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Disease Causative Agent Mode of Incubation Pathogmnemonic Sign Diagnostic Test Treatment
Transmission Period
Clostridium tetani *punctured wound 3-21 days *Trismus (lock jaw) *culture test of bacteria DOC:
Tetanus *unsterile cutting of e *opisthotomus(overarching of e back due *CSF culture through lumbar *pen-G
cord to stiffness) tap *Erythromycin
*dental extraction *seizure *Diazepam
FIND IN: *Phenobarbital for active seizure
manure,pasture areas;
rusty materials; plaster
of Paris
Rhabdovirus *bite of an infected 10-14 days *for humans: *presence of Negri bodies in Passive immunity: Rabies Ig
Rabies animals (dogs, cats, (rarely 15 yrs) brainf of dogs Active immunity: Rabies Vaccine (Rabivar,
rats) -prodromal/invasive phase: excessive *Diffuse Fluorescent Antibody Rabipur)
salivation, hyperexcitable due to ANS Test(DFA)/ Fluorescent Rabies
activation Antibdoy Test (FRA) Guidelines for Immunization
-excitement/neurologic phase: Rabies Ig:
hydrophobia, aerophobia *look for site of bite
-terminal/paralytic phase: virus reached *wash c soap and running water
medulla; respiratory arrest; terminal fever *check for open wound
-on the wound if open
-if unopen:
--above torso: on the wound
--below torso; IM deltoid

Rabies Vaccine: 5 doses

*day 0, 3, 7, 14, 21
Neisseriae RESPI SECRETION *Spiking fever 40 C *lumbar tap DOC:
Meningitis / meningitides *nuchal rigidity *pen-G
cerebrospinal *meningeal reflexes *Rifampicin (prophylactic treatment)
fever *change in LOC (slow)

Legio debilitans Oral-fecal *anterior horn (spinal cord) *pandy’s test Vaccine: OPV
Poliomyelitis/ 1. Brunhilde- *asymmetric/unilateral permanent *throat swab Mgt:
infantile paralytic polio; paralysis Foot board
paralysis Hoyne’s sx Fluid
(tripod Apply warm packs on weakened mm
positioning) Morphine (do not give)
2. Lansing Enteric precaution
3. Leon Support

Compiled by: Zyrine Jhen A. Cortes BSN-IV

Lectured by: Diane Celeste B. Mananquil, RN

Disease Causative Agent Mode of Incubation Pathogmnemonic Sign Diagnostic Test Treatment
Transmission Period
Diphtheria Corynebacterium Respi secretion *grayish nodular growth: palatine area *Schick’s test: susceptibility DOC: erythromycin-
diphtheria = pseudomembrane *throat culture ototoxic drug (damage of CN 8)
Klebs-loeffler bacillus
-cutaneous: PM+impetigo
-pharyngeal: PM+ pharyngeal
inflammation Bull’s neck appearance
-nasolaryngeal: PM+excoriation of e
upper lip & nares +serosannguinous
Pertussis/ Pertussis bacilli: Respi secretion *paroxysmal cough *Throat culture DOC: erythromycin
Wooping -Bordatella pertussis *fainting spells
Cough -Haemophilus
Influenza A H5N1 (avian flu) Respi secretion 7-10 days *arthralgia/myalgia *throat culture DOC: osellamivir & zanamivir
H1N1 (swine flu) *malaise
Avian: poultry, *catrrhal stage
Influenza B eggs *low grade fever
(seasonal flu) Swine; human to 3C- cough, cold, conjunctivitis
Mumps/ Paramyxovirus Respi secretion CP: 48 hrs after *parotid gland swelling Vaccine: MMR
Epidemic onset *ear pain Immunosin (booster)
parotitis *dysphagia
4 days after *neck pain
check for *spiking fever
ORCHITIS *prostration
(swelling of
Tuberculosis Mycobacterium Respi secretion 5 Pillars of TB: Screening: exposure to TB RA 1135- TB pt. Should not be institutionalized
tuberculosis -wt. Loss *Purified Protein Derivative/ Mantoux (DOTS)
-anorexia Test
-night sweats Rifampicin: red orange urine
-low grade afternoon fever -ID 48-72 hrs Isoniazid: neuritis; do not take pills
-hemoptysis -check for presence of induration: Pyrazinamide: hyperuricemia
0-5mm = nega Ethambutol: eye problem
5-6mm= doubtful Streptomycin; damge to CN 8
6-10mm= positive
Category 1-2 3mos 3-6
*steemedle test: mos m0s
I extrapulmonary RIPE RI
-6 ID ; 4 out of 6 (+) II noncompliance RIPES RIPE RIE
III newly dx mild RIP RI
Confirmatory: TB
*Sputum analysis/
Acid Fast Bacilli staining *for 2 wks continuous tx, pt is not contagious.
*Chest X-ray
Compiled by: Zyrine Jhen A. Cortes BSN-IV
Lectured by: Diane Celeste B. Mananquil, RN
-presence of bacteria in UPPER lobe
-blood tinge sputum
-LOWER lobe @ parenchyma
-rusty color

