i! tt.










b$ Ibarparfc


Copyright, 1897, by



TN an introductory course on the


and Integral Calculus

the subject of Infinite Series forms an important topic.


presentation of this subject should have in view

first to


beginner acquainted with the nature and use of infinite series and
secondly to introduce him to the theory of these series in such a
that he sees at each step precisely


what the question

at issue is

never enters on the proof of a theorem
actually requires proof.

he feels that the theorem

Aids to the attainment of these ends are

(a) a variety of illustrations,

taken from the cases that actually arise

in practice, of the application of series to computation both in pure

and applied mathematics (b) a meaning and scope of the more


and careful exposition of the



the use of

diagrams and graphical illustrations

in the proofs.

The pamphlet

that follows


designed to give a presentation of

the kind here indicated.


references are to Byerly s Differential

Calculus, Integral Calculus, and Problems in Differential Calculus ,

and to B. O. Peirce


Short Table of Integrals;


published by



Co., Boston.

CAMBRIDGE, April 1897.




S4 2.+4+i 1 i = = 1J if If the values be represented by points on a S. line. r = J. 3. FIG. namely Hence it appears that when n increases without limit. and hence as before Lim =. When w increases without SH limit. sn Consider the successive values of the variable = 1 -f- r -|- r2 -f- -f~ rn ~1 for n = 1. 1. Let r have the value J. 1. Then s2 *3 +J . ^ approaches as its limit. 2. 2. : sn _ l .LNTKODUCTIOISr. .s /t Lim The same result could s n of s tl =. law by which any s n can be obtained from its predecessor. it is easy to see the = I Sa S. Example. formula for the sum have been obtained arithmetically from the the first n terms of the geometric series a -f- ar -\- ar 2 8 -\- -\- ar n-1 . lies half way between * H _ 1 and 2. . a (I - r) Here a = 1. 2.

. In value* case a) the infinite series is said to be convergent and to have the In case b) the infinite or converge towards the value U. (or to infinity) often used for the limit or simply U * u +u + v . 2. means the limit of the sum of n of these terms... In either case we speak of (1) as an allowed to increase without limit. Definition of 2. . Then either a) sn will approach U: Lim n or b) s n approaches no limit.... Similarly the expression &quot.. But the student must not forget not a sum.... C7. Let M O w 1? w 2 . sn : (1) Denote the sum of the n terms by Allow n a limit to increase without limit. that often called the sum of the series. and form the series U + first 1 +M + 2 . . U series is said to The geometric vergent series.. because n is = SH co = U. d inf. are examples of divergent series.the sum of an infinite number of terms&quot. but is the limit of a sum... be any set of values.. . Infinite Series... ... Only convergent series are of use The notation uo is +u + \ . be divergent.. an Infinite Series...2 INTRODUCTION.. in practice.. .. 7 is 7 is as n increases without limit. positive or negative or both. series above considered is an example of a con 1 1 + 2 + 3+ + 1-1 .

Let it 3. Each term term in S... but that never attains so large a value as 3. s n is a variable that always increases as n increases. 1). moment term. n the first and is read factorial n&quot. compare the sum of the next n terms 1.. be required to test the convergence of the where n\ means 1-2 3 Discarding for the .2 1 factors (Cf.n . inserting the discarded term and denoting the SM . a) SERIES.lt.I. . plot the successive values of s n as points on a line.. sum of the first n terms of the given series by no matter how large ?i be taken. of a. CONVERGENCE. ALL OF WHOSE TERMS ARE POSITIVE.. That is to say.9 19ft IZIZO l 1 9 l^O ft with the corresponding sum 2 n ^L&amp. series Example. To make these relations clear to the eye.n after the first two is less than the corresponding and hence the sum or...

s tt &amp.s To the value of e to 8 judge from the values computed for s 1? s 2 three places of decimals is 2. 4. = 1 When to the right. A: A limit. 4. for all values of n.lt. e &amp. which sn approaches as its limit. is of prime importance for the work that follows. later. a fact that will be established .lt. =2. Hence there e.lt.667 *5=l *6 + + ~ j _i_ _i 111 I + 7 + f7 1 = 2. although we do not as yet know how to compute the numerical value of that limit.5 1 1 $4 l-fl l + jL + JL ^j- = 2. the point representing s H + 1 always moves but never advances so far as the point 3. 3. must be some point (i.e. here inferred the existence of a limit The reasoning by which we have e. Let us state it clearly in general form. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE. s2 *3 = + = + + 11 1 =2. .CONVERGENCE. If s n is a variable that 1) always increases wlien n increases: but that 2) always remains less than some definite fixed number. &amp. n increases by 1.C either coinciding with 3 or lying to the left of 3 3). but never reaches.718.708 ~2~!~^3~! ~4T ~5l I I I -9717 - s o H ]_ i 2 718 s. . then sn approaches a U: Lim fs lt = U.

4.. i &amp.lt. when is & fixed number) and to consider the new series thus arising. and figure. s. draw the corresponding 5.lt. not greater than A : U&amp.. Lira n = sn Sn QO = A A. of the preceding paragraph ciple convergence of an infinite series.^ and &amp.^ A &amp. If a of positive terms.. creasing.V-i. 4 sn approaches a limit and this limit is not greater Remark. is Direct Comparison. It is frequently convenient in studying the convergence of a series to discard a few terms at the beginning (m. a convergent and its value For let n = Sn o . U. say. ( z a) to a series test. 5. in the series to-be tested (a). sn Then it since &amp. That m the convergence of this series is necessary and sufficient for the convergence of the original series is evident. CONVERGENCE. A may be the limit itself or any value greater than the Exercise. the convergence of which it is desired series of positive terms already known to be convergent can be found whose terms are never less than the corresponding terms series.lt.C Sn . but State the Principle for a variable that is always de is always greater than a certain fixed quantity..... First Test for Convergence.lt.. On the prin based the following test for the Let be +u +u + \ .lt. follows that and hence by than A. since .A. then (a) is does not exceed that of the series ((3). is This limit. 1 sa 1 s3 s 4 U H+H 1 A h The value limit.

The truth of the following : I+1 2? &quot.lt.gt.. 1^ I 22 . if s n _ m 5. r &amp. 2. JL &quot. I I l+ 6. III T~ 5p ~r QP 1 !&amp.-!^^ 4/ 7 ..lt.lt. A New Test-Series. 2-3 s 3-4 Write in the fo-in +! then Lim sn = 1 1 2 8 4 o-6 . + +r + + -+-+-^ ^5 ^ 3 r r 4 9 r 16 . .gt. 1 ! ! 7 ! 1-2 Solution. T^ 1 g2 1 ^2 ..6 CONVERGENCE. 6.- 2* /) 1 4.gt. + + It . j 4.lt.lt. . Prove the following series convergent. . Examples. We will now prove that it p 1 &amp. P 2 &amp.r^P ^ . &amp.gt. u is constant and hence s n will converge toward a limit and conversely. does. has just been seen that the series converges when the constant quantity also converges whenever inequalities is at once evident p &amp. .- ^-i 1 I_ I~ P~ P i&amp...^ 3* 2 ~ ^ _ = J_ 2 &amp....&amp.

0001. 0. Divergent Series. series is 1.001 or 1. for every value of p 1 ^&amp.gt. r -f r 2 I -4I r 3 4- converges toward the limit Consequently ho matter how many terms of the series P 2~ + 3. since p 1 ^&amp. 7.lt. be so shown by reference to it.gt. And when one considers that these same relations will be still more strongly marked when p is set equal to 1.(5. therefore convergent. one may well ask whether the series obtained by putting p 1.41 I = T . ^-*\/&amp.lt.gt. we I get . that is. ^ 4 ^ 100 = 1. .014. their sum will always be less than and this series is 4. . Denote 1/2 1 -I }V) &quot. for Now consider what the nu : merical values of these roots in the denominators are In fact last ^ 2 = 1. ^ 3 = 1.047 and ^ 1000 = 1. adding OP m of these inequalities together. + 47 + . I rt + 1 1 1 &amp. 1 by | r . I+-+ QP + /O -. +)p ^ -f -JL + 1 Ap 1 I Qp 1 + _i_ .01. can +_l_ + _J_ + ^_+ 9 zyz OA/O 4:y4: I / f) I Q / Q I A I A I 7. by the principle of Series (3) is useful as a test-series. for many series that could not be shown to be convergent by the aid of the geometric For example.H J O^J L. be taken.^ and the series 1 | M p 1. 1 series.011. the 1. CONVERGENCE.007. J 7 4 a convergent series. The series (3) has been proved convergent Thus the series r 3 2^2 is 3 7 p 4 1.071. when a thousand terms of the term first have been taken. then. the denominator of the a number so slightly different from 1 that multiplied by significant figure of the decimal part appears only in the second place. r 1 &amp. 1 1 is not also convergent. 7 Hence.

J_4. n+l we can 11 I however not the case. f^\ 2n~~2 since each of the n terms.= - ++ the first +&amp. explanation is simple. ^ j_ + ^ . increases 1. Test for Divergence. Exercise. without limit when p. Hence the sum of n terms increases without limit as n increases without limit. Establish the test for diver 5 for convergence. . then (a) is a divergent series. J . i+\&amp. This is 7. gence of a series corresponding to the test of namely be : Let o +w + i ( a) of positive terms that is to be tested for divergence. 8. save the last.gt. For example. greater than 1/2 n. r For I ?i +2n 1 r n + n^ 111 ^V. . series (3) indeed converges still. 8. Hence add a definite number of . approaches limit exists. but it converges towards a large value. terms together and thus get a sum greater than this as often as and we can do we please. or Lim n series (4) is called the is = sn oo = oo The harmonic series.gt.j &quot. Examples. the apparently sudden change from convergence for p 1 to be accounted for? in series (3) to divergence when p How 1 The When p is only slightly greater than 1. which is of course a function of p. decreasing.8 CONVERGENCE. is strike in in the series anywhere. When p 1.gt. series of positive terms already known to be divergent a series If a o + i + (ft) can be found whose terms are never greater than the corresponding terms in the series to be tested (a). no and the series is divergent.\ j+i+t+t&amp. ^&amp. and this value.gt.

and hence if o I r 1 y 4 i 1 FIG.lt. 9. . &quot. let r 1. 1. a fixed point y be chosen at pleasure between T and 1. Divergent.&quot.gt.^ Then r if r the series is convergent.gt. series is divergent. of y.gt.Ratio. First.&quot. Let the series to be tested be U and form the + Ul + + Un+ test-ratio When n definite increases without limit. if \ there is no &quot. No Test.&quot. i. 1 &amp. this ratio will in general approach a fixed limit (or increase without limit).^ l Then as to the values of u. test : ifr^&amp. for sufficiently large values of n.lt.^ . = r r 1 &amp. 4 &quot. n = +1 *&amp. and its sum in hence S H increases without limit creases without limit as n increases and the 9. + 1 /u n will cluster n increases. &quot. Second Test for Convergence. the points u n + l /u n will. Call the limit r. r = 1. CONVERGENCE.lt.8. for all values of n equal to or greater than a certain fixed number m. it is divergent.e. _ 9 1 i 1 i JL i 4_ i _i_ i _L I _L_ This last series can be proved divergent by reference to the series Let sn - 111 + + 246 + . &amp. 6 + v~ 2n 1 The series in parenthesis is the harmonic series. The Test. 2 &quot. the points corresponding about the point r. un &quot.&quot. 1 ^&amp. lie to the left and we shall have . Convergent . 4.

