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S&T’s Research, Development, Testing and Evaluation (RDT&E) Efforts re COVID-19 Homeland Security April 13, 2020 Science and Technology LUNCLASSIFIEDIFOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Bottom Line Up Front “Ty and nd ender het prot vs decy Srwelas ter Ghanerzethe ve ‘Towityatiness proaustwor tery Econ cw ome Sompis ike a Tostg sity fo rm anos SARSCov-2viubin—fesploy naar nd thearaetincwnot| PAE sections ‘AEROSOL {eno trusty ond srapniry @ suormeniy “eaingfraperus Ces ral ope on hyctogenpeence Yap epratone ana, (Wibhlesfecive devel lntach peruse i Scoinsinsent —soutensornon VAP beer’ degrdatnask;—fontons Sevelping ances Seson shone Constant crssyakot uy ten Teen onmereelsouters. Gonpiant needs io Teatiina — sndinouncorconent capanites ‘ncreng temperature & uray ncortarnated areas ssl as rovng any ease ‘perations autos m sug ‘edvees isk Commerityavalite produt tetedts dete appear ‘ete even agains cormiox ‘anoles eas} Increasing ar exchanges [reressing VAC sxchonges, ‘peng windows) may edu ‘root aeroao ak Importance o respiratory foc may be farto Covio.t@), Fade indoors Inform geste (VHP) ana lbweresouree decsions on PPE feoond ruse Reduce burden of ia Corners tans SAT ‘rp & capaptnes to raoiy tage solutions ‘Valoaton testing across more surase yes. evelopment" “Test short cotati {estore conmariaty- avalatie roauts (8h tera) DDoveopmnt sf recive ‘decay Mosel as a uncon oftemp/ nami eolar Obtain laboratory rests rd dserinate inermation| Continue to support ‘ross of carer Ssoldions to Component needs Overview = Emerging Results from NBACC’s COVID-19 Characterization Efforts = Surface Stability = Disinfectant Testing = Aerosol Stability = Other DHS S&T COVID-19 efforts. = Master Question List (MQL) = DHS S&T Tech Scouting LUNCLASSIFIEDIIFOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Study Type Virus in three suspensions: 1) cell culture, 2) saliva (modified), 3) respiratory fluid (modified) Surface Stability Decontamination Homeland Security Wet and Dry (Virus) ° 9 a 2 = S Parameters ¥% Droplet Temperature | Sunlight LUNCLASSIFIEDIIFOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Notes Stainless Steel, Plastic, Nitile Stainless steel; 8 EPA Recommended Disinfectants Seay NBACC’s Emerging Results: Surface Stability Indoor Conditions * What is being tested: how long does the virus survive in a droplet of saliva (e.g., from a cough/sneeze) and a dried droplet of saliva deposited on stainless steel in varying temperature, humidity, and sunlight * Results * Virus lives longer at low humidity and inactivates faster at higher humidity * Virus tives longer at low temperatures and inactivates faster as temperature increases = Sunlight destroys the virus quickly aie a a 7 7 i Why staini6ss ste? Operational Relevance \ « NBACC had already-established methods for recovery * Risk of transmission from off ofthis surface (generate data quickly) ) surfaces outdoors is lower = Generally, in our experience, nonporous surfaces are during daylight more conducive to biological stability than porous. * Higher temperature & humidity surfaces (ike cloth or cardboard) of indoor environments will "Thus, data generated on this surface will be a reduce the viral contamination on conservative, or worst-case, estimate of decay surfaces faster + Methods for recovery aff of porous surfaces are not well = Surfaces in low humidity developed and hard to make repesiabeheproducible | environments (@.g., airplane cabins) | * NBAGC plans fo validate findings on other surface may require additional care to |___ types and on nonporous surfaces in future tests minimize risk of transmission - eee Ese leee ais Homeland & Samy r = UNCLASSIFIEDIFOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Sear NBACC’s Emerging Results: SARS- CoV-2 Stability on Indoor Surfaces Summary: * Virus is most stable at low humidity (20%) and decays faster at RH >40% * Virus is less stable at higher temperatures Operational Relevance: Ifa location has a COVID-19 (+) individual and is going to be vacated for cleaning, tum up indoor heat & humidity if possible. Ongoing work: 20% 40% 60% 80% Developing an equation to predict virus decay relative humidity at any temperature & humidity combination “Test system cannot support 80%RH/ 95° | (Next week) {GF Homeland Security a — UNCLASSIFIEDIIFOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY INCL eT ee Sell — CoV-2 St