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The application manual for the financial calculator (FC200V) is being prepared with a view to help in understanding the functional part of the calculator. In the process help from various sources containing the mathematical and statistical formula have been taken, utmost care has been taken not to copy the data from these sources. The examples wherever necessary has been provided to understand the operational part of the calculator. The area of mathematics is very vast and understanding completely by one person is very difficult. The sample book is designed to help all users to have the conceptual knowledge coupled with practical aspect of the same.

Happy computing!

APPLICATION MANUAL FINANCIAL CALCULATORS FC100V, FC200V Specific Applications in addition to various other applications that can be performed by FC are summarized below: Simple Interest Calculation Compound Interest calculation

Cash Flow Calculation

Amortization calculations

General and function calculation

Statistics calculations

Interest rate conversion calculations

Cost / selling price / margin calculations

Day or date calculation

Depreciation calculation

Bond (Annual/yield to maturity (YTM) calculations)

Break even point analysis

Simple Interest calculation

Explanation

Simple Interest calculations as performed mainly by banks and loan providers or person lending or borrowing funds at simple rate of interest. The formula for calculation shall be as follows: SI = PV x n / 365 x I% SFV= PV+SI PV= Principal N = Number of interest periods I = Annual interest rate SI = Simple Interest SFV=Interest + principal

Example

An amount of 5000/- is borrowed at the rate of 9% per annum for 90 days, calculate the simple interest. Principal (PV) Interest (I %) Days (n) SI SFV = = = = = INR 5000 9% 90 solve solve 5000x90/365x9/100 =110.95 =5110.95

Operation

Press

key and using the cursor key enter the following data with exe key SI= -110.958904 Simple Int. Set : 365 or 360 days Dys : 90 SFV= -5110.958904 I% :9 PV : 5000 SI : Solve SI= -110.958904 SFV : Solve SFV=-5110.958904 ALL : Solve 1 2 3

For calculating the simple interest bring the cursor key to SI and enter the solve key and the answer appears as 1 above Press ESC key and bring the cursor by using the Key and enter the Solve key and the answer appears as 2 and using the ESC key bring the cursor to ALL key and press SOLVE key and the answer appears as 3 above. Note: The days in a year can be adjusted as 360 days or 365 days depending upon the usage to adjust press SMPL and then SET key and enter EXE key and chose the option of 360 or 365 days.

Compound Interest calculation

Explanation

Most of the banks and person dealing with funds use the word compounding interest annually, semi-annually or quarterly etc. to understand better compound interest would mean calculating the interest on interest also. The mathematical formula shall be as follow:

• •

C.I. = P , where C.I. = compound interest If the interest rates for the successive fixed periods are r1%, r2%, r3% ..., then A (amount) is given by

A=P

... ….., where A= amount & principal , P= principal

For example continue with the same example in previous sheet. If the period is 3 years then CI would be C.I. A =5000 x {(1+ .09)³-1} = 1475.145 =5000 + 1475.145 = 6475.145

Operation

Press

CMPD key

Input the following using scroll and exe keys Set N I% PV PMT FV : : : : : : begin / end select End using scroll and exe key press 3 and enter exe key press 9 and enter exe key press 5000 and enter exe key leave blank or press 0 and enter exe key* Press solve key, see the answer appears as -6475.145

* Use of option PMT is explained in next page Note: Using scroll key please enter the P/Y = 1 and C/Y = 1 as the same represents the Installments per year and Compounding per year respectively. If the compounding is semi annually then C/Y should be selected as 2 and for quarterly the same should be selected as 4. Press ESC key to come back to previous screen

Note:

Note: To clear variables from the memory is to press SHIFT key and 9 key and EXE key and chose the correct option to clear either setup, memory or all variables from the memory

15 years = 180 times A typical way of calculating the EMI shall be taking the help of computer or a long sheet of paper and lot of time in computing and yet not very sure about the way of doing. let’s see Press CMPD key and using the scroll and exe key enter the following data Set N I% PV PMT FV P/Y C/Y = End key = Press 180 and enter Exe key (15 years x 12 months) = Press 12 and enter Exe key = 50000 exe key = Solve key = Press 0 and enter Exe key =12 as the installments per year is 12 the duration of loan is 15 years =12 as the compounding also is monthly so in a year 12 compounding . INR 50000 I% = interest rate i.01) (1. A very important tool for finance companies having the business of lending money and all those also borrowing money and in the need to know that how much monthly installment need to be paid for a particular loan.010 N = number of installments per year i.a.EMI calculation CMPD continues….08 EMI calculation without a calculator having the solving power like this is just impossible and doing little simulations and variations in interest. Typically a person needs to know the present value of amount borrowed/lend and the interest rate to be paid also the total number of installments to be used while returning the amount borrowed. principal etc.e. but the use of FC 200V is very simple.e.e. i.e. faster and economical. the working becomes very tough.01) 180 -1 180 = 600. i= I%/12/100 = 0. PV = amount borrowed or lend i. 12% p. The formula shall be as follows: PV x i x (1+ i)ⁿ = (1+ i)ⁿ-1 = 50000 x 0.01 x (1.

