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INTRODUCTION “Mirror Mirror on the wall, who is fairest of the all?”
Obsession for fairness has been there for ever, it’s as old as the civilization. Scenario today is not too different but has only gone deep and far. "Fair, convent-educated, beautiful bride wanted"-screams the matrimonial section of a reputed newspaper or a magazine. The minds of the masses have been interpellated with the bombardments of such 'ideological apparatuses' for eons and most people in India hardly notice anything grievously abnormal with statements like these. Not to mention the scores of inputs coming from a certain quarter who want to help the "fair sex" get fairer through home remedies and special face packs which give the politely termed "dusky" girls a chance to illuminate their skins miraculously in a few days. After all, let's face it- this kind of colorism, a fetish for the fair skin has existed in India for a long time, but what is significant is the fact that it is mainly gender sensitive. This craving to have lighter skinned brides and categorizing the "other" as the 'dusky lot' is directed only towards women in India, with the underlying idea that the future of such "olive skinned" or dusky women is at stake, especially in the marriage market. It's no major revelation that the skin-lightening obsession in Indian society is more prevalent among women than men. If a woman is fair-skinned, she is automatically beautiful, no matter how many coats you could hang from her nose. If a woman is dark-skinned, she'd have almost no chance of winning the Miss. India contest, even if her personality were as top-notch as her plastic surgeon. Men, on the other hand, have never had to obsess over their complexion, largely because they're judged more by their earning power than their looks. A single doctor who advertises himself as "tall, dark and handsome" would get far more attention from women than a single writer who's "tall, fair and unemployed." The situation may be changing though - and not necessarily for the better. A recent survey commissioned by the Media Researchers Users
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2 Council (MRUC) found that 32% of fairness cream users in India are men! Yes, men are using products such as Fair Glow, Fairever, and Fair & Lovely, trying hard to prove that women are no longer the fairer sex. Instead of getting women less obsessed with complexion, our society has managed to get men more obsessed. If this continues, you'll soon see new beauty products such as Fair Guy, Fairmale, and Fair & Handsome. The growing awareness among men to look good and results of marketing research by the industry suggesting that 75 percent men were using fairness creams made for women prompted FMCG companies to manufacture separate fairness products to cater to the needs of both genders. According to industry experts, as of 2007, the emerging skin-lightening products industry in India was worth US$318 million, and was growing at a fast rate, especially in the malegrooming sector. Skin-lightening products accounted for almost 40 percent of the Indian cosmetics industry.
With the number of players increasing day by day, HLL as major player had the strong need to crash the competitors. This gave rise to a new outlook being given to the various products. They started claiming that their products when used will bring in more fairness in just 4 weeks, which actually does not happen. Such claims only bring in a positive image and great desire for their products in the general public but prove to be unethical. To put it in simple words, what they say is not what happens. This implies that HLL has directly been involved in negatively affecting the people for its own benefits. It also acted as the direction for many other companies. Apart from creating such wrong notions among the public, HLL also started to use lightskinned models and even celebrities to endorse their fairness products, leading to a boost in the demand for skin-lightening products among the target audience. According to many dermatologists, these creams were only partly effective and merely act as sun-blocking agents, helping in preventing the skin from getting tanned. HLL was never seen on an ethical
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3 stand with such steps being taken always putting its customers to a back seat. According to analysts, striking ads in the mass media featuring celebrities, beauty specialists and dermatologists endorsing these products had helped increase the sales of skin-lightening products. People believe in claims when they are actually being aired all over the place. But there was no stopping for such irrelevant claims and hence no saving for innocent users. HLL has exploited and reinforced the preference for fair skin, portraying it as a necessary prerequisite for success, and promoted the use of their products as a means of achieving that ideal. Monetary gains have been made notwithstanding the negative impact these products have engendered in terms of social consciousness and strengthening of stereotypes. The outburst basically began with the All India Women’s Democratic Association (AIDWA) lodging a complaint about HLL’s advertisements to the National Human Rights Commission alleging that their advertisements were demeaning to women. Also, there is no scientific backing for the manufacturer claims that these products enhance fairness preventing darkness of skin or removing blemishes. In human skin, the amount of melanin cannot be reduced by applying fairness cream, bathing with sun blocking soaps or using fairness talcum. But still, the sales keep increasing because of the big Indian market increasing in potential day by day, especially the ignorant lot. This is clearly an issue of utilitarianism where the company showed minimum concern for the customers and was concentrating only on its profits. Moreover, controlled studies on the efficacy and safety of fairness creams were lacking. Critics have been more concerned with the socio-psychological effects of these products. Psychologists have observed that in the Indian context, fairness is associated with power, superiority, and influence, and hence Indians prefer lighter skin. The introduction of fairness products in India has only reinforced age-old prejudices that equate fair skin with good looks. This emphasis on a light skin color and its importance in the marriage market is evident from the matrimonial columns of newspapers and matrimonial web sites asking for fair brides.
