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NUMBER

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76-B-311

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THE TOOLS OF POWER POWER:
The Bond Work Index, A Tool To
Measure Grinding Efficiency

C. A. Rowland, Jr.
Senior Process-Project Engineer /-. -
Yining Systems Division
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,IJ

Allis-Chalmers Corporation -
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

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,

For presentation at the 1976 SME-AIME Fall Meeting & Exhibit
Denver, Colorado - September 1-3, 1976

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~ D U ~ ~
With the rapidly rising cost for electrical energy and the long range pre-
dictions for continued rising costs and ewn possible energy shortages, operation
of rod, b d l , autogenous and partial autogauxls grinding circuits t o efficiently
u t i l i z e the pwer delivered to the mills w i l l be a d e d . This calls for a wthod
t o evaluate grinding circuit: p e r f o m c e that is accurate, reliable and readily
usable as an operating tool by supervisory, technical and operating personnel.
Neither the Rittinger a d Kick theories of camhution, which preceded

the Bond Theory by m r e than 50 years, had a mthematical mans that could be
used to predict and evaluate the perfonrwce of crushers and grinding mills used
t o comninute ores and rocks. This severly Limitd the practical use of these two
theories, whichmre confzadictory to each other. They have been superseded by
the Bond Third Theory of ccminution. (1)
DISCUSSION
In addition t o the Third Theory of 'kminution, better known as the Bond
Theory, Red Bond mde three significant contributions t o a s s i s t in the efforts
t o change the art of c o m i n u t i h into a science.

1) The Bond rod milling and b a l l milling closed circuit grindability tests.
2) The Bond impact crusher t e s t s .
3) The Bond equation, the mathematical statemnt for applying Bond Theory
of Comminution. (1)

Where W = Wk hrs. per short ton (907.44 kilograms).
wi = iyrork Index
P = Product size in m i m e t e r s which 80;L passes
F = Feed size in m i c m t e r s which 8VL passes
Power per metric tome (1000 k i l o g r m ) can be obtained by multiplying W by 1.102.
Grinding power calculated, h e n using work indices obtained from Bond

wet closed circuit grinding in a 2. There are eight efficiency factors that are applied to the calculated grind- ing p u m to a l l m f o r variations fram the specified conditions as related to the grinding circuit and equipznt used.wet. i n a 2. open cikcuit grin. The background and reasons for these have been published ( I ) . In using this equation. (2) grindability tests in the Band Equation. but does not include m t o r losses o r losses in any other drive cmpments. using the Bond Equation as shown. (2). . inside liners b a l l m i l l . (3) and a r e not part of the discussion. Mill Feed Rate. is f o r the follu~iTlgspecific conditions: 1) Rod Ni. the feed is the feed t o the grinding circuit and the . m r k indices can be calcula- ted.44 lrrter (8') dianrter inside liners rod m i l l .Jio. such as reducers and clutches. M i l l P a r e r .44 naeter (8') W t e r . To distinguish these fnrm ~ m r kindices (ITi) obtained from grindability t e s t s ~urkindices calculated frm operating &ta are designated as !. 3) P a ~ e rcalculated is the p w e r required a t the pinion sha£t of the mill. The factors are: EF1 Dry Grinding EF2 Open Circuit Bdll Milling EF3 Di-ter Efficiency Factor EFq Oversized Feed EFj Fine grinding in b a l l mills to product sizes finer than 8U77 passing 200 m s h (75 microueters) r a t i o or reduction rod milling EX6 High or IWJ EX7 LorJ Ratio or reduction b a l l milling EF8 Rod Hilling When accurate. which includes m i l l bearings and gear and pinion losses. 2) Bdll Nilling .2. Feed and Product Size Analysis data are available.lling .