period and PV is known Set = End key N = 180 periods (15 years x 12 months) I% = Solve key PV = 50000 PMT = -600.g. 1.Scroll back to PMT key and enter solve key as the answer flashes -600. Is it not quite amazing the result is produced in less than a minute as against probably one hour? Now we can use variation just like mortgage calculators available on the web and computer spreadsheets e.08 FV =0 P/Y =12 as the installments per year is 12 the duration of loan is 15 years C/Y =12 as the compounding also is monthly so in a year 12 compounding 2.08 FV =0 P/Y =12 as the installments per year is 12 the duration of loan is 15 years C/Y =12 as the compounding also is monthly so in a year 12 compounding Just in simple way skip the term we want to know and enter the data in rest of the terms as before. Calculate the maximum Rate of interest can be borne if EMI.e years) wherein loan can be repaid if PV. . using the scroll key come back to the term we want to know and press solve key and result is available. I% and EMI is known Set = End key N = Solve key I% = 12 PV = 50000 PMT = -600. Calculate the Number of periods (i.08 FV =0 P/Y =12 as the installments per year is 12 the duration of loan is 15 years C/Y =12 as the compounding also is monthly so in a year 12 compounding 3. Calculate the PV if we know how much maximum EMI can be paid Set = End key N = 180 periods (15 years x 12 months) I% = 12 PV = solve key PMT = -600.08.

the tools could be Internal Rate of Return (IRR).Cash Flow Calculation Explanation The application mainly is used by analysis to appraise an investment proposal having a fixed stream of cash inflow after a fixed period of cash outflow. Typically an investor need to know the following to do the analysis i.e. Net Future Value (NFV) and Payback Period (PBP) PBP NPV The payback period is defined as the number of years required to recover a project’s cost. Accept project if IRR > cost of capital. The net present value (NPV) method discounts all cash flows at the project’s cost of capital and then sums those cash flows. The PBP shall work out to be like 100000/40000=2. Net Present Value (NPV). cash outflow and cash inflow and certain financial tools to help him to take the decision. IRR The internal rate of return (IRR) is defined as the discount rate which forces a project’s NPV to equal to zero.50 years . A typical cash flow shall work out as follows Cash Inflow Cash Outflow Example An investment would outlay an expenditure of INR 100000 in the year0 and thereafter for the next four years it generates the cash inflow at a consistent flow of 40000 per year. Accept project if NPV > 0.

The common method used for IRR is CFº+ CF₁ (1+r) +CF₂ +CF₃ +CF₄ = (1+r) ⁴ 0 (1+r) ² (1+r) ³ In the given case if we discount the cash flow by an estimated rate of capital of 21% shall give us the NPV equal to +1617. money devalues over time.64 21% + ----------------.64+254. In the case shown above that turns out to be 121493. you get the net present value of the investment. The IRR can be derived only be trial and error method and a guessed cost of capital should be estimated otherwise the trial and error method also takes long time and is irritating.96100000=21493.28 31887.96.86% (IRR) We have seen how cumbersome procedure is used to calculate the IRR and NPV imagine a person evaluating the 50-100 proposals a day shall get mad and crazy.38 = 21. So prudence say that you must make investment that fetches you return greater than 22%.96 As you know.21 25420.64 Again using the trial method we forward the rate to 22% and see the NPV coming out to be as -254.00 35714. If you take the difference between the net present value of the payments and the net present value of the returns.12)² 40000/ (1.72 +21493. The rate at which it does is commonly referred to as the "discount rate". let's say you have a payment/income profile as shown above and we assume a discount rate of 12%. (NPV) IRR If we equate the net present value to zero we get the internal rate of return.12)¹ 40000/ (1. a rate which puts cash outflow-discounted cash inflow equal to zero.X 1 1617. Therefore.12) -100000.86% and if the money devalues at 22% then you make nothing on your investment.12)³ 40000/ (1.The NPV shall be as follows: Particulars Year 0 Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Net present value cash In/Out -100000 40000 40000 40000 40000 Discounted Cash Flow @12% -100000 40000/ (1.38 but the object is to bring the discounted cost of capital equal to Zero so by using the trial and error method we use the following Formula 1617. The solution provided by FC 200 V is quite simple and we just have to input the data as follows: . the significance of IRR is that for example the IRR for the above said case is 21.75 28471.

var is selected (i.50 years* +60000* on NPV IRR PBP NFV *remember to remove the I%=12% / 21. .97 21. Y and Freq is selected.86% otherwise the PBP shall be calculated DCF@12% and the result shall be 3. X. Y or X and Freq ) and 26 in case of X.e. To choose the option Press STAT Key and chose 1.86% 2. yes thanks to FC 200V Remember to be patient while solving IRR as calculator processes the data at the speed of _ Note: Data editor can input the maximum number of 80 variables in case of 1-var is selected or 40 in case of 2.Operation For calculating the NPV at the discounted rate of 12% Press Cash Key and using the scroll and exe key input the data as follow I% Csh : input 12 enter exe key : Press exe key and input that cash out flow and cash inflow Cash outflows should be represented as (-) and inflow as (+) : using ESC key and scroll key press following : : : : Press Press Press Press solve solve solve solve key key key key and and and and the the the the result result result result shall shall shall shall be be be be +21493.99 years Is it not very simple and clean way of computing complex things.15 years / 3.Var press exe and AC key and select again CASH key and in the case of more than one variable using the same procedure above select other than 1-Var mode.

