed as γ = α + jβ 5 Unit – 01: Transmission Line Theory . Admittance information can be gained by measuring from the other end when the input is open-circuited and output is short-circuited.

Figure 1-5: transmission line transmitted with impedance not equal to the characteristic impedance. By definition. Then Z0 = Z = Y R + jwL G + jwC If R and G are negligible in size. The reciprocal of characteristic equation is called Admittance. a voltage wave will proceed along that line. 1. if there is no absorptive loss on the transmission line. The current resulting from the applied voltage can be written as I 1 = I p ε jwt These voltages and currents are periodical waves. then Z0 = L ohms C It is the characteristic equation of impedance. 6 Unit – 01: Transmission Line Theory .Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) Where ‘α’ is the attenuation constant in nepers/unit length (if the circuit components are given in MKSA system) and β is the phase constant in terms of radians/unit length. the other parameters like length characteristic parameters. The voltage wave may be written in the exponential form as: V = V 1ε The associated current wave flowing in the line is γl I = I 1ε γl If the transmission line is not infinitely long.6 Incident and Reflected Waves Voltage applied to a transmission line can be written in exponential form as V1 = V p ε jwt Where Vp stands for peak-voltage. it is terminated with an impedance ZL as shown in Figure 1-5. If that voltage is applied to a transmission line. that is.

The voltage and current waves are: V = V 1 e γl + V 2 e γl I = I 1 e γl + I 2 e γl Where I1 and I2 are periodical current waves and V1 and V2 are periodical voltage waves. Since these fields are the result of current and voltage waves. This signal is traveling in the opposite direction from the “incident” signal. the voltage across load impedance will be VL = V1 + V2 The current flowing through the load is I L = I1 − I 2 = Then the load impedance is given by V1 V2 − Z0 Z0 ZL = VL IL Two wave trains are traveling opposite to each other: the incident wave and reflected wave. If propagation frequency increases to infinity. These modes are called high-order modes of propagation. Higher order modes are those modes that propagate only above the definite frequency range. The principle mode is that which can carry the energy at all the frequencies. 1. Thus. the electric and magnetic fields also vary in periodic manner. The absolute magnitudes of the waves are dependent of the impedance of source. As frequency increases. all the energy is propagated down the transmission line will be absorbed. which has a characteristic impedance of Z0. an appreciable portion of wavelength of that propagation signal becomes comparable to the cross-sectional geometry of transmission line. which are periodical. infinite number of propagation mode can exist. Since both are really traveling on the same line. more than one kind of electromagnetic field configurations can be imagined.Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) Since that the load impedance is not equal to the characteristic impedance. Output Voltage V2 Z L − Z O = = Input voltage I2 Z L + ZO This equation shows that the relative amplitudes and phases of both waves are determined by the terminating impedance only. more and more different types of propagation modes can exist on a certain transmission line. The point at which these frequencies start to propagate is called cut-off frequency for particular mode. 7 Unit – 01: Transmission Line Theory . then the equation becomes Z0 = V2 V1 = I 2 I1 The following equation can be derived from the preceding equation. and part of the signal is reflected because it is mismatched.7 Transmission Modes Associated electric and magnetic fields form voltage and current waves travel down a transmission line. As propagation frequency increases. Figure 1-6: rice propagating down a blowgun.

if rice size decreases again one can imagine more and more types of pattern that are analogous again to some even higher-order modes. The solid lines in the figure show the electric field configuration. showing down propagation of each particle and at the same time increasing it to a certain extent as rotational velocity may be added to the motion. This is analogous to some high-order mode of propagation on transmission lines. Similarly. At any point in space. In Figure 1-7. the rice will not be required to move down in the tube in predetermined way. an electric field is established between them. The figure also clearly shows that these fields are all transverse to the direction of propagation. magnetic fields are established around them. Since current flows in the conductors. Since there is a difference in potential between the wires. Figure 1-8: electric and magnetic field configuration of the parallel wire transmission line Now. the certain patterns can occur only when a definite size change occurs either in transmission line or in the propagation frequency. in the principle mode. higher order modes can propagate. The transmission line in Figure 1-8 shows the principle mode of propagation and the electric and magnetic field configuration of the pattern on the parallel wire. it will 8 Unit – 01: Transmission Line Theory . This clearly shows that. Figure 1-6 shows rice being blown down the inside of the blowgun. Depending on which component shows in the direction of propagation.Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) The following analogy shows how high-order modes are established. Consequently. As the figure clearly shows that rice can fit in only one way. That is why these waves. This is analogous to single mode propagation. if propagating frequency increases so much that the length of the wave traveling down the transmission line is comparable in size to the cross-sectional geometry of that transmission line. are called transverse electromagnetic waves. If one either increases the inside diameter of blowgun or decreases the particle size of the rice. It can tumble around and move all over inside the tube. the electric and magnetic field lines are perpendicular to each other. certain propagation will exist. particle size of the rice is small as compared to cross-sectional geometry of tube. abbreviated as the TEM mode of propagation. Figure 1-7: Rice propagating down a blowgun when the particle size of rice is small compared to the cross-sectional geometry of the tube. If the rice is continuously blown through the tube with a constant velocity. the rice could propagate down the tube in different modes are shown in Figure 1-7. These higher-order modes will have at least one of their field components in the direction of propagation.

Although it is assumed that higher order modes cannot be propagated on this particular transmission line.8 Discontinuity in Transmission Line When standing waves are traveling from source to destination. then number of field distortions occurs immediately left of the plane of discontinuity. they would move with exactly the velocity of light. Discontinuities in transmission line will effectively launch certain higher order modes and energy will be stored when they do. If there are more discontinuities then there are more steps one after another on the transmission line. interference will occur when the fields lines due to discontinuity are not straighten before 9 Unit – 01: Transmission Line Theory . are aligned in the direction of propagation. The electric field between the conductors is drawn. then a sudden change in geometry occurs over transmission line and when uniform transmission line exists before and after the plane of that discontinuity. It is known from the lumped circuit theory that the energy storage will occur where either the capacitance or inductance and both are present. higher order modes are launched. The velocity of propagation of TE and TM mode is different from each other and from a TEM mode. phase and group velocities are identical to each other. The H-wave is that in which at least one component of the magnetic field shows in the direction of propagation.Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) be called the H. this does not mean that they cannot be launched. the electric field distortion occurs only at right (widest) side of the discontinuity. Discontinuities can be understood as reactive components on a transmission. In higher-order modes. If they are close enough to each other they might interact with each other as shown in Figure 1-10. When either electric or magnetic field components. The only question is what happens at the plane or near the plane of the discontinuity. In a standard transmission line with no dielectric material around it. Another effect can be observed from Figure 1-9. and phase velocity includes all rotations and turns of the individual moving particles. Whether the discontinuity bents the electric or magnetic fields determines the equivalent circuits. Figure 1-9: discontinuity on a transmission line. The number of these modes is dependent entirely upon the geometry of the transmission line. but after some distance the lines are straighten out again. The geometric means of the phase and group velocity are equal to the velocity of light. at a certain frequency there can be only a finite number of higher-order modes propagating. Group velocity means the velocity of the entire group moving down in transmission line. The E-wave is that in which the electric field will have at least one component showing in the direction of propagation. In fact. 1.or the E-wave of propagation. group and phase velocity are related to each other by the following equation: c = vg v p Where v g is group velocity and v p is a phase velocity. Although each TE and TM mode can be infinite in number. This is called the transverse magnetic TM mode. the problem can be handled as two transmission lines joined together. two types of velocities can be imagined: group velocity and phase velocity. in the TEM or principle mode. As can be seen. This mode is called the transverse electric TE mode. As is apparent. Figure 1-9 shows the discontinuity formed at the plane where tow uniform lines are joined together. the electric field lines are bent in the region near the discontinuity. Generally.

