Wine

Wine glasses of white (left) and red wines(right).

16th century wine press

[4] Wine has a rich history dating back to around 6000 BC and is thought to have originated in areas now within the borders of Georgia and Iran. the use of the term "wine" is a reference to the higher alcohol content. The Greek god Dionysus and the Roman equivalent Bacchus represented wine. Others.[5][6] Wine first appeared in Europe at about 4500 BC in the Balkans.[2] Wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. while ginger wine is fortified with brandy. and the drink is also used in Catholic Eucharist ceremonies and the Jewish Kiddush.oînos. sake).woinos).(cf. such as barley wine and rice wine (i. apple wine or elderberry wine) and are generically known as fruit wine or country wine (not to be confused with the French term vin de pays). Different varieties of grapes and strains of yeasts are used depending on the type of wine being produced. written in Linear B inscriptions. Thrace and Rome.[7][8] The earliest attested terms referring to wine are the Mycenaean Greek me-tu-wo ne-wo meaning "the month of new wine" or "festival of the new wine" and wo-no-wa-ti-si meaning "wine garden". Hittite: wiyana.[1] The natural chemical balance of grapes is such that they can ferment without the addition of sugars. the resultant wines are normally named after the fruit from which they are produced (for example. Although other fruits such as apples and berries can also be fermented. Yeast consumes the sugars found in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. Ancient Greek .. acids. Lycian: Oino. rather than production process. Wine has also played an important role in religion throughout history. typically made of fermented grape juice. In these cases. are made from starch-based materials and resemble beer and spirit more than wine." itself derived from the Proto-Indo-European stem *win-o. "wine" or "(grape) vine. Etymology The word "wine" comes from the Proto-Germanic "*winam. enzymes or other nutrients. and was very common in ancient Greece." an early borrowing from the Latin vinum.Wine boy at a symposium Wine is an alcoholic beverage.e. Aeolic Greek .[9][10][11][12] .[3] The commercial use of the English word "wine" (and its equivalent in other languages) is protected by law in many jurisdictions.

from as early as 6000 BC.[20][21] If these beverages.[14] [edit] History Main article: History of wine Archaeological evidence suggests that the earliest known production of wine. The first known mentioning of grape-based wines was in the late 4th century BC writings of Chanakya who was the chief minister of Emperor Chandragupta Maurya.[15][16] The same sites also contain the world¶s earliest evidence of crushed grapes. a royal chief vintner.As explained in the History section below.[18] Viticulture in India has a long history dating back to the time of the Indus Valley civilization when grapevines were believed to have been introduced from Persia sometime in the 5000 BC. Chanakya condemns the use of alcohol while chronicling the emperor and his court's frequent indulgence of a style of grape wine known as Madhu. six of 36 wine amphoras were found in the tomb of King Tutankhamun bearing the name "Kha'y". In Ancient Egypt.g.[23] .[22] There is an old English recipe which survived in various forms until the 19th century for refining white wine using Bastard²bad or tainted bastardo wine. In his writings. storing it underground in caves to age. the earliest known cultivation of the vitis vinifera grapevine occurred in present-day Georgia. Henan were found to contain traces of tartaric acid and other organic compounds commonly found in wine. such as hawthorn. included grapes rather than other fruits. could not be ruled out.[13] Some Georgian scholars have speculated that Georgian was the origin of this word and that it entered into the Indo-European languages via Semitic. Georgian ghvino) Semitic (*wayn) and Indo-European languages (e. The oldest known evidence of wine production in Europe is dated to 4500 BC and comes from archaeological sites in Greece. other fruits indigenous to the region. However. made by fermenting grapes. Russian vino). rather than from Vitis vinifera. hinting to the possibility that this word diffused into all these language families from a common origin. which seem to be the precursors of rice wine. took place in sites in Georgia and Iran. the Roman Catholic Church was a staunch supporter of wine since it was necessary for the celebration of Mass. these grapes were of any of the several dozen indigenous wild species of grape in China.g. Five of these amphoras were designated as from the King's personal estate with the sixth listed as from the estate of the royal house of Aten.[20] In medieval Europe.[19] A 2003 report by archaeologists indicates a possibility that grapes were used together with rice to produce mixed fermented beverages in China in the early years of 7000 BC.[17] Traces of wine have also been found in central Asian Xinjiang. dating from the second and first millennia BC.[5][6] These locations are all within the natural area of the European grapevine Vitis vinifera. some scholars have noted the similarities between the words for wine in the Kartvelian (e. and others. Pottery jars from the Neolithic site of Jiahu.[15] Literary references to wine are abundant in Homer (9th century BC. Monks in France made wine for years. but possibly composed even earlier). which were introduced into China some 6000 years later. Although no clear evidence has been found of any linguistic connection. Alkman (7th century BC).