Interest rate: 12% compounded semi annually.54%.54% as described above.36% Other way could be press i% =14 and press APR key the result shall be 13.36% and if the EEF is 14% then APR shall be 13. E. .g. the EEF shall be 12.Interest rate conversion calculations Explanation The conversion of annual interest rate into effective interest rate is usually used when the compounding per year is more than one. The conventional way of calculating EEF (effective interest rate) is: n EEF = 1+ APR/100 n -1 x 100 APR EEF N Annual percentage rate (%) Effective interest rate (%) number of compounding APR = 1+ EEF/100 n 1/n -1 x n x 100 Example Example of converting the annual rate is where an investor gets the return on an investment other than annual basis then his first curiosity shall be to know what my effective annual interest rate is. Similarly if the compounding can be quarterly (4) or monthly (12) and accordingly results can be obtained but how complex is to solve the power of 12. Operation Press CNVR key Input the above data using scroll and exe key N I% EEF = Press 2 and enter Exe key = Press 12 and enter exe key = press solve key and the result is 12.

the difference is known as margin which could be profit or loss. typically margin is the selling price less cost and divided by selling price as the %age of sale price. Note: . The formula for calculation shall be as follows: CST = SEL * (1-MRG/100) CST= cost SEL= selling price MRG=margin SEL = CST/ (1-MRG/100) MRG = (1. it can be done: CST = Press 1200 and enter exe key SEL = Press 1500 and enter exe key MRG= press solve key answer shall be 20% By inputting any two variables third variable can be calculated. by using the following way.Cost / selling price / margin calculations Explanation Cost and their relation with the selling price is very well known.(CST/SEL))*100 Operation Select COST Key By inputting any two values the third value can be calculated. conversely many people use the cost as the base price for generating the %age of value addition to the cost.

" Interest is computed on the current amount owed "and thus will become progressively smaller as the ending balance of the loan reduces." In simple meaning when you borrow money the first repayment of loan installment. The requirement is to know the PMT = EMI = -286. Example In the given case the PV = 10000 and interest rate is 2% and the PMT working out to be 286. Your credit card account doesn't because it's a revolving loan with no fixed payoff date. The concept of PMT. Let us understand the concept of amortization in simple amortization calculator. PRN.so that your loan is paid off over the specified loan period. please note the Amortization table helps you to calculate the interest and principal on any of the installment specified. A part of the payment goes toward the interest cost and the remainder of the payment goes toward the principal amount -. the interest is on the full amount of loan but as you continue to pay back the principal amount keeps on reducing so is the interest amount. BAL. Break up of PMT 300 240 180 Amount 120 60 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 Months Interest Principal . Your car loan and home loan fit that definition.e. But if you want to know the breakup of any EMI or installment into Principal and Interest it shall be a quite difficult task for common man. ∑ PRN ETC can be understood with an easy example.e.Amortization calculations Explanation Amortization means "the systemic payment plan -. PM1 to PM2. FV. remember that PM2 needs to be greater than PM1. You can calculate between any month to any month i. interest.the amount borrowed. INT.43 over a period of 3 years i. ∑INT.43 (remember EMI can be calculated by CMPD key). PV=principal = 10000 and Interest = i%=2. N=36 months.such as a monthly payment -. usually in equal monthly installments." So an amortized loan is for one specific amount that is to be paid off by a certain date.

Loan Calculator Enter Values Loan Amount Annual Interest Rate Loan Period in Years Number of Payments Per Year Start Date of Loan Optional Extra Payments Lender Name: $10.43 286.43 286.06 5.730.43 286.43 286.64 3.09 7.05 12.37 1.75 275.708.43 286.40 2.374.43 286.52 285.007.76 270.48 2.43 286.182.18 5.43 0.43 286.43 286.796.36 279.46 7.680.829.69 8.43 286.43 286.95 856.43 286.960.18 2.518.43 286.000.48 5.102.92 7.96 13.05 6.16 282.43 286.43 286.00 % 3 Loan Summary Scheduled Payment Scheduled Number of Payments Actual Number of Payments Total Early Payments Total Interest $ 286.43 286.56 272.239.45 3.24 9.43 286.58 277.43 286.24 9.47 285.708.03 9.733.01 272.918.43 286.57 1.43 286.85 2.43 286.20 4.43 286.95 Scheduled Payment $ 286.16 3.555.074.42 285.73 4.43 286.97 278.733.42 571.30 7.43 286. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Payment Date 01/05/2004 01/06/2004 01/07/2004 01/08/2004 01/09/2004 01/10/2004 01/11/2004 01/12/2004 01/01/2005 01/02/2005 01/03/2005 01/04/2005 01/05/2005 01/06/2005 01/07/2005 01/08/2005 01/09/2005 01/10/2005 01/11/2005 01/12/2005 01/01/2006 01/02/2006 01/03/2006 01/04/2006 01/05/2006 01/06/2006 01/07/2006 01/08/2006 01/09/2006 01/10/2006 01/11/2006 01/12/2006 01/01/2007 01/02/2007 01/03/2007 01/04/2007 Beginning Balance $ 10.42 571.59 12.40 2.85 6.838.140.43 36 36 12 01/04/2004 $ - $ 311.95 0.43 286.007.28 3.48 Ending Balance $ 9.90 1.680.53 7.99 7.96 4.37 8.76 281.05 284.43 286.43 286.43 286.92 8.42 285.92 7.43 286.43 286.18 2.119.29 274.43 286.22 15.43 286.38 8.21 270.50 13.93 4.43 286.43 286.556.43 286.43 286.68 11.43 286.829.646.796.00 2.960.43 286.43 286.425.00 1.425.43 286.83 274.352.400.30 7.66 271.47 272.457.26 8.43 286.80 6.86 14.43 286.22 7.282.460.12 276.00 1.400.646.85 6.43 286.37 8.43 286.11 271.80 6.51 277.460.30 9.730.991.102.58 284.43 286.77 15.09 7.457.70 282.32 1.79 3.43 278.274.84 9.43 286.43 286.43 286.32 14.43 286.18 5.991.629.518.96 4.60 6.43 285.69 8.64 283.26 3.16 3.32 2.92 273.76 10.555.68 1.43 286.43 286.48 5.33 Anil Chaudhry Pm tNo .43 286.44 5.43 286.44 5.838.629.64 3.95 Principal $ 269.282.06 5.89 279.43 286.43 286.000.29 280.182.43 286.05 6.83 280.95 856.95 0.43 286.352.43 286.374.70 8.239.140.04 277.43 286.43 286.32 1.38 273.43 Extra Payment $ - Total Payment $ 286.906.274.43 286.22 10.119.189.556.48 2.53 4.43 286.70 8.13 5.00 285.23 281.906.28 3.43 286.57 1.47 Interest $ 16.53 4.67 5.68 1.00 9.189.43 286.43 286.43 286.43 286.00 .11 283.26 8.45 3.03 9.66 276.20 275.918.43 286.07 6.93 4.67 16.41 13.074.22 7.43 286.14 11.