weekly o r m t h l y basis. Thus. 4) In plants ~$-ithtwo or mre grindjng circuits. by defi- nition. t o the s a m feed size and product size as giwn in the M i n i t i o n . whichever is desired. 2) Ccqare current p e r f o m c e with past p e r f m c e . n a ~ l y . wrk indices calculated fran operating data always relate the operating Qta fram which Wio is calculated. In a closed circuit operation. operating rmk hdex can be used for in-plant grinding mill reporting and grinding studies such as : I) Record m i l l p e r f o m c e on an hourly. with others as t e s t circuits for testing the effect of such variables as: a) dl1 spee& b) size of grinding media C) feed size d) product size e) ~nxrnt of grinding mdia in m i l l f) liner designs g) liner wear h) changes in ore .c i r c u i t plant.from a theoretically infinite feed s i z e to 80?? passing 100 m i c m t e r s . 100 micrmters". . 5) ikasure grinding efficiency. one or m r e circuits can be used as a standard. 3) Cornpare c'kcuits in a d t i . Operating rark index has the sane definition as ' t m k index1'(') which states that "wrk in& is the required t o break a hnmgenous material from a theoretically infinite feed size to 8W0 pass. 76-B-311 -3- product is the product fran the circuit. Work index is a ueasure of grindability f o r the work to be done o r dune in grinding the circuit feed t o the circuit product. do not use the f e d into and the discharge from the mill as is done with an open circuit mill. daily. Thus.

3 tines as m h pmer as wet grinding. The grin. efficiency factors should be 'applied as required t o place the operating work i n d e ~a t the same level as the results from grindability tests.GRINDING EFFLCIENCJ As calculated. This operating work . EF2 . It has to be converted to power a t the m i l l pinionshaft. without the application of correction factors. notor output pmer is m i l l pinionshaft power. then the efficiency of the units used must be applied t o the mtor output power t o obtain pwer a t the m i l l pinion shaft. it can be obtained £ran the m t o r mmfacturer.. index divided by the m r k index fran the grindability t e s t gives a reasme of . dry grinding requires 1 . The operating work index so calculated is referfed t o as Wioc. the amunt of extra power required.when grinding in open circuit b a l l mills. f ~ )Efficiency = Factor The efficiency of the grinding c i r c u i t is 100 [L) wioc = -ding efficiency in percent The multipliers for the efficiency factors can be determined from the f01lm-k~: EF1 . I f the plant does not have the w t o r efficiency data. This is done by applying the m t o r efficiency factor (electrical and mchanical losses) to obtain w t o r output pwer. grinding efficiency as a d t i p l i e r of grindability t e s t results.f o r the same range of work as wet grinding. a r e not directly comparable t o m r k indices obtained from grindability t e s t s performed on the same m i l l feed. M i l l parer as m u r e d in many p l m t s is m t o r input pmer. . electri- c a l energy going into the w t o r .Dry grinding . When the m t o r i s coupled direct t o the pinionshaft. therefore.Open Circuit Grinding . that i s . drive knd grinding m i l l efficiencies and inefficiencies. I f a speed reducer o r other drive element i s used between the m t o r and the pinion shaft. compared to closed circuit b a l l milling. operating work indices include m t o r .

xhich ever is higher and for equation 8. then use the grindability t e s t re- .D b ~ ~ t Efficiency er Factor .Ratio of reduction = F (6) H Fo = Optiwrm feed size (7) Rod milling: 16. the W t e r efficiency factor can be calculated fran the following: (4) Table I1 gives a tabulation of EF'3 factors for some of the m r e comrpn m i l l m t e r s in both the imperial and mtric measuring systems. The wst frequent use is with single stage b a l l milling.914. Tf not available. if available. This table S ~ J S that when the m i l l d i a ~ t e rinside liners is larger than 3. use the work index from a rod mill grindability t e s t .izmxer efficiency factor does not change and remains 0. use either the work .when the grinding m i l l is fed a coarser than optirrnrm feed. index from an impact t e s t o r a rod m i l l grindability t e s t . 76-B-311 -5- is a function of the degree of control required on the product produced The inefficiency factors f o r open circuit grinding are given in Table I.44 m t e r s (8') inside liners. This is the one efficiency factor that is directly related t o work index as is s h m in the following equation: Where Rr . EFq .Oversized Feed . this factor applies to rod milling and b a l l milling. EF3 . use the mrk index fran a grindability t e s t a t the desired grind for Wi in equation 5. since these m e represent: the coarse faction of the feed which is the portion of the f&d coarser than optiuium.000 When available. For equation 7 .81 ~ t e r s(12.5 ') that the d.using the base m i l l h t e r of 2.

