This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Alhamdulillah, we managed to finish this assignment after we had put through all our efforts and commitment to complete this assignment on time and complete the task in fulfilling the needs partly of Research Methodology (533) course work. We would like to take this opportunity to thank all the people who had helped us, regardless how little or large, in the making of this assignment. First of all, thanks to Mr. Shafiee b. Tarmudi for the guidance, advice, lecture, and ideas from our thanks to him for your supports on giving us a clear direction on how to do the assignment. We also would like to thank to all Miss Nurul Fariha, the librarian because give a guidance during search of our journal. Last but not least to all friends in BMB3P3, who are lending their hand to help us to do this assignment with good effort. Thank you so much to you all.
By using internet, we can travel all over the world and meet many people from different culture. One of the medium can be use is social networking which can communicate people. The social networking such as facebook, twitter, myspace and blogger is not new in our country and the usage of this networking like drugs which make people addict to surf every single day. Nowadays, social networking not only being surf for communicate to others but some of them use it for business and also for education. So, we come out with one research to identify effects of social networking towards communication, business and education. The research had been made in UITM Segamat that involves 346 students and staff. We distribute questionnaires to ensure this research succeeds.
1.0 INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH
The usage of social networking is like phenomenon that spread from one country to another country. The example of social networking that is popular among people these days such as Facebook, Twitter, Myspace, and Bloggers. This research will be conduct due to the usage of the social networking in daily life of people without any limit of age can give many effects. The addiction of the social networking is one of the important issues for some of the country such as Arab Saudi that had banned certain social networking which can give bad influence among the community. By doing this research, we can make the analysis which of the social networking give more advantages towards society. Besides advantages, there also can be disadvantages because according to the past research, social networking not only gives good effects but also bad effect. Most of the user of the social networking is among teenagers and by
misuse the social networking could give bad effect towards them. The research will give the result which had been analyzed from the respondent¶s answer of the questionnaires distribution. Many people too preoccupied with social networking that very wide which can connect people around the world. From the various social networking people may choose to use the benefits from the advantages or misuse it.
There are many types of social networking that can be use as a medium for communication among people. Other than that we can see that social networking can give some advantages in terms of business and education. Some of the examples of social networking are Facebook, Twitter, Friendster, MySpace, and Blogger. There are several social networking being popular among people according to some researchers. Facebook is a social networking website launched in February 2004 that is operated and privately owned by Facebook, Inc., with more than 500 million active users in July 2010. Users can add people as friends and send them messages, and update their personal profiles to notify friends about themselves. Other than that, Twitter is a social networking and micro blogging service, owned and operated by Twitter Inc. that enables its users to send and read other users' messages called tweets. Tweets are text-based posts of up to 140 characters displayed on the author's profile page. Friendster is a social networking website. Its headquarters are in Mountain View, California. The service allows users to contact other members, maintain those contacts, and share online content and media with those contacts. These social networking suppose to be design to make life easier but there will be many effects. So, research is the one of the way to identify the social networking effects.
In the past, there are many research had been done about the social networking because some of the social networking can effects daily life. Most of the people will have the tendency to be preoccupied when they surf social networking. Some of the students can use social networking as a medium of education. Meanwhile, social networking also can communicate people around the world besides can be a medium to expand the business. The problem that can arise from this research is the misuse of this social networking to towards the education, communication and business because some of the people use the networking for their own interest such as fraud or sex harassment. Nowadays, social networking is the main medium that people use every single day for communicate and also business. Other than that, there are many information can be gain from the social networking. So, research will be done to clear the problem which identifies the effect of social networking.
Objectives of Research
From the problem statement, we will state the objectives of the research. There are three objectives that can be achieved by doing this research. The objectives are: y y y To identify whether social networking effects the communication. To identify the effects of social networking towards education. To identify the effects of social networking in expand the business.
1.5 Research question
When the objective being identify, the research question being made to ensure that this research can fulfill this question: y y y How social networkings effect the communication among people? How education being effect by social networking? How social networking effect people in expand the business?
1.6 Scope of Research
Scope of this research is women and men which from 18 years old and above in UiTM Segamat and it involves about 346 students and staffs include the non residents. The main reason we choose UiTM community is because the user of social networking is among teenagers which is students. Most of them spend their time surf the social networking to communicate with others. Other than that, they can use for education by learn from others experience or share the knowledge. Nowadays, most of the people using social networking to make side income in doing business and some of them use it to expand their business that already establish before to make the business more known to others. The widest usage of social networking among people makes us easier to find our respondents from the UiTM staff.
1.7 Limitation of Research
The research will be done from the end of August 2010 to end of September 2010. From the populations, we distribute 346 questionnaires among students and staff in UiTM. By processing the data, there will be several problems in term of cost, transportation, time, and population and respondents feedback. So, by doing this research, there are limitations that we are deal with. The distribution of the questionnaires will be done in one week. The advantages here in term of transportation which can cut the cost because the studies is among UiTM students and staff. After get the feedback from the respondents, the data processing will be done to ensure that there is no mistake in the data.
In this age of globalization, the world has become too small a place thanks to the electronic media and portals. Communication has become effective as never before thanks to the advent of internet. The social networking sites have also played a crucial role in bridging boundaries and crossing the seas and bringing all people at a common platform where they can meet like minded people or find old friends and communicate with them. It has become a potential mean to relation building and staying in touch with all known. Hence, the objective that I wanted to achieve through this research is to identify the effect of social networking. This is because social networking sites have made many users become addicted. The websites can give good effect but also cause adverse effect to the user. The social networking sites are gaining a lot of popularity these days with almost all of the educated youth using one or the other such site. These have played a crucial role in bridging
boundaries and crossing the seas and enabling them to communicate on a common platform. It has become a popular and a potential mean for them to stay friends with the existing ones and to grow up their social circle at least in terms of acquaintances. The question regarding the safety, privacy and the legal issues have been cropping up all this time. Through this research we try to find out the impact of these networking sites on the personal and professional lives of people using them.