This modifies their signal and simple effect by a mutual coupled effect. This field distortion is very similar to the effect in capacitance due to fringing field effect. From this it is clear the very same term is used for these field distortions as in magnetic and electric fields. Some discontinuities are close to each other (as shown in Figure 1-10(b)). but as they do not distort the field in common direction. Figure 1-10: multiple discontinuities (a) interfering (b) not interfering with each other. If they interfere. a third effect will occur.Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) another discontinuity occurs. 10 Unit – 01: Transmission Line Theory . and they do not interfere with each other.

2 2.5 Conductor losses Dielectric losses Hysteresis losses Mismatch losses Losses due to radiation 2.3 2.2.2.5 Reflection Coefficient Standing Waves Smith Chart .2 Propagation Characteristics Sources of Attenuation 2.4 2.Unit – 02 Propagation Characteristics 2.3 2.2.4 2.1 2.2.1 2.2.

3.1 Attenuation constant and phase constant Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) As an electromagnetic wave is applied down a transmission line it is continuously attenuated by the lossy element of the line. 4. It was also seen that attenuation constant α will be expressed in terms of nepers per unit length. skin effect becomes more critical. 2. Existence of skin effect is known from lower frequency techniques. Then the propagation constant is γ = ( R + jwL)(G + jwC ) = α + jβ This equation clearly shows that it is composed of attenuation and phase constant (α is negative and it is not shown here since it is not gain but attenuation). As we know that incident waves are V1 = ε which can be further expressed as γl V1 = ε (α + jβ ) l = ε αl ×ε jβ l The first part of this equations shows that voltage gets attenuated exponentially as the wave travels down the line. 2. Skin depth can be calculated by following equation δ= 1 2π ρ (cm) fµ r 12 Unit – 02: Propagation Characteristics . since they dissipate energy.69 dB. 5. The skin depth is the thickness of the layer where the current density drops to 1/ε the value on the surface. respectively.1 Propagation Characteristics 2.1.2. Conductor losses (skin effect) dielectric losses hysteresis losses mismatch losses losses due to radiation The first three losses are absorptive losses by nature.Microwave Engineering 2. This loss is an absorptive type by nature meaning it absorbs energy and also dissipate it in the form of heat. if it is calculated in MKSA system.69: 1 neper = 8. Mismatch loss and losses due to radiation reflect and guide the energy away from the transmission line. In other words we can say. multiply by 8. the current is restricted to travel in only surface layer conductor.2 Sources of Attenuation Attenuation can be contributed by many factors such as the following: 1.1 Conductor losses (Skin Effect) This loss is caused by series resistance of conducting medium. 2. As frequency increases. in higher frequencies in the transmission line. The penetration of the current flow is defined by skin depth (δ). To convert nepers to the more commonly used decibel per unit length.

3 Hysteresis Losses Hysteresis losses are due to the permeability of magnetic material. hysteresis losses are included in skin effect formula. the loss tangent of commonly used dielectric material is very small.2. It is also known that the dielectric material in a capacitor increases the effective capacitance between said conductors. Propagation velocity is slowed down if the dielectric insulator is placed around and between the conductors. power factor and loss tangent can also be taken as equal. When very low losses are described. Consequently. These losses can be taken into account if the dielectric constant is handled as a complex value. where θ = 90 − δ . It is true that the power factor is defined by cosθ .Microwave Engineering where ρ = µr = f= Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) specific resistivity of conductor (Ω-cm) relative permeability of conductor (this is considered only when the material is ferromagnetic and has a relative permeability different from non-ferrous materials. tangents and sines are approximately equal. This loss is not absorptive. Losses of the dielectric material are usually expressed by the loss tangent. For most practical purpose. most dielectric material has losses associated with this space-saving effort. it is common practice to plate the surfaces of conductors.2 Dielectric Losses Dielectric losses are absorptive losses in nature and are caused due to dielectric material in transmission line.2. Using the complex expression of the dielectric constant. it is approximately equal to the ο power factor of the capacitor. the effect of these mask on resistance will be negligible. So that hysteresis losses are considerable for ferro-materials. but it reflects and guides the energy away from line. Since very small angles. as in the formula ε = ε '− jε ' ' where ε’ is the real part of the dielectric constant and ε’’ is the imaginary part of the dielectric constant. Platting with a highly conductive metal a couple of thousands of an inch thick completely masks off the effect of the base material since all the current is flowing in the platting. However. If the material with permeability differing from non-magnetic material is used.2.4 Mismatch Losses Mismatch losses occur when a discontinuity appears in a transmission line or when a termination (load impedance) of transmission line is not equal to the characteristic impedance. 2. not all the power available at that 13 Unit – 02: Propagation Characteristics . microwave transmission components are usually highly polished so that all the machining marks are essentially polished out. in other words its value is equal to 1) operating frequency (GHz) Since skin depth at microwave frequencies is a very small fraction of the conductor thickness. 2. however. Even microscopic scratches crossing the current flow can appreciably increase the equivalent resistance of the conductor. platting is usually applied and the effect of hysteresis losses is negligible or entirely alleviated. the loss tangent can be defined as tan δ = ε '' ε' Since. if machining operations operation is planned so that the machining marks will be in line with the current flow. 2.

Discontinuities or opening on transmission line at higher frequencies are more serious then at low frequencies. and openings on transmission line. 2. The ratio of these two voltages. Figure 2-1: a transmission line terminated with impedance not equal to characteristic impedance will reflect part of the incident singal. and if the transmission line is terminated with impedance not equal to the characteristic impedance of the line. the reflective signal over the incident signal is called reflection coefficient. so that. Both the incident and reflected waves are traveling on same transmission line but in opposite direction. At high microwave frequencies. Radiation is caused due to imperfect shielding.3 Reflection Coefficient If a signal is applied to a uniform. For microwave transmissions care should be for such discontinuities or openings in transmission line. dissimilarities. Since propagation constant (γ) is defined as γ = α + jβ The term α’ in this expression includes all the losses discussed above. practically lossless. transmission line.2. The losses from the available signals and the dissipated signals are due to mismatch. Ei is the incident signal traveling towards the transmission line whereas Er is the reflective signal traveling in the opposite direction. Some part of the signal will be reflected as shown in Figure 2-1. 14 Unit – 02: Propagation Characteristics . For all practical purposes. The magnitude of the reflected voltage depends on how much terminating impedance is mismatched. some cables have to be double and triple shielded to alleviate losses due to radiation. Figure shows a transmission line not terminated in its characteristic impedance. Their relative phases are dependent on the terminating impedance and the distance from the termination to the point of measurement. the power cannot be transmitted correctly. 2. Usually all the losses first calculate separately and can be added to give total attenuation. So as far as the transmission line and the terminating load are concerned. that impedance will not be able to absorb all the energy. this type of loss is not intentional and cracks should be looked and repaired.Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) point on transmission line is transmitted or propagated. Er =τ Ei The reflection coefficient τ is a vector since it has a magnitude and phase information. That’s why the reflection coefficient serves as a figure of merit for the termination at the end of any particular transmission line. part of it is reflected. not all the energy is delivered into the load.5 Losses Due to Radiation This loss also guides the energy away from the transmission line. Now the absolute value of the reflection coefficient.

and the positions of maximum amplitudes are called antinodes. This is called standing wave pattern. The bottom line of figure shows the standing wave as it is from the transmission line. this pattern has to be deducted to unable one to plot. Figure 2-2: formation of standing waves. Figure 2-4 shows standing waves built of known total reflection. The Figure shows how two traveling waves combine to form standing waves (note that the maximum and zero voltage points do not shift with respect to the time.Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) Er =τ =ρ Ei 2. The wave having the same length but not necessarily the same magnitude (amplitude) will form an interference pattern. This is the difference between traveling and standing waves). The zero crossings are called nodes. 15 Unit – 02: Propagation Characteristics . In practice. The result is known as standing waves as shown in Figure 2-2. It is worthwhile to mention that these standing waves were built of total reflection.4 Standing Waves If two waves of same amplitude and frequency are traveling on a transmission line in opposite directions. The reflection coefficient will be less than 1. they will alternately add to and subtract from each other. and only envelope will be shown as in Figure 2-3.