however the same shall be quite easy in FC200.04₄ : SOLVE key : SOLVE Key : SOLVE Key : SOLVE key ∑PRN : SOLVE Key : Answer shall be -6880. but should be greater than PM1 36 press exe. see the steps Press AMRT key Set PM1 PM2 N I% PV PMT FV P/Y C/Y BAL INT PRN ∑INT : : : : : : : : : : End key Enter 1 press exe. you may enter any particular month Enter 25 Press exe. The answer pertains to the total interest paid from 1st to 25th installment please refer the table 5. The answer pertains to the principal component in the first installment (PM1) please refer the table 4. the principal amount enter -286. you may enter any particular month.666₂ Answer shall be -269. (3 years and 12 months in a year) 2 press exe. quite simple way. should be left blank 12 press exe. Note : for going back to default input screen use ESC key .29₁ Answer shall be -16.70₅ 1. The answer pertains to the principal balance after 25th installment. the PMT can be worked out by using CMPD key 0 press exe.43 press exe. payments in a year 12 press exe. The answer pertains to the total principal paid from 1st to 25th installment please refer the table The simulation from any installment to any installment is possible. The answer pertains to the interest component in the first installment (PM1) please refer the table 3. please refer the table 2. the interest % 10000 press exe. compounding in a year : : : : Answer shall be 3119.Operation Finding the breakup of any PMT for any month shall be difficult task.76₃ Answer shall be -280.

e. the same can be selected in setup key Operation Let us see the practical aspect of the same Press DAYS key and using the scroll key enter the following Set D1 D2 Dys : : : : 365 30072004 i. we can find the third variable. 2005 press SOLVE key and the answer shall be 291 days By leaving any one variable blank and filling the other two variables. July 30.Day or date calculation Explanation The day’s mode helps you to calculate the number of days from any specific date to any specific date. .e. 2004 17052005 i. The following simulation is possible If days and d1 is known then d2 can be calculated If days and d2 is known then d1 can be calculated If d1 and d2 is known then days can be calculated d1 is the first date and d2 is the date after the d1 D1 D2 Days Before entering the data following options are available The option of setting the day as 360 or 365 is available Mode of entering the date as DMY or MDY. The option of date format can be chosen either DDMMYYYY or MMDDYYYY from the setup screen. May 17.

. Last Year = = (P-S) (P-S) = 1 Sum-of –years (P-S) For our example.Depreciation calculation Explanation With the help of FC200 we can calculate the following four popular method of calculating the depreciation on fixed assets: Depreciation means wear and tear of the assets due to its usage. N=5 and the sum of years is 1+2+3+4+5=15 Declining method or WDV Depreciation in First year = (P) x Depreciation rate Second year and onwards= (Net book value) x Depreciation rate Net book Value = (P-S-Accumulated depreciation) Depreciation rate = . Straight Line Method (SL) Fixed Percentage Method (FP) Sum of Years Digit Method (SYD) Declining Method or written Down Value Method (WDV) Straight Line Method= (P-S)/n P= Principal Value S=Salvage value if any N=Number of years Fixed Percentage Method = (P-S) x FP P= Principal Value S=Salvage value if any N=Number of years Sum of years Digit Method First Year = N Sum-of –years N-1 Sum-of –years N-2 Sum-of –years (P-S) Second Year Third Year .

