Part A: HOLISTIC ORDER: Expanding our This is not a pipe(pic


thoughts to include perceptions.

The ever present gap between words and seeing is a key theme of the paintings of the Surrealist painter Rene Magritte. Since what we see can only depicts realit y upto a certain point; we need to be conscious of the fact that there is a whol e world out there that our eyes are not able to see. We need to start seeing in a more conscious manner and reflect what we see in our speech to be more success ful. Holistic order is consciously reconciling what we see and feel with what we speak at the end of a defined time period. It is about looking at your history of the previous time period like a silent movie and learning from that experienc e and improving your perception. Now look forward in time and visualize the changes you are going to make. With t he enhanced wisdom of your enriched perception, you will be able to improve the experience of your future history. Your enhanced perception has deepened your co nsciousness; you can see and feel things which you did not before. Kindle such d esires of change in yourself and your followers and tap the natural energy of ch ange to spur you to action. At the end of the next time period, create Holistic Order again. Chapters in this section: EMERGING PERCEPTION FROM HISTORY ^ ^ EVOLVING CONSCIOUSNESS OF CHANGE

What one must paint is the image of resemblance—if thought is to become visible in the world. —Rene Magritte It is impossible to do a thing the way I see it because the closer I get the mor e differently I see. Alberto Giacometti Chapter 1: Improving success: Emerging Perception from history. Picture of Duck-Rabbit

This picture of a duck-rabbit was used by philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein to exp lain the complexities involved in perception. Say, you see the picture as a duck initially. Later the aspect changes and now you see the picture as a rabbit ev en though the overall perception remains the same. Similarly, in situations when we see the glass as half empty, we need to be learn how to see the glass as hal f full instead and be more optimistic. Spoken language takes a small snapshot of reality and creates common ground amon g us. However, we are missing out a huge portion of reality since we all see the same things in a different manner. Whatever we see, at a moment in time, is not reality but our perception of it. The quote from the Rig Veda on the opposite page speculates about what was ther e before the beginning of time by mentioning various options and possibilities. In a similar fashion, we need to approach our perception of reality as a continu um of choices and dynamic possibilities instead of something fixed as our Ego wa nts us to believe. PAST=> You undergo experience but fail to acquire experience. You are protected by the cocoon of your comfort zone. PRESENT=> Suddenly a jarring experience shakes you from your slumber and the com fort zone becomes a huge source of discomfort. The sheer necessity of survival f orces you to look for answers from new places. FUTURE=> You realize that the answer resides in your history. You make it a habi t to habitually look at your past experiences and improve your perception. TOPICS IN THIS CHAPTER: A.W hat is perception and where is it located? B.Importance of seeing in Perception C.Overcome biases to Perception and recognize changing patterns D. Be aware of the biases of historians and history makers E.Do great men create history or history create great men? F.You can be successful only if you learn from history There was neither non-existence or existence then; there was neither the realm o f space nor the sky which is beyond. What stirred?Where? In whose protection? Wa s there water, bottomlessly deep? There was neither death nor immortality then. There was no distinguishing sign o f night nor of day. That one breathed, windless, by its own impulse. Other than there was nothing beyond… Was there below? Was there above? There were seed placers; there were powers. Th ere was impulse beneath; there was given-forth above. Who really knows? Who will here proclaim it? Whence was it produced? Whence is t his creation?The Gods came afterwards, with the creation of the universe Who the n knows whence it has arisen? Whence this creation has arisen—perhaps it formed itself, or perhaps it did not—the one who looks down on it, in the high heavens, only he knows – or perhaps he does not know? ---- The Rig-Veda. Artist - musicians, painters, writers, poets, always seem to have had the most a ccurate perception of what is really going on around them, not the official vers ion or the popular perception of contemporary life. Billy Joel It is the function of art to renew our perception. What we are familiar with we cease to see. The writer shakes up the familiar scene, and, as if by magic, we s ee a new meaning in it. Anais Nin