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"Everyone wants to look better. skin-whitening. being role models.4 The marketing of fairness cream that plays on people's insecurities and fear of not conforming to the norm has come in for strong criticism. fairness creams . These products and their advertisements reinforce an old Southeast Asian bias that you have to be fair to be beautiful. and an Indian skin-lightening cream?" . Europeans using skin-tan lotion. Various aspects HLL related to fairness: • • • • • • • • Marriage Confidence Success in Life Interviews Better opportunities Good Commentator Actress or model selection Freedom under the sun Such ads spot led the civil rights groups to spit fire at HUL. Critics felt that celebrities. Some critics are of the view that promoting a particular body image (fairness in this case) as the preferred one and then selling medicines or products to help people attain that particular ideal may be regarded as disease mongering. Gurgaon.they are all the same. Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. . Sunscreens. should not endorse products that reinforce such stereotypes.Prahlad Kakkar. What's the difference between a woman using lipstick.Alyque Padamsee.. in 2007." . Advertising Consultant and Ad Guru. Advertising Consultant and Ad Guru. in 2007. It is left to the individual customer to educate herself/himself and make socially responsible choices..
➢ Consumers of various age groups could not be included in the research survey.A.5 PURPOSE: TO STUDY THE ETHICAL ISSUES CONCERNED WITH THE SELLING OF FAIRNESS CREAM IN INDIAN MARKET RESEARCH DESIGN: Data source: Primary data.B. Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. . Gurgaon. LIMITATIONS ➢ Demographic outlook is limited to college students in IBS Gurgaon. Secondary data Research approach: Survey approach Research methodology: Descriptive research Research Instrument: Questionnaire Primary data: The primary data was collected through a survey in college and hostels. Secondary data: (a) Internet (b) Magazines (c) E-media (d) Books of M.
6 ➢ It couldn’t include uneducated people. CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR ANALYSIS • In terms of Maslow’s theory: THE CONCEPT OF FAIRNESS CREAMS Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. Gurgaon. .
according to Indian Chamber of Commerce. . Although awareness of European prestige brands and Western skin care regimes is moderately high among the wealthy and educated population. Widespread poverty and an extremely low per capita income--less than $500 a year--also means many Indians are extremely price Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. Its potential is estimated at $4 billion and growing at a rate of 15-20 percent per year. price dynamics in the Indian cosmetics market are complex. Gurgaon.7 COSMETIC MARKET THE INDIAN COSMETICS market is seen as a huge area of opportunity.
the herbal wave and renewed focus on cosmetics for men have been the two predominant trends over the past decade. have become more prominent. This Rs 300-crore segment is perceived to be the hottest and the fastest growing. Players such as Shehnaz Hussain have been in this segment for quite some time. Multinationals woke up early to the Indian opportunity and entered the market in the mid-1990s. they have learnt the tricks of the trade and are now fighting tooth and nail with established Indian players. Hindustan Lever recently introduced the herbal version of its popular Fair & Lovely brand. For instance. The belief that cosmetics are harmful to the skin and increased awareness among consumers of herbal products triggered the demand for natural products rather than chemical-based cosmetics. Despite some initially difficulty. With the dawning of the potential of this segment. Healthcare Companies Test the Water Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. A slew of companies launched herbal skin-care products. . Gurgaon. the herbal wave has been sweeping the skin care segment. Existing players too have expanded their range to include herbal variants. which operate in the premium segment. This has led to cut-throat competition for virtually any product aimed at the mass market. Herbal Wave Over the past couple of years. players such as Boutique and Lotus Herbals. In terms of product profile. the market for cosmetics has been through a long transition and several stages of evolution.8 conscious. Cosmetics: More than Skin-Deep FOR players and target customers.