EF7 . un- less : L = Rod Length This factor generally applies t o low ratios of reduction. finding the proper work index figure to use in equation 5 i s a trial and error calculation which can be p r o g r m d f o r a am- puter. EF5 .Fineness of Grind Factor . available. The equation for this i s : EF8 . The equa- tion to determine this is: EF6 . the equation t o be used. This sham up p&ticularly in regrinding concen- t r a t e s and tailings. after applying EFq and a l l other correction .chis applies t o fine grinding when the 8VL pas- size of the product (P) is finer than 75 miaomters (200 msh). Rod Milling . Using this approach. Without grindability t e s t results.High o r Low Ratio of Reduction Rod f i l l i n g . the nark index used in equation 5 should equal the Wioc obtained.Low Ratio of Reduction Ball M i l l .the need t o use this factor does not occur very often as i t only applies t o b a l l milling when the Ratio of Re- duccion is less than 6. 76-8-311 -6- sults . a study of rod m i l l operations shows that rod m i l l perf-ce . but its applica- tion to high r a t i o s of reduction does not always apply and should be used only if the Wioc i W i grinding efficiency factor indicates that i t should be used.factors t o the mrk index calculated from operating data.

should probably not be used in deter- mining the efficiency of rod m i l l performance. 2) !hen calculating rod m i l l power f o r a rod mill-ball m i l l c i r c u i t . 2 inefficiency factor t o the pier calculated f o r the rod milling stage only. The other milling efficiency factors also m t be applied t o the calculated grinding p-.. While this factor i s used in selecting rod mills.5' x . The other milling efficiency factors also rmst be applied t o the calculated. grin. apply a 1 .4 when the feed is t o be prepared w i t h open c i r c u i t crushing. Figure 1. T h i s efficiency factor cannot be definitely determined.lm (16. is to be prepared with closed c i r c u i t crushing. such as produced with closed c i r c u i t crushing. do not apply a rod m i l l ineffi- ciency factor. If the rod m i l l feed w i l l consistently be 80"/. the following procedure has been recomnmded (2) : 1) Idhen calculating rod m i l l power f o r a rod-ailling-only application. and use 1.passing 1/2" o r finer. the inability to ma- sure and define i t accurately reduces i t s value and significance in calculating Wioc and therefore. power. The f i r s t example is a couparisun of bm parallel mills frcan a daily operating report. P i i l l size 5.2 h e n the feed . In selecting rod mills based upon pmer calculated from grindability t e s t s .03111x 6. I f the rod m i l l feed is produced w i t h open c i r c u i t crushing. MAMPLES The f i r s t ~ W Oexanples are given t o show haw to calculate Wio and Wioc for single stage b a l l mills. is affected by the attention given t o feeding a uniform feed size t o the m i l l and the care given t o maintaining the rod charge. do not allm f o r i m p r m w t in the b a l l mill performance. hcwledge of its existence can be helpful in analyzing rod m i l l p e r f o m c e . However. use an inefficiency factor of 1.

8 11.33 18.56 17. 14.58 Correct t o Pinionshaft Power W t o r 18.9074 16. Will 1 Mill 2 KwHfi4tric tonne 10.84 Efficiency 0.83 16. I The next sample covers an in-plant study on the e f f e c t of m i l l speed on m i l l performance.03111 (16. The calculation is only p a r t of the t o t a l plant performance study and must be tied i n t o the t o t a l plant operation. This study Grindability t e s t s were nm on m t h l y coqxsite I samples of the feed t o each m i l l .5' d i e t e r inside s h e l l 16' inside liners) b a l l mills. This shows the use of the mrk index equation taking i n t o account the differences in feed and product sizes. The two speeds being studied a r e 68"/. Using this t o calculate oversized feed factor: Eq = (See Equation 5) = Divide by EFq Wioc Efficiency Factor = &= Wi Efficiency in % 96 99 This example shows that M i l l 2 is s l i g h t l y m r e e f f i c i e n t than M i l l 1 even I though it has a higher pawer consumption per tome. The operating data.5. and 73% of c r i t i c a l speed I in 5.96 Convert t o Short Tons N i l t i p l y by 0.3 Feed s i z e (8W7 passing) nicraneters 7500 8600 Product Size (80'77 passing) micrometers 220 195 Calculated Work Index Wio (Equation 2) 19. was over a period of four m t h s .914 (m3) Ball m i l l grindability t e s t a t 65 resh gave a W i .18 D i i m e t e r Efficiency Divide by 0. t e s t data and calculations .