Disease Causative Agent Mode of Incubation Period Pathogmnemonic Sign Diagnostic Test Treatment
Leprosy/ Mycobacterium No known but 1-5 yrs Cardinal signs: SLIT SKIN SMEAR TEST RA 4073: Liberalization of Leprosy treatment
Hansen’s leprae (Hansen’s hypothesize Peripheral nerve enlargement Biopsy if there’s lesion
disease bacillus) -respiratory secretion Postive SLIT SKIN SMEAR test DOC: Monotherapy: Dapsone
-prolonged intimate Loss of sensation
skin to skin contact MDT/ Multi Drug Therapy (2 categories)
Early Signs
Change in skin color -Paucibacillary; inc. Infective dose
Hypoaesthesia( dec. Sensation) *6-12 mos
Anhydrosis *Dapsone+Rifampicin
Muscle Weakness 1st day: supervised
Painful nerves 2nd -30th day: dapsone only

Late Signs -Multibacillary; dec. Infective dose

Gynecomastia *Dapsone+Rifampicin+Clofazimin
Madarosis (loss of eyebrows) 1st day: all 3 drugs
Lagopthalmus (inability to close 2nd-30th day: Dapsone+Clofazimin
Autoamputation Dapsone: Dermatitis
Contractures Clofazimin; further skin discoloration
Leonine face
Chicken Pox Varicella Zoster Respiratory and direct CP: 1-2 days *vesiculopapularr lesions *complement fixation Acetaminophen/ Paracetamol for fever
(virus) contact *progresses in PROXIMODISTAL *hetrophil Agglutination test
*viral isolation *do not give ASA (aspirin) to all viral diseases
Stages: which can lead to fatty disposition to the liver
-macule or REYE’S SYNDROME.
-vesicular: c serious fluid DOC: Acyclovir (Zovirax) hazen the healing
Problem: systemic itchiness (treat c
Calamine lotion, Colloidal bath, Zinc
Herpes Varicella Zoster Respiratory and direct CP: 2wks from onset *vesiculopapular rash ff. A LINEAR *complement fixation DOC: acyclovir (Zovirax)
Zoster reactivated through: contact of dse NERVE PATHWAY (localized) *hetrophil Agglutination test
(shingles) -inc. 60 y.o. *viral isolation
-steroid therapy Problem: pain
2 warning sx:
Scarlet GABHS Respi *strawberry tongue *culture test: confirmation DOC: erythromycin
Fever/ Group A beta *circumpolar pallor *Dick’s test: immunity
Scarlatina Hemolytic * pastai;s sign: antecubital *Schultz-charlton test: sensitivity
Streptococcus *rash (CEPHALOCAUDAL)