No longer do cosmetics represent a `women only' market. "Nearly 27 per cent of Fairever's users are men. but the fact Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. That amounts to nearly Rs 22 crore in sales." says a CavinKare official. men contribute Rs 100 crore. director of Emami group. has a new target segment: Men. Dabur plans to launch three skin-care products this year. there's some degree of overlap when both the men and women in the family use my brand. With the acquisition of the Life spring chain of health and beauty stores. In absolute terms. about 20 per cent consumers of Fair & Lovely . But while Fair & Lovely leads the fairness creams pack with an estimated market share of 55 per cent. Gurgaon. Many players are coming up with skin care products for men. Dr Morepan Laboratories is exploring opportunities in the cosmetics segment. . traditionally believed to target women. it works out to about Rs 200 crore in sales. While Himalaya's Ayurvedic Concepts have already hit the shelves. Given that sales of Fair & Lovely are estimated at Rs 500 crore. which occupies the second spot. since Fairever's sales are estimated at Rs 80 crore. including health-care companies such as Himalaya Drugs (with its Ayurvedic Concepts range). says that men now contribute to about 45 per cent sales of his Rs 10-crore Emami Naturally Fair brand. Targeting Men The cosmetics industry.are men. According to an HLL spokesperson. Aditya Agarwal. "Of course.9 This trend has attracted a host of new entrants. does better with male consumers. CavinKares' Fairever. Dabur and Dr Morepan. Men account for about 25 per cent of fairness cream use across the country and the figure is growing.one of HLL's mega power brands .
93 22." The men's personal care segment is estimated to be worth Rs 790 crore.76 12.65 118.32 108. Cr) (Aug07 – July08) Growth (Aug05 – July06) (%) All India North Zone East Zone West Zone South Zone Metro 711.10 remains that usage of fairness products by men has been on the upswing the past couple of years.73 232. Gurgaon.30 619.02 145. with Gillette having a large share of the pie.92 163.17 What's the reason behind this? The number of men-only salons springing across metros indicates that metro sexuality is here to stay.55 129.82 184.54 12. The growing demand for men's cosmetics inspired cosmetics majors such as Modicare and Amway to launch new products in the skin-care segment.27 13. says a Delhi-based sociologist. Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL.50 14.13 135. while Amway has launched its men's range in the Indian markets. .98 14.33 185. Modicare is coming out with its Velocity range.83 203. Market Segmentation for Fairness Cream Sales value (Rs.
Of the Rs 3. under-eye dark circle removing creams and cold creams contribute the rest. ➢ Specialty creams such as sunscreen lotions. and toners.4 per cent share. Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. Gurgaon. . ➢ Fairness creams account for around 60 per cent of the skin-care business at around Rs 700 crore. the market size of the skin-care segment alone is estimated at Rs 1. cleansing lotions.200 crore. ➢ Other players such as Emami (Gold Turmeric and Naturally Fair). followed by CavinKare (Fairever) with over12 per cent share and Godrej FairGlow with a 3.000-crore cosmetics and toiletries industry. ➢ This segment has some of the big names such as Hindustan Lever (Fair & Lovely) with a massive 53 per cent market share. is most competitive with many multinational companies in the fray.11 CURRENT MARKET ➢ The Indian cosmetics industry appears to have considerable growth potential. Revlon (Fair & Glow) also have a presence in this market. moisturizers. ➢ The colour cosmetics segment. worth around Rs 300 crore.
While lipsticks account for nearly a third of the market at Rs 90-100 crore. . around 70 per cent. the market for nail enamels is estimated at around Rs 110 crore. ➢ The Lakmé brand is the market leader with a 50 per cent share. Gurgaon. According to the latest AC Nielsen India Retail audit. followed by Revlon. eyeliners and so on. fairness creams and lotions put together continue to be the largest segment in the skin creams category. while the premium segment accounts only for a mere 9 per cent in lipsticks and 5 per cent in nail enamels. Tips & Toes is another major Indian player in the colour cosmetics segment. Value in 13 01 06 10 11 06 Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL.12 ➢ This segment can be further segmented into lipsticks. ‘Fairness creams lead in skin care market’ Volume & value contribution by skin cream segment (for the 12 month period ending July 2009 Volume in Contribution (%) Contribution (%) Antiseptic creams 14 Astringents 01 Foundations 02 Cold Creams 13 Moisturizing lotions/creams 17 Vanishing creams 04 The country's obsession with fair skin continues unabated. nail enamels. mascara. followed by such multinational brands as Revlon and Maybelline. ➢ Here again Hindustan Lever dominates with its Lakmé and Elle 18 brands. Mass market products account for a major share.
In the last 12 months ended July 2009. Value growth of fairness creams and lotions was 5. Its reach has extended beyond India. but also Fair & Lovely Fairness Soap. Fair & Lovely recorded a volume growth of 16. out of which four brands were added in the fairness creams/lotions segment.13 accounting for 48 per cent of the total skin creams volume market. Vanishing creams. Fair & Lovely brand continued its stranglehold in the category. Gurgaon. The mother of all fairness creams on the subcontinent is Fair & Lovely. . snows and astringents remain marginal categories within the skin-care market.1 per cent in July 2009 over the corresponding period last year. but its biggest customer concentration remains in South Asia itself. Value growth for the brand was 10. the contribution of fairness creams and lotions has been recorded at 53 per cent in the same time period. By value also. calamines and foundations. in the 12-month period ended July 2009.7 per cent in July 2009 over the corresponding period last year. consumers have the delightful convenience of choosing between not just Fair & Lovely Fairness Reviving Lotion and Fair & Lovely Fairness Cold Cream.7 per cent in July 2009 over July 2008. according to the AC Nielsen India retail audit. In terms of growth. Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. as per the AC Nielsen retail audit. The volume contribution of moisturizing lotions and creams was 17 per cent.4 per cent during the same period. Fairness creams and lotions achieved double-digit volume growth of 10. During the same period. In terms of value. with a volume share of 82 per cent of the fairness creams and lotions category in July 2009 against 75 per cent the previous year. The brand comes in several incarnations. 30 per cent of new stock keeping units (SKUs) out of the total 984 SKUs were added in the fairness creams/lotions segment. Today it is marketed in over 38 countries and has become the largest-selling skin lightening cream in the world. and cold creams accounted for 13 per cent during the same period. antiseptic creams accounted for 14 per cent of the total skin creams market. Fair & Lovely's share was 82 per cent. a total of 30 new brands were added in the skin creams category. This is much higher than the total of the next three segments.
and the total stock keeping units (SKUs) were 1. the total number of brands was 345. within skin creams. Gurgaon. the total number of companies were 172. Within the fairness creams and lotions category. .454.14 In July 2008-09. the total number of brands was 58. the total number of companies was 33. Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. as per AC Nielsen India retail audit. and the total SKUs were 338 in the same month.
I believe that not only should we market the cream in India.. as we had thought of doing earlier.. a fair woman has a much better chance of bagging a good husband. They are looked upon with suspicion and in the event of even the slightest trouble involving them or their places of stay.15 COMPANY VIEW ON INDIAN MARKET "India is a phenomenal market for fairness creams and our product should do well beyond all imagination.'.' A fair... As an Indian friend tells me 'our attitude towards the blacks Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. Not only that. 2) As soon as a child is born and its sex is known.not as part of a joint venture with a local company. Never in the last few months.. an African couple were denied entry into a South Mumbai pub. A dark skin in a boy is still acceptable. I believe that we should even be prepared to shift our production facilities to India if necessary. a very derogatory attitude exists towards the native African population.." – Company’s perspective. Observations: 1) Indians are obsessed with skin color. where there is a large Indian population. or if the girl is not fair. Gujarati/Sindhi/Punjabi/Tamil lady wanted for an educated. but in a girl is considered a liability. euphemistically.. This is because all things being equal (and sometimes even if not equal). meaning black. because the owner thought the couple would cause trouble. In places like Kenya. The Indians there refer to them as 'Kaalia' or 'Karo". A similar attitude exists towards Africans who come to study in India. have I come across an ad from either side mentioning a dark-skinned lady. Despite the logistical problems of setting up a company in India (Annexure A). good-looking. A couple of years ago. they are arrested and considered guilty unless proved innocent. the next thing looked at is the skin color. If the girl is advertising for a groom. 'A girl with a whitish complexion.'. . well-settled man'. 3) Indians have a poor tolerance towards races darker than them. at short notice. but we should also set up our own base in India ." A careful study of the classified matrimonial columns in the local and national papers shows that the majority of the ads follow a set pattern. the ad goes something like. 'A fair girl with good temperament looking for. Gurgaon.
even though the majority of the population is dark.16 is worse than the attitude that the whites had towards us . when they refused a ride to Mr. Though marriages and interactions between the white population and Indians are known. (we can stress this point in our ad campaign and run the company out of business) and the other is a cream similar to ours.the apartheid spectrum seems to have shifted to the right of the color range. the actor. one is actually bleach. Danny Glover. fair actresses and heroines are much better appreciated than dark actresses.'" 4) Just to illustrate this point further. 5) There is a sizeable community of Indians in the US. 7) In the Southern parts of India. In their movies. being fair is considered a godsend. Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. where the people are much darker than in the northern parts. . it is very rare for Indians to have emotional or sexual relations with African-American individuals. I am sure you are aware of the controversy that Indian and Pakistani cab drivers in New York got into. Of these two. on the grounds that they were scared of blacks and would prefer not to go to areas with a predominant African-American population. 6) There are two popular brands selling fairness products in the local Indian market they account for most of the market share. Gurgaon.
The second target population is men . . There is no opposition from the public or the advertising council regarding these racist ads. Gurgaon. 2) The two competitive products mentioned above.17 MARKETING STRATEGIES 1) There are two target populations. that would work wonder. The first is women in the age group of 17-25 whose need to be fair is directly proportional to their urge to get married.000$ or so for endorsement). the amount of money involved is not much by our standards (approximately 100. Shampoo and face-care companies run countless television ads showing pretty scientists in research and development departments strutting around extolling the virtue of their products that ostensibly have been developed after extensive experimentation Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL." 5). creating a situation where anyone even remotely affected by color. At this stage. to show how even the darkest of dark people can become fair with the right attitude and skincare products. With our superior advertising and marketing concepts. We can show him during his "Thriller" days and compare that MJ to the new one.they should be made to see the virtues of our cream using subliminal messages in our ads. they are extremely vulnerable to suggestions from any source. blatantly extol the virtues of being fair. They would then support the use of our product and sometimes maybe even suggest its use to their daughters and wives. There is a tendency to believe anything which has even the slightest scientific background to it. we can use some fair actresses to advertise our product. in their television ads." 4) If we could get Michael Jackson to endorse the product in India. which would never have been allowed in our politically correct country. will have no choice but to use our products.we can show how being dark is shameful and that nothing works like being fair. about products that would help make them fair. This concept is very prevalent in the soap industry and though the actresses are expensive by Indian standards. including ads." 3) To this end. we can push this divide even further .
Price Pricing decisions should take into account profit margins and the probable pricing response of competitors. it also refers to any services or conveniences that are part of the offering. . Pricing includes not only the list price. Place Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. but also discounts. service. packaging. appearance. Gurgaon.18 The 4 P's of Marketing The major marketing management decisions can be classified in one of the following four categories: • • • • Product Price Place (distribution) Promotion These variables are known as the marketing mix or the 4 P's of marketing. In the case of physical products. They are the variables that marketing managers can control in order to best satisfy customers in the target market. The marketing mix is portrayed in the following diagram: The Marketing Mix Product The product is the physical product or service offered to the consumer. and other options such as leasing. etc. financing. warranty. Product decisions include aspects such as function.
and facilitating functions. Promotion decisions involve advertising. Summary of Marketing Mix Decisions Product Functionality Appearance Quality Packaging Brand Price List price Discounts Allowances Financing Leasing Place Channel members Channel motivation Market coverage Locations Logistics Promotion Advertising Personal selling Public relations Message Media Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. . logistics. Gurgaon. A Summary Table of the Marketing Mix The following table summarizes the marketing mix decisions. The distribution system performs transactional. including a list of some of the aspects of each of the 4Ps. channel member selection. a break-even analysis should be performed when making promotion decisions. media types. public relations. etc. logistical.19 Place (or placement) decisions are those associated with channels of distribution that serve as the means for getting the product to the target customers. Promotion Promotion decisions are those related to communicating and selling to potential consumers. Distribution decisions include market coverage. It is useful to know the value of a customer in order to determine whether additional customers are worth the cost of acquiring them. and levels of service. Since these costs can be large in proportion to the product price.
Gurgaon. • • • Low End Middle End High End Low End Fair and Lovely • • • Samara Fairness cream Godrej ‘Fair Glow’ and ‘Fairever Freschia Vicco Turmeric Middle End Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. The over all fairness cream market can be segmented in to broad three category i. There are many small and big players competing in the market for their share.20 Warranty Service/Support options Service levels Budget Product The product list in the fairness cream market is long.e. .
The branding in the various ends of the product is also different. . As one goes through the product line it is observe that product recognition diminishes as we go up the level. Although there is a general feeling among the people that if the product has a high cost then it will be more effective. Products in the lower end have more market coverage and also more recognition then the product in the middle end and higher end. but as we go up the Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. As we go up the product ladder the product gets more costly as they are in premium range. Gurgaon. This also stresses the point that Indian market has more preference for product lower in price.21 • • • • • Lotus Fairness gel Avon VIP Fairness cream Oriflame Natural Northern Light Biotique Coconut Milk Oriflame Love ‘A’ Fair High End • • • • • • L’Oreal Plenitude White Perfect range Lancome’s Blanc Cristal range YSL’s Blanc Absolu Serum Clinique’s Active White Line Elizabeth Arden’s Visible Whitening Pure Intensive capsules Estee Lauder’s White Light. Product in the low end tends to be more local and common as it will appeal to the majority.
Price Prices are important part in the fairness creams. But the list doesn’t end here. They vary according to the size (50gm. The latest in the treand is the Fair & Lovely fairness gel for oily skin.e.22 ladder the names of the product becomes uncommon or to say more sophisticated. Fair & Lovely Ayurvedic (HLL) and also Himalayas Ayurvedic creams which have intensified the market competition. 200gm) Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. Products in the low category are in the price range of about 15-100 Rs. But overall the market is flooded with fairness creams that ensures Fairness. So it has to be diffentiated from the lot and hence the names. . 100gm. Prices are highly variable across the various segment of the products. Gurgaon. Products like Naturally Fair (Emami). and also it has some esteem value to it. but this can be dangerous for the companies as they can face the problem of brand switchers. This product was followed by many other markets. Natural or Ayurvedic. One reason for this could be that product in the higher end are not meant for the masses but only for a selected few. So one can say that a consumer has a wide range of products to select form in various ends.. It has no chemical base and that it is skin friendly. These products differentiate themselves from other product on the basis of it being 100% natural. The first to do this was Godrej Fairglow. We see a product innovation in the form of Fairness soap. Off late there has been a new category of fairness creams i.
Place It refers to the distribution network. place of availability of the product. and other options such as leasing. intermediaries. As for the middle end and higher end product the prices are more on quality as they are not targeting the masses but concentrate on effectiveness and quality of the product. and outlets. DISTRIBUTION NETWORK Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. but also discounts. Prices are crucial in the lower end as they target the mass crowed and hence they have to keep the prices competitive. Pricing decisions should take into account profit margins and the probable pricing response of competitors.23 In the Middle end the prices are between the range of 150-300 Rs. which is the FMCG giant in India and is the bench mark for other FMCG companies. In the High end the prices vary anywhere between 350-800 Rs. To understand it better here I have taken example of the HLL. Gurgaon. financing. . Pricing includes not only the list price.
The redistribution stockiest also supplies to urban and rural retailers directly where the wholesales are not present or are unable to reach. These stockiest then distribute the products to wholesaler.000 villages. There are about 30-40 such stockiest in each region. And to distribute the product manufactured in these factories they have a highly effective distribution channel. This is one of the factors behind the phenomenal success of HLL. Most fairness creams have the above distribution channel but the difference being in the availability of the Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. It ensures break free supply. It has 80 manufacturing units in India which ensures continues flow of its products. Apart from that it has about 150 outsourced units. who further sends it to retailers in Urban and Rural Market from where it finally reaches the consumers.24 HLL has a well planned network which ensures that its products are always available in the market and that there is no shortage of the products in the market. which also undertakes manufacturing but on a lower scale. These C&F agent then distribute these products to Redistribution Stockiest at regional level. Products manufactures are taken form factory by the Carrying and Forwarding agent. . This distribution channel is much the same for most FMCG companies. So by this they ensure a smooth flow of products. They have a huge network in form of 7000 stockiest and they directly cover entire urban population through 1 million outlet and 50. Gurgaon.
The reason for this is high demand and low price of creams of this segment. Fair glow are widely available in almost all medical general stores.V ads and Print ads of various fairness creams and analysis them. or get 20% free. Apart from that there are many other schemes that comes up with one or the other such creams like buy a particular cream. Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL.25 creams in the lower/middle and higher end. . In today’s world the amount of competition that is generating is extremely high. distributing free sample. banners and radio advertising. But in the middle and high end the availability is not the common. Promotion can be done through various means such as through television ads. Here we will see the T.V. etc. The are available in selected shops as the demand for it is less and prices are high as compared to lower end. So there is a need of aggressive promotion strategy. Therefore main aim of the promotion strategy should be create maximum awareness of a company’s product and should have a positive impact on consumers mind. ads in newspapers and magazines. T. Gurgaon. banners and hoardings. Lower end creams like Fair & Lovely.V advertising. scratch a card and you could win a gold pendent. Fairever. With the help of promotion a company can create an awareness of its product in the market. Major promotion of Fairness creams are done in the form of T. Ads The following ads are of Fair & Lovely fairness cream of HLL. Promotion Promotion strategy is an activity by which a company can promote its product in the market.
and with it grows her confident. So the solution was there. selected and commenting for a cricket match. In the second ad the situation is slightly different. She sends the audition tape and there she is. Here the girl aspires to become a doctor.26 The following ads are of Fairever: What is it that is common in both this ads? In first ads it is shown how a girl aspires to be a cricket commentator but is not confident enough to make it because she is dark skinned. This ad goes even far saying that the use of this particular cream will change her Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. Fair & Lovely. . Gurgaon. As she uses the cream she become fair.
hydrogen peroxide and ammonia. So the solution to the problem is there fairness cream which will make you fair and boost your confidence and help you reach you goal and you will be successful. “Fairever hai na maa. it is the only fairness cream that works gently from within.27 destiny. Both the above ads make an emotional appeal to the audience. With continued use. Body copy: If you could only read the list of ingredients on your fairness cream pack. Harsh whitening agents that impart only a temporary whiteness and rob the skin of its natural moisture leaving it dull and lifeless. The target audience of the above ads is females in the age group of 15-25. Dark skinned people are low in confident and have less chances of becoming successful. You see. Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. A blend of Ayurveda and international herbal science. is a breakthrough intensive formulation made from the extracts of 11 rare herbs. No wonder most chemical fairness creams don't list their ingredients on their packs. To give you a long-lasting fairness without any side-effects. meri takdeer badalde” This ad goes over the limit to suggest that becoming fair can change your destiny. Gurgaon. however. most chemical fairness creams contain hydroquinone. What both the ads are trying to project is that looking dark may result in failure. . Print Media Headline: Nine out of ten fairness cream users don't know what they put on their faces. however the cream is used by females in general irrespective of the age. your skin breaks out in blemishes and shows signs of premature ageing even before you realize it. That is the prime target market. Emami Naturally Fair. you would never use it again. Naturally Fair. chances are. Long-lasting fairness.
healthy glow. and coconut extract moisturize it. people will think you're born with it. Star ingredients like which act on the color cells and reduce their function to a small extent are Hydroquinone. etc. Hydroquinone however is a strong ingredient and dermatologists advise individuals to discontinue its use after three or four month of continuous use to switch to a non hydroquinone cream. What they can do is reverse the damage done by unprotected long exposure to the sun and protect you against the harsh sunrays. Milk. some vitamin A derivatives. Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. 100% natural. Sandalwood soothes and clears blemishes. revitalize and protect your skin to give it a natural. 100% safe. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) restrict the use of hydroquinone to just two percent in cosmetic creams. but nourish. alpha hydroxy acids especially glycolic. a natural fairness agent lightens it and Aloe Vera protects it from the damaging and darkening effects of UV rays. . and ‘kills’ the existing ones to make the skin lighter No fairness cream can make you fairer than the skin with which you were born. Most of these work because they have a strong UVA/UVB filter. Change to Naturally Fair. arbutin. Hydroquinone prevent the formation of melanin-producing cells. Get a look that's so natural. However. Liquorices. cucumber. THE TRUTH BEHIND THE FAIRNESS CREAM Cosmetic companies are spending thousands of millions of rupees on research for ingredients that block melanin production. these are all very mild. which also claim to lighten the skin to some extent.28 The wonder herbs in Naturally Fair don't just make you fair. There are some natural ingredients like Kojic acid. green tea. tourmaline etc. Vitamin C derivatives. Gurgaon. which prevents sun damage thus improving the complexion to some extent.
Europe and parts of Africa. or you want it to be a lighter Shade? ○ Yes.29 A word of caution: authorities in most of Asia. Often we apply the creams wishing for a white skin and are left with more problems due to excess use of cosmetics. good clear skin. prohibit hydroquinone in skin care preparations. extreme climates. Gurgaon. Other factors like stress. A sunny disposition. I am happy ○ No. exposure to smoke and other pollutants can trigger the darkening reaction on our skin. I want to be more fair 3) How important is looking fair to you? ○ Very important Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. SURVEY FORM • Gender Male Female 1) Do you use fairness creams ○ Regularly ○ Sometimes ○ Never 2) Are you happy with your skin color. This is due to the reports of an epidemic of exogenerous ocronosis – a progressive darkening of the skin – in South Africa after patients used high concentrations of hydroquinone for several years. What we need is realization! Realization that color is also beautiful. . the right attitude and loads of personal style contributes a lot to one’s beauty. The latest buzz is sun is not the only cause for skin darkening.
they don’t make much difference ○ They are only one of many other factor 8) Fair people are also beautiful. than dark skin people? ○ Yes ○ No ○ Can’t say 5) Do you think it is more important for women to look fair then it is for men? ○ Yes. it’s not so 6) Various advertisement of fairness cream which appears on T.30 ○ Not that important 4) Do you think fair people have more chances of success. they don’t ○ Can’t say 7) Fashion models. Heroines have created complex among people regarding their skin color.V tends to create gender bias. how true is it? ○ Yes. Gurgaon. What is your opinion? ○ No . Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. it’s not so always. it’s true ○ No. . they do ○ No. do you agree? ○ Yes. Heroes. very much ○ Up to certain extent ○ No.
com ➢ www.com ➢ www.mouthshut.cavindia.31 9) How important is the Price Factor in fairness cream ○ They are very important ○ Not that important 10) What according to you are other factors that are contributing the urge of people to look fair? BIBILIOGRAPHY Books Referred: ➢ Facts of India Advertising & Consumer Behavior: An Imperial Approach ➢ Positioning: The Battle for your mind Web Sites: ➢ www.com ➢ www.indiainfoline.hinduonline. Gurgaon.com ➢ www.timesofindia.com Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. .
rediff.google.32 Search Engines: ➢ www.co.com Submitted to ICFAI BUSINESS SCHOOL. Gurgaon.com ➢ www. .in ➢ www.yahoo.
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