A. What is perception and where it is located? The first time I ever heard the word perception, I found it very difficult to ma ke sense of this strange word. The more dictionaries I looked up, the more confu sed I got. Finally, I made a mistake and looked at the synonym section instead and came across words like “awareness,sense,recognition”. Gradually I realized that all these synonyms were leading me beyond the logic of words, to the visual imag ery, and finally it started making sense. I got curious about the nature of perception. Was it located in our mind? Was it separate from our thoughts or is a part of it? One day, I came across a test ca lled Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI) where I saw the word perception again, an d, taking the test made me realize the bigger picture behind perception. MBTI test is based on the Theory of Psychological Type which was first propounde d by Carl Jung, noted psychologist and follower of Freud. It divides our persona lity into the following 4 quadrant: ----------Extroverted (E)versus Introverted(I); --------- Intuitive(N) versus Sensing(S); ----------Feeling(F) versus Thinking(S); -----------Perceptive (P)versus Judgemental;(J) This test is widely available for free online. So, go ahead and take this test.O nce you take this test, the result will be a cryptic 4 alphabet word. For me, th at turned out to be ENFP. Being an ENFP does not mean that I am superior or infe rior to any other 15 TYPES. It only means that I have to look at my “polar opposit es” and start striving to improve them as acquiring some of those qualities would lead to the next level of growth and evolution as a person. So as an extroverted person who gains energy from interacting with others, I ne ed to work on tapping some of the rich, internal energy of Introverts. As an int uitive person, I am probably not paying enough attention to my surroundings and I need to make a conscious effort to apply intelligence to what I see, hear, tou ch,taste and smell in my surroundings. As a Feeling person, I need to step back from my Feelings and apply more rationality when I am taking decisions. If Perce ption is my dominant function, I need to work on improve my capacity to Judge an d improve my decision making. If you are a Judgemental person, you need to star t improving your power of Perception, a key theme of this book, from this very m oment.So whatever is your TYPE, start working on improving your opposite types a nd start achieving the level of success beyond your dreams. Especially, Learn t o suspend judgement by emptying your mind of thoughts and expanding the space o f your perception ; then restore your judgement and enrich your decision making and create greater success and a more fulfilling life. Most of the mistakes in thinking are inadequacies of perception rather than mist akes of logic. Edward de Bono The MBTI is designed to implement a theory; therefore the theory must be underst ood to understand the MBTI --- MBTI Manual thoughts without content are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind” ----Kant Knowledge possessed has three degrees—opinion, science, illumination. The means or instrument of the first is sense; of the second, dialectic; of the third,intuit ion -----Plotinus

Our own physical body possesses a wisdom, which we who inhabit the body lack ---Henry Miller "We are neural beings,Our brains take their input from the rest of our bodies. W hat our bodies are like and how they function in the world thus structures the v ery concepts we can use to think. We cannot think just anything — only what our em bodied brains permit."[2] ---George Lakoff The entire development of mental activity, from perception and habit to represen tation and memory, as well as to the higher operations of reasoning and thinking is a function of the gradually increasing distance of the exchanges, that is, o f the balance between the assimilation of more and more remote realities to pert inent action and the accommodation of this action to those realities ---- Jean Piaget of all the mighty world Of eye, and ear,--both what they half create, And what perceive; well pleased to recognise In nature and the language of the sense, The anchor of my purest thoughts, the nurse, The guide, the guardian of my heart, and soul 110 Of all my moral being. ----William Wordsworth, (from) Tintern Abbey B. Importance of seeing in Perception Perception is the data we take in though all our five sense; see, hear, touch, t aste, smell . However, seeing is far the most dominant of our senses and play th e biggest part in perception. Now, if you were in a specialized profession like Tea Tasting, you would have very highly developed Taste Perception. Hence, in order to achieve the kind of success you deserve, you need to start seeing and o bserving with intelligence and intention. I remember my days in Junior High when I had to endure the agony of chemistry labs. As a very verbal and non-visual pe rson, I just could not make sense of experiments in the science labs. I wish som eone told me to stop thinking and start looking at the experiments instead. Our primitive actions as a child forms the basis of our knowledge. As a child, we look at the way our arms and legs move and though the experiences with what w e see , we build our view of the world. So with the knowledge of what we see and perceive, we create our initial concepts of the world which expands when we lea rn to speak and start imbibing the collective wisdom of the human race symboliz ed in our language. Unlike speech, where we get feedback right away whether we a re right or wrong, we don’t get any feedback whether we are seeing correctly or not and, over a span of time, we cease to be attentive to what we see. In order to speak correctly, our culture provides us with the rules of grammar. We are never taught corresponding rules of how to see correctly. In order to be a Leader, we need to come up with a visual grammar for yourself and your group s o that you can create a culture of true teamwork where the values and purpose of the the organization gets translated into success and satisfaction. Finally, you are able to see reality with a fresh perspective. What you saw as Order before you would now see as stagnation and decay. What appeared to you as chaos hitherto, would now appear as possibilities for growth and prosperity. Yo u will now realize that due to improper seeing, your concepts have not formed pr operly. Finally, your work towards Self- awareness begins when you can free you rself and others from the imprisonment of Habits and conventions and create true change. Every religion and belief system tells us to see true reality beyond the illusio ns of our senses. Our senses create illusions since they are not functioning pro perly and to compound it further, we are unaware that they are malfunctioning. M ost of the time, this malfunctioning is rooted in deeper physiological or psycho logical issues; for instance, your seeing may have become defective from minor b rain injuries or nutritional deficiencies in your childhood which you are not ev en aware of.