&quot.lt. the terms w.gt.^ may have. but that I it becomes and remains less demands that the limit of harmonic for all values of w. i 4100 11 100 + J*! + j*L + 100 n 100 2 8 . Remark.gt.lt. there is no test. &amp.z.y p ) &amp.lt. and yet u u + i/ u n snall b e series this ratio GSS than 1. 9 n =- m &quot. 1 ( or T = oo ) is treated in a similar manner.^ w 1 i y The sum beginning with w w + i never. 2 i. u of ( 2 2 y 4. left as = 1 an exercise for the student. . Are the following series convergent or divergent? i + + 3^3 5^3 i.H+3 &amp..\ 7 ^w + 3 \ ^ u m + iy \ / um y O i Adding p of these inequalities.?. For consider series (3). Examples. But when p ^&amp. -f. no matter what value p &amp.. therefore.10 CONVERGENCE.1) and hence T (3) = 1. I &quot.1) is Thus than in the case of the 1 n/(n less the series diverges. V rises as high as the value u m Hence the ^-series converges. Thus it appears 1. The case and may be If r ratio is that T ^&amp. The student will observe that the theorem does not say that the series will converge if u + l /u lt lt than 1 when n increases.gt.y 4.. 1. and when p that T can equal 1 both for convergent and for divergent series. The test- - UH (n-f. converges. we get &amp.lt. (3) diverges. But the limit is not less than 1.. - 28 2S 2 2-2 A + Jl + 2ioo 3100 i 4. 5 2* 3 7 + .y -I- 4. -j.

f\-Z 3\ V 2 1 4 6 22 a +^ . 11. let this limit be denoted by a-. the series converges.-+r 02 32 a i la 42 a Apply any of the foregoing tests to determine the convergence or the divergence of the series on pp. A . The following . Let the terms of the given : series 1) be alternately positive and negative 2) let each u be less than (or equal to} its predecessor : 3) let Lim u n fi = CO Then the series is convergent. Then the series ( + i)/- i + ! and o-=2. Alternating Theorem. Z) SERIES WITH BOTH POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE TERMS.10.+ . 46 of Ityerly s Problems in Differential Calculus. CONVERGENCE. 11. . 45. Series. : Test the following series 1 2 1^3 2-4 2-4-6 n 1^5 4 y L l-3\ 3 2 1 . Further Test-Ratio Test. is conver gence and divergence If omitted sometimes useful the proof of the rule is approaches a limit. 11 test for 10.

..-limit. into play for the first time hence TT Ul __ - TT U2 J or simply U. Hence by 4 they approach a limit.. here the third hypothesis of the theorem comes .: . 1 - *2/ . 1 = t/i..s = 2ra + 1 z= lim QO m=oo s 2m + lim m ?6 2m &amp. 1 llll FIG.j = 2//t =: U I 2 . 1 .. but never advance so far to the right as s 1? for example .... hence by the same principle they also approach a limit.gt. always move to the left. but never advance so far to the the principle of left as s 2 . It remains to supply the the reasoning of the proof.. Thus s rt over its limit. + ~ + Proof. =n . since 2w +1 - O *II m a &quot. . s2 . Similarly.x&amp.. +u iFIG. for t/i : example... approaches a continually springing o I vHi^ 1 &amp. s 2/)i . C7. U z - Lim m.. s 4 .T~ 2ra 5 lim WI .. the points s 2 . 5. oo Finally.. 1 6. but lim 1(2..lt..s 6 always move to the right.. series 11 The following may serve as an example. Let and plot the points points s l5 s 3 . s5 . ... Lira s 2m + m = QO .. . st . . Then we shall show that the . analytical Such is = 2 -2 2m _ 2 2w _l and the parentheses are all positive (or null) .lt.12 CONVERGENCE. s3 . .. establishment of the facts on which this reasoning depends.

we may term which is numerically s n to s n + 1 consists in the addition to sn of a quantity numerically greater than the distance from s n to U. The transition from For. sn differs from the value of the series. This quantity is precisely the (n -{.3464 .11.I+ .0123 .3464 . (6). CONVERGENCE.lt. the numerical value of the (n -\. For example.l)st term.I.l)st term of the smaller than the proposed limit of error.1+ 2 32 3 33 34 (7 ) correct to three places of decimals. s zm 13 s 2w Next +l &amp. and hence that enough terms can be taken so that their sum s n will differ from the limit by less than . say greater than 10. stop adding terms.4 . say. to 3 places of decimals. consider Fig.3333 .0031 = .0589 = . log 2 log 3 Iog4 12.288. i (|) 3 5 I (^) i = = = = (i)* () . s2 and &amp. for n might be U so great. For this purpose it is not enough to know merely that the series converges. * work accuracy in the third . The proof is now complete. U. The rule here is extremely simple.001.gt.0002 . The sum of the first n terms of series (5). stop adding terms as soon as we come to a In other words. by less than .0000 .0008 \ 4 \ (i) 6 | (|) (W - 0556 . to 3 places. Suppose it be required to find the value of series (5) correct to &. 3 let it be required to compute the value of the series 1 1 I-I. series. Examples. sx .2875 or.* to insure The 4th place is retained throughout the place in the final result.000. the value of series (7) is . Hence the rule. The Limit of Error in the Alternating Series. that it would be out of the question to compute s n And in any case one must know when it is safe to . 12.

more precisely. A General Theorem. when n m. (U 8. as n increases.14 Examples.405. of this theorem flows directly out of the conception of a Let and plot the points s 1? s 2 . values of n. Show that the value of the series _ 4 2* to three places of decimals is . (= 1/1. Lim [X 71 = + +! + . U -f. 8. 2. s n will lie within this interval. terms.000. CONVERGENCE. How many terms of the series ~&quot. CO where p is any integer.gt.. from Thus s 3 may lie further away steadily nearer to U. (7+8. Then Lim w n n = oo More generally. Then what we mean when is we say &quot. But it does mean that ultimately the s s will U 1 -.s n approaches a limit is that there a point I/ about which the This does not necessarily re quire that (as in the series hitherto considered) s n should always come s n s cluster. as n increases. This can be stated algebraically in the following form U sn &amp. . say) and lay off an interval extending to a dis then for the tance 8 from U in each direction. a certain fixed number m.8).lt. 8 &amp. ... for all values of n greater than larger U by more however small.U -a U-(? 1 s4 1 sa U+rf 1 Mill 1 : &amp. be any convergent series of positive. 12.. 1 cease to deviate from than any arbitrarily assigned quan In other words.lt. $. 13. Let . + W-i] = . and negative . /t s. U&quot.. The proof limit... 1.000.~ 5 2 -4+i-J would have to be taken that the sum might represent ? the value of the series correct to 3 places of decimals 13. either constant or varying ivith n. let 8 be taken at pleasure tity.. than s 2 does..

. be any series and let %+ .. but still . both sn and s n+p wi\l lie in the interval is (U 8. 14. . is 15 approaching a limit U. for if we put p = n.x&amp. is a sufficient con dition for the convergence of the series.lt. CONVERGENCE. is necessary. The distance between these points therefore less than 2 Hence -28 no matter what value p may have. This fact affords a new proof It may of the divergence of the harmonic series. if the it-series is they occur in (a). then it approaches = &amp. denote the series of positive terms. Having thus stated what meant by sn s we now turn to the proof of the theorem. m. 2 2 .gt. taken respectively in the order in which For example. ^o Let ( a) +u + i *&amp.. and does not converge toward as its limit... The sum If n ^&amp. the proposition is established. Convergence. 14. It is to be noticed that while the condition if Lim u n ==. in the it is in no wise sufficient for the conver gence. The General Case. the series is to converge..gt. when n increasing ?i..!+ . But if a quantity depends on n and can be made to remain numerically as small as is desired by Thus as its limit. be remarked that the more general condition Lim [u n where p may vary with n in any ivise u e choose.gt. See Appendix. 8.13.. however does not satisfy the more general condition of the theorem Thus harmonic as its limit. series (4) the general term approaches The harmonic series the series diverges. U-{- 8). the series of negative terms.

Thus the absolute value of Graphically it means the distance of the point representing that number from the point 0. For example. the u. TP . m Case and two cases can arise. Exercise. w-series diverges.r limits : Lim tn a- = m = T7 &quot. Hence Lim n = s n = U. suppose the 3. whatever value n may have. approaches no limit.series if may then be convergent and may be divergent. Case I will be of Case At least one of the variables w-series &amp. I. Sn sn can be written in the form TP &amp. oo and U= II. +p+p+ 1 and the w-series is ~ _ Let _ 1 1 9 03 T5 ~ Then.lt. 1 were -r _. V W. this case. Show that the w-series converges and one of the v-. cc so that both the ^-series and the ^y-series are convergent.r m .lt. 14. The above example comes under principal interest to us. number.lt. m When n denotes the number of positive terms in S B m their sum. increases without limit.. the other must also diverge.r ~ Vm Here etc. both increase without andp . -5 1 33 1 T^ 7 I As it these examples show. Let us now form the series of absolute values* of the terms of the * By the absolute value of a real number is meant the numerical value of that 3 is 3. limit. the ^-series will also converge. Both m and rp approach &amp. of 2^ is 2.16 then the v-series is i CONVERGENCE. Lim p QO = rp = TF. . 3 1 g 1 y _.

numerically less than 1.lt. if un is negative.gt. a) can be applied to the tt -series and from its convergence the convergence of the it-series can since the ^ -series thus be inferred. this series as 17 and write uH If will be a certain v. when t is numerically ratio u n + \/u n equal to 1. and ice have Case I.e. (i. Conversely.^ 1 t &amp. ^-series CONVERGENCE. if the u -series converges. w-series are convergent u -series converge) are said to be absolutely or whose other convergent series are said to be unconditionally convergent Series .lt. or Divergence : t 1 or t = 1 . or they belong to the class of alternat ing series considered in 11. 1 . = *.^ t &amp. and conditionally convergent will for the terminology unconditionally appear in 15. 15. For both the v-series and the w-series are series of positive terms. The series that occur most frequently in elementary analysis either come under this head and can be proved convergent in the manner just indicated.14. Convergence. 1 ^&amp.^ . + at *.- From is this relation we deduce once that in Case I the w -series a convergent series. No Test. test- The test of 9 can be thrown into simpler form whenever the . . the series diverges . then both the v-series and the w-series converge. when t is numerically greater than 1. if un is positive . the series converges absolutely. there is no test : ( * t 1 &amp.lt. 4 each of these series converges. Test for Convergence. tt the -series converges it is Since the it-series surely converges and then absolutely convergent is a series made up exclusively of positive terms. the tests for convergence obtained in I. if 34. whose absolute value series The reason not absolutely convergent or conditionally convergent.lt. a certain w. we set it is clear that &amp. the principle of Definition. the sum Hence by cannot exceed the limit U toward which s n converges. and no matter how many terms be added in either series. the rule being that when t is approaches a limit.

16. u n + i/u n Now if a variable f(n) a limit. as the example of the 1 ~ shows. If then follows that r 1 and the u -series converges. 1. when series will converge when x is numerically less than 1 . = distance of the point representing /(n) from the point 0. Example..i. namely the numerical value of from 0) (distance of H H .. For._ .. not enough to establish the series divergence of the ^ -series. the test-ratio u n + l /u n is numerically equal to the test-ratio of the series of absolute values. 4 n n 1 1 + u 1 xn __ . when n &amp. To establish the divergence of a series ^o +%+ it .&quot. -iO&amp. it The ^-series is then absolutely convergent.3 ~~ X* &quot. this test fails to give any information concern ing the convergence of the series. Lim n = v JU oo i. It will 1 2 + 3 ~~ 4 show that the terms do not approach 1 however suffice to as their limit. Consider the series ~ X2 2&quot. is with positive and negative terms. in the second case. Divergence. H. 16.--!. when n oo. its numerical value. and this can frequently be done most conveniently by showing that the terms of the ^ -series do not approach 0.1 or *&amp. . then f 1 &amp. &amp.18 CONVERGENCE.. But it is then seen directly that in the first case the series is convergent.lt.gt. Hence lim n = *&amp.gt. \ or 1 . Thus and if &amp. 15. When x =. Hence the e.^ 1.lt.^ t &amp.^ where T equals the numerical value of t. m.gt. &amp.&quot. u n+1 un 1 &amp. uw+1 .&quot.gt. divergent. The second part of the rule will be proven in the next paragraph.gt. being the approaches .lt. Xs &quot. approaches a limit too.lt.lt.