Dility O Simulated sunlight greatly increases inactivation rate of virus dried on surfaces (relative to darkness) Frame of Reference: : Fall intensity = Ful ens AY NYG/DG during clear : day on summer Hat intensity 3 Wensiy amin dey ons aay ee uerterIntonsity = NYO/D¢ olear dey NoLight (Dark Nodecay> | ondaf February éomin * Sunlight reduced infectious virus to undetectable levels after just 3 minutes of ‘exposure to the solar equivalent of midday gun on a sunny day nthe middle atludes of the US. ST ing Te pad eT Ongoing and planned work: Repeat with a higher concentration of virus to better understand decay rate What else needs to be known: 4, How much virus does it take to infect? 2. How much virus is on the surface? 3._How much virus comes off when touched? LUNCLASSIFIEDIIFOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY re CoV-2 Decontamin NBACC’s Emerging Results: SARS- Cer ation from surfaces cca aun Matrix | Droplet | 70 Rirter) Isopropyl ers rae ie Via Myre) a Culture medium Drie Simulated — Wet saliva Dried © Homeana Security, : | contaminated saliva on a non-porous surface. ‘Summary: 0.26% hypochlorite (bleach) OR 70% isopropyl alcohol killed SARS-CoV-2 in both wet and dried saliva on stainless steel Operational Relevance: Commercially available & EPA recommended disinfectants (Bleach & IPA) used as recommended are effective at disinfecting both old (dried) and freshly (wet) Ongoing and planned work: * Test shorter contact times for cleaners; Test other off-the-shelf products (Lysol spray, peracetic acid, Clorox hydrogen peroxide cleaner, etc.) LUNCLASSIFIEDIFOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY rr rear Tg NBACC's Aerosol Hazard Assessment Approachi/Capabilities Ee Vitus survival in aerosols Host Susceptibility to Infection > Concentration of virus in air = Virus in relevant matrix ~ Infectious dose - Size of virus-containing particle | - Indoor (temp/humiaity) = imnmunteaioes = Outdoor (temp/humidity/ sunlight) - Therapeutics NBACC is the only US biocontainment laboratory with the capability to evaluate survival of biological hazards in aerosols under a range of operationally relevant conditions: = Custom aerosol chambers with ability to control temp, humidity, and sunlight simultaneously * Determine how long biological agent survives in the air under indoor and outdoor conditions = Expertise in aerobiology, aerosol science, and aerosol engineering «Over a decade of experience and established methods for in-depth and “operationally focused” analysis of aerosols containing biological agents «Experimental design is used to produce a model which accounts for interaction between test factors- enabling virus decay predictions between tested conditions, Foweland Gin ‘UNGLASSIFIEDIIFOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY rer aT NBACC’s Emerging Results: SARS-CoV-2 Aerosol Stability Methodology: Percent Remaining Aerosol Generation Aerosol Aging in Environmentally Controlled Chamber Preliminary Data Summary: * Virus suspended in saliva treated with full intensity simulated sunlight rapidly killed virus in aerosols, + Half life: ~2-3 minutes at room temp, 20%RH * 90% decrease in virus in ~9-10 minutes * Without simulated sunlight, no significant loss of virus was detected in 60 minutes (room temp, 20%RH) * Sunlight increases inactivation of infectious virus in aerosols (coughs, sneezes) Operational Relevance: a Aerosol Sampling . fm ind Estimation * Outdoor daytime environments are lower risk for a of Decay Rate transmission o = Importance of respiratory protection for staff who may be _ a in close proximity to infected individuals indoors + Increasing air exchange rates indoors may reduce risk @ sony? ‘Ongoing work: Testing with additional solar and relative humidity levels aie Se UNCLASSIFIEDIFOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY COVID-19 Projects Project: PPE Decon & Reuse Project: Waste stream survivability 1. Verify vaporous hydrogen peroxide (VHP) * Understand the survival of the virus in techniques are effective against human waste streams to inform SARS-CoV-2 with a range of mask types decontamination and remediation * Evaluate both biological decay and decisions physical degradation & fit 2. Test additional small-scale, low-tech Operational Relevance: techniques that could be implemented in In addition the healthcare relevance, may lower-resource settings impact DHS operations along the border, * Looking at devices