The smallest value will be called E main. It was devised by Philip H. Whenever X is positive. the circle degenerates into a straight line Kx = 0 because straight line is a circle whose radius is infinity and for X = 0.5. 2. Kx = 0. Smith in the late 1930’s. X being reactance can be positive or negative.5 Smith Chart It is a polar plot of the complex reflection coefficient. When X = 0. On the other hand when X is negative the circle lies below the axis Kx = 0. 0). The chart is based on the relationship given by: ⎛1+ τ ⎞ Z = Z0⎜ ⎟ ⎝1−τ ⎠ In terms of normalized impedance the above equation can be written as z= Z ⎛1+τ ⎞ =⎜ ⎟ Z0 ⎝1−τ ⎠ Smith chart consists of two sets of circles or arcs of circles called X-circle and R-circles.Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) Figure 2-3: detected standing wave pattern of total reflection.e. 2. The peak value of standing wave pattern will be called E max.. All circles touch the point (1. the radius 1/X will be infinity.1 Properties of Smith Chart It will be advantageous to study properties of Smith chart before going into any further details: Normalizing impedance 16 Unit – 02: Propagation Characteristics . the circle lies above the horizontal line i. Now the standing wave voltage ratio is defined as the ratio of two voltages VSWR = σ = E max E min Figure 2-4: standing-wave pattern of a load not forming a total reflection. This special chart considerably reduces the work involved by the calculations of transmission line characteristics.

The process of dividing impedance by Z o is called normalizing impedance. R / Z o circles and jX / Z o circles because before starting the mathematical analysis of the chart Z R was divided by Z o .e. Plotting of an impedance Any complex impedance can be shown by a single point on the Smith chart. This point will be the point of intersection R / Z o circles and jX / Z o circle. If however. for which a lossless line is a pure resistance. Z o is the characteristic impedance of the line. Z o is not given in a problem. 17 Unit – 02: Propagation Characteristics .Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) The two circles of smith chart are in fact. a suitable value is assumed for the purpose of normalizing the impedance. Figure 2-5: Smith Chart The process of normalization is reversed if a certain impedance is takes from the Smith chart i.. this impedance will be multiplied by Z o .

Since they are on the horizontal axis the reactive components are zero. This scale is termed as the radical scale and is graduated from 0 to 1.e. the S-circle can be drawn with 0 as center OP as radius shown in Figure 2-5. The line ON. 18 Unit – 02: Propagation Characteristics . the reading of this will give the -scale giving the angle (i. in the ordinary Smith chart. intersection with the horizontal axis on the right of the center corresponds to voltage maxima. i. Determination of τ in magnitude and direction If OP is produced till it cuts the angle of reflection coefficient circle at N.Microwave Engineering Determination of SWR Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) After having located the point of given impedance. The measure of OP on this scale from 0 onward will give the magnitude of . Plastic smith chart available in the market provides this scale. in fact is the magnitude of .. However. τ τ τ τ Location of voltage maximum and minimum The intersection of the S-circles with horizontal axis AB that is on the left of the chart center represents voltage minima. The radical scale can be rotated about the center of Smith chart.. this scale is provided on the side of the chart. Line impedance at Vmax and Vmin can be directly read from the chart. point M. The normalized resistance at the point M is numerically equal to the voltage standing wave ratio. In order to find the VSWR from the chart we follow the S-circle around to its right hand intersection with the horizontal axis AB.e. the direction) of reflection coefficient .

2.3 Field Configurations on Coaxial Transmission Lines 3.1 Coaxial Transmission Line 3.1.2 3.1 Higher-Order Modes Waveguide Transmission Line .1 3.Unit – 03 Transmission Lines 3.2 Defining Equivalent Circuit Components Attenuation 3.1.

1 Coaxial Transmission Line Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) The preceding discussions were based on parallel wire transmission. Centimeters will be used as a unit length in this procedure so that the following equations describe these parameters b⎞ ⎛ L = 0 . Coaxial transmission line is far superior to lecher wire and is preferred at high frequencies. another name for this Lecher Noise. The lecher wire has very serious limitations as far as radiation and losses are concerned. f is the frequency in Hz. Higher order modes are not wanted. factor.1 Defining Equivalent Circuit Components To analyze a coaxial transmission line the equivalence of parameters has to be determined. which are under the first higher order mode cut-off frequencies. The series inductance in terms of Henries per unit length (H/cm). A coaxial transmission line consists of a center conductor with another conductor around it. 214 ε r × 10 −12 F / cm b log a Equation 2 εr stands for relative dielectric constant compared to the vacuum or air. Therefore.Microwave Engineering 3. ρ is the resistivity in terms of Ω / cm . In resistance R= ρ ⎛1 1⎞ ⎜ + ⎟= 2πδ ⎝ a b ⎠ fµ r ρ 10 9 ⎛1 1⎞ ⎜ + ⎟ Ω / cm ⎝a b⎠ δ stands for skin depth in cm. Since it is a two wire system. the useful range of coaxial transmission is restricted to the principle mode.4605 µ r ⎜ log ⎟ × 10 − 8 H / cm a⎠ ⎝ This equation neglects current penetration into the conductor. µ a are the specific resistance and relative permeability factor of the inner conductor And ρ b . µ b are the specific resistance and relative permeability factor of the outer 20 Unit – 03: Transmission Lines .1. the series resistance in terms of ohm per unit length. 3. The operation of the coaxial transmission line is limited to the principle mode. R= f ⎛ ρa µa ⎜ + 10 9 ⎜ a ⎝ ρb µb ⎞ ⎟ b ⎟ ⎠ Ω / cm Equation 3 Where ρa and respectively. it carries the TEM waves of propagation (the principle mode of transmission). Now following equation shows the effective line resistance if the inner and outer conductors are made of different metals. This is due to the skin depth. the parallel capacitance in terms of farads per unit length. If only copper conductors are considered then this can be expressed as R = 414 × 10 − 8 ⎛1 1⎞ f ⎜ + ⎟ Ω / cm ⎝a b⎠ Where ‘a’ and ‘b’ are not diameters but are the radii in terms of cm in these equations. Equation 1 µr stands for relative permeability C = 0 . and the parallel conductance in terms of mho per unit length. It can be seen that the resistance is proportional to the square root of frequency.

For copper conductor the expression will be α c = 2. more direct expression can be given for gaining information on attenuation.6 δµ r λ ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ εr dB / unitlength ⎜ + ⎟ ⎝ a b ⎠ ln b a Equation 7 Where the wavelength (λ) and the inner (a) and the outer (b) conductor radii are given in terms of unit length. they can be neglected in most cases.98 × 10 −9 f ⎜ + ⎟ ⎛1 ⎝a 1 ⎞ εr dB / cm b⎠ b ln a Equation 8 If the inner and outer conductor are made of different materials. or if they are platted with different metal then the expression can be written as α c = 13.6 8µ r ⎛ δ a µ a δ b µ b + ⎜ b λ ⎝ a ⎞ εr dB / length ⎟ ⎠ ln b a Equation 9 21 Unit – 03: Transmission Lines . Furthermore.2 Attenuation The real part of the propagation constant provides information on attenuation in terms of nepers per unit length. As µ is a permeability factor it provides information on Hysteresis losses of the ferromagnetic materials that are used.1. δ is the skin depth in same nit. If losses are small. 3.Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) conductor. Using geometrical parameters and the parameters for the materials comprising the coaxial line in equations. the attenuation due to conductor losses can be calculated by αc = and attenuation due to dielectric losses by R 2Z o Equation 4 αd = The total attenuation for above equations is G 2Yo Equation 5 α = αc +αd = R G + 2 Z o 2Yo Equation 6 The formula for the equivalent circuit components will have to be calculated to get R and G values. Attenuation due to Conductor Losses α c = 13. The characteristic impedance also has to be calculated to use these expressions. where the characteristic impedance can be assumed to be a real value not having imaginary components.