Operation The following setting values should be done (hypothetical values) Press DEPR key and using the scroll key and EXE key press following values N I% PV FV ‘j YR1 = = = = = = = 6 25 200 12000 0 1 12 (life of assets in terms of years) (fixed rate of depreciation incase of Fixed percentage method) (depreciation factor in case of Declining Method) (Cost of the assets) (residual value if any) (year for which the depreciation is being calculated) (number of months in the first year)* *In the initial year of buying the assets it is quite possible that depreciation is allowed only for part of the year in that case required number of months need to be entered.42 =1 RDV means the value after depreciation RDV means the value after depreciation DB DB RDV ‘j = SOLVE Key = 4000 = 8000 =1 RDV means the value after depreciation Don’t forget to change the I%=as factor instead of Fixed percentage With the help of FC200V the calculation for any year’s depreciation is possible also the factor for .57 = 8571. You need to input I% only if you use FP or DB method of depreciation SL SL RDV ‘j = SOLVE Key = 2000 = 10000 =1 RDV means the value after depreciation FP FP RDV ‘j = SOLVE Key = 3000 = 9000 =1 SYD SYD RDV ‘j = SOLVE Key = 3428.

a point of sales or a point of quantities to sell where the company would break even or to ore specifically company would neither gain nor lose. Let’s see the calculation of Break even (quantities) Break even (quantities) =Fixed Cost / (Selling Price (Unit) – Variable Cost (Unit) ) Break Even (Values) = Break even (quantities) x Selling price (Unit) For calculating the BE we need selling price per unit (PRC). 2.Break even point analysis Explanation This is a very common term used often by Finance Manager or Production Manager. 2. quantities (QBE) Sales (SBE) . This tool is very important for Managers as it suggest that company to break even must sell at least N number of quantities. The profit at such sales would become Nil or 0%. Fixed Cost (FC) Using the FC200V Press BEVN key and using the scroll key enter the following values Press exe key at BEV and input the following Hypothetical data Set : PRF / Quantities using exe key use appropriate options PRF / ratio press exe key using again exe key select ant of the following 1. PRF r% or B-even press exe key and using again exe key select any of the following 1. variable cost per unit (VCU).

.

.Operation Using Exe key enter following PRC VCU FC = = = 100 75 12000 0* PRF/ R%= *In case the company wants to know how much quantities need to be sold for achieving the profit (PRF) of say 10000. That denotes that sales from the present levels can be dropped by 60% before company starts incurring losses. Margin of Safety (MOS) Margin of safety denotes that how much sales can be dropped before attaining the losses. For example if sales are 120000 and SBE is 48000 then MOS shall be 0. then after selecting PRF above enter the PRF / r% as 10000 and then QBE and SBE can be calculated for a profit target of 10000 * the option can be used if company wants to know that how much quantities need to be sold for achieving the profit % of say 10%. the larger the increase in profits as sales rise and the larger the increase in loss as sales fall. I. Continuing from the last hypothetical figures where the SBE was 48000 and suppose the actual sales are 120000 that means the actual sales are more than the Break even sales of 48000.e. then after selecting r% above enter the PRF / r% as 10 and then QBE and SBE can be calculated for a profit target of 10%. often associated with fixed assets)." The greater the use of operating leverage (fixed costs.60 two values third value can be calculated DEGREE OF OPERATING LEVERAGE (DOL) The extent to which a business uses fixed costs (compared to variable costs) in its operations is referred to as "operating leverage. Margin of safety is 60% Press Exe key on MOS Input the sales SAL SBE MOS By inputting any : : : 120000 48000 0.60.

for example.081 COMBINED LEVERAGE (DCL) Combined leverage is the product of operating leverage and financial leverage. is 1. DOL=degree of operating leverage.43. That is: DTL=DOL*DFL Where: DTL=degree of total leverage. Degree of total leverage measures the percentage change in EPS that results from a change in one percent in output. means that a 100 percent increase in EBIT would result in a 143 percent increase in earnings per share In simple terms the DFL means the impact of Interest expenses on the earnings of the company Press Exe key on DFL EIT (earnings before Interest) :120000 ITR (Interest) DFL press solve key DEGREE OF : 9000 : 1. Application of total leverage 1. DFL=degree of financial leverage. and is calculated as follows: DFL = Percentage change in EPS divided by Percentage change in EBIT This calculation produces an index number which if.= Sales less Variable cost / sales less total cost Degree leverage can of be Press Exe key on DOL Input the sales SAL VC FC DOL press solve key : : : : 120000 90000 10000 1.5 operating calculated sales. . the if we know the total variable cost and fixed cost. total total DEGREE OF FINANCIAL LEVERAGE (DFL) The degree of financial leverage (DFL) is defined as the percentage change in earnings per share [EPS] that results from a given percentage change in earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT).

It assists in measuring the firm’s total risk.7272 .2. Press Exe key on DCL SAL (total sales) VC (Variable cost) FC (Fixed Cost) ITR (Interest) DCL press Solve :120000 : 90000 : 10000 : 9000 : 2.

Low Variance Example of Population variance The population variance is the mean squared deviation from the population mean: Here is an example of the variance formula in action. It has a higher variance. In more common terminology we can say that it measures the variability from the mean. For two random variables the one on the left is more dispersed than the one on the right. we must understand the term Mean and Variance Mean as a common meaning denotes the center and arithmetically represents the average of the given population or sample data Variance is a parameter that measures how dispersed a random variable’s probability distribution is.Statistical analysis Before understanding the concept of Standard deviation. Variance can be of two types: • • Population variance Sample Variance High vs. .

