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**Huang-Jen Chiu, Member, IEEE, Hsiu-Ming Huang, Li-Wei Lin, Ming-Hsiang Tseng
**

Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Chung-Yuan Christian Univ., Taiwan

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Abstract This paper presents a multiple-input DC/DC converter for renewable energy systems. The proposed DC/DC converter can be used to obtain well-regulated output voltage from several power sources, such as wind turbines, photovoltaic arrays, fuel cells, etc. The energy provided by these power sources can be simultaneously transferred into the load. The proposed multiple-input DC/DC converter has the advantages of simple configuration, fewer components, lower cost and high efficiency. The operating principle, theoretical analysis, and design criteria are provided in this paper. A laboratory prototype with two different power sources was successfully implemented and tested. The simulation and experimental results are given to verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme. Keywords- Multiple-Input DC/DC Converter, Renewable Energy System, Current-Fed

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I. Introduction Recently, clean energy resources such as wind turbines, photovoltaic arrays or fuel cells have been exploited for developing renewable electric power generation systems [1-3]. The multiple-input DC/ DC converter shown in Figure l(a), is useful for combining several energy sources whose power capacity and/ or voltage levels are different to obtain well-regulated output voltage [4-7]. The input-stage circuits for different energy sources can be put in parallel using a coupled transformer. Only one power source is allowed to transfer energy (El-EN) into the load at a time. These input-stage circuits are designed in an "interleaving operation mode" as shown in Fig. 1(b) to prevent power coupling effects. The current ratings for these input-stage circuits are higher with more complicated interleaving control circuits. A multiple-input power supply system based on the current-fed full-bridge converter, shown in Fig. 2(a), is considered a better choice for such applications [8-10]. By using a phase-shift PWM control scheme, the energy from the different power sources can be simultaneously transferred into the load through a multi-winding transformer as shown in Fig. 2(b). However, a large number of power switches and a complicated gating driver and controller are needed, thus requiring high cost and a large size for this conventional converter. As shown in Fug. 3, a novel multiple-input DC/DC converter is presented for renewable energy systems. The proposed converter has the advantages of simple configuration, fewer components, lower cost and high efficiency. The design and operating principles will be discussed in detail in the following sections, IsSpice simulations are given to confirm the theoretical analysis. A two-input laboratory prototype was implemented and tested to show the performance of the proposed

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(b) Fig. 1 The Multiple-Input DC/DC Converter for Renewable Energy System