Such producers will try to minimize differences in sources of grapes by using . The range of possibilities here can result in great differences between wines.[24] In the context of wine production. leading to massive vine deaths and eventual replanting. where consistency is more important. wine. vinifera vines that have been grafted onto North American species rootstock. influencing the fermentation. climate and seasonal conditions. or jelly. Most of the world's vineyards are planted with European V. such as Pinot Noir. the Canary Islands and Chile. jam. but sometimes made into wine. flavor differences are not desirable for producers of mass-market table wine or other cheaper wines. from regions like Bordeaux and the Rhone Valley. are blended from different grape varieties of the same vintage. Hybridization is not to be confused with the practice of grafting. Grafting is done in every wineproducing country of the world except for Argentina. When one of these varieties is used as the predominant grape (usually defined by law as a minimum of 75% or 85%). a root louse that eventually kills the vine.[25] However. most of Europe's vineyards (only excluding some of the driest vineyards in Southern Europe) were devastated by the bug. created by the genetic crossing of two species. In the late 19th century. which are the only ones that have not yet been exposed to the insect. Vitis rotundifolia and Vitis riparia are native North American grapes usually grown for consumption as fruit or for the production of grape juice. type and chemistry of soil.[edit] Grape varieties Main article: List of grape varieties Grape vineyard Wine is usually made from one or more varieties of the European species Vitis vinifera. Gamay and Merlot. Many wineries use growing and production methods that preserve or accentuate the aroma and taste influences of their unique terroir. as opposed to a blended.[citation needed] Wine can also be made from other species of grape or from hybrids. terroir is a concept that encompasses the varieties of grapes used. some of the world's most expensive wines. Cabernet Sauvignon. Blended wines are not necessarily considered inferior to varietal wines. Vitis aestivalis. Vitis labrusca (of which the Concord grape is a cultivar). Chardonnay. Vitis rupestris. finishing. the result is a varietal. and the local yeast cultures. elevation and shape of the vineyard. This is common practice because North American grape species are resistant to phylloxera. and aging processes as well.

while non-European wines are most often classified by grape (e. Petit Verdot. Central Valley in Chile. Pinot Noir and Merlot).[26] [edit] Classification Wine grapes on a vine Main article: Classification of wine Regulations govern the classification and sale of wine in many regions of the world. Vale dos Vinhedos in Brazil. Okanagan Valley and Niagara Peninsula in Canada. Commercial use of the term "Meritage" is allowed only via licensing agreements with an organization called the "Meritage Association". market recognition of particular regions is leading to their increased prominence on nonEuropean wine labels. tannin filtration. For example. . and the use of these names is governed by trademark law rather than by specific wine laws. Bordeaux. Columbia Valley in Washington. however. Some blended wine names are marketing terms.g.production techniques such as micro-oxygenation. Examples of non-European recognized locales include Napa Valley in California. Rioja and Chianti). thin film evaporation. Hawke's Bay and Marlborough in New Zealand. Barossa Valley and Hunter Valley in Australia.g. More and more. and Malbec. cross-flow filtration. Willamette Valley in Oregon. and spinning cones. Meritage (sounds like "heritage") is generally a Bordeaux-style blend of Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot. and may also include Cabernet Franc. European wines tend to be classified by region (e.