Now that you have begun to see with greater consciousness, take this enriched v isual information, process it in your intuition and create true wisdom and succe ss for yourself, your family and your organization. A new way of looking at things is necessary, one that contrasts at every point w ith the natural attitude of experience and thought. To move freely along this ne w way without ever reverting to the old viewpoints, to learn to see what stands before our eyes, to distinguish, to describe, calls, moreover, for exacting and laborious studies ----Edmund Husserl, Ideas. "The real voyage of discovery consists not in seeking new lands, but in seeking with new eyes" --marcel Proust The eye is the lamp of the body; so then if your eye is clear, your whole body w ill be full of light. But if your eye is bad, your whole body will be full of da rkness. -----Matthew 6:22-23 The seeing plays the most important role in Buddhist epistemology, for seeing is at the basis of knowing. Knowing is impossible without seeing; all knowledge ha s its origin in seeing. Knowing and seeing are thus found generally united in Bu ddha’s teaching. Buddhist philosophy therefore ultimately points to seeing reality as it is. Seeing is experiencing enlightment. ----D.T. Suzuki, Outlines of Mahayana Buddhism Visual sensation occurs when there is contact between consciousness, eye and vis ual object; that preliminary sensation is then identified, conceptualized and ma de manifold ----Majjhima Nikaya(from Buddhism) One could say that the whole of life lies in seeing ……..That is probably why the hi story of the living world can be reduced to the elaboration of ever more perfect eyes at the heart of a cosmos where it is always possible to discern more……. To try to see more and to see better is not, therefore, just a fantasy, curiosity, or a luxury. See or perish. This is the situation imposed on every element of the universe by the mysterious gift of existence. And thus, to a high er degree, this is the human condition.” (Pierre Teilhard de Chardin: The Human Phenomenon, To see ourselves as others see us! It would from many a blunder free us. ------Robert Burns C. Overcoming Biases of Perception and recognize changing patterns Our senses are bombarded by millions of pieces of data every day. The process of evolution has made us adapt to this sensory overload by creating perception as a coping mechanism for us to create clarity amidst this chaos. Our mind is const antly shifting through a deluge of data and filtering, judging and categorizing them into a snap shot of reality. Over a span of time, when certain data is cons tantly get repeated, our Mind recognize them as a predictable pattern of data be havior and crystallizes them into taken for granted assumptions. Initially, the se assumptions help us navigate the unruly waters of sensory data but, over a pe riod of time, various biases creep in as our Ego gets attached to our assumption s and we become resistant to change. These Perception biases flaw our judgement and decision making. They make us frustrated and thwart us from achieving our goals . We need to start being awar e that our perceptions are very biased and that, to diminish the impact of these biases, we need to identify our deep seated Assumptions about everything around us. For instance, we often make snap decisions on people based our initial firs