5' rods) Ball m i l l s i z e 4. - Wi The next two exarples a r e f o r rod m i l l b a l l m i l l circuits.956 20. Table I I I C gives the comparison based upon Wioc. The next comparison eliminates the variations caused by differences in the grindability of the ore.72111 15. The data given in Table I1 can be campared in several ways.67 On basis s b r t ton x 0.I 5 Rod length t o m i l l d k w t e r r a t i o 1.9074 18. E l k b a t i n g variations in mill c i r c u i t feed and product. This shows the differ- ence in p e r per ton of m i l l circuit feed cormm~dwithout taking i n t o account the variations in m i l l c i r c u i t feed. The data f o r this circuit and \Jio calcu- lations are: Rod m i l l s i z e 3 .76 .5' x 16' diarneter inside s h e l l 3 . This i s the unre accurate comparison a s it compares grinding circuit p e r f o m c e as referred t o a comrpn base or reference.5' x 16' cLim~terinside s h e l l 4 .62 On basis m t o r output x 0. 5 7 ~ 1 5' ) Rod m i l l feed produced by closed c i r c u i t crushing mimanzters 14. Table IIIB shows the comparison based upon the w r k index calculated fkom the operating data (Wio). A cmparison based upon pawer per ton c o n s ~ l e dis given in Table IIIA.88m (11. h x 4. m i l l c i r c u i t product and grindabilities as shown in data tabulated i n Table 111.88m (15.409 Optirmnn r a t i o of reduction L5. Figure 2 shars a conventional rod mill-ball m i l l circuit.2 m t o r efficiency % 95.6 Calculated operating mrk indeu W i o 21.7211 x 4.a r e given in Table T I I .05 P m per mtiric tonne m t o r input Kw 4. 3 5 ~ 1 1 ' 4.500 Rod m i 1 1 product m i c r o ~ z ~ t e r s 1300 Ratio of reduction 11.

75 On basis m t o r output On basis s b r t ton x 0.6 Ball m i l l feed m i c r a t e r s 1300 Bdll m i l l product m i c r m t e r s 115 Ball m i l l r a t i o of reduction 11.t EF3 Rod m i l l low r a t i o of reduction Wioc Ball m i l l grindability t e s t r e s u l t s W i Ball m i l l grindability test results W i M i n e d 15.0 x 4.2 Calculated operating work index TJio 15.3 Power ~ e mtric r tonnemtor input Kw 9.101 (divide) 18.21 Grinding Efficiency in % 82. 0 5 )=~1.2 TI-4 27T4 Efficiency factor Wioc t Wi Grinding efficiency in % This shms the rod m i l l is inefficient while the b a l l mill is perfomring efficiently b e t t e r than indicated from the grindability t e s t r e s u l t s .15 1X) 'ioc Rod m i l l grindability test r e s u l t s W i Efficiency factor Wioc t Wi 1. Dianaeter factor + 0.2 + 14. ~ 5 .9074 Diameter Factor .15 .3 x 9. with the .939 (EF3) Low r a t i o of reduction EF6 1+ (11.