The loss tangent is customary way in which manufacturers of dielectric material provides information about dielectric losses. If you would like to make a less lossy coaxial transmission line for a given inner and outer conductor dimension and optimum ratio of radii can be derived from an air-insulated line.2 Field Configurations on Coaxial Transmission Lines Since coaxial transmission lines have two conductors. the electric field distribution is periodical according to wavelength. TEM mode is a special type of TM waves in which electric field component along the direction of propagation is also zero so that electromagnetic field is entirely transverse.Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) The subscripts refer to the particular conductor. Transmission line theory states that both electric and magnetic fields can only be perpendicular to each other. Consequently there is only one way the electric and magnetic fields can exist in a coaxial structure. Attenuation due to Dielectric Losses Attenuation due to dielectric losses depends upon the properties of dielectric material being used between the conductors. On the longitudinal cross-sectional part in Figure 3-1. the magnetic field intensity will be low. it is obvious that. Figure 3-1: Field distribution for the principal mode in a coaxial line As the electric field is being established only between two conductors in the principal mode.2. Then loss tangent is tan δ = ε '' ε' Equation 11 Dielectric losses of coaxial transmission line can be calculated as α d = 27 . If total reflection occurs on a line. This is shown in Figure 3-1. The magnetic field is placed around the center conductor between it and the outer conductor. 3. according to transmission line theory they are capable of carrying the principal TEM mode.6 a which gives a characteristic impedance of 77 Ω.1 Higher-Order Modes 22 Unit – 03: Transmission Lines . It is normally abbreviated as TEM waves and is often referred to as principal waves. As in ordinary transmission line theory the dielectric constant of a dielectric material is expressed as a complex quantity ε = ε '− jε ' ' Equation 10 where the real part of the expression is relative dielectric constant (εr) and the imaginary part contain the information about the shunt losses of that material. and the vice versa. Then the ratio will be b = 3 .3 εr tan δ dB / unit length Equation 12 λ 3. There are high intensity and low intensity-planes periodically changing place as the traveling wave goes down the transmission line. it has to be radial. where the electric field intensity is high.

3 54 . Two indices after this notation are given depending upon their field configurations. then this equation must be multiplied by the square root of the relative dielectric constant. metallic boundaries. The useful bandwidth in a waveguide is called the range of frequencies where single-mode propagation exists – in other words. The lowest possible higher-order mode in a waveguide is called the dominant mode. the bandwidth where only the dominant mode can propagate. Attenuation of any of higher-order modes near cutoff is α = 3. After a definite limit where the cross-sectional dimensions of the coax are comparable to the boundary conditions of higher-order modes are established. The useful bandwidth of the dominant mode starts usually about 20% higher in frequency from cutoff. In any transmission line. an infinite number of modes can exist but at a certain frequency. mathematically. It is the only type od mode in waveguide which can exist and can propagate without any interference from other higher-order modes. Furthermore. The higher-order modes are denoted depending upon their H-waves (TM) or E-waves (TE). Waveguides can be arbitrarily shaped hollow pipe with or without conductive. Only the higher-order modes can exist on them. the wavelength decreases. 23 Unit – 03: Transmission Lines . and it will carry energy.Microwave Engineering As the propagation frequency increases. It is a good practice not to approach the cutoff frequency too closely. Figure 3-3: wavelength relationships in any air-filled waveguide for any mode of propagation. λc = π (a + b ) ε r Equation 14 This formula will provide the information to an accuracy of about 8%. Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) Figure 3-2: cross section of a coaxial line showing the midradius and its circle determining the cutoff wavelength of the TE11 mode For the lowest cutoff frequency higher-order mode the cutoff wavelength is approximately equal to the length of the circle drawn between the inner and outer conductors. discontinuities on the transmission line excite the higher-order modes. These are non-conductive type transmission lines. The approximate cutoff wavelength for the first high-order mode is given as: λc = ⎜ ⎛b−a ⎞ + a ⎟2π = π (a + b ) ⎝ 2 ⎠ Equation 13 If coaxial line is filled with dielectric material. high-order modes will be able to propagate beside the principal mode. but above that frequency the first high-order mode will be able to exist. 6 λc ⎛λ ⎞ 1 − ⎜ c ⎟ dB / cm ⎝ λ ⎠ 2 Equation 15 Waveguide Transmission Line Waveguides generally are defined as transmission lines that cannot carry the principle mode of transmission. although it is true that they do not carry energy and they attenuate exponentially. In other words. Below the first higher-order mode cutoff frequency only the principal mode can be propagated.

the group and phase velocities differ from each other. the cutoff frequency can be found from 1 ⎛m⎞ ⎛n⎞ fc = c ⎜ ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ 2 ⎝ a ⎠ ⎝b⎠ 2 2 Equation 19 24 Unit – 03: Transmission Lines . can propagate only higher-order modes. Therefore.Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) In waveguides where only higher-order modes can exist. For a rectangular piece of waveguide. not the dielectric filled guides. v pvg = c Equation 16 which means that the phase velocity v p could be higher than the velocity of light. being a waveguide and a one-conductor propagating transmission line. The subscript m indicates the number of half-wave variations of the electric field along the wide dimensions of the waveguide. if one goes higher and higher in frequency. The general symbols of TEmn or TMmn are used to describe transverse electric or transverse magnetic waves. in which case the group velocity v g would be slower that the velocity of light. waveguide acts as a high-pass filter. no propagation will occur. It can be seen that. the guide wavelength gets infinitely long. if the free-space wavelength approaches the cutoff wavelength. the waveguide wavelength expression will be modified: λg = λ ⎛ λ ⎞ εr − ⎜ ⎜λ ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ co ⎠ 2 Equation 18 where λco is the cutoff wavelength of the empty waveguide. one would find that the waveguide wavelength gets closer and closer to the free-space wavelength. If one takes waveguide completely filler with very-low-loss dielectric material where the dielectric constant is εr. The relationship shown in Equation 17 can be plotted in terms of λ / λ c versus λ / λ g as in Figure 3-3. in air. and λc is the cutoff wavelength. and n indicates the number of half-wave variations of electric or magnetic field in the narrow dimension of the guide. then the waveguides wavelength and free-space wavelength becomes the same.or vacuum-insulated waveguide. Furthermore. λ is the free-space wavelength. In fact. The waveguide wavelength relates to the cutoff frequency and to free-space wavelength by λg = λ ⎛ λ 1− ⎜ ⎜λ ⎝ c ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ 2 Equation 17 where λg stands for the guide wavelength. The rectangular waveguide. the geometric means of the phase velocity and group velocity are equal to the velocity of light. which has the longest operating wavelength. If a dimension is less than ½ wavelengths. is designated as the dominant mode. When the frequency becomes very high and tends to go to infinity. The TE10 mode. The modes of transmission can consequently be only in TE and TM modes. Rectangular Waveguide Figure 3-4 shows a rectangular waveguide in a rectangular coordinate system where ‘a’ is the wider dimension and ‘b’ is the narrower inside dimension.

substituting 1 and 0 in place of m and n. and 25 Unit – 03: Transmission Lines . and a and b are the wide and narrow inside dimensions of the rectangular guide. This frequency determines the ‘a’ dimension.Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) Figure 3-4: Rectangular waveguide. The cutoff wave length is then λc = 2 ⎛m⎞ ⎛n⎞ ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎝a⎠ ⎝b⎠ 2 2 Equation 20 The cutoff for the dominant mode can be calculated easily. where ‘c’ is the velocity of light. The dominant mode being the TE10. The ‘b’ dimension is chosen on the basis of the following criteria: The attenuation loss is greater than as the b dimension is made smaller. m and n are the subscripts of the particular TE or TM mode. respectively. λcTE10 = 2 ⎛1⎞ ⎛0⎞ ⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ ⎝a⎠ ⎝b⎠ 2 2 yields. Rectangular waveguides were originally chosen so that the dominant mode would exist over a certain frequency range. respectively. The field configuration in a rectangular waveguide propagating the commonly used TE10 mode is shown in Figure 3-5. λcTE10 = 2a Figure 3-5: fields in a rectangular guide (dominant TE10 mode).

Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) The b dimension determines the voltage breakdown characteristics therefore determine the maximum power handling capacity. 26 Unit – 03: Transmission Lines .

7 4.4 4.7.2 4.5 4.Unit – 04 Microwave Sources & Detectors 4.1 Crystal Detectors 4.8 Microwave Sources Klystron Multi-Cavity Klystron Amplifiers Reflex Klystron Backward Wave Oscillator (BWO) Detection of Microwave Signals Detector 4.2 Square Law of Crystal Detectors Indicators .6 4.3 4.7.1 4.

This was the first use of velocity modulation of an electron beam.Microwave Engineering 4. Small band-held units produce only milli-watts of power amplification. The frequency of operation of a klystron is set by the sizes of the input and output cavities. current flow is established between the cathode and the collector inside the evacuated tube. The vacuum tube contains a cathode that is heated by a filament at a very high temperature to emit electrons. They are called microwave sources. and the second cavity is tuned to the same frequency. Positive feedback could be established by connecting the second cavity back into the first cavity. Thus. Practical Consideration and Amplifications Klystrons are also constructed with additional cavities between the buncher and catcher cavity. where the RF energy is coupled in. they have the effect of broadening the bandwidth of the tube. These intermediate cavities produce further bunching which causes increased amplification of the signal if the buncher cavities are tuned off the frequencies from input and output cavities. Figure 4-1 shows the concept of a two-cavity klystron.2 Klystron A klystron is a microwave vacuum tube using cavity resonators to produce velocity modulation of the electron beam and to produce amplification. Figure 4-1: Klystron amplifier Operation: in the first cavity (buncher cavity). The RF interacting with the electron beam causes a kinetic energy loss from the beam that result in gain. 4. Through. Klystrons are used at frequencies as low as UHF and as high as 300 GHz in the microwave region.1 Microwave Sources Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) Vacuum tubes were the devices used before the evolution of transistor. Using the klystron as an oscillator would require a variable-phase shifter between the first and second cavities to assure positive feedback at all frequencies. While large size klystrons produce many thousands of watts of power. In the second cavity (catcher cavity) the RF energy is coupled through the electron beam by placing the second cavity into the proper position at an optimum distance. oscillation and other applications. These tubes were used for controlling a large signal through a smaller signal to produce desired amplification. and the electron beam is velocity modulated. To assure a wide tuning capability of this dual cavity requires more consideration about phase relations involved. Klystrons are available in a wide range of sizes. Several cavities can be placed one after another to achieve higher gain and narrower bandwidth. now tubes are used rarely but they are still found in microwave equipment specifically in microwave transmitters used for producing high output power. A positive plate or collector attracts these negative particles. This technique met the first requirement for an oscillator: the gain. 28 Unit – 04: Microwave Sources & Detectors .

typically 9 KV at 750 mA. oscillation will not occur. After they turn around. Oscillations in the two-cavity klystron behave as in any other feedback oscillator. is such that they are in phase (in other words. with UHF klystrons used as TV transmitter output tubes or GHz tubes used as power amplifiers in same satellite station transmitter stagger tuning is used. accept for the addition of a (permanent) feedback loop. Partially bunched current pulses will now also excite oscillations in the intermediate cavities. having been displaced by continuous wave (CW). however. Two-Cavity Klystron Oscillation If the portion of the signal in the catcher cavity is coupled back to the buncher cavity oscillation will take place. The schematic diagram for two cavity klystron amplifiers. coming back into the RF structure. If there travel time in drift space. 4. such synchronous tuning being employed for narrowband operation. more than two cavities are always employed in practical klystron amplifiers. they will provide the necessary positive feedback to provide oscillation. and the drift space. because bunching is never complete and so electrons arrive at random at the cathode cavity. The bunches will be out of phase. the cavities may all be tuned to the same frequency. For broadband work. Oscillation can be obtained as the repeller voltage is varied. single cavity reflex klystrons are also used. the intermediate carriers are tuned to either side of the center frequency. semiconductor deiced and high gain of klystron and TWT amplifiers.3 Multi-Cavity Klystron Amplifiers The bunching process in a two-cavity klystron is by no means complete. causing electron bunching.g. the RF structure where interaction takes place.. 4. for transmitters their typically noise figure of 35 dB is more than adequate. The two-cavity klystron oscillator has fallen out of favor. Having been started by a switching transient or noise impulses. the feedback must have the correct polarity and sufficient amplitude. is placed at this point where the electrons are returned. they may arrive back at the interaction space when bunches are being formed. There are three basic regions of a reflex klystron: the cathode-anode region. The frequency range covered is from about 250 MHz to over 95 GHz and power available is much higher then currently needed. Magnetron. Consequently. The repeller. they continue as long as the dc power is present. this voltage must be regulated. tungsten-ridium cathodes are used to reduce cathode temperature and provide longer life. If bunches returning from the drift space are not in phase with bunching being formed. for either continuous or pulsed operation. As with other oscillator. To improve reliability and MTBF (mean time between failures). an electrode with a more negative potential.Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) Current klystron developments are aimed at improving efficiency providing longer life and reducing life typical efficiencies of 30 –50 %. The extra cavities help to improve the efficiency and power gain. e. in which oscillation can be achieved within a single cavity. since there are large number of out of phase electrons arriving at the catcher cavity between bunches. and these cavities in turn set up voltages which help to produce more complete bunching. Since the time taken by a given electron to pass through influence of a klystron is influenced by collector voltage. This makes them too noisy for use in receivers. Aside from these. Here. Variations of the transmit 29 Unit – 04: Microwave Sources & Detectors . improving the bandwidth very significantly. The transit time from interaction space into the drift space and back to the interaction space is varied. Two practical microwave applications are a multi-cavity power oscillator.4 Reflex Klystron A special variation of the basic klystron tube is known as a reflex klystron. Multi-cavity klystron amplifiers suffer from noise. or the electron gun. when the electrons are being bunched). The multi-cavity klystron is used as a medium for very high power amplifiers in the UHF and microwave ranges. Considerably.

The BWO contains an electron gun focusing magnetic collector and helical interaction structure used exactly like the TWT. Then oscillation will occur again. permanent magnets are normally used for focusing twice these results in simplest meagnetics and smallest tube 30 Unit – 04: Microwave Sources & Detectors .Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) time by the adjustment of repeller voltage will make the returning bunch meet in phase with another bunch that is being formed. amplitude modulation is impractical. The frequency spectrum over which BWO can be made to operate is. Because helix is essentially a non-resonant structure bandwidth is very high and the operating frequency is determined by collector voltage with associated cavity system. cathode focused by an excel magnetic field and collected at the far end of the glass tube. 3. With bunching increasing in competence from cathode to collector. This is feedback and is collected from the cathode of the helix towards which reflection tool place. As a simplification oscillation may be thought of as occurring simply because of reflection from imperfectly terminated collector end of the helix. Practical aspect: 1. the velocity of the electron beam will be changing. Operation: if the presence of starting oscillation may be assumed the operation of BWO becomes very similar to that of TWT. Unlike the TWT the BWO does not have an attenuation along the tube. Electrons are injected from the electron gun. Figure 4-2: Reflex klystron Because of the nature of the reflex klystrons. They can also be made broadband noise whose output is amplified equally wideband TWT is transmitted as a means of energy radar confusion. It operates on TWT principle of electron beam RF field interaction generally uses a helix slow wave structure. Only frequency modulation is possible on a reflex klystron. of course. 4. The unique features of B”WO is that it can be electronically tuned over wide bandwidth. vast structuring from one to well over 1000 GHz. several repeller voltages will provide oscillation. They have meanwhile travel through helix slow wave structure and bunching has taken place. This means that oscillation can occur only in one repeller voltage at each frequency. the shorter the transit time from interaction space out into the drift space an d back into interaction space.5 Backward Wave Oscillator (BWO) A BWO is a microwave cathode wave oscillator with enormous tuning and overall frequency range. In general appearance a BWO looks like a shorter thicker TWT. These are called different repeller modes. frequency change will occur. amplitude modulation will result in unwanted frequency modulation. Any voltage variation on the reflex klystron will result in the frequency modulation. The signal towards the collector and of the helix. If the electron beam voltage is varied. which will also result in frequency variation. BWO are used as signal sources in instruments and transmitters. 2. In interchanging of energy occurs exactly as in the TWT with RF around the helix growing. The higher the repeller voltage. 4. If the repeller voltage is varied.