Social network is a social structure made of nodes which are generally individuals or organizations that are tied by one or more specific types of relation. With the rapid growth of people who use or have access to the Internet, social networking websites are a must for the Internet community to stay in touch with each other. Social networking web sites help people keep in touch with old friends make new friends; distribute new data or product, and many more aspects of our everyday lives. The first official social networking web site was Classmates.com which was founded in 1995. What followed was a slow but steady growth in numbers of social networking websites to the overwhelming number of sites we have today. The reason that social networking websites work so well is that, like their inception, they start of small and then grow exponentially. The site starts off with a few people who then tell their friends about the site, then those friends tell their friends about the site and soon the site is a huge database of users connected by friends, acquaintances, or just random people. The web sites are made to allow users to create a profile describing themselves and to exchange public or private messages and list other users or groups they are connected to in some way. Most social networking websites are often designed to fit a certain type of community such as the college community being mirrored by Facebook.com or a music/party community mirrored by MySpace.com. With the rapid growth of social networking web sites and their global scale usage, whatever one feels concerning social networking web sites is irrelevant because social networking web sites are on a popularity rise and are here to stay.
Below are some histories of the social networking;
Facebook is a social networking website launched in February 2004 that is operated and privately owned by Facebook, Inc., with more than 500 million active users in July 2010. Users can add people as friends and send them messages, and update their personal profiles to notify friends about themselves. Additionally, users can join networks organized by workplace, school, or college. The website's name stems from the colloquial name of books given to students at the start of the academic year by university administrations in the US with the intention of helping students to get to know each other better. Facebook allows anyone who declares them to be aged 13 or older to become a member of the website. Facebook was founded by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommates and fellow computer science students Eduardo Saverin, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. The website's
membership was initially limited by the founders to Harvard students, but was expanded to other colleges in the Boston area, the Ivy League, and Stanford University. It gradually added support for students at various other universities before opening to high school students, and, finally, to anyone aged 13 and over. Facebook has met with some controversy. It has been blocked intermittently in several countries including Pakistan, Syria, and People¶s Republic of China, Vietnam, and Iran. It has also been banned at many places of work to discourage employees from wasting time using the service. Privacy has also been an issue, and it has been compromised several times. Facebook
settled a lawsuit regarding claims over source code and intellectual property. The site has also been involved in controversy over the sale of fans and friends.
Twitter is a social networking and micro blogging service, owned and operated by Twitter Inc. that enables its users to send and read other users' messages called tweets. Tweets are text-based posts of up to 140 characters displayed on the author's profile page. Tweets are publicly visible by default; however senders can restrict message delivery to their friends list. Users may subscribe to other author tweets²this is known as following and subscribers are known as followers. As of late 2009, users can follow lists of authors instead of following individual authors. All users can send and receive tweets via the Twitter website, compatible external applications (such as, for smart phones), or by Short Message Service (SMS) available in certain countries. While the service is free, accessing it through SMS may incur phone service provider fees. The website is based in San Bruno, California near San Francisco (where the website was first based). Twitter also has servers and offices in San Antonio, Texas and Boston, Massachusetts. Since its creation in 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Twitter has gained notability and popularity worldwide and currently has more than 100 million users worldwide. It is sometimes described as the "SMS of the Internet. The use of Twitter's application programming interface (API) for sending and receiving SMS from other applications often dominates the direct use of Twitter. Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" that was held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. During the meeting, Jack Dorsey introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group, a concept partially inspired by the SMS group messaging service TXTMob.
The original project code name for the service was twttr, inspired by Flickr and the five character length of American SMS short codes. The developers initially considered "10958 as a short code, but later changed it to "40404 for "ease of use and memorability." Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 PM Pacific Standard Time (PST): "just setting up my twttr." The first Twitter prototype was used as an internal service for Odeo employees and the full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006. In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams, Dorsey, and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo and all of its assets±including Odeo.com and Twitter.com±from the investors and shareholders. Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.
Friendster is a social networking website. Its headquarters are in Mountain View, California. The service allows users to contact other members, maintain those contacts, and share online content and media with those contacts. The website is also used for dating and discovering new events, bands, and hobbies. Users may share videos, photos, messages and comments with other members via their profile and their network. Friendster has over 115 million registered users and over 61 million unique visitors a month globally. The website receives approximately 19 billion page views per month, and is in the top 500 global websites based on web traffic. Over 90% of Friendster's traffic comes from Asia. In Asia, Friendster has more monthly unique visitors than any other social network. The top 10 countries accessing Friendster, according to Alexa, as of May 7, 2009 are the Philippines, Indonesia, Malaysia, South Korea, the United States, Singapore, China, Japan, Saudi Arabia and India.
Friendster was founded by computer programmers Jonathan Abrams and Cris Emmanuel in 2002 in Mountain View, California before the creation, launch and adoption of MySpace, Facebook, LinkedIn and others. Friendster was founded to create a safer, more effective environment for meeting new people by browsing user profiles and connecting to friends, friends of friends and so on, allowing members to expand their network of friends more rapidly than in real life, face-to-face scenarios. Friendster.com went live in March 2003 and was quickly adopted by three million users within the first few months. Publications including Time, Esquire, Vanity Fair, Entertainment Weekly, US Weekly and Spin wrote about Friendster's success and the founder appeared on magazine covers and late-night talk shows. Today, Friendster has a membership base of more than 115 million registered users and continues to grow, especially in Asia. In August 2008, Friendster hired ex-Google executive Richard Kimber as the CEO. Kimber is focusing on Friendster's expansion in Asia. On December 9, 2009, it was announced that Friendster has been acquired by MOL Global, one of Asia's biggest Internet companies. MOL Global is funded by one of Malaysia's successful businessmen, Tan Sri Vincent Tan, Chairman and Chief Executive of Berjaya Corporation Berhad.
MySpace is a social networking website. Its headquarters are in Beverly Hills, California where it shares an office building with its immediate owner, News Corp. Digital Media, owned by News Corporation. MySpace became the most popular social networking site in the United States in June 2006. According to comScore, MySpace was overtaken internationally by its main competitor, Facebook, in April 2008, based on monthly unique visitors. MySpace employs 1,000 employees, after lying off 30 percent of its workforce in June 2009; the company does not
disclose revenues or profits separately from News Corporation. The 100 millionth accounts were created on August 9, 2006, in the Netherlands.