[edit] European classifications Moscato d'Asti. body and development. in fact. for a wine to be vintage dated and labeled with a country of origin or American Viticultural Area (AVA) (such as "Sonoma Valley").[27][28] Portugal has something similar and. Most countries allow a vintage wine to include a portion that is not from the labelled vintage. Variations in a wine's character from year to year can include subtle differences in color. it must contain at least 95% of . nose.[1] Consequently. with classifications ranging from Vin de Table ("table wine") at the bottom. In the United States. it is not uncommon for wine enthusiasts and traders to save bottles of an especially good vintage wine for future consumption.[29] Germany did likewise in 2002. although there have been nonofficial attempts to classify them by quality.[30][31] Spain. Greece and Italy have classifications which are based on a dual system of region of origin and quality of product.[32] [edit] Beyond Europe New World wine²wines from outside of the traditional wine growing regions of Europe tend to be classified by grape rather than by terroir or region of origin. a DOCG wine France has various appellation systems based on the concept of terroir. although their system has not yet achieved the authority of those of the other countries'. depending on the region.[33][34] [edit] Vintages Main article: Vintage A "vintage wine" is one made from grapes that were all or mostly grown in a particular year. pioneered this technique back in 1756 with a royal charter which created the "Demarcated Douro Region" and regulated wine production and trade. palate. High-quality wines can improve in flavor with age if properly stored. and labelled as such. through Vin de Pays and Appellation d'Origine Vin Délimité de Qualité Supérieure (AOVDQS) up to Appellation d'Origine Contrôlée (AOC) or similar.

vegetables. or coffee almost always come from the oak and not the grape itself. from reputable producers and regions.[36] Thus. chocolate. vanilla.[39] [edit] Tasting Main article: Wine tasting See also: Wine tasting descriptors Judging color is the first step in tasting a wine Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine. Wines are made up of chemical compounds which are similar or identical to those in fruits. vintage wines are produced to be individually characteristic of the vintage and to serve as the flagship wines of the producer. has only a small amount of residual sugar. vintage year may not be as significant to perceived wine quality as currently thought. for example. Typical intentional flavor elements in wine are those imparted by aging in oak casks. The sweetness of wine is determined by the amount of residual sugar in the wine after fermentation.its volume from grapes harvested in that year.[35] Vintage wines are generally bottled in a single batch so that each bottle will have a similar taste. Dry wine. are only made in betterthan-average years. although wine connoisseurs continue to place great importance on it. Climate can have a big impact on the character of a wine to the extent that different vintages from the same vineyard can vary dramatically in flavor and quality. like Brunellos. due to the complex mix of organic molecules such as esters and terpenes that grape juice and wine can contain. Superior vintages. and spices.[37][38] One recent study suggests that for normal drinkers.[40] . relative to the acidity present in the wine. a process which allows wine makers to keep a reliable market image and maintain sales even in bad years.[35] If a wine is not labeled with a country of origin or AVA the percentage requirement is lowered to 85%. will often fetch much higher prices than their average vintages. Non-vintage wines can be blended from more than one vintage for consistency. Individual flavors may also be detected. Experienced tasters can distinguish between flavors characteristic of a specific grape and flavors that result from other factors in wine making. Some vintage wines.