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Both 61 and 62 exceed 0. IL4 flows into the second transformer primary winding. Q2 and Q3 on. The inductor currents. Q3. The inductor current. Is satisfies Equation (4). a simplified circuit diagram of the proposed DC/DC converter with two-input is shown and discussed in Fig. and a secondary bridge-rectifier. 1 . the transformer secondary current. a coupled transformer. higCyl Mode I (QI.5 h ThoetclT Waeom fo_n wthnyl convrte ca he b Texpained Wavfrs follOnSws. The proposed multiple-input DC/DC converter is suitable for high-voltage output applications due to the current-fed circuit topology that requires no output indictor. the power switches Ql and Q2 are on. I IL2 through QI and Q2. The inductor current. VI and the inductor current. IL4 flows through Q4 back to the second voltage (4) IS= N IL2 + N IL4 Mode IV (Qi.II. IL3 flows through Q3 back to the second voltage source. When the surviving energy is released completely. All the rectifying diodes are off and the load power is provided alone by the output capacitor CO. The inductor current. When the surviving energy is released completely. and Q4 on): During this interval. V2 through Q3 and Q4. TIn p in current in Q2 occurs at zero voltage and there is no dissipation caused by Q2 turning off. ILI flows through QI back to the first voltage source. VI through Qi and Q2. IL3 and IL4 flow back to the second voltage source.Operating Principle of the Proposed Converter For operating analysis convenience. The falling current in Q4 occurs at zero voltage and there is no dissipation caused by Q4 turning off. Both of the inductor currents. The inductor currents. Q4 off): During this interval. Q2 and Q4 off): The falling of the pr r Q2 s D Fi. IL. IL3 and IL4 flow back to the second voltage source. IL3 flows through the transformer primary winding. IL4 flows into the transformer primary winding. i~~~~~~~~. V2. Each input-stage circuit consists of two power switches and two choke inductors. IL2 flows into the first transformer primary winding and the inductor current. the theoretical waveforms are shown in Figs. Q3. The inductor current. 4. Vi 1305 VI through QI and Q2. all power switches Q1VQ4 are on. and Q4 on): During this interval. The energy from the two power sources is transferred to the load through the rectifying diodes DI and D4. all power switches Q1VQ4 are on. The inductor currents. The surviving energy in the leakage inductance of the second primary winding is also delivered to the load through the transformer. Mode II (Qi. Only the inductor current. Q3 off): During this interval. the power switch Q3 is off. 4 The Circuit Diagram of the Proposed DC/DC Converter with Two-Input Based on the symbols and signal polarities introduced in Fig.Q2. The surviving energy in the leakage inductance of the second primary winding is also delivered to the load through the transformer. The transformer secondary current. 4. the transformer secondary winding current will collapse to zero. ILi and IL2 flow back to the first voltage source. The rising currents in Q2 and Q4 occur at zero voltage and there is no dissipation caused by Q2 and Q4 turning on. IL1 and L2 still flow back to the first ' voltage source. ILi and IL2 flow back to the first voltage source. (1) I (2) +2 = (262 ])T/ 2. VI through Ql and Q2. The falling current in Q3 occurs at zero voltage and there is no dissipation caused by Q3 turning off. the transformer secondary winding current will collapse to zero. V2. The duty ratio 61 for the power switches Ql and Q2 in the first input-stage circuit and the duty ratio 62 for the power switches Q3 and Q4 in the second input-stage circuit are regulated independently by two separated control loops. Q2. Mode V (Qi. V2 through Q3 and Q4. All the rectifying diodes are off and the load power is provided alone by the output capacitor CO. where the overlapping-times +j and +2 can be expressed as follows. The inductor currents.5 to implement the overlapping operation. IL3 flows through Q3 back to the second voltage source. It is composed of two current-fed input-stage circuits. The inductor current. Thus. Both of the inductor currents. . Is satisfies Equation (3). (3) IS N IL4' Mode III (Qi and Q3 on. and IL2 flow back to the first voltage source. Fig. 5. j = (261 1)Ts 2. The energy from the second power source is transferred to the load through the rectifying diodes DI and D4. Q2 and Q4 on.