t impression. Going forward, whenever we meet someone, we can tell ourselves “this person seems to be like this on first impression. I am curious to know how he is really” And, in the process, infuse healthy doubt and curiosity and deepen our understan ding and improve our life experience. Often, perception biases creep in because our mind likes to seek causes to the events in our lives. Most of the time, the real causes are very difficult to de termine and are often the combination of multiple causes. However, our Ego likes to pick an answer and then make us belief that that answer is the right answer. Once we ascribe a cause to any of the effects in our lives, we shut our mind t o other options and we refuse to see any other possibilities. Sometimes, events in our lives happen because of coincidences; Jung calls such e vents synchronicity as they are related by meaningfulness instead of cause and e ffects. When we suspend judgement and experience reality with direct perceptio n, these coincidences start becoming meaningful to us and we realize deeper mean ing and purpose in events. Experts take pride in recognizing patterns. However, some of the worst decisions and disasters have been created when experts got stuck in their fixed patterns of thinking and refused to accept changing patterns in the environment. For inst ance, when the levees broke in New Orleans during Hurricane Katrina, the authori ties refused to see the danger, as in their minds, they were fixated on the assu mption that it is impossible for the levees to break. They stuck to their though ts and refused to use perception and see the changing patterns that was so evide nt leading to so much death and human misery. So, in order to ensure that change occurs effortlessly in your life, start recognizing the biases in your percepti on and diminishing their impact. There are children playing in the streets who could solve some of my top problem s in physics, because they have modes of sensory perception that I lost long ago . J. Robert Oppenheimer "Your assumptions are your windows on the world. Scrub them off every once in a while, or the light won t come in." Isaac Asimov “Synchronicity is no more baffling or mysterious than the discontinuities of phys ics. It is only the ingrained belief in the sovereign power of causality that cr eates intellectual difficulties and makes it appear unthinkable that causeless e vents exist or could ever exist. ---Carl Jung Post Hoc Ergo Proctor hoc(after this, therefore because of this) ------- cause and effect fallacy I am above the weakness of seeking to establish a sequence of cause and effect, between the disaster and the atrocity ---Edgar allan Poe All successful men have agreed in one thing—they were causationists. They believed that things went not by luck, but by law, that there was not a weak or a cracke d link in the chain that joins the first and last of things. A belief in causali ty, or strict connection between every trifle and the principle of being, and, i n consequence, belief in compensation,or, that nothing is got for nothing—characte rizes all valuable minds, and must control every effort that is made by an indus trious one. The most valiant men are believers in the tension of the laws. ----Ralph Waldo Emerson • We don t know where our first impressions come from or precisely what they mean, so we don t always appreciate their fragility. Malcolm Gladwell If the doors of perception were cleansed every thing would appear to man as it i s, infinite.For man has closed himself up, till he sees all things thro narrow chinks in his cavern" William Blake,Marriage of Heaven and Hell





D. Be aware of the biases of historians and history makers The word history ultimately originates from the proto- Indo European word meanin g “ to see” or “to know”. It is really intriguing that perception and history originall y had similar meanings. Both historians and makers of history suffer from biases of perception and, as a future maker of history, you need to understand these b iases. People who make history are often deeply biased, especially in their opinions of themselves. They refuse to accept the limitations of these surroundings and str ive to achieve a more empowering reality for themselves and their followers. Sim ilarly, you need to be biased towards your opinion of yourself and belief that y ou are destined for greatness irrespective of any obstacle. Even if you go throu gh an experience which others might interpret as a crisis, should be so biased t owards your greatness that you would interpret such experiences as a leap toward s your destiny of success and triumph. Lot of us have unfavorable experience with history due to our school system wher e we are made to memorize lots of facts and dates. However, to be a successful leader, we need to look at history in a new light and start appreciating the les sons we can learn from it and applying the lessons to avoid future mistakes. A successful leader is his own historian. He looks at the past history of himsel f, his family and organization and designs future experience of himself and his followers. Don’t worry if you are biased as, history shows us that historians have always had their personal biases .For instance, the Greek historian Herodotus, who is considered the father of history, was criticized as being too journalisti c. Plutarch, on the other hand, was said to have written contemporary history in a flattering manner towards his fellow Romans, as he was comparing their qualit ies to those of great Greeks of the past.Other great historians like Ibn Khaldun , whose work was a harbinger of Economic Cycles, were more pre-dispossed toward s the Arab world. Hegel, who was supposed to fulfill Kant’s prophesy of universal history influenced the rise of Communism and German nationalism instead. An example, of a good historian who is considered timeless is Thycydides, whose Hi story of the Peloponnesian Wars is considered to hold lessons even for the conte mporary world. Another, important approach to history is the French Annalese Sch ool and its famous exponent Fernand Braudel who talked about the importance of the long duration and tried to diminish the importance of isolated, ‘historical’ ev ents. As a Leader, you need to adopt methods of history like Analogy. Sometimes, howev er, the biggest blunders are created when leaders go overboard with analogies an d can’t exercise breaks to them. For instance, after the French quit Vietnam, the American Govt used the analogy of the 1930’s. Suggestions of leaving Vietnam, was considered analogous to British Prime Minister Chamberlaine’s appeasement of Hit ler. Finally, due to faulty use of analogy, the US suffered defeat and disgrace in the Vietnam War. So, start using tools and methods of historians while framin g your own history, but make sure that you have sounding boards to take honest a dvice and not go overboard. All men s gains are the fruit of venturing. Herodotus “ the strong do what they can and the week suffer what they must ”(Thucydides: The peloponnesian wars The most outstanding exploits do not always ..(reveal) the goodness or badness o f the agent ..often in fact, a casual action, the odd phrase, or a jest reveals character better than battles involving the loss of thousands upon thousands of lives” ----,Plutarch,Greek Lives "In the early stages of the state, taxes are light in their incidence, but fetch in a large revenue...As time passes and kings succeed each other, they lose the ir tribal habits in favor of more civilized ones. Their needs and exigencies gro w...owing to the luxury in which they have been brought up. Hence they impose fr