7. 4. which is taken at that time as a standard. whenever measurement is performed.1 Crystal Detectors Crystal detectors are widely used in the microwave field because of their sensitivity and simplicity. In other words. consider two metals joined as shown in Figure 4-3. Essentially. they are suitable for microwave rectification. A typical microwave crystal detector uses a silicon chip about 1/16-inch square and a pointed tungsten whisker wire about 3/1. 4. These requirements must be met to make measurements on a transmission system. The essential parts of the crystal detector are a semiconducting chip and a metal whisker. After equilibrium is reached.Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) 5. A signal source is needed. They are also used as mixers in superhetrodyne systems specifically at microwave frequencies where other mixers. The other part of the crystal detector or mount is needed simply to support the chip and the whisker and to couple electrical energy to a 31 Unit – 04: Microwave Sources & Detectors . A recent development in this respect has been those of samaricum cobalt permanent magnet to reduce weight size. To understand how this can happen. These diodes have low capacitance across the point contact junction.000 inch in diameter. A detector rectifies the RF signal subjected to it. consequently. However. plus a device that will direct or modify the signal and connect it to an instrument which provides indication of the presence or behavior of the signal. an electron flow takes place predominantly from B to A. Microwave crystal detectors are usually the point-contact type of semiconductor devices. The semiconductor used is usually doped Silicon or Germanium. They are used as video detectors to provide either a dc output when unmodulated microwave energy is applied or a low frequency ac output up to tens of MHz or higher when the microwave signal is modulated. such as vacuum tubes. Figure 4-3: two metals contact with dissimilar conductivity If metal B has more free electrons (is more conductive) upon contact. which contacts the chip. The diode operates because a contact potential is established between two dissimilar conductors. A will apparently be charged more negatively and B will be more positive. the solenoids are used as the highest frequency since it has been found that they give the high penetration and distribution for axil magnetic field. 4. a potential barrier will be formed at the junction. such as radiation. are insufficient or inefficient.7 Detector Any device used to detect the presence of a physical property or phenomenon. which effectively provides rectification. some kind of substitution or comparison of a value of an unknown with a known is done.6 Detection of Microwave Signals Measuring any unknown quantity of a certain parameter is always done by comparison of the unknown quantity to a known.

Figure 4-4: idealized crystal detector circuit. And.2 Square Law of Crystal Detectors Square law of crystal detectors states that the output voltage is proportional to the square of the input voltage. If the operating point is the origin ( v = 0. which flows through the milliammeter.. for somewhat larger signals. then a 0 = 0 . The current is simply proportional to the applied voltage.7. that is. Substituting in Equation 1 yields i = a1 ( A cos ωt ) + a 2 ( A cos ωt ) 2 + a3 ( A cos ωt ) 3 + . these dimensions also limit their power handling capability. A typical crystal detector has a current voltage characteristic similar to that shown in Figure 4-5.. Figure 4-5: square characteristics of a crystal detector. Consider the idealized circuit shown in Figure 4-4. Thus. Equation 3 For extremely small signals.Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) detector. just 100 mW is sufficient to damage crystals. which flows through C. and the second harmonic component (a 2 A ) / 2 × cos 2t . the milliammeter indication is proportional to the square of the amplitude A of the microwave voltage. 32 Unit – 04: Microwave Sources & Detectors . ω is equal to 2πf. Relatively large variations in output voltage result from minor variations inn the input voltage and the sensitivity of this type of detector is therefore relatively high.. Let Equation 1 v = A cos ω t Equation 2 where A is the amplitude. the second term must be included to obtain reasonable accuracy. and the crystal behaves as a simple resistor with negligible dc current flowing through the milliammeter. However. i = 0 ). i = a1 ( A cos ωt ) . and f is the microwave frequency. Crystal detectors are successful at microwave frequencies partly because of their extremely small size.. in which a sinusoidal microwave voltage is applied to flow to the milliammeter. 4. i = a1 ( A cos ωt ) + a1 ( A cos ωt ) 2 = a1 ( A cos ωt ) + The current now includes the dc component (a 2 A 2 2 a2 A2 (1 + cos 2ωt ) 2 Equation 4 ) / 2 . i = a0 + a1v + a 2 v 2 + a3 v 3 + . all terms in Equation 1 except the first are negligible. Any such curve can always be approximated by a Taylor series consisting of terms involving powers of v .

Expansion is accomplished by applying a precise amount of dc offset current to the meter and simultaneously increasing the signal to the third amplifier. Then the signal is fed to the first section of a range switch and then to the input of an amplifier. This increased gain allows a certain decibel change in signal level to deflect the meter across its full scale. The offset current places the zero signal indication off-scale to the left. The gain control is a coarse control to adjust the negative feedback in this amplifier. An ac feedback is provided in the second amplifier for stability and high-input impedance. Figure 4-6: block diagram of a standing-wave indicator. The expand function allows any signal level to be measured on the expanded scale. A standing-wave indicator is a high-gain. It also has a built-in bias supply to provide bias current for devices like bolometer. Vernier is a fine gain control and changes gain in series with the output signal. tuned amplifier which takes an input from a crystal detector or any audio source.8 Indicators Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) Indicators are used primarily for visual presentation of the presence or behavior of the detected signal. galvanometers.Microwave Engineering 4. the gain and vernier controls associated with the amplifier and vary gain over a range of more than 10:1. Input voltage first goes to input switching to provide either the bias supply or an impedance match for the right input characteristics needed. Figure 4-6 shows a block diagram of a standing-wave indicator. Switch positions are in 10-dB steps. or special indicator devices like the standingwave indicator. 33 Unit – 04: Microwave Sources & Detectors . Such devices can be oscilloscopes. The input signal is amplified and applied to a meter calibrated for use with square-law detector. The second section of the switch is located between the first amplifier and the second amplifier. In the input amplifier. The output of this amplifier is applied to the expand attenuator and then to the following amplifier.

1 5.3 5.5 5.9 Introduction to Mixers Theory of Mixing Conversion Loss Parametric Amplifier Parametric Up-Converter Parametric Down-Converter Manely – Rowe Power Relation Negative Resistance Parametric Amplifier Harmonic Frequency Conversion .6 5.8 5.7 5.Unit – 05 Microwave Mixing 5.4 5.2 5.