such as rice ‘especially in low-resource or improvised cookers, clothes steamers, electric settings (e. pressure cookers johns) Additional ongoing DHS S&T | Operational Relevance: = Address key unknowns in VHP decontamination and reuse protocols * Provide options that could be implemented in smaller regional settings Homeland Security ” LUNCLASSIFIEDIIFOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Master Question List = S&T developed & maintains a SARS-CoV-2 Master Question List (MQL): = Summarizes current knowledge and provides authoritative sources/citations = Tracks ongoing research efforts on the virus worldwide = IMPACT: Provides situational awareness of these important efforts = Similar model used during the response to 2015 Ebola outbreak = Key elements of MQL: = What is known? = What additional information is needed? = Who may be working to address such fundamental questions? (Goma Security 2 SS UNCLASSIFIEDIFOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY Recent Support to DHS Components and Key HSE Partners — Tech Scouting reports on diagnostic test kits and disinfectants for USSS & FLETC. — Disinfectants report and Ambulance Decon Systems Survey provided to MGMT — Provided U.S. Navy with Ambulance Decon Survey, disinfectants scouting report, COVID-19 Response Opportunities document, & NASA robotics program Oe aan eRe ey 3 New products/proposals reviewed (March 30 ~ April 6). Received by S&T PMs, S&T SMEs, and the Innovation inbox. Reviewed by S&T SMEs. 83 Total reviewed (March 18-April 6) “Hot topics”: Face shields and masks, ventilators, rapid screening to detect COVID-19, and sanitizer/disinfectants. Security, 13 LUNCLASSIFIED/IFOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY ESTE) (eee ewes ren) ‘Diagnostics, Experimental Primary Foci Diagnostics, Vaccines Therapoutis, Vaccines, Animal Diagnostics, Vaccines Indevelopment ‘Susceptibility Virus Characterization. Surface Stability- Dried virus on Decay of dred vison various surfaces (N85, nitile, Tyvek) Surface stability: Virus Alignment ‘@Nge oF surfaces using Decontamination: survival on surfaces & with DHS. —_‘metalcoupons (no 1) Deconwith dfferentagents recovery fram aluminum ietevelcocn : capability for aerosolized) (VPH, temperature, Peroxide (simulated military materia!) priorities “Sighty diferent virus cloths, Masks, etc, -resulls Decontamination- + Slghty diferent Pending) Using miltary grade products conditions 2) _ Mask tests (results pending) * Homeland “4 \UNCLASSIFIEDIIFOR OFFICIAL USE ONLY 2471366 Availability | Biological Threat Characterization | Bioforensic Analys About NBACC: [Biosafety Level 2,3, and 4 Laboratories ‘Supports America’s defense against biological threats. Primary capabilities include: = National Bioforensic Analysis Center (NBFAC) * National Biological Threat Characterization Center (NBTCC) A national resource for 24/7 biodefense including sensitive experiments. Only domestic maximum biocontainment lab built specifically for national security purposes. Recent notable NBACC mission impacts via its two Centers: NBFAC Conducted Nearly 600K Analyses Last Year for FBI and Other Gov't Partners: The NBACC’s NBFAC conducted nearly 600,000 analyses in 2019 in support of the FBI and other U.S. Government partness—more than in any previous 12-month period in NBFAC’s history. Federal prosecutions using NBFAC analyses have been 100% successful NBACC R&D Innovations Enhance Our Ability to Research Ebola: Research scientists from the facility's NBTCC designed new methods to measure the amount of infectious Ebola virus present in an air sample using a technique that is ten times more sensitive than previous methods used to effectively evaluate the risk of transmitting the virus. @ sasy 1 How is the NBACC Different? NBACC located in Fort Detrick, Maryland, specializes in bioforensies and characterization of biological threats for national security. Ouest Highly-Relevant Expertise Refuses es + Focused omwet te specific nas of the + Aembiology specialization + Maximum biocontainnest (BSL-4) DHSand Homelend Suny Enerprse + Selendis with soca clearanoes + Support 247 operations for biodefense odsfee mission space + Ability to conduct sestve sucies 68 daysa yor [NBACC is equiped with unin scrbilogy cotiners usd oases bislogal agents like COVID- 19 and tir survivability arose itp envbonmerts palcgemaci seems | ee ra ieee eg oars f= :

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