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GRP 703 QUANTITATIVE TECHNIQUES
AN ASSIGNMENT BY
YUSUF ADAMU DATTI
DR. M. L RILWANI
DEPARTMENT OF GEOGRAPHY & REGIONAL PLANNING, AMBROSE ALLI UNIVERSITY, EKPOMA, EDO STATE
10 DECEMBER 2010
is based on scientific inquiry. This includes how social behaviour occurs and changes. Since then. Today. This includes how you look at everyday social relationships. The concept implies a supposition. Geographic research. This special way of looking at the world began about 500 years ago as a way of understanding the natural universe. and other issues related to establishing scientific knowledge. (Kothari. 2004.INTRODUCTION As part of preparation to becoming a researcher.184). (Gold. and hypothesis. the purpose of the study is to find out whether or not the hypothesis is supported by the data. hypotithenai meaning "to put under" or "to suppose. the difference between a fact. When a hypothesis is used. like all other scientific research. WHAT IS A HYPOTHESIS? The term HYPOTHESIS is derives from the Greek word. methods of scientific inquiry have spread to all fields of human knowledge. how science establish truth. proposition assumed . one will need to develop a scientific perspective toward the world around. Scientific Method defines." A hypothesis is a tentative expression of an expected relationship between two variables. theory. 1991) DEFINITION Thus a hypothesis may be defined as a proposition or a set of proposition set forth as an explanation for the occurrence of some specified group of phenomena either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide some investigation or accepted as highly probable in the light of established facts. methods of the scientific inquiry are accepted throughout the world as the most reliable way of understanding events and processes in the natural world.
. . that the observations are the result of pure chance) and the alternative hypothesis H E (commonly. Identify a test statistic that can be used to assess the truth of the null hypothesis. a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena.edu/perl/webwn TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS TESTING HYPOTHSIS Hypothesis testing is the use of statistics logic to determine the probability that a given hypothesis is true. y guess: a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence www.princeton. or simply a question posed with the intention of arriving at some kind of answer (Rilwani. The usual process of hypothesis testing consists of four steps.132) y y a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations a tentative insight into the natural world.wordnetweb. 1. "a scientific hypothesis that survives experimental testing becomes a scientific theory".for the sake of argument to be proved or disproved. Formulate the null hypothesis H O (commonly. that the observations show a real effect combined with a component of chance variation). "he proposed a fresh theory of alkalis that later was accepted in . 2.. 2005.
3. Compute the P-value. It indicates the tentative relationship between two or more variables. It is conceptual in nature. the idea is ready enough for empirical verification. It is a verbal statement in a declarative form. If p e E . It relates to the future verification not the past facts and information¶s. 5. FUNCTIONS OF HYPOTHESIS The following are the main functions of hypothesis in the research process suggested by H. the stronger the evidence against the null hypothesis. Compare the p-value to an acceptable significance value (sometimes called an alpha value). It has a forward or future reference. A hypothesis is future oriented. It is a verbal expression of ideas and concepts. it is not merely idea but in the verbal form. the null hypothesis is ruled out. The smaller the -value. 4. It has the empirical referent. NATURE OF HYPOTHESIS The following are the main features of a hypothesis: 1. Mc. All the research activities are designed for its verification. A hypothesis contains some empirical referent.H. Some kind of conceptual elements in the framework are involved in a hypothesis. and the alternative hypothesis is valid. 4. It is the pivot of a scientific research. 2. which is the probability that a test statistic at least as significant as the one observed would be obtained assuming that the null hypothesis were true. 3. Ashan : . that the observed effect is statistically significant.
2. The following are the threefold functions of a hypothesis: (a) To delimit the field of the investigation. If the hypothesis is not clear and precise. in turn. many a time the research programmes have bogged down. 5. A preliminary hypothesis may take the shape of final hypothesis. and have very realistic approach to the problem. The functions of a hypothesis may be condensed into three. ii. CHARACTERISTICS OF HYPOTHSIS i. the inferences drawn on its basis cannot be taken as reliable.´1 . (b) To sensitize the researcher so that he should work selectively. Hypothesis should be capable of being tested. (c) To offer the simple means for collecting evidences to the verification. can be confirmed or disproved by observation. Each hypothesis provides the investigator with definite statement which may be objectively tested and accepted or rejected and leads for interpreting results and drawing conclusions that is related to original purpose. 3. Hypothesis should be clear and precise. Some prior study may be done by researcher in order to make hypothesis a testable one. Each hypothesis may lead to formulate another hypothesis. A hypothesis ³is testable if other deductions can be made from it which. 4. It is a temporary solution of a problem concerning with some truth which enables an investigator to start his research work. It offers a basis in establishing the specifics what to study for and may provide possible solutions to the problem.1. In a swamp of untestable hypotheses.
