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{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw2589\absh198 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs21
\cf0 FACTORIES ACT, 1948 \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1869\absw1860\absh198 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs21
\cf0 INTRODUCTION \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy2683\absw10680\absh2702 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs2
1 \cf0 In common parlance, invariably factory and industry are understood as int
erchangeable. This is incorrect. The
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy2683\absw10680\absh2702 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
term industry refers to a steady and systematic activity in which a trade is or
ganised, whereas a factory is the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy2683\absw10680\absh2702 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
place where such activities are being carried on. The entire day-to-day adminis
tration of the factories is
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy2683\absw10680\absh2702 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
governed by the principal Act of 1948 amended Act, which is an improvement of 1
934 Act. This Act extends to
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy2683\absw10680\absh2702 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
the whole of India, including Jammu and Kashmir. Unless otherwise provided, it
also applies to factories
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy2683\absw10680\absh2702 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
belonging to the Central and State
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy2683\absw10680\absh2702 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Governments. (Section 116) The Bhopal tragedy of 1984 has created awareness amo
ng the public
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy2683\absw10680\absh2702 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
for preventing pollution and this has made the government to take steps in amen
ding the present 1948 Act
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy2683\absw10680\absh2702 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
by incorporating Chapter IV A from Sections 41 A to 41 H, pertaining to provisi
ons as regards hazardous
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy2683\absw10680\absh2702 \sl-310 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
processes. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy6284\absw2456\absh198 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs21
\cf0 OBJECT OF THE ACT \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7100\absw10680\absh5202 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs2
1 \cf0 The object of the Factories Act of 1948 is
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7100\absw10680\absh5202 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
(a) To improve health, welfare and safety of the workmen.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7100\absw10680\absh5202 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
(b) To regulate by imposing restriction as to hours of work including
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7100\absw10680\absh5202 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
rest and provisions for availing of leave.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7100\absw10680\absh5202 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
(c) To make stringent provisions as regards employment of women
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7100\absw10680\absh5202 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
and young persons and duration of their work.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7100\absw10680\absh5202 \sl-309 \par\b \f10 \fs21
\cf0 MEANING OFTHETERM'FCTORY'
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7100\absw10680\absh5202 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Factory means any premises including the precincts therefore -
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7100\absw10680\absh5202 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
(i) Wherein ten or more workers are working or were working on any day of the p
receding twelve months,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7100\absw10680\absh5202 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
and in any part of which a manufacturing process is being carried on with the a
id of power, or is ordinarily so
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7100\absw10680\absh5202 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
carried on, or (ii) Whereon twenty or more workers are working or were working
on any day of the preceding
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7100\absw10680\absh5202 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
twelve months, and in any part of which a manufacturing process is being carrie
d on without the aid of
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7100\absw10680\absh5202 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
power, or is ordinarily so carried on. Factory does not include a mine as it is
covered by Indian Mines Act,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7100\absw10680\absh5202 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
1952 or a mobile unit belonging to the armed forces of the Union, a railway run
ning shed or a hotel,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7100\absw10680\absh5202 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
restaurant or eating place.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7100\absw10680\absh5202 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
To put it in a nutshell, factory means (i) any premises including precincts (ii
) where ten or more persons are
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7100\absw10680\absh5202 \sl-310 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
engaged in manufacturing process with the aid of power or (iii) twenty or more
persons are engaged in
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7100\absw10680\absh5202 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
manufacturing process without the aid of power. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy13478\absw7248\absh1866 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs2
1 \cf0 MANUFACTURING PROCESS - Section 2 (k)
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy13478\absw7248\absh1866 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Manufacturing Process means any process for -
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy13478\absw7248\absh1866 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
(i) Making, altering, repairing, ornamenting, finishing, packing,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy13478\absw7248\absh1866 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
oiling, washing, cleaning, breaking up, demolishing or otherwise
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy13478\absw7248\absh1866 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
treating or adopting any article or substance with a view to its
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy13478\absw7248\absh1866 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
use, sale, transport, delivery or disposal, or
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy13478\absw7248\absh1866 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
(ii) Pumping oil, water, sewage or any other substance, or \par
}
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00ffd9
}}\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw7435\absh1866 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f1
0 \fs19 \cf0 (iii) Generating, transforming or transmitting power, or
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw7435\absh1866 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
(iv) Composing types for printing, printing by letter press,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw7435\absh1866 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
lithography taking photography and other similar process or book
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw7435\absh1866 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
binding;
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw7435\absh1866 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
(v) Constructing, reconstructing, repairing, refitting, finishing or
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw7435\absh1866 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
breaking up ships or vessels; or
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw7435\absh1866 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
(vi) Preserving or storing any article in cold storage [Section 2 (k)]. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9049\absh3534 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs19
\cf0 POWER [Section 2(g)]
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9049\absh3534 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
It means mechanical or electrical energy transmitted as a step or aids to carry
out
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9049\absh3534 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
manufacture and not energy generated by human or animal agency. Mere use of
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9049\absh3534 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
power not connected with activities of manufacturing will not make the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9049\absh3534 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
premises a factory. [New Taj Mahal Hotel vs. Inspector of Factories, (1956)
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9049\absh3534 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
I.L.I.J.273].