For red wines that are already highly aromatic..Banana flavors (isoamyl acetate) are the product of yeast metabolism. cult wines from Europe and elsewhere. like Chinon and Beaujolais. A proven track record of holding well over time 2. The most common wines purchased for investment include those from Bordeaux. the period for maturity and approachability) that is many years long 3. a First Growth from the Bordeaux region of France.[43] Vaporization of these compounds can be sped up by twirling the wine glass or serving the wine at room temperature. many people prefer them chilled. Characteristics of highly collectible wines include: 1.[45] "Investment wines" are considered by some to be Veblen goods²that is. band-aid (4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol). is highly collectible. and Vintage port.[44] [edit] Collecting See also: Aging of wine and Storage of wine Château Margaux. as are spoilage aromas such as sweaty.e. A consensus amongst experts as to the quality of the wines . barnyard. Wine aroma comes from volatile compounds in the wine that are released into the air. Burgundy. Outstanding vintages from the best vineyards may sell for thousands of dollars per bottle. goods for which demand increases instead of decreases as its price rises. though the broader term fine wine covers bottles typically retailing at over about $US 30-50.[41] and rotten egg (hydrogen sulfide). A drinking window plateau (i.[42] Some varietals can also have a mineral flavor due to the presence of water-soluble salts (like limestone).

Rigorous production methods at every stage.349. Wine fraudsters often work by charging excessively high prices for off-vintage or lower-status wines from famous wine regions.600 827.300.000 1.[47] and the northernmost are in Flen.232.050.600 3.333 4.711.600 10 Wine grapes grow almost exclusively between thirty and fifty degrees north or south of the equator.450.[48] .483 1. [edit] Production Main article: Winemaking See also: List of wine-producing countries and List of wine-producing regions Wine production by country 2006[46] Country Rank (with link to wine article) Wine production by country 2007[46] Country Rank (with link to wine article) Production (tonnes) Production (tonnes) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 France Italy Spain United States Argentina Australia China South Africa Chile Germany 5. Like any investment.746 891.539.000 1.050.972 891.665 3. The world's southernmost vineyards are in the Central Otago region of New Zealand's South Island near the 45th parallel south.550.012.980 977.600 1. Sweden. while claiming that they are offering a sound investment unaffected by economic cycles.000 1.000 4. proper research is essential before investing.643.000 961. just north of the 59th parallel north.645.000 1.711.400.000 1. including grape selection and appropriate barrelaging Investment in fine wine has attracted fraudsters who prey on their victims' ignorance of this sector of the wine market.4.087 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Italy France Spain United States Argentina China South Africa Australia Germany Chile 5.000 2.666 2.410.

** May include official.4% Portugal 3.0% Germany 3. The UK was the world's biggest importer of wine in 2007.0% France 34. semi-official or estimated data.353 New Zealand 1.337 3 762 4 472 5 369 6 316 7 302 8 286 9 272 10 8.[edit] Exporting countries Top ten wine exporting countries in 2006[49] Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Country Italy* France Spain* Australia Chile* United States Germany Argentina Portugal South Africa World** 1000 tonnes Rank 1.793 1 1.3% Spain 8.3% Italy 18.7% Australia 9.5% United States 3.462 2 1.8% South Africa 2.9% 2006 export market shares[49] Market share Country (% of value in US$) * Unofficial figure.[50] [edit] Uses .6% Chile 4.

[52] Despite these general rules. [edit] Religious uses See also: Kosher wine. from 7 to 15 litres. while others recommend drinking it immediately. Decanting²the act of pouring a wine into a special container just for breathing²is a controversial subject in wine. Wine is a popular and important beverage that accompanies and enhances a wide range of European and Mediterranean-style cuisines. from the simple and traditional to the most sophisticated and complex. breathing does not necessarily benefit all wines.[51] During aeration. Red. In addition to aeration. with extended aeration. Some wine labels suggest opening the bottle and letting the wine "breathe" for a couple of hours before serving. from 1 to 7 litres. Wine should be tasted as soon as it is opened to determine how long it should be aerated.Per capita annual wine consumption: less than 1 litre. from 15 to 30 litres. white. and are sometimes fortified to make them richer and sweeter. texture. and Islam and alcohol Silver kiddush cup and wine decanter . and sparkling wines are the most popular. Wine is important in cuisine not just for its value as a beverage. and flavor. if at all. but as a flavor agent. More than 30 litres. since its acidity lends balance to rich savory or sweet dishes. the exposure of younger wines to air often "relaxes" the flavors and makes them taste smoother and better integrated in aroma. or lose their character and flavor intensity. Christianity and alcohol. and are known as light wines because they are only 10±14% alcohol-content by volume. decanting with a filter allows one to remove bitter sediments that may have formed in the wine. Sediment is more common in older bottles but younger wines usually benefit more from aeration. Older wines generally fade. primarily in stocks and braising. Apéritif and dessert wines contain 14±20% alcohol.