phasing if the desired and image responses are insufficiently spaced for filtering to work. the ideal mixer output is the sum and difference frequencies given by Typically. or the difference. 5. At the destination. and the frequency-shifting power or voltage (from a local oscillator [LO]) is applied to the mixer’s LO port. or the audio. the IF and IF image). as 35 Unit – 05: Microwave Mixing . degrading the signal-to-noise ratio. Any device that exhibits amplitude-nonlinear behavior can serve as a mixer. Figure 5-1: Circuit symbol for a mixer The ideal mixer. the stages that perform it are termed mixers. represented by figure 1. if the wanted IF is higher than the RF. Although mixers are equally important in wireless transmission and reception.Microwave Engineering 5. but from the mathematics of mixing itself. resulting in two outputs at the mixer’s intermediate frequency (IF) port.1 Introduction to Mixers Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) Mixers are used for frequency conversion and are critical components in modern radio frequency (RF) systems. the mixer is an up converter. frequency. the mixer will produce output at the desired IF (LO+RF or LO-RF) in response to two possible RF inputs: one at LO+IF and another at LO-IF (Figure 5-2).2 Theory of Mixing Radio communication requires that we shift a base band information signal to a frequency or frequencies suitable for electromagnetic propagation to the desired destination. traditional mixer terminology favors the receiving case. If the wanted IF is lower in frequency than the RF signal. from the signals present at the input of a device. is 2fIF removed from the desired response. the signal to be frequency-shifted is applied to the mixer’s RF port. shifting the received radiofrequency signal back to base band to allow the recovery of the information it contains. The undesired response. Filtering and phasing techniques can be used to reduce the RF or IF image responses —filtering if the image is sufficiently removed from the desired response for filtering to provide the necessary rejection. This frequency-shifting function is traditionally known as mixing. of signals at new frequencies. either the sum. Just as a given RF/LO combination produces two IF outputs (LO+RF and LO-RF. A mixer converts RF power at one frequency into power at another frequency to make signal processing easier and also inexpensive. Even if no manmade signals exist at the RF image frequency. the mixer is a down converter. including that produced by circuitry between the mixer and antenna. frequency is removed with a filter. Thus. is a device which multiplies two input signals. we reverse this process. If the inputs are sinusoids. as nonlinear distortion results in the production. Converter may also be used as a term for a single stage that simultaneously acts as mixer and LO. the RF image (traditionally referred to merely as the image). reducing a mixer’s RF image response can be important because noise at that frequency. A fundamental reason for frequency conversion is to allow amplification of the received signal at a frequency other than the RF. The simultaneous generation of LO+RF and LO-RF outputs result not from a departure of mixer performance from the ideal. will still be mixed to the desired IF.

and the one of interest may be selected by the IF filter. the nonlinear characteristic may differ. Expanding (2) I = K [(V 2 + V1 2 sin 2 (ω1t ) + V2 2 sin 2 (ω 2 t ) 2 + 2VV1 sin(ω1t ) + 2VV2 sin(ω 2 t ) + 2V2V1 sin(ω1t ) sin(ω 2 t )] Equation 3 The output comprises a direct current and a number of alternating current contributions. However. A different exponent will result in the generation of other mixing products. we may write: I IF = 2 KV 2V1 sin(ω1t ) sin(ω 2 t ) I IF = 2 KV 2V1 {[cos(ω 2 − ω1 )t ] − [cos(ω 2 + ω1 )t ]} Equation 4 This means that at the output. but this is not relevant for a basic understanding of the process. if we neglect those terms that do not include both V1 and V2. it can generally be expressed in the form: I = K (v1+v2+V)n Equation 1 The exponent n is not necessarily an integer. and the signal voltages v1 and v2 may be expressed as v1 = V1 sin ( ω1t) and v2 = V2 sin ( ω2t) When n = 2. such as 25 kHz.Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) in the case of a double-conversion receiver in which signals at a high first IF (for example. We are interested only in that portion of the current that generates the IF. All mixers are multipliers in the sense that the various new outputs they produce can be described mathematically as the multiplicative products of their inputs. 36 Unit – 05: Microwave Mixing . Figure 5-2: relationship between a mixer’s image and desired signal response. The image is 2fIF away from the desired signal. V may be a dc offset voltage. Equation (1) may then be written as: I = K (V + V1 sin ω1t + V2 sin ω 2 t ) 2 Equation 2 This assumes the use of a device with a square-law characteristic. must be converted to a very low first IF. 50 to 70 MHz). we have the sum and difference signals available. Mixing is achieved by the application of two signals to a nonlinear device. Depending upon the particular device. so. Let us now consider the basic theory of mixers.

The output circuit which does not require any external excitation is called Idler circuit.. an output voltage can be generated across the load at the output frequency fo.9 dB for passive mixers. a voltage of fundamental frequencies fs and fp. The word parametric is derived from the word “excitation”. One of the distinguishing features of a parametric amplifier is that it uses an ac rather sc power supply. These losses can be minimized by driving the diodes with sufficient current and operating in the best portions of the frequency band and are generally between 5 .4 Parametric Amplifier Normal amplifiers convert power from dc source (power supply or battery) into power at same signal frequency i. Parametric amplifier is a device that uses non-linear reactance (capacitance or inductance) or timevarying reactance.3 Conversion Loss Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) It is the ratio of the output signal level to the input signal level expressed in dB. will appear across C. 37 Unit – 05: Microwave Mixing . The output (or idler) frequency fo. High level mixers are specified with more LO drive power. Parametric Circuit Analysis In a superhetrodyne receiver. On other hand a parametric amplifier convert power at one frequency (from a source pump) into a power at another frequency i. signal frequency. the local oscillator is replaced by a pumping generator and the non-linear element of a time varying capacitor as shown in Figure 5-3.. as well as the sum and difference frequencies mfp ± nfs (where m and n are integers from zero to infinity). transistors.e. and lasers. time varying or alternating power. If a resistive load is connected across the terminal of Idler circuit. The solid state varactor diode is most widely used parametric amplifier. In a parametric amplifier.e. the parametric amplifier diode is of the reactive nature and thus generates very small amount of thermal noise (Johnson noise). in Idler circuit is expressed as the sum and difference frequencies of the signal frequency fs and pump frequency fp. Figure 5-3: equivalent circuit of parametric amplifier Operation: The signal frequency fs and the pump frequency fp are mixed in the nonlinear capacitor C. RF-signal can be mixed with a signal from the local oscillator in a nonlinear circuit to generate the sum and difference of the frequencies. Consequently. 5. therefore 3 dB of loss is theoretical. The additional loss is diode and transformer loss. Parametric excitation may be subdivided into parametric amplification and oscillation. only one sideband is used. In a single sideband system.Microwave Engineering 5. Unlike microwave tubes. Conversion loss is specified in a 50 Ω system with an LO drive level of +7 dBm.

then fo/fs = 10. f o = f s + f p . There is no power flow in parametric device at frequencies other than signal. and output frequencies. minimum noise figure will be F = 0.e. In a typical microwave diode rQ = 10. The bandwidth is given by.5 Parametric Up-Converter Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) A parametric up-converter is a device in which frequency of oscillation fs is greater than the signal frequency fs (i. The noise figure F. Noise Figure One advantage of parametric amplifiers over a transistor amplifier is its low noise figure. fo > fs). pump. the figure of merit goes to infinity and degradation factor becomes equal to the infinity. Q = 2πf s CRa ( )2 Ra is the series resistance of a pn-junction diode and rQ is the figure of merit for the nonlinear capacitor. So that.e.Microwave Engineering 5.86 dB Bandwidth The bandwidth of a parametric amplifier is related to the figure of merit and the ratio of signal frequency fo and the output frequency. x = f o (rQ )2 1 and . In a parametric up-converter Output frequency is equal to the sum of the signal frequency and the pump frequency i. because pure reactance does not contribute thermal noise to the circuit. for parametric upconverter is given as: ( )2 F = 1+ 2 where. Power Gain: If above tow conditions are satisfied then the maximum power gain of parametric amplifier is given as: Gain = fo x × fs 1+ 1+ x fs where. As a result power gain of a parametric up-converter for a lossless diode is equal to fo/fs. The quantity x / 1 + 1 + x may be regarded as a gain degradation factor. Td To ⎡1 1 ⎤ ⎢ + 2⎥ ⎢ rQ (rQ) ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Td = diode temperature (K) To = 300 K (ambient temperature) rQ = figure of merit for nonlinear capacitance... BW = 2r fo fs 38 Unit – 05: Microwave Mixing . As Rd approaches zero.