. x* V~2 Ans.gt. . n &amp.. 17. when n = u m and hence oo.lt.gt.C H x I 1 &amp. CONVERGENCE. 3 .lt. x &amp. In the series of = : a. or uu is. gent..^ 1. . H [ V3 1 &amp. x ^&amp. 19 Hence &amp. = B s from = m on are greater than a certain positive u n and u n cannot approach 15. p . hence 1 . Then the series converges absolutely. /a rt positive quantity greater than any of the quantities p respectively.gt. this series di verges for all values of x numerically greater than may be represented graphically as follows Divergent 1 These results 1 Divergent Convergent Exercise.gt. all &amp.1(5. // a and form the M.t . For what values of x are the following series conver what values divergent? Indicate these values by a diagram x . ^w . For. X* &amp. pt . . 1. as their Example.gt. + 17. Conv.gt. Div. THEOREM. for similar to the one above.^ . absolutely convergent series. | &quot.2 X 10 x 1 -\- 10 2 a 2 2 ! -fa. series let an p .lt. x5 x 1 . n be the absolute values of a &amp. m . that the if quantity p limit. /o 2 5 a ^2/ se ^ / quantities not increasing numerically indefinitely. &amp..lt. u i &quot.. a. 10 3 x 3 -|3 + + x Ze^ 2 + 3 ! a..

? 18.. a ..* cos x -f- e~ 2..6 2 SU1 2a. -1 I 2 32 + I-T5 2 . converges absolutely and sin 2. The &quot... In the latter case the interval distances in each direction Divergent from r the point of convergence extends equal x =... Convergence and Divergence of Power Series. the series 2 +a cos 2 x -f- and 6 X sin -f. but not necessarily for the extremities of the interval..lt. never exceeds unity numerically.. -f- .. 0. an( l ^1 + ^2 + . converges and the series converges absolutely... .. nx If -f- ! + tf + cos x a? .. 18.. What can you say about the convergence of the series 1 + r cos +r 2 cos 2 -f ... .. A series of a o 4~ a i x H~ a x2 &amp...... is power Such a series may converge for all values of but it will in general converge for some values and diverge for others....r cos 2x -\- . ascending integral powers of a.. 3.2 where the called a aj. converge absolutely. 4... are any two absolutely convergent a -f.a-! series...20 CONVERGENCE.. a l5 a 2 .. 1 . series sin 3 a. Examples.... .. Show that the series e&quot. since sin5# ~~5*~ x. 17. Hence the made up exclusively of positive terms.. T 2 ~~^~ all converges absolutely for values of For the series I... . The terms of this series are less respectively than the terms of the convergent series Ha and each series is first series + Ha\ + //a + 2 . converges absolutely for all positive values of x. . coefficients series. are independent + j of #.. and the series conr Direr gent Convergent verges absolutely for every point x lying within this interval.

.. Lx. From this theorem it follows that if x =..18. .. when n A = . consider the positive values of x for which it diverges. the power if series converges abso lutely for absolutely is when x converges 15) ( numerically less than 1/Z/. independent of n. CONVERGENCE. a. . may h Let h be any value of x numerically less than x value. it . = . is 21 Let x be any value of x for which the a n x^ do not increase without limit a n a? terms of the power series Then a n aj is less than the absolute values respectively of a M x The proof as follows.. . . are less respectively than the terms of the convergent geometric series + -\- Or 2 a2 h 2 + -\- .. .C Hence the terms of the absolute value 2 series a + a\h + a C + Or h * + . where r in general fill = is a region extending down to a point and such that the series greater than . They x r. converges absolutely for all values of x numerically less than r this is what was to be proved. This proves the proposition. and the series a + ! h ... diverge. and simpler proof of this theorem can be given for the special case For then oo that a n + 1 /a n approaches a limit. 0..lt. all values of n. Then the power series converges absolutely for x = For where r = 7i /a. converges absolutely for all values of x within an interval from to x and reaching out to the same distance on the stretching and if diverges for x other side of the point x x^ it diverges a* . its numerical h. and diverges when x while L ~\- 0. L. the series numerically greater than 1/L. Lim n or t = u ni __ a lim n a a xn GO = co =. &quot. the power series may converge and For # for it ... 1 &amp. = x lt If for all values of x lying outside of the interval from x t to now the series ever diverges. some fixed positive quantity (7. all Hence when values of x is L= .. the power series converges for converges absolutely. .

.. are computed most simply in this way. but the limit of a sum. 40. the logarithm. 9 (8) In deducing the above formula has been assumed that the theo rem that the integral of a sum of terms is equal to the sum of the Now integrals of the terms can be extended to an infinite series. Let us see how a table etc. infinite 19. cosine. and the one that chiefly concerns us in this course. In fact.. can be represented by the geometric series : Integrate each side of this equation between the limits fly. is that of computing the numerical value of a complicated analytic expres sion. series for the function log e (1 -f.. One of the most important applications of series in analysis. and hence the extension of this theorem requires justification.... sine. of logarithms can be computed from an infinite series. v... and h : /h 1 + _ 1 /Vt f*h l ..II. a) THE LOGARITHMIC SERIES. f*h a- Jo / clx I xdx Jo + Jo / x*dx . A Begin with the formula The function 1 (1 -|- a?)&quot. for example. 39. of a definite integral like when the indefinite integral cannot be found.li) can be obtained as follows. an infinite series is not a sum. : Evaluating these integrals we are led to the desired formula log (l+/ t ) = 7i h -+ it 2 h 3 -=--- . SERIES AS A MEANS OF COMPUTATION. the values of the elementary transcendental functions.

to three places. We .287 (5).. = log 2 + log 5 = is .. 20. seven places. In the examples of that to three places of decimals for h 12 the value of series (8) was computed J and h J and it thus appears = = . log 2 = . simple device however A makes the computation easy. We 5 series must be applied in still a h be set equal to 5..405 (5). because the work would be too long. 23 h = h ) + --. could not find by direct computation the value of this series say.. log U= . it would be necessary to take 1000 terms.19. log 5 = 2 log 2 + log 1J = 1. series.386 (0) + . (6). log 1J = . (8). computed directly from formula From log 10 the values of log 2 and log 5.693 (0). to find log different 5.609 (2) = 2.. Hence evaluate the series -J+4.405 Hence. SERIES AS A MEANS OF COMPUTATION..+ J).693 (0) + 1. for its value must be compute the denary logarithm from the natural The formula nevertheless useful as showing the value of a familiar to... log 10 can at once be found.. . To find loo. In But this series is not well adapted to numerical computation. and the series therefore set = 4 + l=4(l. 4. 20. Obtain the formula 1 tan&quot.302 (2) or to 3 places.287 (5) + .2 O we could substitute in (8) the value h \ / = 1 : log 2 = 1 J +k i + ..302. log 10 2. This latter logarithm known * in order to is of great importance... (5) = . Exercise. Here the way.693.223 (2) = where log 1J is 1.* fact to get the value of log 2 correct to the third place of decimals. h =. Next..609 (2). 2 Write = 14 : and then take the logarithm of each side log 2 = log | + log = . for if 1 -f- does not converge.

10 example Examples. log 9. i. logarithm. now apply series (9) to the determination of log 2 to seven x must be so chosen that x zn 2. This step will be justified in 35. Iog 10 20. Iog c 6 we have Hence for logio^ = log. Iog 10 9. log 13. Let h x.24 SERIES AS A MEANS OF COMPUTATION. 20. Iog 10 13. &quot. Series (8) is thus seen to serve its few places of decimals are needed. of sums. 21. Then (8) becomes log (1 x) : x x1 - xs 3 Next replace h in (8) by x 2 log(l +*)=: + *_| +| : Subtracting the former of these series from the latter and combining the logarithms we get the desired formula We have subtracted on the We have not we have limits . it would require 16 terms of give less satisfactory results. the series to yield log 1 J to 7 places. Compute log 20. A log.e. . We will places. \ J . From (8) a new series can be deduced as follows. right hand side as if we had sums. x 1 =$ and 11 _ j lill + _ + __ . pu pose well when only a Suppose however we wished to know log 2 correct to 7 places of decimals. By the formula for the transformation of logarithms from the base c to the base 6. Series (8) would then In fact. 21.

21. the remainder is the series J_ 15 3 15 A ~ JL _! ~ 17 3 17 + _!_ -1 3 19 ~ 34 19 ~ 15 3 15 17 3 2 -19 The value nor is that necessary. from it by discarding the coefficients if. it suffices to J.000 .000 05 32 65 51 (|) 11 . 8 and so does not We affect the eighth place.000 037 115 04 23 25 81 | | i | TV (|) (i) (i) 9 := .004 .1. ^|.346 573 5(9) = .000 . must show that the remainder of the series from this point on cannot influence (-J) The term TV 16 this is We this place either. = (-i) Q) (I) 3 5 7 = = = .000 65 63 11 (i-) 13 000 000 000 573 . since only the odd powers of x enter.000 .693 147 2.000 . : 25 The advantage of this series over (8) is twofold first.. + 3* 1 = 9 ~* r^^i than ~~ s and hence the remainder in question is less 119 15 3&quot.000 000 000 07 TV T^ (|) 15 05 (i) 00 59 has no effect on the eighth decimal place.693 147 1(8) or to seven places log 2 = . SERIES AS A MEANS OF COMPUTATION. and compute the value of the series for one value of &. x second. for of the series in brackets cannot be readily determined it is obviously less than the value of the .000 (I) 13 (|) 15 (|) = = = (i) - .333 333 33 68 . than the geometric series etc.000 .000 .037 . the series converges more rapidly than (8) for a given value of JB. series obtained i.346 . 32 1. obtain then finally for log 2 the value 2 X . . e. But not enough to justify us in stopping here.333 333 33 (|) = 8 5 7 .012 345 823 065 005 (|) 9 457 050 005 = = = = . Now .

each numerator contains -\. Thus if /A = 2. to six places. this series breaks off with ^ this point on.609 437 Compute log 2 by aid of the formula log 2 = | = -.= . 1. Knowing log 2 and log 5 we can log 10 = 2. e y - i *=FFT 1 and -\.2x -^- 1*2 x8 1 2 8 -\. Compute log 2 .26 Examples. In the actual computation of a table. for a positive integral (a 22. Consider the series If /A is then.I and series (9) converges then x always lies between towards the value log y. from a positive integer. SERIES AS A MEANS OF COMPUTATION.1 terms. Show that log 1J log 5 = = log . for as a factor. . in this way and the others are found by ingenious devices. Iog 10 9 Series (9) is thus seen to be well adapted to the computation of If y denote any positive number and x be so deter logarithms.223 143 (4) (8). we have x2 -) 1 -\- -&quot. For values of y numerically large the convergence will be less rapid and devices similar to those above explained must be used to get the required result. Example. 21. 22.log | find log 10 : log J. mined that 1+3 r.etc. &quot.302 585. (subsequent terms all 0). b) A THE BINOMIAL SERIES. In elementary algebra the Binomial Theorem exponent l m( m l a m-* b * am ma m -^b : + b) + + ~ _|_ (to is m -\. not all the values tabulated few values are computed are computed directly from the series.1 terms) established.

+ ** ^J . fraction. 1 n -j- 1) (/A n ) UH + I 1 n 1) _ u (M J (n -\. Hence /ji (/A 1) 2 i**(i*&amp. n Lim 71 = 00 Consequently the series converges for than unity. 3 ?T~ (/x.22. (10) The proof III). In this case the series 1 . Let us see for what values of x it converges. Example I.e. for The general term of only for such values will it have a meaning. Let us of this theorem will not be considered here (v. a fact that x &amp.lt.)**: b = seen by compari =.lt. it becomes an infinite series.1 Ti-l-1) L ! 1 2 1 fji/n n x* 1 _ and /u. 35 correct to five . Toward what value does the series converge when x lies between 1 and 1 ? The answer to this question is as follows For all : values of x for ivhich (1 the binomial series converges. = Divergent __ 1 1 Convergent _ _ Dirergenl We may is becomes an alternating note in passing that when series. i. is son with the binomial formula (a value (1 a.lt. 1 27 -J- 2x -f- x2 ..-)&quot.^ is useful the series finally when the series used for computation. its value is + (1 + a. necessary.^ 1 &amp..) the series the series is 1 2 ~. etc. 15.. == 1 + M* + f ^. Let it be required to compute places. or simply SERIES AS A MEAXS OF COMPUTATION..: all values of x numerically less For the values x 1 special investiga 1. first see whether the series is of any value for the pur poses of computation. m to have the + any number not a positive integer (negative num never breaks off.) ( which we will not go into here. tion is _ + *)&quot. /A) x. Chap. If however /x is ber.