VTR VTR2 where 61 is the duty ratio of the power switches Ql. Vs and Is represent respectively the source voltage (V1. Q2 and Q4 on. Q2 and Q3 on. Q4 off) Ns .Q4 = IL3 + IL4 = I2 (11) (Q1. Q ~ Fig.i is the upper inductor current (IL2.LQS- I L q | L X~~~~J- k~~~~~~~j Q2 _N P (12) From Equations (11) and (13). Q2 in the first input-circuit and 62 is the duty ratio of the power switches Q3. The inductor current._^D2 AjjW AD4II where LI. The transformer secondary current. IL2 flows through Q2 back to the first voltage source. N I3 Mode VI (Q2 and Q4 on.Q2 =ILI + IL2 =Ii IQ3. VI and the inductor current. Thus. As discussed above.'E`7v V~2i+I (QI and Q3 on. zero-voltage-switching condition of the power switches can be derived as follows. V2. is the maximum rise time of the switch current. The leakage inductances of the first and second primary windings release their surviving energy to the load through the transformer. Q3 off) \ + 1 < 1. 7(a). QI and Q3 off) LI = L2 2 A.L26V217 0/0)IIfs L3 = (15) L4 2 |~~iD ~ ~ In3 ~ Q' XD1 ~ ~~ Q In Q jI ~ |D~ ~ 11 ~ i-q fr where fs is the switching frequency of the power switches. and Q4 on) Mode IV NS 2VOtr(max) Np2 I1 12 0~~I Q2 1 L. 6 Equivalent Circuits under Different Switching Modes s~ I LI + (5) III. Is satisfies Equation (6). The inductances of LI-L4 can be determined by the requirements of the inductor current ripples as follows: IVs AT (14) Mode VI (Q2 and Q4 on. The voltage and current stresses of the power switches can be found as follows: Npl 1-81 Ns 1 = VO S V2 Np2 1-52 V1 VO = NS 1 (7) (8) Np2 Ns IL3)^ (6) VQJ. 1L3) 1306 AIL (0/0)I2fs 21V2 (16) . this is a very important merit. The inductor current. V2) and source current (I1. The energy from the two power sources is transferred to the load through the rectifying diodes D2 and D3. the transformer secondary winding current will collapse to zero. 12). Q2. When the surviving energy is released completely. IL4 flows through Q4 back to the second voltage source. Is satisfies Equation (5). IL3 flows through the second transformer primary winding.Q2 N-P N . and Q4 on) Mode II (Q1. it is obvious that the power switches subject only one source current and not twice as do the conventional two-switch circuit topologies such as push-pull converter or half-bridge converter. Qi and Q3 off): The falling current in QI occurs at zero voltage and there is no dissipation caused by Ql turning off. ILI flows through the first transformer primary winding and the inductor current. (13) Ll 2 2Votr(max) NP1 t12- IQi. The equivalent circuit of the input-stage circuit is shown in Fig. and L12 are respectively the leakage inductances of the first and the second primary windings and t. Mode I (Q1. Q2 and Q4 off) Mode III Mode V (Q1. Q2. The voltage transfer ratio VTR of the proposed multiple-input DC/DC converter can be derived from the volt-second balance condition across the choke inductors and expressed by Equations (7) and (8). the transformer secondary current. IS =-( Npl The circuit will then proceed back to Mode I after completing one operating cycle Ts.O VI (9) V2 _2 VQ3.source. The energy transferred to the load through the rectifying diodes D2 and D3 is from the second power source. The rising currents in QI and Q3 occur at zero voltage and there is no dissipation caused by Ql and Q3 turning on. AIL(Jo%) is the percentage ripple current on the choke inductors Lr-L4. V2. all switches have negligible dissipation as they have the transformer leakage inductance in series and on hence turn at zero The voltage.Q4 NV 1-8 (10) _~_. For the low-voltage energy source such as fuel cells. Q3. IL. Q3. Steady-State Analysis Assuming the output capacitor CO is large enough so that the voltage ripple on it is negligible. IL4) and ILj is the lower inductor current (IL1. Q4 in the second input-circuit.