The power per tonne for rod milling is determined fran the rod m i l l feed r a t e and the pier per tonne f o r b a l l milling is &tennined £ram the b a l l m i l l feed r a t e . I .5' x 25' diameter. 76-B-311 -u- overall circuit operating in l i n e with grindability t e s t r e s u l t s . 13.62 Rod length t o mill a t e r r a t i o 1.lm (14' x 20' diameter inside s h e l l 4 .5' rods).65 by 1. Figure 3 shows a rod mill-ball m i l l c i r c u i t with a concentration step be- tween the rod mill and the ball 11611 with the tailings being r e n ~ v e dfrom the circuit.44 O p t k r a t i o of reduction L5. inside s h e l l 4.03m x 7. Ball m i l l size 5.0') 19. There is a l s o a concentration s t e p between the ba311 m i l l and the classifier.62111 (16.59 On basis m t o r output x 0.952 Diameter factor + 0. Pod mill size 4. grinding efficiency.22 'ioc .22 Power per short ton m t o r input Kw l%tor efficiency % Calculated operating work index Wio 25.5' 5.27 x 6 . each stage is considered as a single stage.914 (EF3) Rod m i l l grindability t e s t results Wi 16. h .000 Rod m i l l feed produced by closed c i r c u i t crushing micr~~l~ters Rod m i l l product m i c r m t e r s 1300 Ratio of reduction 14.5 Oversized feed factor EFq -P- Divide 24.88111 16.94~119. In det.

8 bbtor efficiency % Calculated Operating Work Index W i o On basis nutor output x 0. B a l l mill feed m i c r m t e r s 1450 B a l l mill product A-2nd concentration stage tailings size micrmters 90 Bdll m i l l product B-classifier fines size micrmters Combined b a l l mill products microwters Power per short ton m t o r input Kw 13. report m i l l operating data and evaluate in-plant grinding studies.2 factor recomtx=nded for selecting rod mills for rod milling circuit when feed is produced with closed cir- cuit crushing. Efficiency factor Wioc + Wi Grinding Efficiency in % Note the efficiency factor of 1.22 lines up with the 1.07 11. (4) However.08 Ball mill grindability t e s t results W i 11. It has been determined t h a t kvrk indices obtained from standard Bond Grindability Tests cannot be used t o determine the p m e r required for grinding in primary autogenous and partial autogenous grinding circuits.43 Efficiency factor Wioc 5 Wi Grinding effiency in % The four matqles were given to show how the Bond m r k index equation can be used to evaluate grinding m i l l p e r f o m c e . cal- culating ~ m r kindices £rm operating data i s satisfactory for dusting the .952 D i a w t e r factor + 0.914 (EF3) Fineness of grind factor E3'5 Divide 11.86 by 1.

(5) i l l u s t r a t e how work index data can be used t o evaluate process p e r f o m c e and mdifications. in that the feed (10 +* factor ) bec-s insigni- ficant because of the large size of the feed. The Band Equation measures mrk done or to be done. a correct understanding of the Bond Equation and the term ' k r k indextt is required. When compared with the work indices obtained from corresponding grindability and %act t e s t s . The simpli- fied grindability t e s t procedure employed f o r the Pina ore types vm developed to give work index as defined by Band and includes periodic chedcingwith standard Bond Grindability tests. The feed size is generally not used in this calculation for primvy autogenous and p a r t i a l autogenous mills. PEll performance can be measured using the s a procedure for evaluating b a l l m i l l performance in a rod mill-ball mill circuit.performnce of such circuits. This is a typical sheet showing what can be done. Wark index as defied is power. the Bond Equa- tion is not a math mdel for a closed grinding circuit. Table IV is a copy of a -one m t h conrputer runoff sheet on which daily operating data and the mrk indices cdculated from the operating data for an autogenuus m i l l are tabulated. in t h e e paper on evaluating plant performme. Since there is no factor in the equation that takes into account the classification function. Being a masure of . the perfomace of autogenous and p a r t i a l autogenous circxits can be rated. Tests such as this can be used f o r specific ores whcxe there is not a wide variation in suecific gravity and in breakage patterns. They particularly discussed the semi-autogenous-ball mill grind- ing circuits a t Cyprus Pima and the use of computer based controls. EWUEMZD CkWXATIONS AND ANDmL CSRCUrrS Relative t o its use in computer programs f o r controlling a grinding circuit or reporting grinding circuit performme. For secondary autogenous grinding (pebble milling) Bond Grindability Tests can be used to determine grinding power t o this add the power required to wear the ore ~ d i from a media size t o mill feed size. Bassarear and Horst.