σ µ 2 = Population Variance = Mean .

a + b^X : exe 7.e N s = 2 ∑ N i= 1 ( xi − x) n− 1 S X 2 = Sample variance = = Sample mean data (σ − 1)2 Standard Deviation The standard deviation is the positive square root of the variance: Population standard deviation: σ = σ 2 Sample standard deviation: σ − 1= (σ − 1) 2 Let us take the an example having one variable and calculate above said Press Setup key and using the scroll key STAT: On/Off key Select On by pressing EXE Press STAT key and select 1. This referred to as sample variance Sample variance can be calculated in the similar way as Population variance except that the divisional factor is one number less than the total numbers i. An analogous measure of variability may be determined with sample data.a +X^B : exe 8.In X : exe 5e^X : exe 6.Var : exe 2.Example of Sample variance In practice population variance cannot be computed directly because the entire population is not ordinarily observed.1/X : exe type 3- .1.A + B X : exe _ + cX2 : exe 4.

Var (single variable) Press Stat and chose option from type 1-var by pressing exe key and enter the following data using cursor and exe key X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 10 12 14 16 18 20 18 16 14 12 freq 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Press AC key and Shift S-Menu and by selecting the appropriate digit following options available 1. Edit 5. Data 4. Type 3. ∑ x 2. Var Press 1 we get the table __ above Press 2 we get the option of more data entry Press 3 we get the option of editing the data Press 4 we get the option of 1.Example for 1. Sum 6. ∑ x2 2. MinMax Press 1 and below screen appears Sum of variable ∑ x ∑ x2 Press Exe ∑ x2 0 2340 Please note for all calculation Press AC key and Shift – S-menu key and then press the required option Press 2 and below screen appears ∑x ∑x 0 150 .

Press exe .

5.we get options of 1: minX and maxX Press 1 minX minX 0 Press exe 10 . we get the following screen RGB 204.162277 Press AC – Shift – S-Menu.option 3 Xσn Xσn 0 Press exe 3 Press AC – Shift – S-Menu.6.5.255.option 4 Xσn-1 Xσn-1 0 Press exe 3.Press AC-Shift-S-Menu and option 5.153 1: n 3: Xσn 2: X 4: xσn-1 Press 1: n Press exe Press exe n 0 10 Press AC – Shift – S-Menu.5.2 − Press exe 0 15 Press AC – Shift – S-Menu.

Press AC – Shift – S-Menu.we get options of 2 maxX maxX 0 Press exe 20 In case of two variables the frequency column is used for another variable and the calculation is based on the following formula and the formula shall be based on the following shortcut of variance and Standard Deviation. σ = ∑ X .6.( X)/n ∑ n ****** .

e. a + b X and the calculation are done based on the following: .Commands when linear regression calculation (A+ BX) is selected When linear regression calculation is selected the calculation is performed by the following model is selected i.

Using FC200V following calculation is possible Steps in case of 1-variable Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) 5-Var 5-Var 4-sum 4-sum 5-Var 5-Var 1 2 2 1 3 4 1 2 Formula n Details Number of variables Mean of the variables (x data) ∑X ∑X Xσ n Xσn-1 minX maxX Formula ∑y ∑y ∑ xy ∑Xy ∑X ∑X Ӯ Sum of the variables (x data) Sum of squares of variables ( x data) Population standard deviation (x data) Sample standard deviation (x data) Minimum of x values Maximum of x values Details Mean of the variables ( y data) Sum of squares of variables ( y data) Sum of products of x data and y data Sum of x2 data X y data Sum of cubes of x data Sum of bi-squares of x data Mean of variables (y data) Population standard deviation (y data) Sample standard deviation (y data) Minimum if y values Maximum of y values Regression coefficient constant term A Regression coefficient term b Correlation coefficient r Estimated value of 6-MinMax 6-MinMax Steps in case of more than 1 variable. in addition to above Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 5-Var 5-Var 5-Var 4 3 5 7 6 8 5 6 7 3 4 yσn yσn-1 minY maxY A B ‘r 6-MinMax 6-MinMax 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 1 2 3 4 5 Ŷ Estimated value of Ŷ Ŷ .

291287 2.Example in the case of A+BX X Y 2 12 3 13 4 14 5 15 6 16 7 17 8 18 9 19 Steps in case of 1-variable Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) 5-Var 5-Var 4-sum 4-sum 5-Var 5-Var 1 2 2 1 3 4 1 2 Formula n Result 8 5.5 2.291287 2.449489 2 9 124 1964 724 4864 2024 15332 15.449489 12 19 10 1 1 Estimated value y=3 =-7 6-MinMax 6-MinMax 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 5-Var 5-Var 5-Var 4 3 5 7 6 8 5 6 7 yσn yσn-1 3 4 minY maxY A B ‘r 6-MinMax 6-MinMax 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 1 2 3 4 5 Ŷ Estimated value x=3 Ŷ=13 .5 ∑x ∑X Xσ n Xσn-1 minX maxX ∑y ∑y ∑ xy ∑Xy ∑X ∑X Ӯ 44 284 2.

Quadratic Regression (_CX). Model equation y= A+BX+CX 2. model equation y= A+BInX 3. Exponential Regression (e^X). model equation y= Ae BX . Logarithmic Regression (In X).Commands when other types of Regression calculation(s) are selected 1.

Power Regression (A*X^B).4. Model equation y= A+B/X . model equation y= AXB 5. Inverse Regression (1/X).