esh taxes on their subjects... sharply raise the rate of old taxes to increase t heir yield...But the effects on business of this rise in taxation make themselve s felt. For business men are soon discouraged by the comparison of their profits with the burden of their taxes...Consequently production falls off, and with it the yield of taxation. "Ibn Khaldun The means that nature employs to accomplish the development of all faculties is the antagonism of men in society, since this antagonism becomes in the end, the cause of a lawful order of this society --- Kant, Idea for a Universal History from a cosmopolitan point of view Everything must be recaptured and relocated in the general framework of history, so that despite the difficulties, the fundamental paradoxes and contradictions, we may respect the unity of history which is also the unity of life” Fernand Braudel “Is the history invoked really the source of policies, or is it the source of arg uments designed to vindicate policies adopted for other reasons? Morever, even w hen history is in some sense the source of policies, the lessons of history are generally so ambigous that the other reasons often determine the choice between alternative historical interpretations….Once a statesman begins to identify the p resent with the past, he may in time be carried further than he intends by the b ewitchment of analogy.”-------Arthur M. Schlesinger Jr: War and the american presidency

E. Do great men create history or history create great men? Sometimes great men(or women) create history; sometimes history create great men . Often, great people and historical forces merge to create greatness. Some scho ol of thought, like that of British Philosopher Thomas Carlyle propounded the G reat Man Theory in which history was regarded as the creation of Great Men. Such views give pride of place to charismatic leaders. Others like Tolstoy adopted t he opposite point of view and stated that historical forces created history and the contribution of Leaders were not significant enough. Infact, Tolstoy, in his epic novel, War and Peace, is extremely critical of Napolean and praises the Ru ssian General Kutozov since he knew how to use historical and natural forces l ike the brutal Russian winter to his advantage. Sometimes, it does not help to think or debate too much. You need to visualize your greatness and strive for it no matter what the constraints or obstacles. When you prepare and strive to create history, maybe you will be lucky to ride t he waves of historical forces and create history. Remember, in a calm environmen t, the status quo is often maintained. However, it is mostly in turbulent times, that historical forces get unleashed and, hitherto, unknown, insignificant peop le transforms into Napolean. Churchill was way past 60 when the second world wa r took place. The turbulent times of the second world war transformed Churchill from a controversial player in British politics to a great leader. So when thing s are turbulent and chaotic, nature is providing you an opportunity to take char ge and become a leader. If you prepare hard and act with conviction and integrity, you may still not cre ate history if you are not lucky enough. However, have no doubts that you will achieve a much higher degree of success than if you had not made the commitment of acting as a leader and following through with your resolutions. So start beli eving that you are a great man(or woman) and you are destined to create history and start behaving like someone who is going through the process of creating his tory. You will soon radiate a different energy and will notice that people are t reating you with more importance and respect. As a culture, we are too occupied by the short term. In corporate world, it is t he Quaterly earnings which dictate all action. However, in order to achieve true greatness, you need to see beyond the present and visualize the legacy you are going to leave behind. Your legacy is what will preserve your work even after yo

u are gone and will truly make you a historical figure. If you compare Leadershi p of two corporate leaders of the late 20th century, Jack Welch of GE with Sand y Weil of Citicorp, you will see that even though both were very successful in t he value they created when they were leaders, Citicorp got into major problems a fter Sandy Weill’s departure and most of his actions had to be reversed. However , even after Jack Welch’s retirement, his impact still continues and his legacy i s preserved.