After the 2002 launch of Friendster, several eUniverse employees with Friendster accounts saw its potential and decided to mimic the more popular features of the social networking website, in August 2003. Within 10 days, the first version of MySpace was ready for launch. A complete infrastructure of finance, human resources, technical expertise, bandwidth, and server capacity was available for the site, right out of the gate, so the MySpace team wasn¶t distracted with typical start-up issues. The project was overseen by Brad Greenspan (eUniverse's Founder, Chairman, CEO), who managed Chris DeWolfe (MySpace's starting CEO), Josh Berman, Tom Anderson (MySpace's starting president), and a team of programmers and resources provided by eUniverse. The very first MySpace users were eUniverse employees. The company held contests to see who could sign-up the most users. The company then used its resources to push MySpace to the masses. eUniverse used its 20 million users and e-mail subscribers to quickly breathe life into MySpace, and move it to the head of the pack of social networking websites. A key architect was tech expert Toan Nguyen who helped stabilize the MySpace platform when Brad Greenspan asked him to join the team. The origin of the MySpace.com domain was a site owned by YourZ.com, Inc. It was intended to be leading online data storage and sharing site up until 2002. By 2004, MySpace and MySpace.com, which existed as a brand associated with YourZ.com, had made the transition from a virtual storage site to a social networking site. This is the natural connection to Chris DeWolfe and a friend, who reminded him he had earlier bought the URL domain, MySpace.com, intending it to be used as a web hosting site, since both worked at one time in the virtual data storage business, which itself was a casualty of the "dot bomb" era. Shortly after launching the site, team member Chris DeWolfe suggested that they start charging a fee for the basic MySpace service. Brad Greenspan nixed the idea, believing that keeping MySpace free and open was necessary to make it a large and successful community. Some employees of MySpace including DeWolfe and Berman were later able to purchase equity in the
property before MySpace, and its parent company eUniverse (now renamed Intermix Media) was bought in July 2005 for US$580 million by Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation (the parent company of Fox Broadcasting and other media enterprises). Of this amount, approximately US$327 million has been attributed to the value of MySpace according to the financial adviser fairness opinion. In January 2006, Fox announced plans to launch a UK version of MySpace in a bid to "tap into the UK music scene" which they have since done. They also released a version in China and have since launched similar versions in other countries. By late 2007 into 2008, Myspace was considered the leading social networking site, and consistently beat out main competitor Facebook in traffic. When Facebook launched new features in an effort to attract a variety of users, Myspace found itself in a continuing decline of membership. As of July 2010, the site was ranked 25th in Internet traffic, opposed to the 2nd position held by Facebook. The corporate history of MySpace as well as the status of Tom Anderson as a MySpace founder has been a matter of some public dispute.
Orkut is a social networking website that is owned and operated by Google Inc. The service is designed to help users meet new friends and maintain existing relationships. The website is named after its creator, Google employee Orkut Büyükkökten. Although Orkut is less popular in the United States than competitors Facebook and MySpace, it is one of the most visited websites in India and Brazil. In fact, as of December 2009, 51.09% of Orkut's users are from Brazil, followed by India with 20.02% and United States with 17.28%. Originally hosted in California, in August 2008 Google announced that Orkut would be fully managed and operated in Brazil, by Google Brazil, in the city of Belo Horizonte. This was
decided due to the large Brazilian user base and growth of legal issues. As of August 2010, Alexa traffic ranked Orkut 73rd in the world; the website currently has more than 100 million active users worldwide. Anyone of age above 13 years can join orkut. In 2003, Google offered to purchase the social network, Friendster, but the offer was declined by that company. Google then internally commissioned Orkut Büyükkökten to work on a competing independent project. The result was Orkut, and the product launched on January 24, 2004. The community membership was originally by invitation only. During the first year, the United States had the largest user base. By word of mouth various Brazilians began adopting and inviting more friends, in a viral process driven by the blogosphere. Soon after, Brazil surpassed the U.S. in the number of users and Orkut started becoming heavily popular in Brazil. Americans then started leaving the service and switching to other similar sites such as MySpace and Friendster. This phenomenon was covered by the English blogosphere with some criticism towards Brazilians because they tended to communicate (not only among themselves) using their native language, Portuguese, and not English. From that time, Orkut growth was driven by Brazilian users, first being opened to everyone by register and becoming one of the most popular websites in Brazil. The creator Orkut Büyükkökten visited Brazil in 2007, in an attempt to understand the success in that country. In 2007 Orkut began attracting large amount of Indians who were not intimidated by the number of Brazilians on the site. Orkut also has a simplified site for mobile users. "m.Orkut.com". In 2008, a new feature was introduced for users having slow internet connections to access Orkut using the "View Orkut in lighter version" setting.
Bebo is a social networking website launched in July 2005. It is owned by Criterion Capital Partners. From March 2008 to June 2010 it was owned by AOL Inc. The website's name is an acronym for Blog Early, Blog Often. Users receive a personal profile page where they can
post blogs, photographs, music, videos and questionnaires to which other users may answer. Additionally, users may add others as friends and send them messages, and update their personal profiles to notify friends about themselves. Bebo was founded by Michael Birch and his wife Xochi Birch in January 2005 at their home in San Francisco. It was acquired by AOL on March 13, 2008 for $850 million. In April 2010, AOL announced it was planning to sell or shut down Bebo, with the sale being completed on June 17, 2010 to Criterion Capital Partners for an undisclosed sum. It has been reported that the sale raised less than $10 million.
Blogger is a blog storage service that allows private or multi-user blogs with time-stamped entries. It was created by Pyra Labs, which was bought by Google in 2003. Generally, the blogs are hosted by Google at sub domains of blogspot.com. Up until May 1, 2010 Blogger allowed users to publish blogs on other hosts, via ftp. All such blogs had (or still have) to be moved to Google's own servers, with domains other than blogspot.com allowed via Custom URLs. On August 23, 1999, Blogger was launched by Pyra Labs. As one of the earliest dedicated blogpublishing tools, it is credited for helping popularize the format. In February 2003, Pyra Labs was acquired by Google under undisclosed terms. The acquisition allowed premium features (for which Pyra had charged) to become free. About a year later, Pyra Labs' co-founder, Evan Williams, left Google. In 2004, Google purchased Picasa; it integrated Picasa and its photo sharing utility Hello into Blogger, allowing users to post photos to their blogs. On May 9, 2004, Blogger introduced a major redesign, adding features such as web standardscompliant templates, individual archive pages for posts, comments, and posting by email. On August 14, 2006, Blogger launched its latest version in beta, codenamed "Invader", alongside the gold release. This migrate users to Google servers and included some new features. In December
2006, this new version of Blogger was taken out of beta. By May 2007, Blogger had completely moved over to Google operated servers. Blogger was ranked 16 on the list of top 50 domains in terms of number of unique visitors in 2007. 2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
There are some points of view in term of effects of social networking towards communications. There are;
Social networking can give great impact to a person for example friendship networks, advice networks and adversarial networks. Based on the Fehr.B (1996), in the journal from Professor Heng-Li Yang and Phd candidate Jih-Hsin Tang, (2003) from the friendship networks aspect, the people can appear if they path cross. They are more likely can share their about their living, school and work environment.Refer to Sparrowe, R.T., Liden, R.C.and Kraimer, M.L (2001) in the same author of the journal contains resources which is the person who are connected share their resources such as information, assistance, guidance and other that related to their work every day.