582575695 4.70833333 0.338539126 3 19 1.02083333 If Y=3 then 2 If Y=3 then If X=2 then = 1.Example in case of quadratic regression equation X Y 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 19 COMMANDS Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) 5-Var 5-Var 4-sum 4-sum 5-Var 5-Var 1 2 2 1 3 4 1 2 Formula N Result 8 9 ∑x ∑X Xσ n Xσn-1 minX maxX ∑y ∑y ∑ xy ∑Xy ∑X ∑X Ӯ 72 816 4.898979486 2 16 82 1040 920 11696 10368 140352 10.25 4.993746089 5.25 .68154169 2= -5.6815416 6-MinMax 6-MinMax 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 5-Var 5-Var 5-Var 4 3 5 7 6 8 5 6 7 yσn yσn-1 3 4 minY maxY A B C 6-MinMax 6-MinMax 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ŷ Ŷ = 3.75 0.

338539126 3 19 -4.25 4.993746089 5.9370197279 If Y=3 then = 2.706473061 .106502688 7.111677003 0.71630478 6-MinMax 6-MinMax 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 5-Var 5-Var 5-Var 4 3 5 7 6 8 5 6 7 yσn yσn-1 3 4 minY maxY A B r 6-MinMax 6-MinMax 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 1 2 3 4 5 Ŷ If x=3 then Ŷ = 3.898979486 2 16 82 1040 920 11696 10368 140352 10. model equation y= A+BInX X Y 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 19 COMMANDS Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) 5-Var 5-Var 4-sum 4-sum 5-Var 5-Var 1 2 2 1 3 4 1 2 Formula n Result 8 9 ∑x ∑X Xσ n Xσn-1 minX maxX ∑y ∑y ∑ xy ∑Xy ∑X ∑X Ӯ 72 816 4.582575695 4.Example in the case of Logarithmic Regression (In X).

898979486 2 16 82 1040 920 11696 10368 140352 10.338539126 3 19 2.Example in the case of Exponential Regression (e^X).27243945 .9778589787 If Y=3 then = 0.964238069 0.1218549797 0.582575695 4.098414231 6-MinMax 6-MinMax 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 5-Var 5-Var 5-Var 4 3 5 7 6 8 5 6 7 yσn yσn-1 3 4 minY maxY A B R 6-MinMax 6-MinMax 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 1 2 3 4 5 Ŷ If x=3 then Ŷ = 4.993746089 5.25 4. model equation y= Ae X Y 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 BX 16 19 COMMANDS Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) 5-Var 5-Var 4-sum 4-sum 5-Var 5-Var 1 2 2 1 3 4 1 2 Formula n Result 8 9 ∑x ∑X Xσ n Xσn-1 minX maxX ∑y ∑y ∑ xy ∑Xy ∑X ∑X Ӯ 72 816 4.

582575695 4.27243945 .098414231 6-MinMax 6-MinMax 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 5-Var 5-Var 5-Var 4 3 5 7 6 8 5 6 7 Yσn yσn-1 3 4 minY maxY A B R 6-MinMax 6-MinMax 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 1 2 3 4 5 Ŷ If x=3 then Ŷ = 4.129590276 0.9778589787 If Y=3 then = 0.993746089 5.Example in the case of ab Exponential Power Regression (A*b^x).898979486 2 16 82 1040 920 11696 10368 140352 10.338539126 3 19 2. model equation y= AB X X Y 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 19 COMMANDS Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) 5-Var 5-Var 4-sum 4-sum 5-Var 5-Var 1 2 2 1 3 4 1 2 Formula n Result 8 9 ∑x ∑X Xσ n Xσn-1 MinX MaxX ∑y ∑y ∑ xy ∑yX ∑X ∑X Ӯ 72 816 4.25 4.964238069 1.

8643765905 0.25 4.338539126 3 19 1.006800639 .898979486 2 16 82 1040 920 11696 10368 140352 10.14647453 6-MinMax 6-MinMax 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 5-Var 5-Var 5-Var 4 3 5 7 6 8 5 6 7 yσn yσn-1 3 4 minY maxY A B R 6-MinMax 6-MinMax 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 1 2 3 4 5 Ŷ If x=3 then Ŷ = 4.993746089 5.582575695 4. model equation y= AX B X Y 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 19 COMMANDS Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) 5-Var 5-Var 4-sum 4-sum 5-Var 5-Var 1 2 2 1 3 4 1 2 Formula N Result 8 9 ∑x ∑X Xσ n Xσn-1 minX maxX ∑y ∑y ∑ xy ∑yX ∑X ∑X Ӯ 72 816 4.550191285 0.9959314857 If Y=3 then = 2.Example in the case of Power Regression (A*x^b).

993746089 5.438529776 .338539126 3 19 15.402799859 6-MinMax 6-MinMax 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 4-sum 5-Var 5-Var 5-Var 4 3 5 7 6 8 5 6 7 yσn yσn-1 3 4 minY maxY A B r 6-MinMax 6-MinMax 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 7-Reg 1 2 3 4 5 Ŷ If x=3 then Ŷ = 5.25 4.43384607 -0.Example in the case of Inverse Regression (1/X). Model equation y= A+B/X X Y 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 19 COMMANDS Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift Shift (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) (S-menu) 5-Var 5-Var 4-sum 4-sum 5-Var 5-Var 1 2 2 1 3 4 1 2 Formula ‘n Result 8 9 ∑x ∑X Xσ n Xσn-1 minX maxX ∑y ∑y ∑ xy ∑yX ∑X ∑X Ӯ 72 816 4.898979486 2 16 82 1040 920 11696 10368 140352 10.8098270919 If Y=3 then = 2.582575695 4.2498118 -29.