The history of the world is but the biography of great men Thomas Carlyle, On Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History “Man lives consciously for himself but is an unconscious instrument in the attainm ent of the historic, universal aims of humanity” -----:Tolstoy,War and peace, Men make their own history but they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly found, given, and transmitted from the past ----- Karl Marx, “The great man of the age is the one who can put into words the will of his age, tell his age what its will is, and and accomplish it. What he does is the heart and essence of his age; he actualizes his age” ------ Hegel in Philosophy of the Right History is the sum of the actual experience of actual men and women in their rel ation to one another and to an actual, three-dimensional, empirically experience d physical environment. ---Isaiah Berlin Few will have the greatness to bend history itself; but each of us can work to c hange a small portion of events, and in the total of all those acts will be writ ten the history of this generation. Robert F. Kennedy: A prudent man should always follow in the footsteps of great men and imitate tho se who have been outstanding. If his own prowess fails to compare with theirs, a t least it has an air of greatness about it. --- Niccolo Machiavelli Be not afraid of greatness: some are born great, some achieve greatness, and som e have greatness thrust upon them. William Shakespeare What you leave behind is not what is engraved in stone monuments, but what is wo ven into the lives of others. Pericles

F.You can be successful only if you learn from history. Before planning any course of action, do you look at your history or the history of your role models i.e. do you tap into your wealth of experience as well as the experience of others? Your Ego tells you that you do. However, if you were r eally doing a great job learning from history, you would be already far more suc cessful than everyone around you. Are you there yet? Probably not. Hence, step o ne is to tell yourself that you have done a very poor job in learning from histo ry and that you are going to make a fresh start and seek out new methods and rol e models who are good at learning from history and experience. Why is learning from history such a big deal? It is because if you do not learn how to learn from history, then you will keep repeating the same mistakes and su ccess will be elusive to you in spite of all your education, experience and inte ntion. You owe it to yourself to utilize your potential and become very successf ul and empower the people in your life to be successful also.

Why is the past so relevant to the future? It is because even though things cha nge, human nature remains the same. History shows us that even though we make lo t of scientific progress, invariable the forces of war, disease and destruction catches up with us time and again. Hence, when the constitution of the USA was b eing framed, some of the key players like James Madison and John Adams looked a t history and human nature and created built in checks and balances so that futu re leaders did not get corrupted by absolute power. They turned to British phil osophers like John Locke and Thomas Hobbes and adopted some of their thoughts. A ccording to Thomas Hobbes, life is “nasty, brutish and short” and the fear of violen t death is that brings together people to form groups and organizations. The Fou nding Fathers needed a charismatic Leader like George Washington to inspire troo ps in battle but once America won the War of Independence, they made sure, that the constitution was so framed so as to limit the power of any one individual. The Founding Fathers of USA learnt from history and put together an enlightened system. Around the same time, the French Revolution also occurred with the simil ar values of “liberty, equality and fraternity”. However, the equivalent founding fa thers in France did not look at history and made no efforts to limit absolute po wer. Hence, the French Revolution could not be sustained and it dissolved into c haos. Similarly, after the first World War, at the initiative of American Presid ent Woodrow Wilson, the League of Nations was formed with the basic premises of avoiding another world war. Somehow, the League of Nations failed as an organiza tion and humanity witnessed an even more catastrophic Second World War. This tim e around, the leading Allied Powers, USA, UK and Russia, looked at history and l earnt from past mistakes and formed the United Nations and made it more inclusiv e to countries irrespective of ideologies. The UN has become far more successful than the League of Nations and has managed to keep the world away from global or Nuclear Wars. So when you start learning from history, the notion of failure cease to exist and you just learn from every experience and grow into the next e xperience irrespective of success or failure at the previous step. “History is a fragment of biology: the life of man is a portion of the vicissitude s of organisms on land and sea.. therefore the laws of biology are the fundament al lessons of history. We are subject to the processes and trials of evolution, to the struggle for existence and the survival of the fittest to survive. If som e of us seem to escape the strife or the trials it is because our group protects us, but the group itself must meet the tests of survival” ---- the lessons of history, Will and Ariel Durant How all things that are now happening have happened in the past, and will happen in the future ----Marcus Aurelius, To Himself Those who cannot learn from history are condemned to repeat it. -------George Santayana History, despite its wrenching pain, cannot be unlived, but if faced with courag e, need not be lived again. -----Maya Angelou: “If men were angels, no govt would be necessary” ---James Madison wrote in Federalist No.51: "Whatsoever therefore is consequent to a time of Warre, where every man is Enemy to every man; the same is consequent to the time, wherein men live without othe r security, than what their own strength, and their own invention shall furnish them withall. In such condition, there is no place for Industry; because the fru it thereof is uncertain; and consequently no Culture of the Earth………and which is worst of all, continuall feare, and danger of violent death; And the life of man, sol itary, poore, nasty, brutish, and short." Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan “ The UN was not created to take humanity to heaven, but to save it from hell” Dag Hammerskjold

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