it must be consistent with a substantial body of established facts. Hypothesis must explain the facts that gave rise to the need for explanation.iii. v. But one must remember that simplicity of hypothesis has nothing to do with its significance. Hypothesis should be limited in scope and must be specific. One should not use even an excellent hypothesis. . one should be able to deduce the original problem condition. if the same cannot be tested in reasonable time for one cannot spend a life-time collecting data to test it. Hypothesis should be consistent with most known facts i. it should be one which judges accept as being the most likely. vii. iv. it should have empirical reference.e. This means that by using the hypothesis plus other known and accepted generalizations. Thus hypothesis must actually explain what it claims to explain. A researcher must remember that narrower hypotheses are generally more testable and he should develop such hypotheses. viii. OBJECTIONS AGAINST STATING HYPOTHESES The following objections are raised against stating hypotheses which are directional in nature One is that hypotheses bias the researcher in favor of certain conclusions or retain the hypotheses. Hypothesis should be amenable to testing within a reasonable time. vi. In other words. Hypothesis should be stated as far as possible in most simple terms so that the same is easily understandable by all concerned. Hypothesis should state relationship between variables. if it happens to be a relational hypothesis..
2. 3. A directional hypothesis needs some theoretical rationale but in some situations there is very little background information about them. USES OF HYPOTHESES IN EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHES 1. The directional hypotheses should be so stated as to reveal the role of variables involved in the investigation. These should be concerned with a situation in which it can be experienced. The experimental method or experimental designs are based on hypotheses. Hypotheses are indispensable for experimental researches. The statement of hypotheses in some situations also may appear premature. The hypotheses are stated in vacuum. The overall consensus is in favor of stating hypotheses whenever they are feasible. The experiments are conducted to collect empirical data to verify hypotheses. Another is that in his pursuit of the stating hypothesis the researcher may overlook other possibly worthwhile hypotheses. Hypotheses are essential for analytical studies and there is little scope in descriptive type studies. In normative survey research the investigator may or may not employ hypothetical type thinking. depending upon the purpose of the research study. In historical research the purpose may be either to produce a faithful record of the past events irrespective of present day problem or to extend the experience with phenomena in the present to past in order to make the view of the phenomena. The researcher may decide to defer any hypothesis or theories until he has some empirical evidence upon which is to base them. There is a little scope of hypotheses in historical research because hypothesis has the future reference and its verification on empirical . Hypotheses are the crucial aspects of such researches.
A negative hypothesis says that an increase in the independent variable is associated with a decrease in the dependent variable. . Hypotheses are generally derived from a theoretical framework. but may also be derived from empirical relationships among variables.data. This can lead to erroneous verification of a hypothesis. These types of studies are conceptual in nature whereas historical are more factual in nature. The research activities are planned to verify the hypothesis and not to find out the solution of the problem or to seek an answer of a question. The researcher always plan or formulate a hypothesis in the begining of the problem. It is very essential to a research worker to understand the meaning and nature of hypothesis. 4. method of data collection. sampling procedure. analysis of data. Hypotheses are usually expressed as positive or negative. Therefore formulation of hypothesis is a crucial step of this type of studies. Case study method has no scope for constructing hypotheses because it is developmental type study. A positive hypothesis states that as the independent variable increases so does the dependent variable. In complex casual research the hypotheses have important role in such investigations. statistical procedure applied or conclusion drawn is faulty or inappropriate. CONCLUSION The hypothesis is a tentative statement of expected relationships among variables or solution of a problem. The testing of hypothesis becomes meaningless if any one of the aspects of your study design. When two variables show no relationship they are said to be independent of one another.
Rilwani M. Yogesh K. 2. Teaching Geography in Higher Education: a manual of good practice.princeton. (2005).). Gold. J. (2003).wolfram. Statistics for Environmental and Social Sciences. India 7.wordnetweb. Ranjit K. R (2004).html 8. S (2006). HYPOTHESIS TESTING . Basil Blackwell Ltd.edu/perl/webwn . Nigeria 5. (Oxford. Research Methodology. Research methodology: a step-by-step guide for beginners. Kothari C. London 4. Easy-way Computers/ Printing Benin City. L (2005). Hypothesis.REFERENCE 1. Sage Publications Limited. New Age International Limited Publishers New Delhi. 6. New Age International Limited Publishers New Delhi. www.com/HypothesisTesting. Developing external links through teaching and learning in geography and environmental science: the use of the mini-conference¶ Journal Of Geography In Higher Education.http://mathworld. Worsley A. R. India 3. Fundamental of Research Methodology & Statistics. (1991). Methods and Techniques.
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