Compiled by: Zyrine Jhen A. Cortes BSN-IV

Lectured by: Diane Celeste B. Mananquil, RN


Rubeola/ Morbilli Respi 7 day *maculopapular rash c *complement fixation No drugs
measles paramyxoviridae desquamation *hetrophil Agglutination test Vaccine: MMR
CP: 4 day rule after *enanthema: rupture inside *viral isolation
onset KOPLIK’S
*bluish gray lesions c ared base
buccal mucosa
Rubella/ Togaviridae Respi 3 day *Polymorphous rah *complement fixation No drugs
German *enanthema: FORSCHEIMER’S *hetrophil Agglutination test Vaccine: MMR
Measles CP: 4 day rule after SPOTS *viral isolation
onset *red spots in soft palate German measles virus can cross to the
placenta can lead to Congenital Rubella
Syndrome (1st tri)
-microcephaly, MR, CHD, glaucoma

1st: catarrhal
2nd: fever
3rd: Psx
4th: rash
Roseola/baby HHSV type 6 Respi Mild preliminary *maculopapular rash s *complement fixation No drugs
measles desquamation *hetrophil Agglutination test Vaccine: MMR
CP: 4 day rule after *rash *viral isolation
Scabies Sarcoptes scabiei: *multiple, wavy, linear, threadlike Mineral oil test Scabicide:
parasite lesions *kwell/lindane
*weeping itch CI: lactating mothers, pregnant
*permethrine (overnight for 5 consecutive
Pediculosis Pediculosis humanis Close contact *itchiness Mits in the follicle DOC: kwell shampoo
(human mite) Personal article -regular shapoo then kwell
-capitis Home remedies; vinegar sol’n 1:2
Tinea/ Ring Dermatophyte: fungi *circumscribed/circular lesion c *culture Antifungal:
worm scaling & crusting patchy hairless *clinical picture Topical- ketoconazole, miconazole,
cotrinazole, giriseofulvin

Parenteral: amphotericin
Impetigo GABHS, *vesiculopapular lesion Culture test DOC: ertythromycin, penicillin
staphylococcus *thick, honey-comb crust

Compiled by: Zyrine Jhen A. Cortes BSN-IV

Lectured by: Diane Celeste B. Mananquil, RN

Disease Causative agent Incubation Period Vector Pathogmnemonic sign Diagnostic test Treatment
Malaria Plasmodium: 12-30 days Anopheles malariae FEVER: 6-8hrs every 2-3 days Malarial Blood Smear Test in DOH PROGRAM: on stream seeding/fishing
protozoan *night biting Types: Warm Stage
-falciparum: worst 3 stage 9pm-12mn *tertian: 1 day free of fever *chloroquine: 2wks before going to a endemic
-malariae Cold: chills *high flying between paroxysms area
-vivax Warm: violent fever *clear, flowing water *quartan: 2 day free of fever If pregnant and living in the malarial area,
-ovale Wet: diaphoretic *strip dotted between paroxysms take chloroquine always.
*quinine: “cinchonism” neurologic toxicity
Complications: *primaquine, sulfadoxine, pyrimethamine
*coagulation defect (2hrs before taking quinine)
*liver & renal failure
Dengue Fever Arbovirus/flavivirus Aedes aegypti: Classic dengue Screening: Medical:
Chikunguya/onyon breed inside house *fresh whole blood transfusion
g-onyong virus -arthralgia/myalgia *Rumpel leads (tourniquet test) *platelet transfusion
DV types 1-4 Aedes albopictus: -biphasic Petechiae: NSG.:
breed outside -intermittent (3-7days) >15-20 (+) DF (-)DHF *observe and Hydrate
-+ tourniquet test 1:8:1 oresol (1L+8tsps sugar+1tsps salt)
*day biting - Herman’s Rash c generalized *platelet ct: Pedia: 75ml/kg
8am-12nn erythema; upper extremities <150,000 >100,000 =Classic Adult: 2-3L
3pm-5pm <150,000 <100,000= DHF
*low flying DOH: CLEAN
*clear, stagnant *hct: increase Chemically treated mosquito nets
water *viral isolation Larvae eating fish
*stripped black Env’t sanitation
Anti mosquito repellant
Natural mosquito repellent
Filariasis Blood helminths: Aedes poecillus Lymphangitis: swelling of lymphatic *Nocturia blood smear Palliative:
-Wuchereria capillaries 8pm above *lymphanastosmosis
bancrofti *dip stick/ *inversion of tunica vaginasis
-Brugia malayi Lymphadenitis: lymph nodes immunochromatographic test
-Brugia timori DOC: diethylcarbamazepine citrate (DEC)-
Complication: scrotal hydrocele Hetrazan, Beltrazan
Leptospirosis/ Leptospira 2-3 days Rodents Orange eyes Culture (urine, CSF) Penicillin
Mud Fever interrogans Doxycycline
(bacteria) 9 -16 day: crucial
th th
MOT: eating foods in Wt. Loss Jaundice
period contact with feces Anorexia Acholic stool
or urine RUQ pain Bile colored urine
Lyme’s Disease Borrelia burgdorferi Deer ticks Bull’s eyes rash Culture any form of broad spectrum antibiotic
Compiled by: Zyrine Jhen A. Cortes BSN-IV
Lectured by: Diane Celeste B. Mananquil, RN