COMMUNICATE WITH EACH OTHER
In the journal of Nicole B.Ellison, Charles Steinfield and Cliff Lampe (2007), this network can make strong ties with family and close friends, who might be in position to provide support for them. It clearly shows that the Internet can facilitate someone to communicate with each other as the alternative to carrying out a relationship. From the Paul & Brier, (2001) in the journal said that some researcher has created the term µfriend sickness¶ which can be defined µloss of connection to old friends when a young person moves away to college. They found that the network help college student remain to close to their high school after they leave home for college.
220.127.116.11 MAINTAIN RELATIONSHIP
From the research of Barbie Clarke (2009), state that social networking are able to maintain friendship through social networking because in that way they can kept being contact with their friends even they had moved to a different country. Even though face to face communication was no possible but they still can maintain their relationship. Refer to the Boyd, 2008; Donath & boyd, 2004; Subrahmanyan, et al, 2006). Ellison, et al (2006), Livingstone (2008) and Pfeil, et al (in Press) in the same journal said that social networking can used to strengthen existing relationship and enhance social capital.
18.104.22.168 KEEP IN TOUCH WITH CLOSE FRIENDS
Based on the journal from Cheryl L. Coyle and Heather Vaughn (2008), can be summarize that the social networking may serve as a source of µfriendship-reminders¶ to give attention to one¶s friends which is friendship have to stronger. Even though internet may change the habit, but the effect of those changes on a relationship and psychological well-being would likely small. From the study found that, nowadays student use social networking like Facebook to maintain their social capital. In addition, they also like to stay linked with people with whom they used to be more closely involved, for example former classmates. Based on the journal of Donald H. Kluemper and Peter A. Rosen (2009), also agree that social networking websites can attract people who like shares interest and activities, or who are exploring the interest of others. Social network already design to connect users to each other and to display individual network of friends.
22.214.171.124 STAY CONNECTED TO OTHER MEMBERS
From the researcher Rouse (1991), he analyzed that the Mexican people used media to stay in touch, engage in community decision-making, and µparticipate in familial events even from a considerable distance¶. By using of media help social group to stay connected to other members. YouTube is one of the social networking websites. The website is not only about video sharing platform but also act as a websites to be friends with other people. In other words, enables people to be µfriending¶.
126.96.36.199 FIND MORE FRIENDS
Based on the Arrington, M (2006) in the journal of Samuel D. Gosling, Sam Gaddis and Simine Vazire (2007) stated that social networking is a great way to find out more about someone you have just met. Either facebook, Myspace or Friendster, it allows anyone with an email address to create a profile complete with pictures and variety of specific personal information. Refer to the Samuel D. Gosling, Sam Gaddis and Simine Vazire (2007) facebook comprised mostly for of college student, although it has recently opened up to the public, and allows users to send and post message, browse other users profile, and established visible link via friends request.
188.8.131.52 KEEP STRONG TIES WITH MEMBERS
Based on the research on the journal Acquisti & Gross (2006) in the journal of Austin (2008) said that young people are motivated to join these sites to keep strong ties with friends, to strength ties with new acquaintances, and to a lesser degree, to meet new people online. They also give example sites like facebook to allow them to exchange news and discuss issue either either public or private.
2.1.2 BUSINESS Besides communication, social networking also effect on business. Past research shows;
184.108.40.206 ASSISTS IN THE SELECTION PROCESS FOR NEW EMPLOYEE
Based on the journal of Donald H. Kluemper and Peter A. Rosen (2009), nowadays, employers have begun using social network websites to assists in the selection process for new employee. According to the Fuller, 2006 in this journal said that µsome employers might try and learn something about the student¶s personality and whether it would be appropriate for the job. However, there is information on Facebook that is not relevant to the job, but may be inappropriately by employers to assess a candidate¶. In the other words, social network have made the work employer more easily. Employer that want to hire a person for a job may not asked question regarding race, religion, sexual preference or marital status because all the information can be easily located by using social network refer to the Kowske and Southwell, (2006) in the same journal. As a result, social networking websites has become an important issue for human resource (HR) according to the Zeidner, (2007)
220.127.116.11 TO PROMOTE AND ADVERTISE BUSINESS
Mostly of the student using Facebook, Myspace, Friendster, Hotmail, Yahoo Massenger as the medium to interact with each other. Based on the journal J& D, 2004 in the journal of Muhammad Fairuz Abd Rauf, Marina Hassan, Siti Fatimah and Hema Subramaniam (2010), social networking can make knowledge sharing, promotion or advertisement, find school colleagues and research.
18.104.22.168 SUCCESS IN BUSINESS PRACTISE
Refer to the Yeung, (2006) in this journal of S.d Klerk said that, it allows the entrepreneur to success in business practice. Refer to the White, (2004) they have to know the network, require little training or explanation of network skills entail.
22.214.171.124 FACILITATE THE DELIVERY DOCUMENTATION
From the Internetworld.stats.com, (2009) there are 1.6 billon Internet users worldwide. Many of the people use social network stay in touch with each other such as Facebook and Myspace. The good things about the social network are use for job network, targeted marketing and entertainment. Social network also provide inexpensive and quick source of information on
job applicants and current employees for employers. The network also can help people easily to send document faster to other people elsewhere by using Internet and e-mail, which are provide a way for people to communicate.