- V2 1. C.Q2 = I. Because of the ripple cancellation on the source current.6x24 -1. Vref is the reference voltage.3 x 4 x 100k 0. This produces relatively ripple-free source current that is desirable for the low-voltage renewable energy sources such as fuel cells. Power Switches The voltage and current ratings for the power switches can be calculated using Equations (9) to (12) as follows: 12 (19) VQQ .0. I. 11ref and 12 ref are the reference currents for the two source currents. and k2. The overlapping-times +.. is the summation of V. and . a larger ripple current in choke inductors can be allowed in practical applications. From the theoretical waveforms shown in Fig. the transformer turn ratios can be determined using Equations (7) and (8). the output voltage regulation and proper power sharing between different energy sources can be achieved. Output Capacitor The output capacitor must be large enough to provide the load power during Mode III and Mode VI without the voltage across it decreasing too much.4A. V2=24VDC * Source current: I1=4A. 6) 2 24 V2 Np2 ~ Equations (13) and (14) must be satisfied such that the zero-voltage-switching of the power switches 1307 Ns n2 =N Npl 1 )-='(1-0.Q4 = I2 = 6A. the leakage inductances of the transformer first and second primary windings can be determined as follows. IQ3. Thus. Thus.VI 1-1 VQQ2 =-1 1.Design Example of the Proposed Converter To verify the feasibility of the proposed scheme.6x12 1. the ripple cancellation on source current can be observed. and +2 for the power switches in each input-stage circuit can be controlled by the control signals f. a laboratory prototype with following specifications was designed and tested. (29) Gating Signals for Q3 Gatfg Sigals d Q4 I FI || Gate Driv|Geeat .6) ~VI V O1eppi.6 = 30V.6mH. can be achieved. +(I 152) Np2 I21 Ns Ns = (18) Choke Inductors Let the peak-to-peak current ripples be 30 percent of the inductor currents under full power. The design considerations for the key components will be discussed in this section.2. The inductance of the choke inductors LI-L4 can be determined using Equations (15) and (16) as follows. VO is the output voltage. 'e1 and Ie2 are the current error signals generated by the corresponding current error amplifiers (CEAI and CEA2). h1 and I2. 7(b).0. VEA. the following Equations must be satisfied.Q4 B. 7(a) The Equivalent Circuit and (b) the Theoretical Waveforms of the Input-Stage Circuit (a) (b) IV. D.OOlx 192 52uF. (17) VoIo = VjII + V2I2. (I -51 ) Npl I.rCircit =0s 192 3. The overlapping-time control signal f.0. (24) 1 = . x CO 2 o.u O. The output capacitance can be then determined using Equation (27).c2. the voltages Vi' and Vj' may be 0 or (VJ/n) for different switching modes. the output power PO is the summation of the two source powers P1 and P2. Controller Design A block diagram of the control circuit for the proposed multiple-input DC/DC converter is shown in Fig. the inductance and the size of these choke inductors might be smaller. (18)V 192 _ From n = IQJ. I2=6A * Output voltage: VO=192VDC * Output current: Io= 1A * Switching frequency: fs=IOOkHz A. * Source voltage: V1=12VDC. V.Assuming the transformer turn ratio is n.'2 - 1. H ° lg I] Ns = '- (5 (25) 12 2Votr(max) Np2 2 NI2s 4pH (26) A voltage feedback loop is necessary to regulate the output voltage and two current control loops are also needed to control the source current and power by each power source. L3 L4 Fig.6 24 ~ 60V.fZil i Fig. and 1e1. photovoltaic arrays etc.2) 0= (1 .(28) VQ3. Thus. (23) CEAI I r Zi2 Z2 ZBA CEA2 I Zi4 e .4. E. 8 Block Diagram of the Control Circuit for the Proposed Multiple-Input DC/DC Converter .2mH (27) 2x0.. By adjusting the overlapping-times +. is the voltage error signal generated by the voltage error-amplifiers. where kc2 is the summation of Ve and Ie2. 0r(max) Np13l3plH. (20) Transformer Design the output voltage specification. (21) (22) Select C0=200&F.max Ts 231V2 AIL(O)I2fs IL (lo)II fs 2 IV7 0. 8. L Lll 2 L 21.g Si |Ge-lert or Cicuit hpp Signl1 12 -6. L = L2 . From the energy conservation relationship. for Q1 ad Q2 IAVO l x lO.3x6x100k 2x0.