technical and operating personnel studying the operating data and c h e c ! g the operation of the plant can determine the cause for any ineffi- cient use of p m and the acceptability of the product produced. To use the Bond Work Index equation in c-uterized programs f o r mea&5ng m i l l performance and controlling grinding circuits in addition t o power and feed r a t e data either on-line size m a s m i n g equi-t o r k t h mdels that w i l l m a t h a t i c a l l y determine the 80% passing size in micrmeters of the feed and pro- duce size are required. Work indices cal- culated fr& operating data. However. hen compared t o work indices obtained from Bond Grindability tests for the same m i l l feed. do not indicate the cause for the inefficient use of grinding power. The Band Equa- . . CONCLUSION Work indices calculated from operating data. with o r without comparison t o work indices obtained fran grindability t e s t s . It takes into account variations in feed size and product size with the work index calculated fran the operating data reflecting either changes in the grihdability or changes in efficiency. give a direct measure of grinding efficiency. Unless i t is a widely fluctuating variable it i s possible t o use a constant value for the feed size which should be checked periodically.14- grindability. product s i z e has to be con- stantly k t o r e d . nor do they indicate the acceptability of the product produced by the grinding c i r c u i t ~upenrisory. can be used t o indicate grinding circuits that are operating inefficiently. The Bond equation utilizing knxk index as the measure of grindability i s an accurate. work index can be used in m t h rrodels when a grindability £unction is called for. Work indices however. either m u a l l y o r by computer. The Bond Equation and the equations f o r the associated efficiency factors can be used by plant supervisory and technical personnel and can also be used in corcputer prograns for reporting and/or process control. reliable & ~ dreadily usable rnethod t o obtain a consistent measuremnt of grinding c i r c u i t performance. with computer control and ~ ~ ~ a s u r e t r m the t .

A. and Kjos . June 1972 I (3) Rowland. (2) Rowland. Large Rod and Ball Mills".. presented to SME Meeting. pp. C. June 1960. 47-61. British Chemical Engine-. Jr. M. C. Sept. tion and work index are useful tools in evaluating grinding circuit performance to help m x k k e the use of the pmer delivked to g r i n d k g circuits in minerals Dro- cessing plants. Mexico. C. ... "Comparison of Work W c e s Calculated Ram Operating I Data with Those From Laboratory Test Data". D. Jr. pp. "Crushing & Grinding Calculations". PmERENCES * (1) Bond. "htogmous and Semi-AutogenousMill Selection and Design". A. . Canadian Journal. Acapdco. C. (4) Rowland. A. No. Proceedings Tenth Internationdl Minerals Processing Congress 1973. 378-385 and 543-548. Allis-Chalmers publicaticm OX-9235B). F. 93. Vol. "Grinding Calculations Related to the Application of . 6. Jr. (Revised January 1961.

44 7.25 3.0 5.5 1.85 .35 10.992 0.10 1.5 3.966 10.0 3.66 11.52 4.0 0.042 8.34 :::: 2.914 2.88 1.0 3.05 9.5 3.05 0.20 0.40 1.79 1.956 11.939 12.81 0.5 3.5 3. TABU I OPEN Cnzcurr TNEFFlcmCY MUL- Product Size Control Inefficiency Reference % Pass.74 2.0 1.0 3.977 0.5 2.66 0.0 3.075 6.51 11.62 3.0 3.96 12.23 4.96 1.970 0 3.0 1.931 12.5 2.06 7.000 Base 9.281 1.82 1.44 1.22 3.35 0.71 1.0 9.0 1.90 0.843 3.6 1.29 1.51 0.88 0.014 3.5 2.81 12.923 13.914 .12 6.6 1.5 3.124 4. 0.0 29.562 2.948 11.5 3. Multiplier M i l l IxaEter M i l l I>iameter Eamter Efficiency Inside Shell Inside Liners Mtiplier Feet Meters Feet Meters 3.00 12.17 5.5 2.0 2.59 8.20 10.83 5.6 1.914 13.90 9.0 2.13 6.0 2.0 2.6 0.98 1.85 0.0 3.

.

