Business Overview

BlackLight Power

TM SM

A New Energy Source Based on a Breakthrough in Hydrogen Chemistry with Paradigm-Shifting Applications

Microdistributed Power

Heating

Motive Power

Lighting Specialty Chemicals Central Power

Executive Summary
• BLP developed a novel atomic theory that led to the invention of
numerous technologies, including a new energy source

• Potential markets: heating, electrical power generation, motive • Patents issued in US and abroad • Technology validated • Proof of principle prototypes

power, chemical, aerospace, defense, pharma, nanotechnology, lasers, and lighting

• Business model is to license technology to leverage JV partner’s
development, manufacturing, distribution and marketing

Patents Issued in US and Abroad Validated by Leading Scientists and Engineers Technical
>100 papers, >50 conference presentations

Validation

Spectral emission lines of lower-state atomic hydrogen, molecular hydrogen, hydrogen molecular ion and hydride ion Isolation of lower-energy-state molecular hydrogen Compounds containing new states of hydrogen Chemically generated or assisted plasmas, plasma afterglow, hydrogen line broadening, catalyst emission, high optical output power, inverted hydrogen population Calorimetry, water-bath measurements of significant net heat

Applications
– – – – –

1/20th scale power-source prototype Plasma dynamic plasma-to-electric converter device Bright light sources Laser media Chemical Compounds – Synthetic diamonds, silicon hydrides and many others

Highly predictive theory – application of Maxwell’s equations precisely predicts hundreds of

fundamental spectral observations in exact equations with no adjustable parameters, as well as laboratory results of novel H reaction

Validations and Technical Due Diligence – underway with National labs, defense contractors, electronics manufacturers, large conglomerates, multi-national energy companies and others

CQM Theory

Theory predicts hundreds of accepted experimental observations as described in NIST tables and the textbooks Theory and predictions successfully replicated by external scientists in increasing numbers Theory applied to molecular modeling accurately predicts the physical properties of molecules New states of hydrogen predicted by theory based on classical laws of physics

Molecular Modeling
• Exact solutions of molecules using physical laws • • •
achieved for the first time in history Exact solutions provide chemical and engineering properties of molecules, materials Exact parameters using a simple boilerplate spreadsheet compared to years of curve-fitting procedures requiring supercomputers that only give approximate results To chemistry and pharma, the impact of exactly solving molecules is equivalent to that of sequencing the human genome to biology and medicine

Methane and Ammonia Solutions

Ethylene and Nitrogen Dioxide Solutions

Butane and Benzene Solutions

BLP Process Technology
• BlackLight’s novel chemical process represents a new source
of energy with H2O as the source of hydrogen fuel

• Moreover, rather than air pollutants or radioactive waste,
novel hydride compounds with potential commercial
applications are the products

• The energy released is up to a thousand times that of burning
hydrogen and use in fuel cells

• Power density achieved matches the fire boxes of coal and
natural gas commercial power plants.

The BlackLight Process

To download and play the animation, click on the figure above (broadband connection suggested)

Power
• BLP demonstrates new energy and power source in
multiple systems.

• Bench scale prototypes running continuously for weeks

generate energy balances hundreds of times combustion and continuous net power at power densities in excess of hot boxes in commercial power plants. generating net power, (“BLP Process”), demonstrated.

• Mechanism to control reaction rates of chemical process • Numerous independent validators confirm BLP results.

Blacklight Power Generation Advantages

• • • • •

Virtually No Fuel Costs Cost Competitive (Lower Capital and O&M Costs) No Fuel Handling Issues / No Pollution Load Following Power generation can occur near customers bypassing transmission line costs and inefficiencies Valuable chemical products

Unit Costs: BLP vs Competitors
Technology Type Average Generating Capacity (kW) 1000 25 Power Density (W/cm3) Fuel Volumetric Energy Density (kWh/gal) 23,000 9 Fuel Mass Energy Density (kWh/kg) 6,000 33 Installed Cost ($/kW) Fuel Cost ($/kWh)

BLP Energy Technology PEM Fuel Cell

0.2 1

250 3,700**

0 0.095

Internal Combustion Engine Industrial Gas Turbine Natural Gas Microturbine Photovoltaic Coal Nuclear

100

40

33

12

1,000**

0.108

1000 100 10 400,000 600,000

1 1 0.01* 0.3 2

19 19 N/A N/A N/A

12 12 N/A 8.3 N/A

700 2,000 7,000 1,400 2,200

0.108 0.120 0 0.045 0.018

Source: Platts, EIA, *Watts per square centimeter **Current Cost of stationary distributed generation equipment

Chemically Generated RT Plasma

• Process generates: Plasma, light, heat, novel chemicals with a power
density of 0.1 W/cm3 combustion of H2

• Process consumes: Hydrogen with energy balance of >100 times that of
H. Conrads, R. Mills, Th. Wrubel, “Emission in the Deep Vacuum Ultraviolet from a Plasma Formed by Incandescently Conrads, Wrubel, Heating Hydrogen Gas with Trace Amounts of Potassium Carbonate,” Plasma Sources Science and Technology, Carbonate,” Vol. 12, (2003), pp. 389-395. 389R. Mills, M. Nansteel, and P. Ray, “Excessively Bright Hydrogen-Strontium Plasma Light Source Due to Energy Nansteel, HydrogenResonance of Strontium with Hydrogen,” J. of Plasma Physics, Vol. 69, (2003), pp. 131-158. R. Mills and M. Hydrogen,” 131Nansteel, P. Ray, “Argon-Hydrogen-Strontium Discharge Light Source,” IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. Nansteel, Argon- HydrogenSource,” 30, No. 2, (2002), pp. 639-653. 639-

Fuel
• BLP Process generates hundreds of times the energy of • Heat from the BLP Process can be converted to
electricity with existing technologies. powering the grid, or locally. combustion. Therefore, water can be the source of fuel.