. the signal frequency fs must be equal to sum of the pump frequency fp and the output frequency fo. Figure 5-4: equivalent circuit for Manely-Rowe observation. These resonating circuits of filters are designed to reject power at all frequencies other than their respective signal frequencies.7 Manely – Rowe Power Relation Manely and Rowe have derived a set of general energy relations regarding power flowing into and out of an ideal nonlinear reactance.e. Each of the resonant circuit is assumed to be ideal. In Figure 5-4 one signal generator and one pump generator at their respective frequencies fs and fp together with their associated series resistances and band filters are applied to nonlinear capacitance c(t). In other words. Manely and Rowe established the power relations between the input power at the frequencies fs and fp and the output power at the other frequencies. the power entering the nonlinear capacitor at the pump frequency is equal to nonlinear power leaving the capacitor at the other frequency through the nonlinear interaction. where m and n are any integers from zero to infinity. the input power must feed into the idler circuit and the output circuit must move out from the signal. These relations are useful in predicting whether power gain is possible in a parametric amplifier. If a mode of down converter for a parametric amplifier is desirable. Figure 5-4 shows an equivalent circuit for the Manely-Rowe observation. The down-conversion gain (actually a loss) is given by Gain = fo x × fs 1+ 1+ x ( )2 5.6 Parametric Down-Converter Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) A parametric up-converter is a device in which frequency of oscillation fs is less than the signal frequency fs (i.Microwave Engineering 5. fo < fs). Equation from the voltage across the nonlinear capacitor c (t) can be expressed as exponential form as V = v p + vs = V p ⎛ jw pt V − jw t + e p ⎞ + s e jwst + e − jwst ⎟ ⎜e ⎠ 2 2 ⎝ ( ) 39 Unit – 05: Microwave Mixing . The power loss by the nonlinear resistor is negligible. An infinite number of resonant frequencies mfp ± nfs are generated in the presence of two applied frequencies of fs and fp.

−n I −m. then a negative condition with the possibility with the oscillation at both the signal frequency and the idler frequency will occur.n I m.n I *m.n = V *−m.n +V *m.Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) The general expression of the charge Q deposited on the capacitor is given as Q= m = −∞ n = −∞ ∑ ∑ Qmn e ∞ ∞ j ( mw pt + nwst ) In order for the charge Q to be real. and idler frequency fi.−n I *−m.−n +V−m. the device behaves as the bilateral negative resistance parametric amplifier. f s RTs RTi (1 − a )2 40 Unit – 05: Microwave Mixing . The idler frequency is defined as the difference between the pump frequency and the signal frequency f i = f p − f s . When the mode operates below oscillation threshold. Power gain Output power is taken from the resistance Ri at the frequency fi and the conversion gain from fs to fi is given by Gain = 4 where fs = signal frequency f i R g Ri a . it is necessary that Qmn = Q−m−n The total voltage V can be expressed as a function of the charge Q.8 Negative Resistance Parametric Amplifier If a significant portion of power flows only at signal frequency fs. it is necessary that Vmn = V−m−n The current flowing through c(t) is the total derivative of Equation (ii) with respect to time.−n Then. That is.n = Vm.n = 0 ∞ ∞ 5. conservation of power can be expressed as m = −∞ n = −∞ ∑ ∑ Pm. the average power at the frequencies mfp + nfs is Pm. pump frequency fp. . I= ∞ ∞ dQ j ( mw pt + nwst ) = ∑ ∑ I mn e dt m= −∞ n =−∞ Because the capacitor c(t) is assumed to be pure reactance. a similar Taylor series expansion of V(Q) shows that V = m = −∞ n = −∞ ∑ ∑ Vmn e ∞ ∞ j ( mw pt + nwst ) In order for the voltage V to be real.

the total power at the singal frequency is almost equal to the total power at the signal frequency. Because the idler frequency fi is the difference between fp and fs. th signal frequency is just one-half of the pump frequency. Td To ⎡ 1 1 ⎤ + ⎢ 2⎥ ⎢ rQ (rQ ) ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ Td = diode temperature (K) To = 300 K (ambient temperature) rQ = figure of merit for nonlinear capacitor. So the total power in the pass band will have 3 dB more gain. and Rg = external output resistance if the signal generator in ohms. As high gain. Power Gain and Bandwidth The power gain and bandwidth characteristics of degenerate parametric amplifier are exactly same as for the parametric up=converter with fs = fi and fp = 2fs.Microwave Engineering fp = pump frequency fi = fp – fs = idler frequency a = R/Ts Rg = output resistance of a signal generator RTs = total series resistance at signal frequency RTi = total series resistance at idler frequency Noise figure Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) The optimum noise figure of a negative resistance parametric amplifier is expressed as F = 1+ 2 where. Bandwidth The maximum gain bandwidth of a negative resistance parametric amplifier is given by BW = r 2 fi × Gain fs 5. Noise Figure The noise figure for the single sideband and he double sideband degenerate parametric amplifiers are given respectively by Fssb = 2 + 2 Fdsb where Td Rd To R g T R = 1+ d d To R g Td = average diode temperature in 0K To = 300 K is the ambient noise temperature in 0K Rd = diode series resistance in ohms. the power transferred from the pump to the idler frequency. 41 Unit – 05: Microwave Mixing .9 Degenerate Parametric Amplifier Degenerate parametric amplifier or oscillator is defined as a negative resistance amplifier with the signal frequency equal to the idler frequency.

etc. Because a square wave is made of the summation of the fundamental and all the odd harmonics as well. A(t)=A0+A1sin(ω0t)+A2sin(2 ω0t+φ2)+ A3sin(3 ω0t+φ3)……. which produce sum and difference frequency output signals with each term of the Fourier series. Many mixers will also convert an input signal with harmonics of the local oscillator. more than just the odd harmonics are present.9 Harmonic Frequency Conversion Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) A mixer will convert an input signal of an IF by taking the sum or difference between the local oscillator and the input signal. Figure 5-6 is a plot of the transfer function A (t) of the input mixer. In other words. because the duty cycle is not an exact 50 percent.. Harmonic mixing is used to extend the frequency range of the swept super heterodyne spectrum analyzer. but preselection filters can be used to eliminate the confusion. third harmonic. second harmonic. and the example diode mixer will mix the input RF signal with all harmonics of the local oscillator. and the switch action of the diode can be thought of as multiplying a square wave with an amplitude of 1 with the input waveform. the input signal can be heterodyned with the fundamental. Any output signals produced at 2 GHz will pass through the system and be displayed as already described. third harmonic. which shows the diode gate being switched off and on by the first local oscillator drive signal. An input signal is multiplied by the transfer function. This transfer function of time is shown expressed as a Fourier series function of frequency. Bias is applied to the drive waveform to unbalance the duty cycle so that even as well as odd harmonics are present. If the level of the local oscillator is sufficiently high. Harmonic mixers respond to several input frequencies simultaneously. In this example a single diode is used to mix an input RF signal with the third harmonic of the local oscillator. of the first local-oscillator frequency. Figure 5-5 Simple series mixer capable of mixing by harmonics. Mixing is essentially multiplying two signals together. but the most affective solution is a tracking narrow-band filter which can be adjusted to 42 Unit – 05: Microwave Mixing . Bandpass broadband filters can help with higher-order harmonic mixing modes. An example of a simple harmonic mixer is shown in Figure 5-5. the diode can be thought of as a switch being switched at the rate of the local oscillator. In a practical circuit. Figure 5-6 Transfer function of input mixer of a spectrum analyzer. So the analyzer will respond to signals which differ not only from the fundamental by 2 GHz but also by 2 GHz from the second harmonic. etc.Microwave Engineering 5.

This filter can be biased and electrically swept to allow only the signal matching a desired mixing mode to enter the input mixer.Microwave Engineering Fahim Aziz Umrani (2KES23) track a desired harmonic mixing mode as the spectrum analyzer is tuned and scanned. Such a filter is the YIG filter. 43 Unit – 05: Microwave Mixing . consisting of one or more coupled yittrium-iron-garnet resonators whose resonant frequency is proportional to the strength of the field from an electromagnet tin which they are placed.

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd