Introduction To Marketing


Societal Marketing

Submitted To Prof. Omar Shaoor Submitted By Abdul Karim L1F10MSMG0065

University Of Central Punjab Lahore

The societal marketing concept was a forerunner of sustainable marketing in integrating issues of social responsibility into commercial marketing strategies. resulting not only in favorable image. and society's long-term interests. in the corporate world. The concept has an emphasis on social responsibility and suggests that for a company to only focus on exchange relationship with customers might not be suitable in order to sustain long term success. For example. Ethical and socially responsible practices are simply good business. the financial community. They touch almost every business decision ranging from the production of goods and services to their packaging. Societal marketing should not be confused with social marketing. It is closely linked with the principles of corporate social responsibility and of sustainable development. The societal marketing concept is an enlightened marketing concept that holds that a company should make good marketing decisions by considering consumers' wants. tools and techniques to social issues. marketing. to minimize the impact of various hazards on the global environment. the company's requirements. numerous laws and extensive government regulation affect virtually every aspect of business activities.Societal Marketing Business executives are often perplexed by the continuous expansion of society's expectations of corporations. stockholders. they are also expected to support their employees' quality of work life. In contrast to that. not only are companies held responsible for maximizing profits for the owners and shareholders and for operating within the legal framework. and other relevant publics. Thus. and service. Most companies recognize that socially responsible activities improve their image among customers. Rather. but ultimately in increased sales. social marketing uses commercial marketing theories. to demonstrate their concern for the communities within which their businesses operate. distribution. and to engage in purely social or philanthropic endeavors. . marketing strategy should deliver value to customers in a way that maintains or improves both the consumer's and the society's well-being.

1997. Cavill + Co. 2003).Social marketing applies a customer orientated approach and uses the concepts and tools used by commercial marketers in pursuit of social goals like Anti-SmokingCampaigns or fund raising for NGOs. in joint . With this framework in mind. what products and services it provides. or to uncover the conditions favoring or hindering the development of this relationship. social demand incorporates not only demand for a firm's products and services. As a key member of society. 1994. 2002). 2002. 1998. a corporation should take into account the societal needs that are expected to be met by business. is determined both by the organization itself and by society's expectations. but should also be concerned with determining and meeting various societal expectations. Nowicka. Jayne. a firm's mission and objectives should not only address traditional organizational concerns such as profitability and markets served. 1997a. Typically. Societal marketing incorporates a focus on the consumer s and society s well-being (Kotler. Cone/Roper Communications.. Thus. Corporate Social Responsibility and Societal Marketing The societal marketing concept introduces corporate social responsibility (CSR) into marketing practices. Research executed in many countries has consistently shown that consumers express a more positive attitude toward a company that practices societal marketing. These needs constitute a social demand. 2001.. but also extends to the fulfillment of other societal needs. to varying degrees. Consequently. little research has considered how and why this relationship between societal marketing and consumer attitudes occurs. 1999. they are distinguishable from the prior charitable and commercial relationships because they engage the expert knowledge of the environmental group and involve it. i. and additionally prefer to purchase the products of these companies (Business in the Community.e. 1997b. it can be stated that the scope of a business organization. 2002. One of the aspects of the societal marketing includes alliances that have arisen between environmentalist groups and businesses in the last decade. Kaplan. The new relationships have been described as path breaking and innovative. 2000. Cone Inc. However.

problem solving or strategic decision making with the corporate partner. Green alliances. audits by environmental groups of business programs or practices. The use-and-dispose philosophy at the core of McDonald's business and its distinctive plastic clamshell sandwich boxes. Plastic had been demonized by several environmentalist organizations. EDF saw significant opportunity for both environmental action and a major. which by its allegiance implicitly or explicitly endorses company actions. high visibility. Companies Employing the Societal Marketing Concept McDonald's: McDonald's is the leader of the fast-food industry. its entanglement in controversy over its packaging frustrated the company.000 people in 11. its problematic history of waste management.000 restaurants and serving 22 million customers a day. and the iconic value of waste management as an environmental issue made the company an attractive candidate for partnership. had made McDonald's a continuing target of ecology groups. From EDF's perspective. The partnership also brings corporate actors into the group of those to be entrusted with the work of saving the earth. and joint projects of the type engaged in by green alliance between McDonald's and Environmental Defense Fund.for both partners. also have symbolic and political value . Green alliances also function rhetorically in a more complex way than traditional business-environmentalist relationships. . At the time Environmental Defense Fund (EDF) approached McDonald's. a strategy within corporate environmental management. of the ecology group. McDonald's leadership position. but also the credibility. In this category are green product endorsements. The corporation borrows not only the environmental expertise. with worldwide operations employing approximately 500. which helped to make the company one of the largest single users of polystyrene in the United States. where the corporate partner's business practices are evaluated and improved according to ecological criteria. opportunity to test its innovative approach to environmental problem-solving through corporate partnerships.

and positions on particular issues such as rainforest beef and the ozone problem. social as well as economic. McDonald's defends its environmental record by listing specific actions that it has taken to manage waste and conserve resources by reducing. policies. for instance. McDonald's also offered in-store flyers to educate customers about the company's environmental management practices. 1990.Throughout the late 1980s. were available from its public relations department. philosophies. It cites experts who support its position on plastic packaging and who point out the small contribution of the entire quick-service restaurant industry to America's waste. the World Wildlife Fund and the Smithsonian Institution) to coproduce elementary school materials on the environment. In 1989. . reusing and recycling materials. It reduced consumption. Second..g. McDonald's positions itself as one of a community of stewards of the earth. the company instituted a pilot program in 450 New England stores to recycle its plastic clamshells. paper bags and other items and recycled paper and cardboard packaging. In addition. it switched from polystyrene blown with CFCs. to buy recycled materials for restaurant construction. McDonald's bolstered its environmental management practices with a proactive public relations campaign. remodeling. McDonald's worked with several different environmental and nonprofit groups (e. McDonald's instituted and publicized a number of environmentally positive steps in its domestic operations. Brochures on environmental topics. McDonald's positions itself as having concerns ecological and practical. and operations under a program called "McRecycle" In 1989 and 1990. In April. it committed $100 million. the family of chemicals which destroy the ozone layer. by using lighter weight paper in straws. In 1987. to plastic foam that used hydrocarbon blowing. or one quarter of the company's annual building and remodeling budget. including packaging.

It reach areas of Africa which the AIDS/HIV workers have not previously had easy access and thereby ensure that people in those areas can obtain information about the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS. By leveraging its corporate assets.cola is a soft drink company started early in the 90 s in USA.cola offers more than just funding. As a result they formulated an awareness program in the African countries about the HIV awareness. The many projects are supported by the foundation cost millions of dollars each year. but coca. It focuses its efforts on three factors which Coca. one of the most extensive in Africa. Coca-Cola has made contribution to all African communities. After gaining a good market value in the world the company looked out for promoting large people towards their products. The foundations outreach also extends beyond employees and into community. counseling. coca-cola can transport vital materials to the remote part of the continent. education.cola operates: healthcare. All their employees and the employees families are eligible to receive benefits. 100 percent of the coca-cola s independent bottling companies in 54 African countries are enrolled in the foundations programs. Even Coca-Cola s marketing expertise is being used to raise awareness of key issues of such as HIV prevention. and the environment. including access to antiretroviral drugs.COCA-COLA: Coca. and treatment. . In the 2001 the Coco-Cola African foundations was formed to reduce the impact of HIV AIDS on coca-cola 60000 employees and 40 independent bottlers in Africa. prevention. At present. testing. By using its distribution network.

"Just do it : Nike. beneficial relationships between nature and human culture. she said. NIKE decided to design a new. these product materials are designed to flow in closed loop cycles. one of the early leaders of the sustainability movement within the company. We had come to see that our customers' health and our own ability to compete are inseparable from the health of the environment. Together they sought to determine the chemical composition and environmental effects of the materials and manufacturing processes. . state-of-the-art campus for its European headquarters in the Netherlands." Nike's first steps toward ecologically intelligent product design began with materials. a marketer of athletic shoes and sports apparel. tapping into local energy flows to create healthy. "but our sense of design excellence had expanded to include a commitment to ecological intelligence. to fully understanding the impacts of our products on the natural world. Product innovation and performance remained Nike's first priority. Using natural flows of energy and nutrients as models. the campus was designed to integrate the indoors with the surrounding environment.NIKE . eliminating the concept of waste while enhancing and replenishing both nature and commerce. for example. With its Management of Environmental Safety and Health program. A complex of five new buildings." said Darcy Winslow. has grown into a large multinational enterprise through a marketing strategy centering on a favorable brand image. In 1996.. Inc. Nike has merged health and safety metrics with a Nike management model to create a framework for sustainability suitable for its Asian contract factories.

helpless. advocates of the societal marketing concept have liberated consumers from both responsibility and power. depend on the characteristics of its target markets. these same guardians of consumer interest are typically synonymous with those pushing organizations most forcefully into programs of social responsibility and the societal marketing concept. of course. . especially societal marketing initiatives. all others with whom that person deals have their relative power increased. Yet it is a corollary rule that in reducing one individual's power. By forcing consumers into the roles of ignorant. How much a given initiative will help or hurt a given brand will.Conclusion We have studies that affinity marketing initiatives. While consumerists and other critics of the selling concept regularly and loudly chastise business organizations for employing marketing strategies and campaigns which are ostensibly based upon assumptions of consumer ignorance and irrationality. It is for this reason that those espousing the societal marketing concept of business can be seen as the greatest danger to consumer sovereignty and consumer welfare. It must inevitably be those organizations which are encouraged to view their consumers as ignorant or irrational that can and will most easily extend that notion to discover opportunities for exploiting that ignorance and irrationality. and mindless children in need of protection and corporate welfare. have the potential to improve consumers attitudes about a brand in a number of different ways. and have concomitantly made business more powerful.

pp. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing. S. Spring. L. K. 21. & Keller. vol. European Journal of Marketing. & Desmond. no. pp. 36. Building brand equity through corporate societal marketing . I. Societal marketing and morality . J. 78-89. "From Sales Obsession to Marketing Effectiveness. 2002. Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. 1980. 67-75 .References Crane. A. M. Hoeffler. (1977a). vol. 2002. no. 5/6. & Fishbein. NEW JERSEY. Ajzen. 548-69. P. Kotler." Harvard Business Review (November-December). 1. Englewood-Cliffs. Prentice-Hall.

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