Rizwan Alam Period: 0 A.P.U.S.History Identify ad state the historical significance of the following: 29.

Free Soil Party: HS: This led them to make their own party, and provide help for the Blacks and keep the new territories away from slavery. 20. “Conscience” Whigs: condemned slavery on moral grounds. HS: stage set up for a show down even between parties regarding the subject of Slavery. 17. Popular sovereignty: letting the people decide whether to legalize the slavery or not. HS: This tossed the biggest issue in the nation of people and even at that time many were illiterate. But it had a great chance of promoting or spreading the slavery even more. 26. Underground Railroad: a secret organization that took runaway states north to Canada, was taking many slaves from South. South needed even more slaves now, so many were being evacuated by mainly Harriet Tubman. 1. Harriet Tubman: freed more then 300 slaves during nineteen trips to South. HS: obviously beside saving so many people, he gave hope to slaves which started violence and killings of the masters and made south see and feel what it is actually like without the slaves, which only enticed their anger towards the idea of South without slaves. 19. Fugitive Slave Law: provide for the return of slaves who escaped from one state into another or into a public territory. HS: It aroused much bitterness in abolitionists and the newly party, Free-Soil Party. 10. Henry Clay: urged concession from both the North and the South, the North for a fugitive slave law, the South for others. HS: Kept playing the role to keep the nation together and make each side compromise. 2. Stephen A. Douglas: a fine senator, who played a less spectacular but far more important role. HS: helped Clay achieve of what his goals in making both sides better. 11. John C. Calhoun: dying of tuberculosis, pleaded for states’ rights, for slavery to be left alone, for the return of runaway slaves, the restoration of the rights of the South as a minority, and the return for political balance. HS: this aroused the feeling of balance between politicians. 7. Daniel Webster: proclaimed that the new land could not hold slaves anyway, since it couldn’t cultivate cotton. HS: His speech helped the north compromise. 8. William H. Seward: young senator from New York, hated slavery. He said that the Christian legislators must adhere to a “higher law” and not allow slavery to exist. HS: He was someone who could potentially be a candidate of 1860 election, and he risked by openly saying that He refuses to put up with any compromises and rejects slavery. 24. “higher law” : absolutely reject any compromises. HS: President Taylor also fell into the influence of “ higher law “ who vetoed every compromise sent to him by compromise. 4. Millard Fillmore: took reign after the death of Zachary Taylor due to acute intestinal disorder.

HS: He was not so big of a fan of “higher law” and absolutely not even looking at the scenarios and rejecting them. He signed a series of agreements that came to be known as the compromise of 1850. 12. Franklin Pierce: unknown and enemy less, a candidate from the democrat’s side. HS: hindering their chances of ruling, but he actually wins. 5. Winfield Scott: nominated by the Whigs; the old veteran of the war of 1812 and the Mexican-American War. HS: People wanted to move in another direction and this time the people chose democrats. 9. Martin Van Buren: free-Soilers nominated for him. HS: without any talks upon slavery, Taylor won and Van Buren was not elected as a president of the U.S. 6. William Walker: brazen American adventurer, grabbed control in Nicaragua and proclaimed himself president. HS: legalized slavery, and was overthrown by a coalition of Latin American States. 27. Ostend Manifesto: stated that the U.S was to offer $120 million to Spain for Cuba, and if it refused and Spain’s ownership of Cuba continued to endanger the U.S., then America would be justified in seizing the island. HS: Northern were outraged and South couldn’t get another slave state. Mathew C. Perry: forced Japan to open up their nation to trades. HS: treaty of Kanagawa was formed. 21. Gadsen Purchase: James Gadsen bought it when he saw Santa Anna in power. HS: This was another state and the question once again showed up, Who was going to be the owner of this land, North or the South. 23. Kansas-Nebraska Act: let slavery in Kansas and Nebraska. HS: a concession to the south for giving up the Railroad. 14. James Gadsen: found the route for southerners from Mexico and proposed it to congress for ten million. HS: it was accepted and he accomplished his purchase of Santa Anna. 25. Compromised of 1850: The compromise of 1850 made California a free state, declared that Popular sovereignty, abolished the slave trade in Washington DC, and created a stricter fugitive slave law. HS: made both North and South more equal. 18. Clayton-Bulwer Treaty: An agreement between Great Britain and U.S regarding canals in central America. HS: now they jointly controlled and protected what was to become the Panama Canal. 22. “Fire eaters”: group of extremist pro-slavery politicians from the South who urged the separation of southern states into a new nation. 16. Filibustering: attempt to extend debate upon a proposal in order to delay or completely prevent a vote on its passage. HS: compromise of 1850 and it’s proposed ideas were delayed, through ongoing debates. 28. Treaty of Wanghia: first ever agreement on anything between china and U.S.

H.S: relations helped us communicate in Asia. 30. “ personal liberty laws”: series of laws passed by several U.S. states in the North in the 1850s in response to the Fugitive Slave Law. H.S: This lead to the equality between the nation.