/ first by 2 = letting ^ =. f .T 2 X2 1 .018 08(4) $ off. &quot. Since 2 5 32 we write ^ The second 35 = 2 (1 + ^)s. factor can be computed by aid of the (i + *)* == + i A + i 1 ^ = (A) + . Find -\J 15 to five places.080 09 and $9 ^/ 2000 = = 2. ~l~ 1-3-5 2-4-6 2-4-6 . we are justified in Example II. Compute then by writing 4. : 5.28 SERIES AS A MEANS OF COMPUTATION. We by the must throw the radicand into a form adapted to computation series.000 + f^^ (A) + 703 + . 2.036 17. 2. Find ^ 2 to five places by any method.gt. 1. with the fifth term. i. In practice however there is no question as to which expression to use. in the second ffi would be com puted by aid of the series. Here we have a choice between the expressions 15 and In the first 15 case (1 8+ 7=2 = 27 12 = 3 zz (1+S) 3 (1 (1 -*) -(. 1. 3 2 2^1 2-4 X . 22.000 2 3 003 = and Exercise. We do this as follows. 2 -&amp.000 040 . breaking as Show we that in the above computation did. series. Obtain from (10) the following formulas l+x 1 = 1 2x 1 3. 35 2. Examples. 3. Show that Complete the computation of ^ 15.J)fc. x zz= i .961 94.018 750 . for the second series converges more rapidly than the first.

I. = known of the elementary functions. example of 1 e 2 22 gives the formula &amp. y = 6 cos &amp. we get the equation This series.. Exercise.lt. Exercise.lt. : h 1.1 /* dx =/i h + 23+^4 .. SERIES AS A MEANS OF COMPUTATION. is is not well adapted to computation. and 19) by series. to how many places of decimals would you need to know ir in order to desired. -i- e 4 sin 4 &amp.tan. last Its value The substitution of can however be obtained by for x in the esin&amp. T^ . The method set forth in 19 is applicable to the representation 1 1 ^ (v. sin&quot. = l o + TT 4 o . 24.lt. compute the circumference correct to one inch? number of places by Jordan s method. like series (6). . This series yields readily three or four places of decimals greater accuracy is but if more elaborate methods are necessary. .lt.lt. Cours d Analyse. V sin 2 = 1 ~ e 2 sin 2 &amp. 1893). . since the indefinite integral cannot be expressed in terms e 2 &amp. Then will the length of the arc. the aid of infinite series. measured from the end of the minor axis.23.. 262 (v. . Determine TT to this 24. 1 h8 1 3 h* 5 + . Vol. 29 TT. be /* a where (a 2 is I Jo b 2)/a 2 V 1 & si The integral that here presents itself 1. (12) If in series (12) From we these series the value of set can be computed. /*- of tan&quot.lt. Let the equation of the ellipse be given in the form = a sin &amp. If the radius of the Earth were exactly 4000 miles..lt. as an Elliptic Integral and its value cannot be found in the usual way. The Computation of 23. better series obtained by putting h = i in series (11) : ~~ 6 2 2 3 2 2 -4 5 2 + . Series for sin~ l li and tan~ l h. The Length of x the Arc of an : Ellipse. Jordan.

lt. d&amp. . in the series for (1 2 o? known )~5 gives the formula (v. In particular.i4&amp. E : e 2 sm 2 &amp. It is shown in Mechanics (v.f&amp. (v.30 Hence s SERIES AS A MEANS OF COMPUTATION. Examples. 22). Hence S If e := = a#. 2 i /&quot. can hold ? 25. Exs. correct to one tenth of = one percent. s &amp. sm&quot. how much will the new bottom.lt.lt.gt. Cal. 97. z= - Jf o 1-3-5 2-4-6 The elliptic integral Elliptic Integral of the then becomes the integral known as the Complete Second Kind it is denoted by .0 e 2 I sin 2 &amp. 2. force its value is computed as follows.i Jo 2 4 J sin 4 d&amp. Byerly s Int.lt.gt. Chap..gt. The Period of Oscillation of a Pendulum. E ft I Jo V _ n 1 (?i 1) TT . 248 of the Tables).. (No. J These integrals can be evaluated by the aid of the formulas of IV of Peirce Short Table of Integrals. 25.lt. 1.&amp.lt. 2 an even integer. XVI) that the time of a complete oscillation of a pendulum of length I is given by the formula =4* K is \ I V 1 where a denotes the initial inclination of the pendulum to the vertical. one axis of which is Find what size to make the new top and twice as long as the other.&amp. as the Complete Elliptic Integral of the First Kind and The substitution of fcsin&amp. the length of a S will be found by putting quadrant ^ TT and using the formula 240 of the Tables) (No. = ? . A tomato can from which the top and bottom have been removed is bent into the shape of an elliptic cylinder.lt. 2 2 4 . If the original can held a quart.gt. 24.lt.ad&amp.gt.f&amp. the ellipse reduces to a circle and S ^-n-a. i e 4 /*0 I &quot. Compute the perimeter of an ellipse whose major axis is twice as long as the minor axis.(7&amp.lt. 40) = a r &amp.

Then V I / 3 as is at once clear if I we of an edge being is as follows. It is often possible to replace a complicated is still 26.* correct within the limits The Coefficient is of Expansion. V stand for the volumes V V at temperature 8 I . this approximation is correct to than one tenth of one percent. c) APPROXIMATE FORMULAS IN APPLIED MATHEMATICS. n__V ~ -V 13 . 26. Then K z= ITT and the usual pendulum formula. . Physical Measurements. Exercise. t respectively. consider a cube of the substance. . formula in applied mathematics by a simpler one which of error of the observations. SERIES AS A MEANS OF COMPUTATION. See Kohlrausch. 5 % ^/ 1 + = /3 7 } P+ 1-6. the length The accurate expression for a in terms of ft I _ (3 1 . at t. P where F.25. 31 Integrating and reducing as in we obtain the formula If the angle through which the pendulum oscillates is small. an sufficiently accurate for most purposes will be approximation for T obtained by putting k = 0. 5. 24.lt. less Show that if a &amp. By the coefficient of linear expan sion of a solid meant the ratio where V I is the length of a piece of the substance at temperature The coefficient of cubical expansion the length at temperature t is defined similarly as .

0001.6). 27. the error made by Since (3 is small. Hence i 1 e . : P 27.e the observed value = of the length of the column puted value of the radius. neglecting all terms of the series subsequent to the first is less than the errors of observation and hence we may assume without any loss of accuracy that a =: j^ /:? . . usually less than . Show that if the apparent weight of a body in one scale pan is p lt when placed in the other scale pan. w denotes the weight of the mercury in grammes. when placed Double Weighing. /? := 3 a . 3 e 2 Since e is small we get a result sufficiently accurate by taking only the first term . . let it be required to determine the radius of a capillary tube by measuring the length of a column of mercury contained in the tube. p the density of the I the length column mercury (== 13. approximately. and weigh From the formula ing the mercury. Errors of Observation. 26. and r the radius of the tube. W where of the TTl^lp . iCPi +P*)In an experimental determination of a physical magnitude it is important to know what effect an error in an observed value will have on the final result. p 2 (the difference being due to a slight inequality in the lengths of the arms of the balance) the true weight p is given with sufficient accuracy by the formula . I observing /. For example. and hence. the error in observing x iv being assumed negligible. in centimetres. -f.32 SERIES AS A MEANS OF COMPUTATION. r the com is the error in the result arising Then = E E from the error of observation e. we get Jw TT I to I pi ^ Now the principal error in determining r arises from the error in I Let I be the true value. r -\r the true value.

one second for every 244 feet of the clock registers in 24 hours is T of the oscillation of the pen elevation. Washington is 6226 feet above How many seconds a day will a clock lose that keeps if accurate time in Boston Harbor. for r itself is inversely propor used. the sea level. The summit of Mt.400. show that it neighboring will lose A ^T li seconds a day. 117.gt. the error in the computed value inversely proportional to the length of the column of mercury a result not a priori obvious. and : If h does not the first N correct to seconds term of the series gives N N N = th h - exceed 5 miles. 25) N where the unprimed to (B).lt. engineer surveys a field. Diff. g (+ /t )a&amp. 33 for a given error in observing Z. h 2 /fi 2 &amp. Pendulum Problems. SERIES AS A MEANS OF COMPUTATION. The number dulum. If it is carried to a located at a point (A) on the earth s surface. li/E &amp. 1. . Examples. using a chain that is of one percent of its length. If the clock letters refer to the location (-4). Show that the error thus arising in the determination of the area of the field will be two tenths of one percent of the area. by one tenth clock regulated by a pendulum is 28.001. .) (Cf Byerly s . point (-B). where R denotes the length of the radius of the earth. Hence Z NR +h .. Cal.27.lt. A pendulum that beats seconds on the surface of the earth observed to gain one second an hour when carried to the bottom of a How deep is the mine? mine. e. incorrect V 1&quot. carried to the summit of the is Mountain ? 2.000 001. N that T inversely proportional to the period Hence (cf. h feet above the level of (A). of seconds i. then N= 86. 28. Thus of r is tioned only to An Exercise. the primed letters was keeping true time at (A).

Thus for a brass pendulum n . it will lose at the rate of about . recedes 1 foot from its chord.82 and a rise in temperature of = = . 1. 7^ the height.. man is standing on the deck of a ship and his eyes are h ft.23 (V h + V 7 &amp. through faulty when the clock The weights construction of the clock.. and n the number of seconds lost in a day. is 76. when it pendulum from has nearly run down.000 019. h. When however A and B are interchanged. 2.4 of a second a day when it has just been wound up. show that.i) miles - 16 ft. 200 a t. above the sea level. Two nearly equal. SERIES AS A MEANS OF COMPUTATION. Show is earth 6. = = D Show 4. for one mile.gt. and thus 2 to 2 4 on each side Show that if the clock keeps correct time when it has nearly run down. Show that. a greater propelling force has just been wound up than increase the amplitude of the of the vertical. ap proximately. a . see. but unknown resistances. 8&quot. 2J miles long. 7. that an arc of a great circle of the earth. A and jB. = where a denotes the coefficient of linear expansion. 10 miles (nearly). 8 in. Exercises. For brass. If denotes the shortest distance of a ship little causes the clock to lose a A D away whose masts and rigging he can to him. D If h 1. t being measured in degrees centigrade. if refraction can be neglected. . x 8. 5 over 4 seconds a day. Assuming that the sun s parallax is tance of the sun from the earth 5. form two arms of a Wheatstone s Bridge. a balance is obtained when the resistance of the rheostat is r 1 ohms.+ / PI P. A standard box of coils and a resistance x to be measured form the other two arms. 3. = b(r is +r ). Show contraction due to heat and cold n that the correction for expansion and is given by the formula 43. prove that the dis about 94 million miles. that in levelling the correction for the curvature of the How much is it for two miles ? of an astronomical clock exert. to which the hull the water. but whose hull is invisible rises out of measured in feet. The focal length /of a lens given by the formula --.34 29. t the rise in temperature. A balance is obtained when the standard rheostat has a resistance of r ohms. 29.

gt. 1 -f- mh 1 . &.. are all (1 + 70 (1 + fc) (1 + .. approximately. standing on a level plain.. . p. 35 Obtain a where p and p 2 t denote two conjugate focal distances. .. he pay? Given 640 acres make a square mile.. V (i +h= + 1 h l&amp.. 9. Admission Exam. his answer would have been 4 cents too small. SERIES AS A MEANS OF COMPUTATION.. then. 1895.29. How much must agrees to buy at $7 an acre all the land in sight.. in Sol. the candidate had in sight to be equal to the height of the 10. simpler approximate formula for are nearly equal. (1+p) = +h+k .. / that will answer when p and p z ranchman 6 feet 7 inches tall. Z. &quot. that if assumed the altitude of the zone ranchman s eyes above the ground and had made no other error in his solution... Show Show that for small values of approximately correct (h (1 1 may li the following equations are be either positive or negative) Hence (1 + h) + h 2 + h) m = = + 2h . 1 +h numerically small. 5 i + V If 7i.&quot. 1 = +H+ + + i lc l .. June.. A Geom.