126.96.36.199 ASSIST TO THE CAREER
According to the Forret & Dougherry (2001), p.284 in the journal of Greet Van Hoye, Edwin A.J. Hooft, and Filip Lievens describe about the network as a job behavior. It defined as µindividual¶ attempts to develop and maintain relationship with others who have the potential to assists them in their work or career. Networking can make contact with friends, acquaintances, or other people so that the job seeker can get the information. In the other words, social networkings also provide information to us. Refer to the theory, social networking as a job search behavior refers to the intentional use of an individual job seeker¶s social network with the purpose of findings a job.
188.8.131.52 COLLABORATION BETWEEN EMPLOYER AND EMPLOYEES
Refer to the journal, James Bennett and Mark Owers, Michael Pitt and Michael Tucker (2010), can provide opportunities for both formal and informal interaction and collaboration with fellow employees and customer which is they can transfer their knowledge and make communication. The social networking websites also have various informal applications and games that member of the organization can across the boundaries and time zone so that team spirit and organizational culture can be maintained. Other effect which is social networking will enable workers to work effectively through enhance communication and collaboration. As long as they have detailed personal information about the contact which can be updated whenever the
people had move job, offices, or department, they still can make a communication with each other. From the several researches also support the enhancing communication and networking practices through technology can increase the productivity of the workers in the organization.
Nowadays, social networking is a part of tools of education. It proof by the past researcher;
184.108.40.206 INTERACTION BETWEEN STUDENT AND FACULTY
Based on the journal write by Chickering and Ehrman, 1996 in the journal of Joanna C. Dunlop and Patrick R. Lowenthal, social networking makes contact between student and faculty in and outside of class. When faculty stay in touch with students through formal and informal communication and dialogue, student report that it help them get through the rough times and keep on working. He also states that knowing their instructors enhance student¶s intellectual commitment and encourage them to think about their own values and plans. According to the Twitter websites, Twitter is a service for friends, family, and co-workers to communicate and stay connected through the exchange of quick, frequent answer to one simple question for example what are you doing?.However, people use it for more than providing updates on their current status. Refer to the Java et al (2007) people shares ideas and resources, ask and answer question and collaborate on problem of practice; in a recent study, researchers found that the main communication intention of people participating in Twitter could be categorized as daily chatter, conversation, sharing resources/URLs, and reporting news. According to the Siemens (2007) in this journal said that by using a tool that enables just in time communication with the local and global community, they are able to engage in sharing, collaboration, and brainstorming, problem solving, and creating within the context of moment to moment experience. From the journal of Joanna C. Dunlop and Patrick R. Lowenthal has identified other benefits of twitter
which is as a helpful tool for addressing student issues quickly, encourage student to write clearly and concisely, helped our student learn to be sensitive to their audience and make professional decision, many practicing professional also participate, tool that student used to support their informal learning activities, and also enable faculty and student to maintain ongoing relationship after a course ends.
220.127.116.11 SUCCESS IN ACADEMIC
Based on the Fehr.B (1996), in the journal from Professor Heng-Li Yang and Phd candidate Jih-Hsin Tang, (2003), student that involved in social networking have more chance to succeed in academic. Refer to the researcher, friendship network require access to information and knowledge directly and in directly. A student who has a good friendship network, they have a greater chance to help other people, more likely to be popular in the web-based. If they perform very well, he or she has been developing a good friendship with others. Refer to Sparrowe, R.T., Liden, R.C.and Kraimer, M.L (2001) in the same author of the journal contains Student who have good friendship and advice network, may influence them to accumulate information, knowledge, and experience about their problem.
18.104.22.168 DISTANCE EDUCATION
Based on the journal Carreia & Davis (2008) in the journal of Kevin P. Brady B. Holcomb, and Bethany V. Smith stated that higher education distance education student needs a venue to connect and actively engage with other members of the class, who they often have never met in person and activities in distance education course need to allow for student to apply
their learning to authentic educational contexts. According to the DeSchryver et al (2009) in this journal said that in distance education course, a mutually beneficial relationships seems to exist between social presence and participation in online student discussion, student with higher social presence tend to be more involved and engaged in such conversation.
22.214.171.124 INTERACTION POSITIVE BETWEEN STUDENT-TEACHER AND STUDENT-STUDENT
Based on the journal Pettenati, M.C. and M. Ranieri (2006) and Brandtzæg, P.B. and J. Heim (2007) in the journal of Sacide Güzin Mazman, and Yasemin Koçak Usluel (2009) said that social networks is a collaborative social software that support engaging in a common goals for collaboration, knowledge sharing, interaction and communication. In addition, social networks on the hand affect interaction positively between student-teacher and student-student by creating more cordial environments. But the author found that social networking have been adopted and being used extensively by many people, it is notable that they are not adopted in the educational field as much in other fields, despite providing various advantages for the educational context as in personalization, collaboration, information sharing, common interest, active participation, and working together.
From the past researcher, it is proof that social networking sites have been affected towards the communication such as make new friends, build friendship networks, communicate
with each other¶s and maintain relationship. Besides, it also proof that social networking is one of the tools for expanding business. It can help employer to find new employee and increase their profit. Moreover, social networking gives big impact to education. It is because, nowadays, social networking is one of the references for student to get information about their study. To conclude, social networking has gives big effects to people lately.
3. RESEARCH METHADOLOGY
Research Methodology is to find out the research of the sample and sample method. The conditions under data will be collected, with the measuring instrument or data gathering techniques to be used. For the research methodology, we are to find a sources that we are going to used to get the answer of the research.
Research design is to specify the detail of how the research is conducted. This should include the nature of the design adopted, information needed, data collection from secondary and primary sources, scaling techniques, questionnaire development, sampling techniques and framework. After we are has been formulated the research problem, the research design must be develop, that is the framework for the research project. Research design is a plan and structured of investigation so conceived as to obtain answer to research the question. The classification of the research design have to, first exploratory research design, conclusive research design, and causal research design. But for this research, we will use only causal research design. The main goal of causal research is to identify cause and effect relationship among variable. In causal studies, it is typical to have an expectation of the relationship to be explained, such as prediction about the influence of price, packaging, and advertising and the like on sales. Thus, researches must be knowledgeable about the research subject.
SAMPLING AND POPULATION
Sampling is a subset of the population. The process of sampling involved any procedure using a small of term or apart of the whole population to make conclusion regarding the whole population. The purpose of sampling is to estimate some unknown characteristic of the population. The scope of our research is the UITM Segamat students and staffs. The reason we choose this area scope because our research is about the effect social networking in term of communication, business and education. For our population we select this area because this area we can save cost and time. It also make easier to us to complete this research. For the sampling, since the number of people in UITM Segamat, Johor is around 7000, based on the number of sample according to the population, 346 of questionnaire will be distributing to the students and staff.
SCALE AND MEASUREMENTS
In our questionnaire, the design that we will use is nominal scale, likert scale and category scale. Nominal scale is a simplest type of scale. The numbers or letters assigned to objects serve as level for identification or classification. This type of scale includes designations as to age, gender, course, and resident or non-resident. Likert scale is a measurement design to allowed respondent to indicate how strongly agree or disagree with carefully constructed statement that range from very positive to very negative toward an objects. Example of this type of scale: y 1. 2. Nominal Scale Age Gender 18-20 years male 21-23 years female 24 and above
Strongly Disagree Agree 1
Hereby, we include our sample of questionnaire about effects of social networking in our appendix.
Data collection can be define as how the researcher collect the data also related with nature of data to be gathered. The nature of information needed by the researcher for the purpose could be broadly classified under three headings which is background information of the organization, managerial philosophy, company policies, and other structural aspects, and the last is perceptions and behavioral responses of organizational members and client systems.
Data collect through such existing sources are called secondary data. That is, they are data that already exist and do not have to be collected by the researcher. We used both type of data which is primary data by using questionnaire and secondary data by using the previous journal.
3.5.1 PRIMARY DATA
Surveys is asking people who are called respondent for information, using either verbal or written question. For our research we will use only written question which is questionnaire. The more formal term sample survey emphasizes that the purpose of contacting respondents is to obtain representative sample of the target population. Thus, survey is defined as a method of gathering primary data based on communication with a representative sample of individuals.
The type of information gathered in surveys varies considerably, depending on a survey objective. Typically, survey investigation attempt to describe what is happening or to learn the reason for a particular business activity. Based on our research, we will use the causal research to identify the effects social networking on communication, business and education. A survey provides quick, inexpensive, efficient, and accurate means of assessing information about the population. Surveys are quiet flexible and properly conducted, extremely valuable to managers.
3.5.2 SECONDARY DATA
Secondary data are the data gathered and recorded by someone else prior to and for purposes other than the current needs of the researcher. Secondary data are usually historical, already assembled, and do not require access to respondents or subjects. Secondary data also refer to information gathered by someone other than the research conducting the current study.
Data analysis is describing the plan of data and justifies the data strategies and techniques used. In data analysis we have three objectives, to identify effects of social networking in communication, to identify effects of social networking in business and to identify effects of social networking in education. The feel for the data will give preliminary ideas of how good the scales are, how well the coding and entering the data have been done and so on.
From the questionnaire that will be distribute to the respondent of measurement that be use to measure all the variables in this research is Likert Scale Method and Nominal Scale
Method. The scale is from 1 to 5, which the number ³1´ will be represent highest disagree of respondent and the highest number will be ³5´ that represent the highest agree level by the respondent. For the focus group, the output from the discussion will be record by the moderator.
We also used SPSS system and Microsoft Excel to analyze the data and form it to form of bar chart and also pie chart.
3.6.1 BAR CHART Bar chart is a graphic and that shows changes in variable at discrete interval. We are deciding to choose to use bar chart is because it can enhance the visual impact of our result. It will give more benefit when we used this type of chart. This is because we can analyze easily of the research that we are doing now. For the bar chart, we will use SPSS system Microsoft Excel for scale it, because it more suitable, accurate to show the result and it can perform calculation, analyze information, and can manage the lists.
3.6.2 PIE CHART
Another chart, which is pie chart (or a circle graph) is a circular chart divided into sectors, illustrating the proportion. It also a graphic that aid shows the composition of some total quantity at a particular time; each angle, or ³slice´ is proportional to its percentage of the whole. In a pie chart, the arc length of each sector is proportional to the quantity it represents. When angels are measured with one turn as unit then a number of percent is identified with the same number of centiturns. Together, the sectors create a full disk. From the data that we are collected, we decide to use the pie chart to indicate our objectives of this research.
Friendship network Communicate with each other Maintain relationship
Keep in touch with close
Stay connected to other member Find more friends
Keep strong ties with members Business Assist In selection process for new To promote and advertising business Success in business practise Facilities the delivery documentation Assist to the carier Collaboration between employer and employee EFFECT ON SOSIAL NETWORKING
Business Interaction between student and faculty Success in academic Distance equation Interaction between student-teacher and student-student
An unproven proposition or supposition that tentatively explains certain facts or phenomena a proposition that is empirically testable. A hypothesis is a statement, an assumption about the nature of the world.
Once the important variables have been identify a situation established the relationship among them through logical reasoning in the theoretical framework, we are in a position to test whether social networking will be effect to communication, education and communication. Hypothesis is a logically conjectured relationship between two or more variables expressed in the form of a testable statement. And in our group research this is our hypothesis:
H1: if UiTM Segamat community using the social networking, it will occur positive effects on communication.
H2: if UiTM Segamat community using the social networking, it will occur positive effects on business.
H3: if UiTM Segamat community using the social networking, it will occur positive effects on education.
This section discusses how the study will be conducted. There are several steps to be done to achieve the objectives of this study. The first step to be done is to determine the appropriate study design that is causal research. We selected 346 samples from the 7000 population of people UiTM Segamat Johor. We will distribute the questions to be completed to collect the required data. From the data that collect the analysis data process will begin. The data analysis
will be interpreted to chart and table. This section is very important because this stage will influence the way and the result of the research
EXAMPLE OF QUESTIOANNARE
SURVEY OF EFFECTS ON SOCIAL NETWORKING AMONG UITM SEGAMAT COMMUNITY
We are student of MARA University of Technology are conducting a survey regarding effects on social networking among the community. We believe that your comments and recommendations will guide us for our subject; Research Methodology (MGT 533) on this semester. We appreciate your effort in spending time to answer this questionnaire. All the information given are private and confidential.