Asano." Liu. 19. IEEE Transactions Power and Battery Electronics. July-Aug. "Experimental Soft-Switching DC-DC Converter for Fuel [5] H. and N. W Conventional Converter proposed the DC/DC converter. pp. 796-802. Liu. and J. Converter. Y Lin. Vol. The were operating iI. 9 The Essential Simulated Waveforms in the 269. "Multi-Input the Flux DC/DC Converter Based Additivity" IEEE IAS. Phase-Shift PWM Control DC-AC Converter. Vol. T. 47-5 1. Lawler. 10 The Measured Waveforms for the Converter with Ripple-Free Input Currents. "A New ZVS for Fuel on Proposed Multiple-Input Bidirectional DC-DC Converter Cell DC/DC Converter Application. F. L. F. Vol. 797-802. "A Novel MPPT of PV with Control Method using Optimal Voltage Electric Power Secondary pp. J. 1866-1873. Y INTELEC. higher efficiency can be achieved using the proposed scheme in shows the this paper. Y on PESC.5uS/div) [4] G. C. pp. Figure 10(a) shows the measured waveforms for the first and second inductor currents. J." [3] K. Lai. considerations fewer components. Because of the device count reduction. implemented and tested to the a evaluate the laboratory prototype was performance of Figures 10(a) for the and 10(b) laboratory E2' }4 with a 160 1W0 200 Powver. Zhu. Jan 2004.V. Oct. L. 1. L. In this research. C. [9] Y M. F. June 2002." PET'98. and J. Chen. Applications. Multiple-Input DC-DC ________________(a)__________ Vdl2v/div 400OnS/div) [6] B. pp. Figure for the is There 9 shows the simulated DC/DC results converter. 1308 . 2002.. Vol. and D. [2] F. and it is desirable for multiple-input systems was DC/DC converter for renewable Figure 10(b). Qu. a Evaluation of Cell Peng. pp. Conclusion ripple cancellation can be observed low-voltage power sources.jr. and P. 54-65. L. Kurokawa. References [1] -~~~~~~~~~~~ ~~I - M. Michihira. Vol. Y DC-DC Sekine. The A energy VI. pp. Applications. This novel details of the power switches type of DC/DC converter has advantages such as efficiency comparisons with a conventional converter presented in [8] under the load variations. Figure configuration. G..5uS/div) IL2 (2A/div 2. Q2 QI Acknowledgment The authors would like to acknowledge the financial Q3 Q4 support of the National Science Council of Taiwan." PET'02. Y Wu. efficiency." F. March 2003. Wenzhong Lin. Peng. Y C. Chen. Simulation and To verify the design example was Experimental Verification theoretical operating principles. D. Energy Y pp. Oct. pp. 3. A laboratory prototype was implemented and tested to show its performance. Converter. "Multi-Input DC/DC IEEE (b) Fig. C.. F. H. C. M. Adams. M. %7 a using IsSpice. Su. 625-63 1. Applications. LIl(2AIdiv 2. J.." 5 1. Park. Matsuo. 1999. and Matsuura. Li. I Fig. Laboratory Prototype [10] 2. Shigemizu. Simulation results from the proposed circuit were given to verify the theoretical analysis. Wang. S. Kobayashi. S. and T. "Multi-Input DC/DC Transformer for on Converter Based the Multiwinding VgslI(l OV/div 400OnS/d) Renewable Industry 1096-1104. Fig. K. pp. 6-9. Z. The experimental results were satisfactory. ILi and'L2. Liu. and F. "Novel Solar Cell Power Supply System using IEEE Multiple-Input [8] Y M. 1998. 0. Y C. lower cost and simple high and principles design analyzed and described in detail. 2001. 2004. simulated Efficiency. 39-44. the are proposed in this paper." International Conference on Engineering. R. Vol. Chapman. Chen. pp. and on Wu. F. and Lin the Wenzhong. In zero-voltage-switching shown. Su. June IEEE Transactions Industrial Multiple-Input DC-DC Electronics." IEEE Transactions 38. "Bi-directional DC to DC Converters for Fuel Cell Systems. Dobbs. K. Y M. Wu. Matsuo. Wu. Lee. [7] H. "A Converter Topology" IEEE Power Electronics Letters. Aug. through grant number NSC93-2213-E033-009. G. multiple-input proposed a good -4- agreement between the simulation results and theoretical Con vei tiolial ---Proposedt 40 60 RO u0 Load analysis. "Characteristics of the on Watanabe. 11I The Efficiency Comparisons [8] show measured waveforms Presented in prototype. Z.

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