known as Taylor s Theorem and the series as Taylor s The value X Q is an arbitrary value of x which. prove Taylor s Theorem.. puting of such forms is a power series with known coefficients.(x ) + . for the purpose of com One of the value of the function or studying its properties. If in (13). Rolle of the s Theorem. It is not the object of this chapter to admits a simple and rigorous proof of an entirely elementary nature. the simplest function f(x) . is is held of this as follows.Ji) throughout a certain region about the point XQ : f(x + h) = is /(**&amp.. 30. done satisfactorily in any good treatise on the Differ ential Calculus but to indicate its bearing on the subject under con sideration and to point out a few of its most important applications. TAYLOR S THEOREM. once chosen.h. It is desired to obtain a simple representation of the in terms of known elements. representing the function f(x -\... The object fast. n converges towards as its limit. and the Law Mean Rolle s lie at the very foundation of the differential calculus. The variable x is then written as x -\. when n increases indefinitely.TO) = hf (x + Oh} (14) as a special case and thus affords a proof of that Law. R the series on the right hand side of (13) becomes an infinite power series.) + f (x )h h2 +f&quot.III. From Theorem follows at once the theorem contained in the equation J (13) This latter theorem with the of the is frequently referred to as Taylor ( lt s Theorem Remainder R =/ (x - -\-OJi) It includes the Law Mean /(a-o + h) /(. It is remarkable that this fundamental theorem in infinite series since this is .gt. (15) This formula Series. on which Taylor s Theorem depends.

we have in the choice of x stands us in greater than will all s be finite and/(a.m has hitherto been the custom in works on the Infinitesimal Calculus. choose an x in the midst of 7i. the series will not ment this to be of use in computation.(XQ). and replace the independent variable x by X XQ ~\7i. that it seemed desirable to treat * Thus some applications of (13) this here. the value of f(x) for values of x near to x0l i. s of the development of + 7i). but the XQ If x is so corresponding to x ad inf. (13) is a more general theorem than (15) and it avoids the It is because of the applica necessity of a proof of convergence. can be developed by h) f Theorem. h chosen that /(o). converge rapidly enough for large values of the argu Consequently we confine our attention to a limited domain of values. 31. ll where = X XQ. log (1 130. series. 37 Now it is usually impossible to represent f(x) a:. -f- x 0. = CaL. 31. are extremely rare in ordinary practice./&quot. domain. for values of h s numerically small. power series for all values of by one and the same and even when this is possible. both because affords a simple means of proof in a vast variety of cases and because many proofs usually given by the aid of (15) can be simplified or rendered rigorous by the aid of (13). are all finite. though possible. Exceptions to rule. the series converging for all values of h lying Taylor x The proof is given for x between x and 1 in the Diff. while the expression in the form (15) requires the proof of the possibility of passing to the limit when n = qo . will be observed. TAYLOR S THEOREM. Two Applications of Taylor it Theorem with is the Remainder. not a theorem in infinite Any function whose expressed in the first n derivatives are continuous can be form (13). The applications given in this section are cases in point. Thus we have a second proof (formula (8) of 19). Then it is at once Theorem for x 0. it . point that the freedom that good stead. ( o). f It is desirable that (13) should be applied much more freely th. ./ f (o? in question may not be small. (13). An Let example will aid in making f(x) clear the above general statements. clear that f(x) cannot be developed by Taylor s oo It is just at this log for/(0) = . e.30. This theorem. then ).! tions that (13) and (15) have in common.(ie ) domain = . . = = log x. then f(x ). for if we take x /&quot. will usually* be given by Taylor Theorem. The values of x for the values of h will be.

gt.lt. /( this 2 l + 1) (*o) =j= 0. + Oh) -^-^ The equation of the tangent is / (2 &quot. suppose )+f (x )(x x ). Let it be required to study the function f(x) in the neighborhood of the point x f(x + h) = f(x ) =X +/ * : Q. 31. let f (xo) * =0. . all the earlier deri . maximum in the point x Lastly. 0. This property characterizes the line in question as the tangent to the curve in the point oj and thus we get a new proof that the equation . } (cc) will in general it is positive at this point # and be continuous near the point # it will therefore be positive in the .(a + 2 0ft) ft . y l and . The student should / (2 illustrate (^o) = 0. each case in by a figure. Then f(x + h) == f(x ) + f^ now (x. + Oh) li\ Plot the function as a curve and plot the curve The latter curve ?/ 2 : is a right line. A y* = i/&quot. i. of the tangent is y=f(x Next. = neighborhood of this point and hence Ik ya &amp. both for positive and for negative values of 7i. e. First Application: Maxima. Minima and Points of Inflection. the curve lies x above its tangent and has therefore a minimum at the point x = .(a&amp. ) (a. (*o) h + J/&quot. Consider the difference of the ordi- nates.38 TAYLOR S THEOREM. Curvature. ) &amp.gt. f(x) has a it can be shown that if / (2 &quot. Similarly vatives vanishing. Hence it appears that ?/! ?/ 2 is an infinitesimal of the second order.

P that a perpendicular drawn to the tangent from a point is an infinitesimal of infinitely near to a point of inflection Show P higher order than the second.. TAYLOR S THEOREM.gt. be continuous near a? x and it will same sign for small values of 7i.lt. 1. Hence the curve lies on tangent on opposite sides of the point x and that the condition for a point of inflection not = Show parallel to the o.gt. / 2 &quot. + 1) (#) being continuous near 35 = 2. a circle tangent to the given curve at and having its centre on the P inner normal at a distance p (the radius of curvature) from P. Let P P * = 0.* (. the tangent at being and let the ordinate the axis of x and the inner normal the axis of y Here y be represented by the aid of (13). 7r&quot.. / {2 &quot.(aR D )=b a? . PF be taken as the origin of coordinates.* + . 90) as Curvature. positive or changes sign with h. . x=h. .31... Col. will . then of the third order referred to the arc is on the tangent at P. The osculating circle was defined (Diff. . Instead of the infinite series. formula (13) might have been used here. /-&amp.. the osculating circle at P&quot. a 1 /&amp. cutting in general an infinitesimal as principal infinitesimal. &quot. Exercises. and a be taken infinitely near to will now show that if a point We P P perpendicular FM be dropped from P P P&quot.(%)=0. opposite sides of its this is then a point of inflection.-axis is /&quot. 39 fc2n+l Then y.(0)x* The radius of curvature at P is and the equation of the osculating * 2 circle is 2 + - (y p) = P- Hence the lesser ordinate y of this circle is given * by the formula : y r= p V 2 p *? = P P (1 I I * n = 4. y = /(0) and $f&quot. with But we happen to know in this case that the function can be developed s by Taylor Theorem (15). + /&amp.= y. +1 &amp.lt. + 1) (aj) in general therefore preserve the +1 but negative. ft) (2n+1) .(o b )=|= 0.

:-*?) B From y )/x approaches in general a finite limit different from 0. a. x =.40 TAYLOR S THEOREM. Cal. f(x ) = f (x +0h)h. approximately. and tank s are to be sure obtained by in tegration. and hence that ?/ y is an infini tesimal of the third order. (14)) H = f(x + h) + replaced by x. 32. i. cos a-. 31. can be represented by a Taylor s Series. Second Application : Error of Observation Let x denote the magni tude to be observed. Hence the y is proposition. sin&quot. IX of and in the Diff. x -\. referred to x as principal infini (y result follows that tesimal. Exercise. = tude. e. and the error // caused thereby in the result will be (cf.gt. But PM PM and PP are of the same order.r be the true value of the observed magni . determining shown in Ch. that these developments are as follows. Then if . for sin&quot. will be a continuous function of x and thus the value of f(x Oh is Oh) will be but slightly changed if a? + Hence. . o^.. h will be the error in the observation. It is explicitly the coefficients in these series.* 1 2! . logo. y the magnitude to be computed from f (x) the observation. SB. The Principal Applications of Taylor s Theorem without the Remainder. 1 tan&quot. 32.h the value determined by the observation. : . H = f (x)h and this is the formula that gives the error in the result due to the error in the observation. and y this y = K*^*&amp. a. In general / (#). . xs 3! COS z5 5! 99=1 x* 1 x4 These developments hold for * all values of x. Show that for any other tangent circle y an infinitesimal of the second order. but the student will have no difficulty in obtaining them directly 1 The developments s from Taylor Theorem. Taylor s Series (15) consist in showing that the 1 fundamental elementary functions e x sin a.

. Now x e~ r )/x^ if we try to apply Taylor s Theorem to the function (e the successive derivatives soon become complicated.. and this expression is try to apply Taylor s To avoid this difficulty recourse usually extremely complicated. a? = . 33. can be developed about any point X Q by that the series will converge for all values of h.3T + s . case of the Show Taylor s Theorem and that sin a. let it be required to evaluate / The indefinite integral ra do. and hence.. we encounter a difficulty that is In order namely to show that f(x) can be usually insurmountable. We can how ever proceed as follows : = -x+ 1 X1 X . cannot be obtained and thus we are driven to develop the integrand into a series and integrate term by term. more or less indirect methods of obtaining the expansion. we have + 3l + 5l^ . in the 1.. * 4. expanded by Taylor s Theorem it is necessary to investigate the general expression for the n-ih derivative. Hence compute sin 46 33. As soon however as we pass beyond the simple functions and Theorem.32.T.. correct to seconds.. dividing through by . + 1 XS 2 3 + -I- 1 3 ^ 5 2^4 + -4- l tan~&quot. of a?) numerically less than Exercise. o -J- o (or. 41 log* = log(l + h) = h - + 1- - -i T Z &quot. TAYLOR S THEOREM. These developments hold for all values of 7i last two formulas. is had to For example.

H4 To 502- the examples on p. The fundamental elementary functions having been developed by 32.42 TAYLOR S THEOREM. we proceed to study some of the simplest Taylor s Theorem. starting with the developments already obtained. General Method for the Expansion of a Function. . pass to the developments de sired. operations that can be performed on series and thus. function /(a?). ^ Examples. into a manner out of the elementary the general method is the following. functions. develop a made up power in a simple series. dx=2 Do (l + 3 37+5^7+ ) = *. 33. 50 of the Problems.

The sum a quantity that approaches as its limit when n =. .x&amp. For example.. the value of a which the terms are added. It an infinite series is . For. if positive. say 10 000.i + (i + A) * + ( (y) the result an alternating series of the kind considered in 11). series (y) Hence the J z= J. it is In fact series will possible to rearrange the terms in (a) so that the new have an arbitrarily preassigned value. C.. this cable to a sum need not be applicable to a series 34. has been pointed out repeatedly ( 19.IV.^) of the first n terms of (/?) differs from a properly chosen sum of terms of (y) at most by the first term of a parenthesis. processes appli if applicable. fact requires proof. Take the series Its value is less : than 1 J -)- i = f (12) Rearrange its terms as follows i + * . 24) that since not a sum.* -M + A -J + is . ALGEBRAIC TRANSFORMATIONS OF SERIES. 1 2k : each pair of positive terms be enclosed in parentheses (i + i) . terms in (a) has thus led to a series (/?) having a different value from (a)..gt. terms be extended to series? sum is independent of the order in Can this interchange in the order of the Let us see. For easy to verify the inequalities converges toward a value greater than (1 -).i + is it is + I) .. but a limit of a sum.lt. Hence the series (/?) and (y) have the same value and the rearrangement of &amp. (-8) The general formula for three successive terms 4k and (i if 3 4 A.i + i + i. 21. begin by adding from the positive terms C is .

and more too . The series thus obtained value is is the result of a rearrangement of the terms of (a) and its C. begin again with the positive terms and add just enough to bring the sum above (7.. tions. Theorem 1 of of absolutely convergent series as unconditionally convergent.. processes are however capable of such extension under proper restric and it is the object of this chapter to study such extension for some of the most fundamental processes. therefore ..lt. since this series of positive terms Then begin with the negative terms diverges. is any convergent series that is not absolutely convergent. Because of this fact such series are often called 35 justifying the denoting conditionally convergent. .gt.x&amp. . ...o + &quot. if a correct view of the For a rearrangement of nature of an infinite series is entertained.i +w + 2 . and so on.. enough have been taken so that their 34. all the terms of s &amp. co After the rearrangement For s n always in approaches the limit U when n creases as n increases but no matter how large n be taken (and then held fast). . and add just enough to reduce the sum below C. There is nothing paradoxical in this fact.44 till ALGEBRAIC TRANSFORMATIONS OF SERIES.gt. lim s n n = U. let + _! . The above example illustrates the impossibility of extending a Most of such priori to infinite series processes applicable to sums. suppose all =u + u + 1 . This will always be possible. sum will just exceed C. 35. In the same way it can be shown generally that if &quot. = &amp. these two variables should approach the same limit. terms means a replacement of the original variable s n by a new vari able s n in general unequal to S H and there is no a priori reason why .. THEOREM First. its terms can be so rearranged that the new series will converge toward the preassigned value C. sn 1. As soon as this has been done. 35. n can (subsequently) be taken so large that s n will include Then sn .. In an absolutely convergent series the terms can the terms to be positive and let be rearranged at pleasure without altering the value of the series.