[53] In the Tabernacle and in the Temple in Jerusalem. A blessing over wine said before indulging in the drink is: "Baruch atah Hashem (Adonai) elokeinu melech ha-olam. the libation of wine was part of the sacrificial service. it is a Rabbinic obligation of men and women to drink four cups of wine. Creator of the fruit of vine. boray p¶ree hagafen"² "Praised be the Lord. The Kiddush is a blessing recited over wine or grape juice to sanctify the Shabbat or a Jewish holiday. our God.[edit] Ancient religions The use of wine in religious ceremonies is common to many cultures and regions." [edit] Christianity Jesus making wine from water in The Marriage at Cana. [edit] Judaism Wine is an integral part of Jewish laws and traditions. a 14th-century fresco from the Visoki De ani monastery. King of the universe. and the religious mysteries of Dionysus used wine as a sacramental entheogen to induce a mind-altering state. a common misconception which contributes to the myth of the blood libel.[54] Note that this does not mean that wine is a symbol of blood. . On Pesach (Passover) during the Seder. Libations often included wine.

While most Christians consider the use of wine from the grape as essential for validity of the sacrament. Methodist dentist and prohibitionist Thomas Bramwell Welch applied new pasteurization techniques to stop the natural fermentation process of grape juice. All alcohol is strictly forbidden under Islamic law. Wine was used in Eucharistic rites by all Protestant groups until an alternative arose in the late 19th century. Some Christians who were part of the growing temperance movement pressed for a switch from wine to grape juice. wine is used in a sacred rite called the Eucharist. which originates in Gospel accounts of the Last Supper in which Jesus shared bread and wine with his disciples and commanded his followers to "do this in remembrance of me" (Gospel of Luke 22:19). many Protestants also allow (or require) unfermented.See also: Christianity and alcohol and Alcohol in the Bible The bishop elevates the chalice while the deacon fans the Gifts with the ripidion. and the substitution spread quickly over much of the United States and to other countries to a lesser degree.[55] There remains an ongoing debate between some American . but especially in Persia. there has been a long tradition of drinking wine. Beliefs about the nature of the Eucharist vary among denominations (see Eucharistic theologies contrasted). In Christianity. pasteurized grape juice as a substitute.

[57] In Greater Persia. people of Nuristan in Afghanistan have produced wine since ancient times and still do so. [edit] Health effects See also: Wine and health [show] v d e Alcohol and health Short-term effects of alcohol/Alcohol intoxication · Long-term effects of alcohol · Fetal alcohol syndrome/Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder · Alcoholism · Binge drinking digestive system nervous system Alcoholic hepatitis · Alcoholic liver disease Alcohol dementia · Alcoholic hallucinosis · Blackout (alcohol-related amnesia) · Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome cardiovascular Alcoholic cardiomyopathy · Alcoholic lung disease system Red table wine Nutritional value per 100 g (3.[56] Iran and Afghanistan used to have a thriving wine industry that disappeared after the Islamic Revolution in 1979 and earlier in Afghanistan. However. [edit] Islam Alcohol is largely forbidden under Islamic law.5 oz) .Protestant denominations as to whether wine can and should be used for the Eucharist or allowed as an ordinary beverage. Mei (Persian wine) has been a central theme of poetry for more than a thousand years.