0 14.52 8.98 0.84 8.5 .4 15.17 9.9 66.8 16.93 16.914 0.59 9.88 Grinding Efficiency in % 103.3 Mesh) Ball Milling @ urn (100 Mesh) 13.1 Mesh) Ball Milling @ 212 um (65 14.3 103.7 KwH/T &tor Input (Efficiency: 9.90 12.60 Equivalent Grindability Test Results Wi Rod Milling @ 1180 um (14 13.914 0.34 15.48 93%) KwH/T a t M i l l Pinionshaft 8.914 Oversized Feed Factor EF4 1.9 60.3 13.57 12.30 1.11 Mill Mil Mill A B C D 1 Feed Size 80% Passing 16976 16489 15779 15242 Product Size 80% Passing 258 243 236 251 Feed Rate TPH 238 245 278 258 Average Payer Kw 2283 2330 2548 2445 Reduction Ratio 65.01 Mi11 Diameter Efficiency E D 0.3 15.6 102.39 Wioc: Grindability Test 13. Wi (Wi used was a t 212 urn) 0.4 113.15 12.97 0.1 13.94 0.68 14.914 0.8 67.2 13.33 1. 1915 I 68% CS DESCRIPTION 14i.3 Efficiency Factor Wioc t.0 13.81 Wio (Operatigg Work Index) 16.92 8.51 9. TABLE I11 (CONTINUED) IN-PLANT GRINDING STUDY April.8 16.36 1.

97 16.01 February 0.13 1. 15.42 10.4l-5 10.48 February 16.36 16.88 0. 9.925 .59 9. TABLE I11 A C'LEQAFCLSON BY PER TON (KwH/T) 6877 CS 7% CS - 14mth Nil1 A M i l l B Average Mill C Mill D Average Januar~ 10.48 ---.97 0. - 68% CS 73% CS bpm Mill A Mill B Average Mill C Mill D Average Jrnuar~ 1.48 9.10 10.17 9.98 0.47 TABI.53 15.26 9.94 15. 16.55 9.68 10.94 0.68 16.U February 10.01 --.E I11 C COMPARISON BY EFFICIENCY FACrOR 'io.52 10.155 4ril 9.51 16.01 14.51 9.04 1.51 15.31 14.91 0. 1.14 9.43 March 10.69 16.72 16.79 10.22 1.54 ---.13 ---.15' 10.325 ' TABLE I11 B ahCIPARIS(3N BY OPEXTJX TXIE INI?EX Wio) 68% CS 7% CS - bth fill A W l B Average Mill C Mill D Average Januar~ 16.94 0.42 9.97 0. 0.12 15.34 15.21 16.96 0.43 ---.93 16.91 April 0.91 --.01 15.68 10.74 April 16. 10.54 Elarch 16.

0 4534.5 223. 26.4 5601. 15.5 5711.9 1116.7 1142.3 818.5 5308. 29. 59. 14.2 701.0 6076. 33. 14. 15. 17.5 234.7 752.6 266.8 250. 15. 16. 15. 14.0 1121.5 4713.9 252.5 5487.6 245.9 775.5 5451. 23. 21. 30.3 252.5 8/3/75 5432. 10.9 136. 17. 35.7 664. 16. 13.6 217. 31.0 5350.5 Weighted Average . 13.9 254.5 4705.8 961.0 5975.3 188.8 249. 35.4 259. TABLE IV Gross Crude Gross Mill %-500 Date HP-HR Feed HPWTX LTPH HR HP P80 Mesh s/lm- 8/2/75 4738.9 818.0 15L5. 14. 33.8 1086.5 275.

BALL MILL CIRCUIT FIGURE 2 . q-< SUMP I -& PUMP & CIRCUIT PRODUCT CLASSIFIER BALL MILL 0. FEEDER $7 BALL MILL 1 SUMP .~ ROD llILL .1 PUMP CIRCUIT PRODUCT CL4SSIFIER OVERSIZE SINGLE STAGE BALL MILL CIRCUIT FIGURE 1 FEEDER 4- ROD I'lILL -1 .

IILL CIRCUIT FIGURE 3 .BALL T. COMCEfiTRATION . ST CONCENTRATIOt4 STAGE CONCENTRATES BALL MILL FEED TO WASTE~-----------~ND CONCENTRATIOPI STAGE BALL MILL PRODUCT A It CONCENTRATES \L PUMP FINES BALL MILL PRODUCT CLASS IF I ER ROD NILL . FEEDER I ROD MILL 4I ROD MILL PRODUCT TO MASTE-.