Answer the following questions;
2. What is your age group?
23 and above
3. What is your educational qualification?
4. Resident? Hostel (student) Non Resident(student) Rent/ownhouse(staff)
5. Are you are user of social networking? Yes No
6. Where do you usually online?
7. How often you use a social networking in a term of education for a week? 1-2 hours 3-4 hours
more than 6 hours
8. How has social networking sites benefited you as a user?
I can connect with my friend for notes
Doing more constructive work
To exchange information; assignment, homework etc
9. What is the purpose you used social networking on education? ` Homework /assignment
A way of release tension
10. Is it social networking used to be second resources in your task?
11. Is it social networking influence you in bad attitude? Yes No
The following questions required you to tick whether;
Strongly disagree 1
Strongly agree 5
Questions 12. Social networking gives good impact to communication 13. Social networking affects on relationship with friend (new friend and existing friends) 14. Social networking broken main language (Malay) 15. Social networking make you up-to-date 16.Social networking build up family relationship 17. Social networking helps to expand your business 18. Social networking help you to generate new idea 19. Social networking can help customer to solve problem 20. social networking help you more easier in manage business 21. social networking help you to improve business profit
Anria Sophia van Zyl, (2009). The impact of Social Networking 2.0 on organizations From The Electronic Library Vol. 27 No. 6, 2009 pp. 906-918 Arrington, M. 85% of college students use Facebook Techcrunch. Retrieved March 17, 2006,
from http://www.techcrunch.com/2005/09/07/85-of-collegestudents- use- facebook. (Sept. 7, 2005) Acquisti, A., & Gross, R. (2006, June). Imagined communities: Awareness, information sharing, and privacy on the Facebook. Paper presented at the 6th Workshop on Privacy Enhancing Technologies, Cambridge. Barbie Clarke, University of Cambridge - WebSci09 Conference Athens 18-20 March (2009). BFFE (Be Friends ForEver): the way in which young adolescents are Using social networking sites to maintain friendship and explore identity. Brown, J.S. and Duguid, P. (2000), The Social Life of Information, HBS Press, Boston, MA. Bartol, K. M., and Zhang, X. ³Networks and Leadership Development: Building Linkages for Capacity Acquisition and Capital Accrual.´ Human Resource Management Review, 2007, 17, 388±401. Baldwin, T. T., Bedell, M. D. and Johnson, J. L. The social fabric of a team-based M.B.A. program: network effects on student satisfaction and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 40(6): 1369-1397, 1997. Brandenburg, C.: 2008, µThe Newest Way to Screen Job Applicants: A Social Networker¶s Nightmare¶, Federal Communications Law Journal 60(3), 597±626. Bargh, J. A., McKenna, K. Y., & Fitzsimons, G. M. (2002). Can you see the real me? Activation and expression of the "true self" on the Internet. Journal of Social Issues, 58 (1), 33-48.
Boyd, D.M. and Ellison, N.B. (2007), ³Social network sites: definition, history and scholarship´, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 13 No. 1, pp. 210-30. Brass, D.J., Galaskiewicz, J., Greve, H.R. & Tsai, W. 2004. µTaking stock of networks and organizations: A multilevel perspective¶, Academy of Management Journal,47(6): 795-817. Bernoff, J. and Li, C. (2008), ³Harnessing the power of the oh-so-social web´, MIT Sloan Management Review, Vol. 49 No. 3, pp. 36-42. Chickering, A. W., and Ehrmann, S. C. (1996) ³Implementing the Seven Principles: Technology as Lever.´ AAHE Bulletin, Vol. 49, No. 2, pp. 3-6 Correia, A., & Davis, N. (2008). Intersecting communities of practice in distance education: The program team and the online course community. Distance Education, 29(3), 289-306. Cheryl L. Coyle and Heather Vaughn. (2008), Social Networking: Communication Revolution or Evolution. Bell Labs Technical Journal DOI: 10.1002/bltj Clemmitt, M.: 2006, µCyber Socializing¶, CQ Researcher 16(27), 627±648. Careerbuilder.com: 2008, µOne-in-Five Employers Use Social Networking Sites to Research Job Candidates, CareerBuilder.com Survey Finds¶, http://www.career builder.com/share/aboutus/pressreleasesdetail.aspx?id =pr459&sd=9%2F10%2F2008&ed=12%2F31%2F2008 &cbRecursionCnt=1&cbsid=2e371ebfbdf845fb985c13 03f725badf-297778093JT-5. Accessed 8 June 2009. Donath, J., & boyd, d. (2004). Public Displays of Connection. BT Technology Journal, 22(4), 71-82.
Donald H. Kluemper, Peter A. Rosen. (2009). Future employment selection methods: Evaluating social networking web sites from Journal of Managerial Psychology Vol. 24 No. 6, 2009 pp. 567-580 De Klerk, S. & Kroon, J. 2008. µBusiness networking relationships for business success¶, South African Journal of Business Management, 39(2): 25±35. Dunlap, J. C. & Lowenthal, P. R. (2009). Tweeting the night away: Using Twitter to enhance social presence. Journal of Information Systems Education, 20(2). Ellison, N. B., Steinfield, C., & Lampe, C. (2007). The benefits of Facebook "friends:" Social capital and college students' use of online social network sites. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 12(4), article 1. Retrieved from http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol12/issue4/ellison.html DeSchryver, M., Mishra, P., Koehler, M., & Francis, A. P. (2009). Moodle vs. Facebook: Does using Facebook for discussions in an online course enhance perceived presence and student interaction? In C. Crawford, D. A. Willis, R. Carlsen, Gibson, K. McFerrin, J. Price, & R. I. Weber (Eds.), Proceedings from The 329-336). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Ellison, N., Steinfeld, C., & Lampe, C. (2006, June 19-23). Spatially bounded online social networks and social captial: the role of Facebook. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the International Communication Association, Dresden, Germany. Fehr, B. Friendship processes. 1996, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage. Forret, M. L., & Dougherty, T W. (2001). Correlates of networking behavior for managerial and professional employees. Group & Organization Management, 26, 283-311. social I. Society
for Information Technology and Teacher Education International Conference 2009, (pp.