• Resulting electricity can be utilized for any application,
– Example: Fueling stations could utilize electric power to electrolyze water to make hydrogen as fuel for automobiles.

Hydrogen Production as a Replacement Fuel for Gasoline to Power the Internal Combustion Engine
Distributed Generation (1 to 10 MWe)
• Power grid at the substation level. • Produce the fuel equivalent of a gasoline station • Enable H2 fuel-cell economy H2 Gas Station source: Stuart Energy

Plant Process Diagram
Power Generation System

Reactor

LP Turbine Generator HP Turbine

Recycled H2

Cooling Tower (1 of N)

Vacuum System

Moisture Separator Condenser Cooling Water Pumps (1 of N)

Product

Catalyst

Heat Traced Catalyst Feed Line Electric Heater (Startup Heater) Catalyst Feed Dearating Feedwater Tank First Stage Feedwater Heater

Condensate Pump(1 of N)

Electrolyzer

H2 Supply Electrically Heated Catalyst Evaporator

Plant Service Cooling System
Boiler Feedwater Purification System Feedwater Pump(1 of N)

Chemical Production System

Economic Model of Fuel Production from BlackLight Process
• Modeled Costs of H2 Plant account for
capital, nor interest during construction

– Capital Costs • Equipment, facility, start-up expenses, but neither working – Annual Operating Costs • Feedstock, utilities, operation, maintenance,
administration….

– Assumed price $2.50 per kg

Fuel Production Could be Highly Profitable
Electrolysis Thermochemical 250 268 2.4 2.6 143 338 0.32 0.63 1.55 1.35 91% 80%

H2 Plant Component Capital Cost Operating Cost MFG cost per kg H2 Estimated annual profit ROIC

$/kW $M $k/year $/kg H2 $M

Light Application
• BlackLight Process generates optical power with
potential for commercial lighting applications

• BLP plasma produces over 1,000 times more light at 1%
the driving voltage when compared to a control plasma

R. Mills and M. Nansteel, P. Ray, “Argon-Hydrogen-Strontium Discharge Light Source,” IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Vol. 30, No. 2, (2002), pp. 639-653.

Potential Chemical and Process Applications
• High voltage metal hydride batteries • Synthetic thin-film and single crystal diamonds
R. L. Mills, J. Sankar, A. Voigt, J. He, B. Dhandapani, “Spectroscopic Characterization of the Atomic Hydrogen Energies and Densities and Carbon Species During Helium-Hydrogen-Methane Plasma CVD Synthesis of Diamond Films,” Chemistry of Materials, Vol. 15, (2003), pp. 1313-1321.

• H(1/p)-terminated silicon for chip fabrication and photovoltaics
R. L. Mills, B. Dhandapani, J. He, “Highly Stable Amorphous Silicon Hydride,” Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, Vol. 80, No. 1, pp. 1-20.

• Metal hydrides as anticorrosive coatings

Lasers Application

Potential Laser Applications
• Gas lasers, such as the carbon dioxide laser, are • •

extraordinarily efficient and powerful; thus, they are ubiquitous in industry. Hydrogen can be made to emit laser light based on the fact that it vibrates and rotates at many discrete frequencies. The experimental isolation of lower-energy molecular hydrogen and the demonstration of the existence of excited vibration-rotational levels presents the possibility of a laser using a transition from a high-energy vibration-rotational level to another such intermediate energy level.

Potential BLP Laser Applications
• H2(1/p) enables laser at wavelengths from visible to soft X-ray
• VUV photolithography - An advantage exists to produce laser light at much shorter wavelengths such as ultraviolet (UV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths. Such lasers have a significant application in photolithography. It may be possible to increase the density of the integrated circuit by at least a factor of 10 which would be transformational in a trillion dollar annual hardware market.

• Blue Lasers • Line-of-sight telecom • Defense applications – water is transparent to blue wavelength • Submarine tracking and communications, undersea mine detection, and undersea weapons targeting and communications

BLP Licensing Model
• BLP will form joint-ventures with each company
interested in developing, making, using or selling BLP technology. license to make, use or sell the patented and patentpending technologies in any geographic market in any product category.

• BLP will provide a non-transferable, non-exclusive

• The license agreements will be offered for an annual

maintenance fee and a minority equity position in the licensed, joint-venture company.

BLP Licensing Model
• New patented technologies resulting from
development of commercial products or processes by the joint venture will be the property of the licensed joint-venture entity. after the purchase of a license will be added to the original license. be on an arms-length basis.

• New patented technologies developed by BLP

• Any transaction with an affiliate of licensee must

CONCLUSIONS
• Prediction of new energy source
based on lower-energy states of hydrogen

• Confirmation by spectra, compounds,
and other observations

• Significant green power and chemical
applications

BlackLight Power

Greater than Fire

TM SM

TM SM

493 Old Trenton Road Cranbury, NJ 08512 Phone: 609-490-1090 Fax: 609-490-1066 www.blacklightpower.com