by an ingenious device. let be any absolutely convergent series and Let u . III 21 2. ALGEBRAIC TRANSFORMATIONS OF SERIES.35. z (Cf. Hence s n.. they can be added term by term.==. approaches a limit U ^ We ated may now by a rearrangement of the terms turn things about and regard the i/-series as gener of the u -series. Secondly. d. . Replace this device by a direct line of reasoning. or If they are absolutely convergent. Exercise. &amp. Find the value of the 22 +1 2 7 I 2* I+ 29 J_ 2 11 l 2^ . V 28 V and W 1 25 W.lt. + .. M/ U TX J u But v hence w series . + u\ + u . THEOREM 7 F= V + V. hence U = U. The second step in the above proof was abbreviated Exercise. no matter how large n be taken. and the above reasoning shows that U &amp.*-* u v w.. 14) be the series after the rearrangement and S n let ~ 1 &quot.... 45 or. the third series will also be abso lutely convergent and hence its terms can be rearranged at pleasure. U. are any two convergent series.. Let Then S n+ t n = ( U &amp. U... q..lt. e.lt. .. U.^ 7 . let the series +U +U + l 2 ..

.lt....... 35. oo . Let s = ? . n =.. dropped..*& I The theorem asserts that if any series be formed by adding the terms of this scheme. each term appearing in this series once and . they can be multiplied together like sums. i. +...46 ALGEBRAIC TRANSFORMATIONS OF SERIES. Exercise.. are any two absolutely convergent series. difficulty Show that if U is u + ?*! +u + z . remains to sliow that the parentheses This is shown in the same way as in the case which arose in 34....... If U= V= u v +n + +v + l l ?&amp. cut out of the upper left hand corner of the scheme. this series toward the limit UV.. For example U Vl + u &quot. THEOREM 3. When the left hand side converges toward v ) U -\- V\ hence U+ V = (u + It + ( Ul + vJ + may be .. any convergent series. oo The terms of the product s n t n are advantageously displayed in the scheme.... if each term in the first series be multiplied into each will converge absolutely term in the second and the series of these products formed. c any number.e..M^o +U VZ + %!?! +U n_ 2 VQ + . They are those terms contained in a square n following terms on a side. This theorem does not hold for series that are not absolutely con vergent. 2 + r 2 -f . s it l then n lim t = H = UV. . The proof of the second part of the theorem presents no and may be left to the student.

lt. v The product of these series is the convergent series But this series is precisely the series of absolute values of (a). passes through all integral values. (n + I) .lt. and therefore (a) converges absolutely. the terms that lie on the oblique lines. show that one series formed in the prescribed way from the terms of the scheme. Let Sy denote the all sum n2 of the first N terms in 2 (/?).. form the series of absolute values Secondly. if when N. Then. l2 = UV. successive lines being followed from top to bottom : Vo + Vi + this series will It is sufficient to MI^O +V + 2 . oo This proves the theorem. For any other series can then be generated by a rearrangement of the terms of this series. First suppose positive.35. N 2 passes only through the values n : lim Sy = n lim 7V= But co = S tl2 .. for example the series formed by fol lowing the successive boundaries of the squares from top to bottom and then from right to left. the ^-series and the v-series are any absolutely con vergent series. Hence N= if lim oo v = UV. * The case that ( some of the terms are must not however be excluded S.* the terms of the w-series and the v-series to be &amp.. namely the series converges absolutely toward the limit UV. (a) converge absolutely toward the limit UV. . ALGEBRAIC TRANSFORMATIONS OF SERIES. . and this will be the same limit. oo S tlt = s n tn and n lim = /S. l + i.. $v approaches a increasing. if JV&amp. 47 for example. Sx will continue to approach a limit.y . It remains to show that the Since value toward which limit it converges is UV. the only once. hence the double sign ^ ) in the inequality below: fC s n + it.

. a.48 ALGEBRAIC TRANSFORMATIONS OF SERIES.. Suppose however that instead of the polynomial infinite series : we had an &amp.. Thus it gives as the square of the geometric series the series l + x + x* + + 2x + 3x* + x . . &amp. n (//) thus represented as a power series in x by the addition of these terms.f&amp. and the polynomial power /. let 35. a result agreeing with the binomial expansion of (1 -}..gt.lt. y 8 . Let Its proof be any polynomial in y and series in x : let y be given by the convergent power 2 y = a : + c^x + a 2 x2 + ../&amp.2 x2 -\- . any power of a power l series. series is given by the formula Then the product of these This formula can be used to give the square. 36. power then formed by multiplying these the terms of the polynomial (?/) series respectively by the cofficients 6... 1 +v and show that the result agrees with the 36. One more theorem is extremely useful in practice.#)~ 2 Exercise... .gt.(?/) Under what &amp.lt. ... be two convergent power x any point lying at once within the region of convergence of both series. &amp.. n y can be obtained at once as x by repeated multiplications of the ^-series by itself. would carry us beyond the bounds of this chapter. f(x) a + a^x + series. or by repeated appli cation.(//) restrictions series in can the above process of representing as a &amp..lt.lt.lt.f&amp. Find the first four terms in the expansion of e~ x s\ux COBX - and a 2 los (I 1 -\- x) V Square the expansion of x series for e e 2 *.(y) as a power series in power x? x be extended to representing . For example.gt... ... Then the powers of y series in ?/ .

lt. Cal.e. Remark.+/i ()+/(*)+ . (y) as a power series in x is always &amp... CaL. Taylor s formula.f value will be Let it Let y e&amp..^ &amp. Ch. Then still But the theorem is the one that usually arises in practice.lt.gt. Diff. 38) the values of y corre to small values of x will lie near to and thus the point a sponding must surely lie within the interval of convergence ( r y r) of the series &amp. that no further condition necessary.. and secondly. Ill. form of a single power its 1. ..... The example in hand illustrates the truth of this statement.. /o(*) + /i(a)-h/t(*) + . The case an r holds provided only that r. I. ALGEBRAIC TRANSFORMATIONS OF SERIES. And is Suppose a now our theorem = &amp. X. + ajt* + . then this condition is always is precisely this.lt.lt. Int.gt. THEOREM applicable. &amp.^ . IX.r.* If a = 0.j&amp. *(y) = =l+y + \tf + ^ = be required to develop e* sinx according to x sin.lt.f&amp.. 4. the only difference being that the Cf... Ch.lt. where in the fn (x) series all the denotes a power series) that if we collect from these terms of common degree in x and then rearrange them series.gt. Vol.gt.(y).^ * = be developed by Taylor s Ch. &amp. satisfied. Ch. this series will converge. i. and hence that (?/) can be expressed in the form #(30 It =/o (*). The point of the theorem just quoted is this. powers of x. Since a power series represents a continuous function (v. coefficients in the final series will then be infinite series instead of sums. remains to prove (and it is precisely this fact that the theorem as a fact not true in general of a convergent series of the form serts. Stolz.^ &amp.lt. XVII) it is usually simpler to determine the coefficients in the series by the method here set forth than by performing the successive differentiations requisite in the application of 25. Allgemeine Arithmetik.06.f&amp. restriction is 49 One immediately obvious..lt. the above process of representing no further restriction is necessary. f Even when it is known that a function can Theorem (v. We know from 35 that each term in the y series can be expressed as a power series in x bn y : n =f (x) = a w + Oi n o &amp. Examples.(y). first.

S. The fraction then takes on the form s J x -\. Functions of a Variable. let x approach 3.VI. An to the proof of the * Cf.1. by Thos. log cos ft. Example. Fiske John Wiley & Sons. Let cos x = x2 1 -|- y . but the method of series gives a briefer solution. theorem in the Theory of Functions. ALGEBRAIC TRANSFORMATIONS OF SERIES. 2 ^/ i _ A: 2 sin 2 ft gives no exact information concerning the extent of the region of convergence of the final series.* But for many applications it is not necessary to know the exact For example.50 2. Complex .higher powers of x . Suggestion. Higher Mathematics. 36. 220. It merely asserts that This deficiency is supplied by an elementary there is such a region. Find the first 4 terms in the expansion of sin Obtain a few terms in the development of each of the following functions according to powers of x. Ch. log cos a? 41 Mm V == * 1 + 2 +^ to Both numerator and denominator can be developed according powers of x. then and log cos x = -^ x 4 iV ^ 6 + V Theorem 4 1 2x cos (9 -f a. 3. Int. The limit of the fraction is then seen to be The usual method for dealing with the limit 0/0 is applicable here. the following limit.. Determine the lim x limit 2 = Va --ft 2 l Va* cos x + is ft 2 important application of Theorem 4 following theorem. let it be required to determine region of convergence.higher powers of x x 8 -j. Cancel x s from numerator and denominator and then as its limit. as the student can readily verify. Cal. .

T~ r ^ ^1 ^ 1 i l r X ^2 o 1 T&quot.5j r. ~ _ 1 1 y 2 3 y s a 1 +4 4 o &amp. 2 . = and it JU ~Tn (C + C1 0. ctna^ := -a. . i.2 i -f- n 0_ co 1 ^ nj n I* -\2 i -z=r ~r Ml + l_l i -f- ^-1 - ri | -r t- i &quot. provided the constant term in the denominator series is not : a^ +az + j 2 j CQ r Cj X 4 C% X r 2 if It is sufficient to a _|z 0.gt. / i /7 ^m /vim 1 +1 .6 t /7 Cv I &quot. The quotient of two power series can be represented as a power series.36. xs and develop sec x and esc x to three terms.bz -4- x2 -\I 1 /yiW b l -|.lt. L X-\- /y i U. that 3 =x+1 1 + 1 - a* + -4- .gt. a? -|.gt. e.. show a that 1 a{ x &amp.V o provided y/a is numerically less than unity.t + series that represents it can be so represented. For -|.2 X /y. y numerically less Thus the conditions of Theorem 4 are fulfilled and the func than a tion l/(a 4~ y) can be expressed as a power series in x by develop n n ing each term ( l) y /a n + l into such a series and collecting from these series the terms of like degree in x. 1 /&amp. . ALGEBRAIC TRANSFORMATIONS OF SERIES. +C 2 X2 1 &quot. Examples.. A more convenient mode of determining the expansions will coefficients in these be given in 37. I m I -4-1 (&quot. for then the power can be multiplied into the numerator series Let 1 o y = 1 al x ~~ -\- a2 x2 y -\. Show tana.^ ^ tt -m an(^ divide a? into each term. + ) only remains to set c n = . the quotient jt of the first m powers of x in the can be expressed in the form OQ-\- j (&amp. COROLLARY. 51 THEOREM. +y . denominator 7i i If the coefficients series vanish.

lt. That this question interval of convergence. can then always be found such &amp.t&amp.lt. a continuous function? is by no means trivial is shown by the fact that while the continuous functions of ordinary analysis can be represented (within certain limits) by trigonometric series. These conditions can be expressed in the following form lies : when x *(*o) &amp.. .lt. will lie within this belt. going converse true. and y = a belt being &amp.(x) within this interval. 8 ^&amp.gt.lt.t&amp. within its 37.f&amp. (x) is said to put into precise form what is meant by a continuous be continuous at the point x if lim X &amp. + 8. AVe have had numerous examples in the fore Continuity. 0. 4&amp. e bounded by the lines y ) ~h an arbitrarily small positive quantity.lt.(# FIG. (x) &amp. e.gt. e. namely. =X off e is (a?) = &amp.* 8. ) .lt. Let us function. . conversely. that every power series represents. marked where (#&amp.gt. Is the of continuous functions represented by power series. &amp.gt.lt. CONTINUITY.gt. x * &amp. &amp. an interval that. i.V.gt.lt. (. represent a continuous function throughout its interval of convergence.) e.lt. if.lt.Oo) + e.lt.gt. by series of the form a trigonometric series does not necessarily. INTEGRATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF SERIES. ^ 8 &amp. (&amp. first &amp.T O -(- 8).lt. i.f&amp.