g. Find out its effective return? An investor to this Bond shall enjoy following benefits Period Year Year Year Year Year Year 0 1 2 3 4 5 Cash flow -95 04 04 04 04 104* (*Investor would get the Principal amount also in addition to Interest) Equate the present value of all Cash flows to Zero and using the trial and error method find out its Yield.86384)+(4*0.90702)+(4*0.16% where the discounted cash flows shall be nearly equal to Zero.25% we get the net present value as -0. Coupon Rate = CPN = rate of interest payable on the face value of the Bonds Purchase price = PRC = Price at which these bonds are available in the market Redemption value = RDV = Price at which maturity value is paid back to bondholders Term = n = Period of the bond. 3rd Year)+CF3(5%. 5th Year)=0 = (-95*0. 2nd Year)+CF2(5%. we get following CF0(5%. using a discount factor of 5%. e.Bond (Annualized Yield or Yield to Maturity) The customary way of calculating the yield on Bonds purchased from the market is to typically finding the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) To understand Bond we must understand the complete terminology of the Bonds.39 Similarly using the Discount factor at 5. 1st year)+CF1(5%. coupon rate-4%) and has a term period of 5 years.374649 To be more precise the YTM shall be 5.78353) =1.9523)+(4*0. Example A bond sold in the market at discount of 5% (face value-100.82270)+(104*0. 4th year)+CF5(5%. it can be either Fixed or can be derived from two dates Yield = YLD = the effective rate of interest or YTM. .

03 only .02915985 INT= 0 CST= =-84.Operation: Press BOND key and using scroll and exe key enter the following data: Bond Calc Set: Annual / Term* N= 5: Press exe RDV=100: press exe CPN= 4: Press exe PRC=-95: press exe YLD=Solve key YLD=5.03 in the market to get the yield of 8% in the bond the Interest accrued on such bond shall be zero and the purchase price including interest shall be 84.159986152 • • • The interest option can be selected either Annual or Semi annual and also the period of bond can be either fixed or term Fixed period bonds shall give the option of putting two different dates as purchase date and maturity date Term period bond give the option of only putting the number of years as the life of the bond If the Coupon rate is 4% and the Redemption price if 100 and to get the Yield of 8% what should be the purchase price of the bond in the market? Bond Calc Set: Annual / Term* N= 5: Press exe RDV=100: press exe CPN= 4: Press exe PRC=Solve Key YLD=8: Press exe PRC= -84.02915985 The purchase price shall be 84.

Begin 2. these settings specifies whether Simple Interest (SI) or Compound Interest (CI) is to be used for partial months to change the settings DN: CI Exe DN 1: CI 2: SI Choose 2 DN: SI 4.e. in advance (begin) or after the completion of month (end). Date Mode: Used in SMPL. the same can changed as followed Date Mode: 365 Exe Date Mode 1 360 2 365 Choose 1 Date Mode: 360 3. the bond can have the payment of interest either annually or semi annually. for choosing the correct option following is the procedure: Press Setup key and using scroll key select the following menu Payment: End Exe Payment 1. Year: Annual or Semi annual coupons payment per year. End Choose 1 Payment: Begin 2. Periods: Used in BOND mode .Defining the setup keys The initial setup for various key is as per following table and to change the settings value the procedure defined in the next pages shall be followed: 1. Payment Mode: Used in CMPD and AMRT Modes. DAYS and BOND Modes. the days in the year can be 365 or 360 days depending upon the usage and practice. the calculation of interest is dependant on the payment mode i. The settings can be configured as follows: Periods/Y: Annu Exe Periods/year 3 Annual 4 Semi Choose 2 Date Mode: 365 . DN: Used in CMPD mode.

i. Date Input: MDY: used in case of DAYS and BOND mode only. Sci and Norm modes are used in all modes and the calculations and are easy to understand and modify the initial settings. Month/Day/Year (MDY) or Date/Month/Year (DMY). B-Even : Quantity.Even 1 Quantity 2 Sales Chose2 B-Even: Sales 9. the dates can be input either of the following way. Fix. the initial settings of quantity can be modified as follows: B-Even: Quantity Exe B. . used in the case BEVN mode only. The initial settings can be modified as follows: Bond date: Date Exe Bond Date 5 Date 6 Term Choose2 Bond Date: Term 6. the initial settings of MDY can be modified as follows: Date Input: MDY Exe Date Input 1 MDY 2 DMY Choose2 Date Mode: 365 7.5. as Digit Separator : used in all modes and is an option used for making the digit appearing 123456 123456 123456 Superscript mode Subscript mode Separator Off 123’456 123. Profit or profit percentage can be specified. Date of purchase and the date of maturity. the initial settings can be modified as follows: PRF/Ratio: PRF Exe PRF / Ratio 1 PRF 2 R% Chose2 PRF/Ratio: r% 8. Bond date: used in BOND mode only. PRF/Ratio: PRF.e.456 123456 10 Angle. used in the case BEVN mode only and the break even can be calculated either in term of quantity or Sales amount. Date in case of Bonds purchased the same can be either having a fixed term or two dates can specified.

Stat: on . 2.11.used is STAT mode only and is an application which is used when the statistical calculations are to be performed then the stat mode can be turned on or off by following the following procedure STAT: On Exe STAT 1. On Off Choose2 STAT: Off .

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