Also.[58] Population studies have observed a J curve association between wine consumption and the risk of heart disease. while moderate drinkers (at most two five-ounce servings of wine per day) have a lower risk than non-drinkers. but the scientific evidence for this theory is limited. Studies have also found that moderate consumption of other alcoholic beverages may be cardioprotective. to be more health conscious. epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that moderate consumption of alcohol and wine is statistically associated with a decrease in death due to cardiovascular events such as heart failure.[58] In the United States. 100 g wine is approximately 100 ml (3. The average moderate wine drinker is more likely to exercise more.) Sugar and alcohol content can vary.1 g 10.6 g 0.[60] Low doses of resveratrol in the diet of middle-aged mice has a widespread influence on the genetic levers of aging and may confer special protection on the heart. although the association is considerably stronger for wine.6 g alcohol is 13%vol. and to be of a higher educational and socioeconomic class.6 g 0.[59] The French paradox refers to the comparatively lower incidence of coronary heart disease in France despite high levels of saturated fat in the traditional French diet. a boom in red wine consumption was initiated in the 1990s by the TV show 60 Minutes. some studies have found increased health benefits for red wine over white wine.6 g 10.Energy Carbohydrates Sugars Fat Protein Alcohol 355 kJ (85 kcal) 2. low doses of resveratrol mimic the effects of what is known as caloric . though other studies have found no difference. Source: USDA Nutrient database Although excessive alcohol consumption has adverse health effects. Some epidemiologists suspect that this difference is due to the higher consumption of wines by the French. and additional news reports on the French Paradox. Specifically. evidence that the association between moderate wine drinking and health may be related to confounding factors. This means that heavy drinkers have an elevated risk. and these are thought to be particularly protective against cardiovascular disease.[58] A chemical in red wine called resveratrol has been shown to have both cardioprotective and chemoprotective effects in animal studies.4 fl oz. Red wine contains more polyphenols than white wine.0 g 0.

called The Million Women Study. particularly those with asthma.[67] While evidence from laboratory and epidemiological (observational) studies suggest a cardioprotective effect.diets with 20-30 percent fewer calories than a typical diet. One study concluded that wine made from the Cabernet Sauvignon grape reduces the risk of Alzheimer's Disease. to have adverse reactions." Professor Roger Corder. However.[73] Sulphites in wine can cause some people. A study of women in the United Kingdom. and is quoted as saying."[69] Wine's effect on the brain is also under study. Procyanidins suppress the synthesis of a peptide called endothelin-1 that constricts blood vessels.[64] Red wines from the south of France and from Sardinia in Italy have been found to have the highest levels of procyanidins. posits that moderate consumption of red wine may decrease the risk of lung cancer in men. absorption via the mucous membranes in the mouth can result in up to around 100 times the blood levels of resveratrol. it is recommended to sip slowly when drinking wines.[61] Resveratrol is produced naturally by grape skins in response to fungal infection.[68] the American Heart Association cautions people to "consult your doctor on the benefits and risks of consuming alcohol in moderation. Sulfur dioxide is also added to foods such as dried apricots and orange juice. antioxidants.[72] Sulphites are present in all wines and are formed as a natural product of the fermentation process. Professor Valerie Beral. including breast. a report in the October 2008 issue of Cancer Epidemiology. no controlled studies have been completed on the effect of alcoholic drinks on the risk of developing heart disease or stroke. which are compounds in grape seeds suspected to be responsible for red wine's heart benefits. As white wine has minimal contact with grape skins during this process. wine damages the hippocampus to a greater degree than other alcoholic beverages. when sipping slowly.[74] This has led the lead author of the study. concluded that moderate alcohol consumption can increase the risk of certain cancers. "It's an absolute myth that red wine is good for you. counters that two small glasses . Excessive consumption of alcohol can cause cirrhosis of the liver and alcoholism. it generally contains lower levels of the chemical.[62] Other beneficial compounds in wine include other polyphenols. The level of added sulphites varies. and many wine producers add sulfur dioxide in order to help preserve wine.[66] Also. most of the resveratrol in imbibed red wine does not reach the blood circulation. and some wines have been marketed with low sulphite content.restriction . pharynx and liver cancer. including exposure to yeast during fermentation. Red wines from these areas have between two and four times as much procyanidins as other red wines. to assert that there is not enough evidence to conclude that any positive health effects of red wine outweigh the risk of cancer. Due to inactivation in the gut and liver.[65] A 2007 study found that both red and white wines are effective anti-bacterial agents against strains of Streptococcus.[63] To fully get the benefits of resveratrol in wines. author of The Red Wine Diet. and flavonoids.[70][71] Another study concluded that among alcoholics. Biomarkers and Prevention.