2) is 3/ + M.lt.. . or CONTINUITY. then a second positive quantity 8 can be so determined that \f(x) Let s n (x) /) = u (x) e | &amp.lt.. x being any point of the interval.lt.lt. 53 A simple sufficient condition that U (X) represent a continuous function is the series of continuous functions + U. _! (aj). a&amp... .lt. We s \ will show that the absolute value of each of the sn (x o)\. x &amp.^ ^e.. Then. \ . O) + .Mn .lt..lt. 1) u n (x) \&amp..lt.lt.p.lt. . if 8 is value of f(x) f(%o) is less than e.x&amp. if a posi tive quantity e be chosen at pleasure. Q 2 independent of x. DIFFERENTIATION.. INTEGRATION. * quantities n( x) )j &amp. hence the proposition... and then held fast. if a set of positive numbers. We have to show that. ... a series of continuous functions convergent throughout the interval f (x) represented by this series will be con (a. . If V (x) is +u l (x) + a &amp. R. . it =0.. tinuous throughout this interval. given by the following theorem. M^ . /3). I ^n.1. | * The absolute value of a quantity A shall from now on be denoted by A . can be found such that then the function M . Let the remainder in the Jtf-series be denoted by n R : and since let n be so chosen that R n &amp. a convergent series.. + () . less tlian chosen and | x XQ \ From this F properly follows that the absolute *. i.37.8.^ r n ( xo) is 8. THEOREM 1.. ft . + U! (x) { +. | M . Then f(x) /(ar ) /()=:. UW it &amp.lt.r |&amp..lt..+ = M ( :tl (x) s n (x } + rn (x) rn (x ).... + M.+ *. follows that I (*) &amp. .(*).(*) } if \x &amp.

.. Hence we set J.x&amp. The function may however be discontinuous on the boundary of the interval.lt. Then (3 | | . which the theorem imposes. values of x at once. * It is just at this point that the restriction on a convergent series of con tinuous functions. . the theorem is not always true. .(3. be satisfied and therefore f(x) (a. a&amp. comes into play.. DIFFERENTIATION. -\- a 2 x2 + X .I*&quot. Hence and the theorem Exercise. /?).. sin3# ~~32 I sin5cc 52 converges and represents a continuous function. I n | X-.lt. Without this restriction this proof would be impossible and in fact.38. a&amp. | X+ I | a2 | X + .gt. /?) be any interval con tained in the interval of convergence.. Theorem 1 will is continuous throughout the interval By the aid of this theorem the following theorem can be readily proved. is proved.lt. a&amp.^ 1 x .lt. a continuous function and hence 8 can be so chosen that I *() *(so) Kit.x&amp. rn (x) Kit-.-3 | |&amp.54 for all CONTINUITY. \ I V a | | &amp. that the series Show since &quot.* |&amp.!*..lt. Since it is sn (x) is the sum of a fixed number of continuous functions.lt. . INTEGRATION.s. The general test for continuity power series just obtained can be applied THEOREM within its come 2. 2 converges. r and let (a. Let be chosen greater than either of the quantities a but less than r. A Let the series be f(x) convergent when r a &amp.lt.* or I 37.lt.^ +a x &amp. and the series + if | a..lt. as has already been pointed out.. power series represents a continuous function interval of convergence. neither extremity coinciding with an extremity of that interval.p.= the conditions of . at once to 38.

. COROLLARY. their coefficients a =& .. and thus the theorem is established. If a power series vanishes for a certain interval about the point x = values of x lying in : + a^x + a a First put x 2 a2 + . a x =: ..38. al -{- az x + when x putting x convenient means of meeting this = but it does not follow that this last equation is =.+ (0) Then since /j (x) is by that theorem a continuous function of x lim /! (x) x =Q = .. If two power series have the same value for all values of x in an interval about the point x are respectively equal: = 0.. INTEGRATION.. then a = and the above equation can be written in the form = From this equation it x (a l -\- -j- . all 55 THEOREM. a. . = . But x lim = /i (x) . 0. x &amp.-.. etc. Transpose one sei-ies to the other side of the equation and the proof is at once obvious... then each coefficient vanishes: = 0. It was shown in quotient of two power series can be represented series. 2 Let /!() =a +a 1 . By be shown to be repeating this reasoning each of the subsequent coefficients can 0. - I &amp...... 36 as a power By mode the aid of the theorems of this paragraph a more convenient of determining the coefficients c can be established. DIFFERENTIATION. Theorem 2 furnishes a difficulty. . Multiply each side of the equation by the denominator series : ... i = &i... that the The Determination of the Coefficients c./I = a. ! = a2 x 0. ) follows that = provided x satisfied =j= .. and therefore a l cannot be shown to vanish by here as in the previous case. .. .lt.lt. I . CONTINUITY..

c- a2 cl a^)x^-\- The equations determining the first the c s are precisely the condition that term in the remainder shall vanish each time.56 CONTINUITY.(^i c -f- a Ci) x -\. Hence tan x = x -\- s $x -\- 5 2 T ^. Hence 6 = = a c ac a c2 simple mode of solving these equations for the successive c s is furnished by the rule of elementary algebra for dividing one poly nomial by another. For example. 38 =. INTEGRATION. . is applicable even to the case treated in the corol 36. DIFFERENTIATION.lt. Quotient: A a fl a 3 ^8 + (&o- (& 2 a2 c ajCi a c2 2 )a? +(6 3 a3 etc. to develop tan aj.(a 2 c -)- %c x -|- a c&amp.x -\- This method lary. Develop 3 +x+x 1 csc aj . series for cos x. a c -f. divide the series for sin x _i_ 1 /^3 _j_ J2_ 1 3 I by the Quotient: I /y 5 I I | 15 * T5^ X I etc. Exercise.

lt. the integral of f(x) will be of the terms on the right of integrals when equation (A) i.OOdtes-O. = rn FIG. . the term by term integral of the ?&amp.-series. CONTINUITY.. INTEGRATION. X &amp. a &amp...lt. 9.. to determine when C *u i) a f 1 (x )dx (B) of (J5) is will be The right hand a true equation. Let member called Then (*B I r& r& sn f(x)dx= I (x)dx-\- I rn (x)dx tJ a. (3. Let the continuous function f(x) be represented by an infinite series of continuous func tions convergent throughout the interval (a. e. tja tJ a.. t/a Pu +e/a is n _ l (x)dx +t/a Hence isthat the necessary (*B r (x)dx.. (A) The problem given by to determine the series of the .(x)dx+ e/a . when ( obtain a test for determining plot the curve To this condition is satisfied. lt and lim sufficient condition that (B) a true equation f ^^^ Ja y r. DIFFERENTIATION. ft) : f(x) = u 9 (x) is this + Ul : (x) + . The area under this curve will represent geometrically r n (x)dx.lt.(x)dx+ Pu. f(x)dx= Pu..39. 57 39. . The Integration of Series Term by Term..

The form cable to functions of a real variable. aj-axis is the maximum value that r n (x) attains in the Then a belt bounded by the lines y p a and y p the curve lies wholly within this belt and the absolute value of Lay off = = . THEOREM P r$ I 3. DIFFERENTIATION. Soc.lt. n = 0. . Not every of this sort can be for See an article by the author A Geometrical Method Treatment of Uniform Convergence and Certain Double Limits. most of the cases that Let the test be formulated as follows.lt. M\. tl the area under the curve cannot exceed the area of the rectangle bounded by the line y This area will converge p n or (ft a) p n as its limit if * toward = . x &amp. ft.lt. i. Math. INTEGRATION.lt. 2. 1896.. 1. a &amp. . iii. can be found such that 1) | M .gt. | M 3/ n . oo Hence any such series can be integrated term by term and we have in this result a test sufficiently general for arise in ordinary practice. x &amp. ft) approaches rn (x) when n Now GO in the proof of Theorem 1 that if the series (A) satisfies the conditions of that theorem. Bul letin of the Amer. integrated term by term. ft. if a set ofpositive numbers independent of x.lt. f(x)dx = P c$ t/a will be ya / u CP (x)dx+ &amp. Nov. vol. lim n = R = n 0. where examples of series that cannot be integrated term by term are given and the nature of such series is discussed by the aid of graphical methods. . e. | B HJ a &amp. been deduced is restricted to real But the theorem itself is equally appli complex variables and functions..58 CONTINUITY. M z . It is desirable therefore in which the test has to give a proof that applies at once to both cases. lim p tl = 0. = equation value p n we saw r n (x) &amp. u n (x) &amp. n QO and thus we (B) of | shall have a sufficient condition for the truth of if we establish a sufficient condition that the | maximum in the interval (a. Series (A) can always be integrated term by term.. * This condition is not satisfied by all series that are subject series : merely to the restrictions hitherto imposed on (A). the . 2) is + M + Mt+ l a convergent series.lt. through the highest and lowest points of the curve parallel The distance p n of the more remote of these lines Draw lines from the interval. t/a / Ul (x)dx+ a true equation.- to the ie-axis. 2d ser. .

\a n | \ a&amp. . and if we set an X =M 1 n . INTEGRATION. but less than \ r. | X be chosen greater than |/8 I the greater of the two quantities V . &amp.lt. I rn (x)dx converges toward when n oo and the proof is i/a complete. \ R | n . of 40. the CP I CP f(x)dx I u CP Ja (x)dx+ I I u l (x)dx-\(x)dx Jo./3. /3) can be integrated contained in the interval of convergence and not reaching out to the extremities of this interval: Let the series be written in the form a f(x) + a^x +a 2 ^2 + and a | let . and I denoting the length of the path. CP +Ja u _ 1 n l (x)dx + JCP r a still n holds and the proof of the theorem turns on showing that the hypotheses are sufficient to enable us to infer that Let the remainder of the Jf-series be denoted as in 37 by Rn : Then it follows. Now /fl I /fl Ja rn (x)dx &amp.lt. that r n (x) &amp. test to the integration First Application: Power Series. CONTINUITY.39.lt.lt. term by term throughout any interval A power series (a. DIFFERENTIATION.x&amp. as in that paragraph. We proceed now to apply the above some of the more common forms of series. the conditions of the test will be satisfied. relation 59 Keeping the notation used above. the second integral being extended along the same path as the first. But lim (R n l) hence = . Then X&quot.lt.lt. R n l . 40. Jo. I ~ Ja | rn (x) dx \ &amp..

Thus the integrations of 24. . it is greater than the numerically greatest &amp.t&amp. &amp. it f(x) does not converge absolutely or diverges when x may nevertheless happen that the integral series converges when r or r. C* h I a h o Jo +a ?*.(#) Let be Second Application : Series of Poicers of a Function.. &amp. Thus the series + x~ diverges when x = 1 1 . If when x r or then h may be taken equal to r or the series for f(x) converges absolutely.lt.. r. value of i) (x) in the interval a x &amp. a continuous function of x and let its maximum and minimum values lie between r and r when a \x\ Then ft. INTEGRATION. the conditions of the test will be satisfied. . but the equation still holds when h 1 : The proof of this theorem will be omitted.lt. Let the power series converge when r &amp.lt..60 Ill CONTINUITY. In this case the value of the integral series will still h be the integral of f(x). h2 x +a h3 2 - + .lt.lt.^ the series can be integrated term by term from a to ft : C t/a ft f(x)-d=a9 f^dx+ai e/a t/a if P&amp.C )8. If however the series for r or r. 25 are justified.. . and if we set | an Y | M n .lt.(x)dx + but less than r.^ y r. | li \ r &amp.gt. DIFFERENTIATION. then 2) tw + |i ^+ | | | &amp. particular 40. |&quot.lt.lt. . ! r-.lt. K 1 ^ I 2 + converges . For Y be so taken that &amp.