Fuller, A. (2006), ³Employers snoop on Facebook´, Stanford Daily, available at: http://daily. stanford.edu/article/2006/1/20/employersSnoopOnFacebook (accessed January 10, 2008). Greet Van Hoye, Edwin A. J. van Hooft and Filip Lievens. (2009). Networking as a job Search behavior: A social network perspective from Journal of Occupational And Organizational Psychology (2009), 82, 661-682 Huckfeldt, Robert, Ikeda, Ken¶ichi, and Pappi, Franz U. (2000). Political expertise, interdependent citizens, and the value added problem in democratic politics. Japanese Journal of Political Science 1: 171±195. Ikeda, Ken¶ichi (2002). µµPolitical Culture and Social Capital from Eastern and Western Perspectives¶¶. Paper submitted for Copenhagen workshop for EPCReN (Eurasia Political Culture Research Network) project held at August 26±27. Java, A., Song, X., Finin, T., and Tseng, B. (2007, August) ³Why we Twitter: Understanding
Microblogging Usage and Communities.´ Proceedings of the Joint 9th WEBKDD and 1st SNA-KDD Workshop 2007. Retrieved February 2, 2008, http://ebiquity.umbc.edu/get/a/publication/369.pdf James Bennett, Mark Owers, Michael Pitt and Michael Tucker. (2010). Workplace Impact of social networking from Property Management Vol. 28 No. 3, 2010 pp. 138-148 Jia Wang. (2009). Networking in the Workplace: Implications for Women¶s Career Development Ken¶ichi Ikeda and Sean E. Richey, (2005). JAPANESE NETWORK CAPITAL: THE IMPACT OF SOCIAL NETWORKS ON JAPANESE POLITICAL PARTICIPATION from Political Behavior, Vol. 27, No. 3, September 2005 Kevin P. Brady, Lori B. Holcomb, and Bethany V. Smith. (2010). The Use of Alternative Social Networking Sites in Higher Educational Settings: A Case Study of the ELearning Benefits of Ning in Education. Volume 9, Number 2, Summer 2010.
Kowske, B. and Southwell, M. (2006), ³E-screening proves µe-resistible¶: but at what cost?´,Human Resource Executive Online, available at: www.hreonline.com/HRE/story.jsp? storyId¼6835642 (accessed January 10, 2008). Leigh A. Clark, Sherry J. Roberts (2010). Employer¶s Use of Social Networking Sites: A Socially Irresponsible Practice Lange, A., Mitchell, S., Stewart-Weeks, M. and Vila, J. (2008), The Connected Republic and the Power of Social Networks, The Cisco Internet Business Solutions Group, available at: www.cisco.com/go/ibsg Livingstone, S. (2008). Taking risky opportunities in youthful content creation: teenagers' use of social networking sites for intimacy, privacy and selfexpression. New Media & Society, 10, 393-408. Linehan, M., and Scullion, H. ³The Development of Female Global Managers: The Role of Mentoring and Networking.´ Journal of Business Ethics, 2008, 83, 29±40. Muhammad Fairuz Abd Rauf, Marina Hassan, Siti Fatimah Omar, Hema Subramaniam, (2010). Impact on Online Social Network towards Communication Effectiveness In Education Istitution Nie, N. H. (2001). Sociability, interpersonal relations, and the Internet: Reconciling conflicting findings.American Behavioral Scientist, 45 (3), 420-35. Nardi, B.A., Whittaker, S. and Schwarz, H. (2002), ³NetWORKers and their activity in intentional networks´, Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Vol. 11, pp. 20542. Nyland, R., Marvez, R., & Beck, J. (2007, February). MySpace: Social networking or social
isolation? Paper presented at the midwinter conference of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Reno, NV.
Patti M.Valkenburg, Jochen Peter, Alexander P.Schouten. (2006). Friend Networking Sites and Their Relationship to Adolescents¶ Well-Being and Social Self- Esteem from Journal of Business Ethics (2010) 95:507±525 Patricia G. Lange. (2007). Publicly Private and Privately Public: Social Networking on YouTube from Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 13 (2008) 361± 380 Pettenati, M.C. and E. Cigognini, Social Networking Theories and Tools to Support Connectivist Learning Activities. Special issue of the International Journal of q based Learning and Teaching Technologies, 2007. Pfeil, U., Arjan, U., & Zaphiris, P. (in Press). Age differences in online social networking: A study of user profiles and the social capital divide among teenagers and older users in MySpace. Computers in Human Behavior. Putnam, Robert D. (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster. Rouse, R. (1991). Mexican migration and the social space of postmodernism. Diaspora, 1(1), 8±24. Sparrowe, R. T., Liden, R. C. and Kraimer, M. L. Social networks and the performance Of individuals and groups. Academy of Management Journal, 44(2): 316-325, 2001. Subrahmanyan, K., Smahel, D., & Greenfield, P. (2006). Connecting Developmental Constructions to the Internet: Identity Presentation and Sexual Exploration in Online Teen Chat Rooms. Developmental Psychology, 42(3), 395-406. Scheufele, Dietram A., and Eveland, William P. Jr. (2001). Perceptions of µµpublic opinion¶¶ and µµpublic¶¶ opinion expression. International Journal of Public Opinion Research 13: 25±44. Web-
Samuel D. Gosling, Sam Gaddis, Simine Vazire. Personality Impressions Based on Facebook Profiles. Sacide Güzin Mazman, and Yasemin Koçak Usluel. (2009). The Usage of Social Networks Educational Context from International Journal of Behavioral, Educational and Psychological Sciences 1:4 2009 Siemens, G. (2007) ³Connectivism: Creating a Learning Ecology in Distributed in Didactics of Microlearning: Concepts, discourses, and (ed.),Waxmann Verlag, New York, pp. 53-68. Sebastián Valenzuela, Namsu Park, and Kerk F. Kee, (April 4-5 2008). Lessons from Facebook: The Effect of Social Network Sites on College Students¶ Social Capital. White, H. 2004. Networking for business success: Quick tips for busy people. London: WritersPrintShop. Wikipedia, 2009: µList of Social Networking Websites¶, http://wn.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_socialnetworking_ websites. Accessed 4 June 2009. Yeung, R. 2006. The rules of networking. London: Cyan Communications. Yang.H.L., Tang J.H ( 2003) Effect of Social Network on Student¶s Performance: A Web-Based Forum Study in Taiwan. Zeidner, R. (2007), ³How deep can you probe?´, HR Magazine, Vol. 52 No. 10, pp. 5762. Employment Selection methods 579 examples, Environment,´ in T. Hug, Cognitive, in
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.