Scientific Name Psx MOT dx Tx (anti

Roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides Passing out of worm; protuberant abdomen; colicky, abd’ pain 5fs Stool exam Mebendazole
Pinworm Enterobius vermicularis Nocturnalitchiness; constant picking of e anus Auto infxn Graham’s Test/ Scotch tape Method Albendazole
Tapeworm Taenia solium (pork)/ saginata (beef) Passing out of a segment of the worm Improper cooked foord Stool exam Piperazine
Whipworm Trichoris trichiora Rectal prolapsed 5fs Stool exam Pyrantel
Hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale IDA, long standing bleeding; paleness Barefoot/ 5fs Stool exam

Disease CA Psx Dx Tx

Food Posioning Staphylococcal: CHO rich n/v; diarrhea Culture of vomitus Give antitoxin: Trivalen
Gastric Lavage
Salmonella: CHON rich Greenish, foul smeeling stool Rehydrate patient

Botulism: damange Canned goods Nero signs: headaches, visual disturbances, projectile

Typhoid Fever Salmonella typhi Rose red spots in trunk of the patient Typhidot: antibody formed Fluid Replacemnt
Ladder like fever (peaks in the afternoon)
N/V, diarrhea Widal’s test DOC: Chlormphenicol
Schistosomiasis/snail Blood Flukes: Itchy red pustule/ “swimmer’s itch” Fecal exam DOC: Praziquantel (biltricide,
fever/ Katayama’s Dse Schistosoma japonicum COPT (Cerco-Ova Precipitin Fuadin)
S. mansoni Test)
S. haematobium S. Japonicum: Praziquantel

Vector: Snail ( Oncomelania S. mansoni: Oxamniquine

S. haematobium: Metrifonate

Disease CA Px Dx Tx
Cholera/ Bacteria: Vibrio Rice watery/ washerwoman’s 3+ stool Boil h2o for 20mins
El tor comma, chlorae, stool; massive diarrhea exam
Dse El tor Antibiotic:
Amoebia Protozoan: Tenesmos, mucoid diarrhea 3+ stool Boil h20 for 20 mins
sis Entamoeba Amoebic dysentery: blood in stool exam
histolytica Metronidazole