[citation needed] . alternative closures prevent cork taint. or synthetic plastic "corks". Box wine.of a very tannic.[76] An increasing number of wine producers have been using alternative closures such as screwcaps. Alternative wine closures. procyanadin rich wine would confer a benefit."[75] [edit] Packaging Assorted wine corks Corrugated box to carry bottles See also: Cork (material). and Screw cap (wine) Most wines are sold in glass bottles and are sealed using corks (50% of production comes from Portugal). although they have been blamed for other problems such as excessive reduction. Closure (bottle). Wine bottle. although "most supermarket wines are low procyanadin and high alcohol. In addition to being less expensive.

Environmental considerations of wine packaging reveal benefits and drawbacks of both bottled and box wines. as it is completely recyclable. and is considerably degraded within a few days. Boxed wine plastics. A New York Times editorial suggested that box wine. usually without pedigree and located in Bordeaux. A wine merchant. These wines are typically accessed via a tap on the side of the box. An amateur wine maker. wine bottle manufacturers have been cited for Clean Air Act violations. whereas plastics as used in box wines are typically considered to be much less environmentally friendly. Box wine can maintain an acceptable degree of freshness for up to a month after opening. while bottled wine will more rapidly oxidize. Cooper Garagiste Négociant Oenologist . its plastic wine bladder most likely is not. has a reduced carbon footprint from its distribution. However. A winemaker may be trained as oenologist. even though possibly recyclable. or cask wine. a student of oenology. and are called box wines. most specifically those who assemble the produce of smaller growers and winemakers and sells them under their own name. A cooperage is a company that produces such casks. being lighter in package weight. can be more labor-intensive (and therefore expensive) to process than glass bottles. Glass used to make bottles has a decent environmental reputation. And while a wine box is recyclable.[77] Storage Main article: Storage of wine Related professions Name Description Craftsman of wooden barrels and casks. Wine scientist or wine chemist.Some wines are packaged in heavy plastic bags within cardboard boxes. or a derogatory term used for small scale operations of recent inception. but often hires a consultant instead.

perishable food product. Oak wine barrels . Lower humidity levels can dry corks out over time. all types of wine. which is below the optimal humidity of 50% to 70%. sparkling. Viticulturist A person who specializes in the science of grapevines. when exposed to heat. white. Some wine experts contend that the optimal temperature for aging wine is 55 °F (13 °C). irrigation. They are available in capacities ranging from small 16-bottle units to furniture pieces that can contain 400 bottles. Winemaker A wine producer. Terroir specialist Vintner. Wine refrigerators are not ideal for aging. or wine rooms if they are above-ground. These refrigerators keep the humidity low. Passive wine cellars are not climate-controlled. educating the staff about wine. and assisting customers with their wine selections. and fortified. a person who makes wine. allowing oxygen to enter the bottle and reduce the wine's quality. can spoil. Can also be someone who manages vineyard pruning. flavor. Wine is a natural. and so must be carefully located. Wine cellars. Someone (often a consultant or academic) with special knowledge of the interplay between the environmental factors such as soil. climate and topography . are places designed specifically for the storage and aging of wine. but rather serve to chill wine to the perfect temperature for drinking. temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate control system.also known as terroir .Sommelier A restaurant specialist in charge of assembling the wine list. and complexity as they age. and pest control. including red.[79] Wine refrigerators offer an alternative to wine cellars. others 59 °F (15 °C). In an active wine cellar. usually under 50%. light. vibration or fluctuations in temperature and humidity. wines can maintain their quality and in some cases improve in aroma.and wine grape quality or wine character. When properly stored.

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