. If the function 61 Third Application. It becomes evident on a little reflection that if any other limits of integration.lt. Theorem 3 will still hold a &amp..lt.gt. and &amp. 41.. I. may This theorem is needed in the deduction of Taylor s Theorem from Cauchy s Integral. (3) are taken.. a and j3. X &amp..fr(x) + a^(x) O(V&amp. X &amp. The Differentiation of Series f(x) be represented by the series : Term by Term. INTEGRATION. and if \ff(x) same conditions as in the preceding theorem the series is any continuous function of x.. CONTINUITY.. Examples. ft.! I -v/ sin a? da?. For.... Show that X5 . J&quot. Let the function throughout the interval at (a. a &amp.lt. (a.gt. all the conditions of the test will hold for the interval (a. Compute / x*e~ x dx. ft). DIFFERENTIATION. x) if they hold for the interval 41. ft) of Theorem 1 throughout the interval . : lying within the interval (a. then f(x) a ^(x) + a^(x) &amp.(x) the series + satisfy the !?/ + 2 2?/ + .P + . can be integrated term by term. ft.lt.lt.. ft). t/O 2. a.40. aj .lt. Hitherto the limits of integration have always been the limits of the interval considered.. The method of proof has been so fully illustrated in the two pre ceding applications that the detailed construction of the proof be left as an exercise to the student.f&amp. (a? .. Then the derivative f (x) ivill : be given any point of the interval by the series of the derivatives provided the series of the derivatives u satisfies the conditions (x) +u l (x)+ .

A power series can be any point within (but not necessarily its differentiated. DIFFERENTIATION.&amp..lt.gt. + . (a. 1 +2 I a.f&amp. Show that the series cos a? 1 cos 3 a. q. be denoted by &amp. term by term at at a point on the boundary of) interval of convergence..^ X &amp.. I .(x)=f (x).^ x &amp. ( out the interval the conditions of the test will be fulfilled through can prove this as follows.lt.) : We wish to prove that ^(x)=f By Theorem f*x \ &amp.(x)dx (x). Let the power series be f(x) +ax+ i 2^ 2 + 3 ^3 + .. By the aid of this general theorem we can ing theorem.^ ?% and r. It will serve as a test-series for the I a. &amp.lt.gt.. | cos 5 a. Exercise. Then we want to prove that ) if | x \ &amp.lt. INTEGRATION. 2tt g a: + 3a 8 a.^ r. latter series 41. { 1 } .lt.lt.. The series 2 X&quot.lt.. t/a + Jo. be any value of x within the interval x be so chosen that let ( r.. We &amp. ~1~ ~^ at once can be differentiated term by term. I I as- I +8 I * | | 2 .lt. Let x X. d.(*) MO()} + W + = /(*)-/(). ?*.lt. Hence.. (x) tinuous and by Theorem 2 the series represented by the ^i -series is con can be integrated term by term r*x : = f*x I u (x)dx ! Jo.^ ?*.^ f verges when (x = \ a..X) ul( {&amp. 1 the function &amp. prove the follow THEOREM.lt. e.j&amp.. X)...lt. X : be so chosen that x | | &amp.lt.lt.. : convergent when x | | &amp... 4&amp... X | X +| % \X +\a | \ r) r &amp.^ for in that case..gt. . a + if . convergence of converges. con It will be sufficient to show that the series of the derivatives x | r &amp. and form the -\- series of the derivatives al -\- 2 2 x 3 a 3 x2 -\- ..lt. \ + a.62 Let the CONTINUITY. differentiating. I &amp.gt.

DIFFERENTIATION. Exercise. n &amp. . | J &amp.41.lt. on.series is fulfilled and the proof is complete.gt. | | will be the case if . m . x &amp. . | \a n This \ X tn definite point. n m. if it CONTINUITY. = X | | .~ I a. INTEGRATION.lt. test. But the expression on the left approaches when n oo for x is independent of n and less than 1 the limit can / therefore be obtained by the usual method for evaluating the limit Hence the condition that the former series may serve as oo 0. 63 can be shown that n from some an &quot. From 1 the formula x obtain by differentiation the developments for 1 2 1 (1 a) 3 (1 z) (1 z) and show that they agree with the corresponding developments given by the binomial theorem.

. e. corresponding to any given value of X. This latter theorem is is important in the theory however only a special case of a theorem regarding the existence of a limit. can be so chosen that * /(a. p. 1. ) /(&quot. Let f(x) be any function of x such that Urn [/( 05&quot. Then f(x) approaches a limit when x GO nite. . . We proceed c now is to the proof. e 3 . then approaches the limit n.APPENDIX. then converge towards /(# ) /(#&quot. limit for steadily de the values s Then * For the notation cf foot-note. is independent variables. creasing and approaching the X by Xu X X 2. Let us choose for the successive set e 1? e 2 . J. . &amp.) | the quantity In other Then X. = example Denote the corresponding values of in general these latter values will . the pair of is aj&quot.. when x and regarded as independent variables. . both x and chosen arbitrarily subject only to the condition that are greater than will X (or at least as great).) x&quot. It was shown when n increases in 13 that if the variable s n approaches a limit indefinitely. It tance in higher analysis.gt. We mean that if taken as an independent variable that is allowed to increase without X limit and then. values (V.) stating precisely approaches the limit by what we mean by saying that when x and regarded as a?&quot. the limit of this expression no matter how we allow p to vary with n. . is when p if. as its limit.. is constant or varies in any wise with was when n it And stated that oo . words. A FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM REGARDING THE EXISTENCE OF A LIMIT. if x &amp. 53.) let e denote an arbitrarily small positive quantity. X &amp. conversely. We will begin f(x ) /(#&quot. which is of fundamental impor of infinite series. then sn will approach a limit. values that to take on any l/i. both become infinite.gt. X and x&quot. )/(&quot. THEOREM.)] = = both become infi .lt.

7? Assign to x the value X le Then |&amp. e.^ c i ei . + lie . The meaning of this last rela tion can be illustrated graphically as follows.lt. x v&quot. fa) them be denoted respectively by a 2 near to (6) /(X2 ) lies so val .e l5 /(XO-/W i.lt. + e2 will lie in the interval (a 1? yS^ and shall be denoted by fa (c) /(X 2) lies so near to /? 2 e2 /? t that/(X2 ) + e2 falls outside the inter val . Then three cases can arise . Plot the point /(Xj) .e. X /j )-i t /PL /CEjH-4* i i in FIG.^ by ^^ Then.lt.lt./(x where the point denotes any value of the variable x greater than /(X2 ) this point lies in the interval (a l5 /5J. the other point /(X ) 2 . Now repeat this step. and do always increase.. /(XO Cl &amp. in this case.APPENDIX. a/ /&amp. both of these points in the interval (a x . i &amp. /&amp.gt. to restate con cisely the foregoing results. ^_ ^\i V . 2) e2 &amp.lt. /3 2 04 that/(X2 ) e2 falls outside the inter 04 : in this case. 2 X let 2 .gt. whose length is 2e^ provided x lt ^&amp. the other point /(X ) 2 . fa) and shall be denoted by a 2 ./(XO + Cl for all values of x greater than X x . ^Y!. Xi . /(X a. ^ ^&amp. Then on a line and mark the points /(Xj) ^ and f(Xt ) -f. Plot the Mark : points (a) /(X ) e2 and /(X2 ) .f(x) &amp.t the inequalities assert that the point which represents f(x) always lies within this interval.gt.lt.+* e of this interval by a 1? Denote the left hand boundary f(X\) the right hand boundary /(Xj) -|.?*&amp. e2 .gt. ft e2 : ai = 2 Cl ./() &amp. 65 we can in any case choose them so that they Begin by putting e f(i\ f(^ / J (x ) (X = \ I l : ) ^ &amp. choosing for e the value i. . the interval (a.lt.gt.gt. steadily increase. let a 2 be taken coincident with a2 = ttl . 10. A if a? &amp.lt. let be taken coincident with will lie in p l : fa = fa . ^&amp.

n 5. same limit. Another application of the present theorem is to the convergence . in the form S. *&amp. ...gt. Similar reasoning shows that the points repre And since senting ft. Jxii Xx $ (x)dx = This principle was stated.lt.&amp. 1.2e.. same time.. Hence. they but no one of them ever advances so far to the right as ft.lt. . the variable x is in this case the positive integers. 2./(OJ) &amp. S H the function /(V) ^corre x an(l thus that theorem is seen to be a to /(# ) sponds f( &quot.lt. .lt. .. Now They advance consider the set of points that represent a 1? a 2 a. B. 2 e. .&amp./()&amp. we allow i to increase indefi nitely at the equalities.lt. and if when x increases indefinitely. .. by the principle* of 4.gt. 3. a and ft. ft...*. above quoted n is the independent the expression s n+p variable x. Hence /(a. they opproach a limit A. but not so rapidly as to invalidate these in t we see that/(#) is shut in between two variables.l&amp.. . . . 1 ^&amp.66 APPENDIX. 2e 2 . &amp. Let of a definite integral when the upper limit becomes infinite. to be sure.lt. ft if X &amp. never recede toward the left. X 2 ..lt.gt.t but it obviously continues to hold if we assume merely that * ^&amp. and we shall have as the result in the general case the following if *^ : a. these limits must be equal From this it follows that f(x) converges toward the : A= ft. /(x ) /(&quot. . The remainder of the proof is extremely simple.lt. each of which approaches the same limit. The step just described at length can be repeated again and again. ft a2 &amp. ft a. &amp.) approaches that limit also. In each one of these three cases a2 &amp. For .gt. when n n. ft.gt. in general toward the right as i increases. approach a limit B. and the theorem is proved.) 5 The domain of values for special case of the theorem just proved.(x)dx./ if &amp. In the theorem in infinite series ..lt.. n. S . . f(x)= Then 1 P&amp.gt.) = f% Ja / (a?) dx C* Ja V (x) dx \ $ (x) dx.

or becomes .gt.f&amp. case all the real quantities greater than a.APPENDIX. where x and x&quot. if x (y) in approaching a assumes values sometimes greater than a and some times less. nitely or approaches a limit a from either side or from both In the first case.oo ..lt. the other below a.lt.lt. Let f(x) be such a function of x that. Then f(x) we &amp. The theorem can however be indefi readily extended to the case that x decreases algebraically sides. when x and regarded as independent variables. let = = y. We THEOREM. approach the limit a from above or from below or from both sides.(x)dx become in s. and since lim may now be taken the one above. &amp. The domain of values for the variable x is in this is convergent. are thus led to the following more general form of statement of the theorem. Finally. the limit a from above or from or negatively infinite. &amp. (y) satisfies the conditions of the secondly from below. x if a H-y x is always greater than its limit a . belotv or from both sides. let 1 x if = a -y if x is always less than a.gt.f&amp. In the foregoing theorem it has been assumed that the independent variable x increases without limit. these two limits must be equal. let x in the second. the integral as independent variables. In each of these cases it has just been seen that f(x) approaches a limit. 1 x&quot. both /oo &amp. and the function -|. or become positively or Then f(x) approaches a limit when x approaches negatively infinite.lt. set = (. 67 when x and x \ regarded finite. we may restrict x first to approaching a from above.y) y theorem when and hence f(x) will approach a limit.

5^x H . A TABLE OF THE MORE IMPORTANT FORMULAS.gt. r r = a numerically.68 APPENDIX.. b* _ -\ a2 a3 = xz +a . . 1 - a bx a 1. - 1 1-2 101 2 1-2-3 i (1+x) _ 2x + 3x . .= +x+ + + 1 JL&amp. The heavy line indicates the region of convergence... 101 x* x* . 1 . W 4 B X...






= +oX +

11-31T +



3- 5



/v.2 * ~









rt6 *


















sec x

= +

J X*

+ ^a


2 3


3 x5




5 x1

^ 2^~4


2-4-6 7













For small values of x the following equations are approximately




+ / (a)


Vi +


A a;



y, 2, 10,



numerically small, then, approximately,


+ x) (1 + x)


+ y) (1 + z) (1 + y) _

= +x+y+z+

sin (a



cos (a
log (a


+ x)

= cos a x sin a cos a = log a =




676 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA. 13m.RETURN Astronomy/Mathematics/Statistics/Computer Science Library TOO Evans Ha 1 1 642-3381 FORM NO DD 3. CA 94720 . BERKELEY BERKELEY.

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