Compiled by: Zyrine Jhen A. Cortes BSN-IV

Lectured by: Diane Celeste B. Mananquil, RN
Hepatiti Dx TX
A Food and h20 Antigen-antibody Interferon-alpha 2b
B Blood borne/body fluid/STD screening
C Post transfusion
D Fulminant/ chronic HbSAg if reactive +
AIDS (acquired HIV/ retrovirus, Major: fever, Wt. Loss, diarrhea Probable: CD4 Ct. DOC: Reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Immune Deficiency lentivirus -Zidovudine (ZDV)
Syndrome) Minor: Screening test: ELISA -Azidothymidine (AZT)
3 ways: Pruritic dermatitis (Enzyme Link Immunosorbent Assay)
Placental. Parenteral. Progressive dissmeninated herpes simplex *develop resistance in 6 mos
Person to person Oral thrush Confirmatory: Western-blot test *give in full stomach
Recurrent herpes zoster *CBC: leukopenia
Night sweats Adult:
Lymph adenopathy #1 PCP (Pneumocystis carnii Pneumonia
Chronic dry cough
#1 Cryptococcus neoformans meningitis
Candidiasis Candida albicans Cheese like vaginal d/c Culture Antifungal:
Mouth: thrush Nystatin
Vulva: moniliasis Amphotericene IV
Skin: onychomycosis
Chancroid Haemophilus BUBO: start as inguinal ademitis, Culture biopsy DOC: azithromycin
ducreyi painful, draining
Syphilis Treponema ChANCRE: painless, moist, non draining Venereal dse research Lab Slide test (VDRL) DOC: Benzathine Pen G

Primary-infectious; curable (Chancre)

Secondary –infectious; curable
Psx: qlopecia areata & condylomata lata
Latency- non infectious; terminal
Tertiary- no infectious; terminal; GUMMA,
necrotic lesion
Genital Warts HPV Condylomata acuminate Biopsy; pap smear Crocautery- 7 days
(fibrious tissue overgrowth) Topical: podophyelum; Podofilux; imiquimod
Gonorrhea/ Great Scar Neisseria Male: dysuria, greenish, mucopurelent DOC: Ceftriaxone + Doxycyccline
Former gonorrhoea d/s
Female: 80% aymptomatic
Chlamydia Chlamydia Serosanguinous d/c ELISA, culture Doxycycline

Compiled by: Zyrine Jhen A. Cortes BSN-IV

Lectured by: Diane Celeste B. Mananquil, RN
Herpes Simplex Fever blister Clinical picture Acyclovir
Type I Viral isolation
Vesiculopapular lesion *educate: limit emotional stress
Localized in oral mucosa or nares
Type II Genital herpes Same Same

Infectious Mononucleosis/ Kissing’s Dse Epstein-Barr virus Heterophil agglutination Test No drug


Normal Value
Hgb Female: 12-16 mg/dl
Male: 13-18 mg/dl
RBC 4.5-6.2/ cu mm
Cholesterol < 200ng/dl
LDL <130 ng/dl
HDL >35 ng/dl
Glucose 70-110 mg/dl
BUN 5-20 mg/dl
Creatinine 0.5-1.5 mg/dl

Anemia Definition Psx Mgt

Iodine Deficiency Dec. Fe common in pregnancy, Pale; dec. Appetite, palpitation, easily fatigue Fe for 6mos.
Anemia infant, adolescent
Pernicious Anemia Dec. Absorbtion of Vit. B12 Glossitis Check to Schilling’s Test;
(cyanocobalamia) absorption rate of Vit. B12
monthly; Vit b12 injection
Aplastic Anemia Bone marrow depression Inc. Risk for infxn Reverse isolation, check CBC
Give corticosteroids
Folic Acid Anemia < 4ng/mL Give folic acid for 6 mos
Leafy green & organ meat
Sickle Cell Anemia Crisis: vaso occulisve crisis Autosomal recessive d/o

Compiled by: Zyrine Jhen A. Cortes BSN-IV

Lectured by: Diane Celeste B. Mananquil, RN