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9049\absh3534 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Manufacturing process must be done with the aid of power, according to
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9049\absh3534 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Section 2 (m). Use of power may be incidental or consequential to
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9049\absh3534 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
manufacturing process. According to Section 4, on application by the occupier
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9049\absh3534 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
of a factory, different departments or branches of the factory may be treated as
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9049\absh3534 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
separate factories. Likewise, two or more factories specified by the occupier ca
n
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9049\absh3534 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
also be treated as a single factory by the State government by passing suitable
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9049\absh3534 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
orders. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8245\absw9068\absh3255 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs19
\cf0 WORKER [Section 2 (l)]
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8245\absw9068\absh3255 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Worker means a person employed directly or through any agency (including a
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8245\absw9068\absh3255 \sl-310 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
contractor) with or without the knowledge of the principal employer, whether
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8245\absw9068\absh3255 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
for remuneration or not, in any manufacturing process or in cleaning any part of
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8245\absw9068\absh3255 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
the machinery or premises used for a manufacturing process or in any other kind
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8245\absw9068\absh3255 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
of work incidental to, or connected within the manufacturing process, or the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8245\absw9068\absh3255 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
subject of the manufacturing process but does not include any member of the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8245\absw9068\absh3255 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
armed forces of the Union [Section 2 (1)].
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8245\absw9068\absh3255 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
In order to term a person as a worker, there must be employer -
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8245\absw9068\absh3255 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
employee relationship. That is, the employer must not only be in a position to
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8245\absw9068\absh3255 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
direct what work the employee should do but also how the work has to be done
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8245\absw9068\absh3255 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
by him. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12460\absw10185\absh2978 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs
19 \cf0 Rights of workers (Section 111A inserted by 1987 Amendment Act)
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12460\absw10185\absh2978 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf
0 A worker shall have the right to (i) obtain from the occupier information rela
ting
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12460\absw10185\absh2978 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf
0 toworkers'healthandsafetyatwork{\f63 \u854\'3f}(ii)gettrainedinthefactoryorata
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12460\absw10185\absh2978 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf
0 training centre or institution when sponsored by the occupier and approved by
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12460\absw10185\absh2978 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf
0 the Chief Inspector; and (iii) represent to the Inspector, directly or otherwi
se, the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12460\absw10185\absh2978 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf
0 matter of inadequacy of health or safety in the factory.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12460\absw10185\absh2978 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf
0 OCCUPIER [Section 2(m)]
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12460\absw10185\absh2978 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf
0 Any person who has ultimate control and management over the affairs of
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12460\absw10185\absh2978 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf
0 the factory will be deemed to be an occupier.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12460\absw10185\absh2978 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf
0 (i) In a partnership firm, the individual partners and in the case of
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12460\absw10185\absh2978 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf
0 association of individuals, members thereof shall be regarded as \par
}
\sect\sectd\pard\plain
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00ffd9
}}\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f
10 \fs19 \cf0 occupier.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
(ii) In companies, the directors are regarded to be occupier because
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
they are vicariously liable for the functions of the company.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
(iii) In government owned and controlled factories, the person or
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
persons appointed to manage the affairs of the factory shall be
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
deemed to be the occupier.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
(iv) In the case of partnership firm or association of individuals, and
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
partner or member may be prosecuted. A manager cannot be
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
regarded as an occupier, unless he is entrusted with the control
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
and management of the factory.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
(v) Owner, lessee or a licensee having control over the factory with
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
regard to its management is deemed to be the occupier [Emperor
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
vs. Ram Pratap, (1896) 20 Bom.423].
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
LICENSING AND REGISTRATION OF FACTORIES [SECTION 6]
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-310 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Under Section 6, the State government may make rules regarding the submission
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
of plans and approval, licensing and registration of factories. The site chosen
to
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
locate the factory must have the previous permission in writing of the State
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
government of Chief Inspector of factories. Such permission will be granted to
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
applicant unless he had duly complied with the directions of the government.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Every application must be duly accompanied with a certified plan,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
showing all the details together with the challan representing the fees payable
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
for such registration, licensing or renewal of licence. If permission is not gr
anted
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
either by the State government or the Chief inspector, within 3 months from
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
the date of submission of such application, permission is presumed to have been
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
granted.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-310 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
On the refusal of the State government to grant permission, the aggrieved
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
applicant can prefer an appeal within the 30 days from the date of refusal. Eve
ry
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
order refusing to grant permission or licence must be a speaking order (a
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
speaking order is an order passed after hearing both the sides and it is passed
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
with reasons stated). Licence or permission cannot be denied merely on the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
direction by the government without hearing the applicant [Shihabudeen Kunju
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
vs. State of Kerala, (1985) 2L.L.J.106].
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Under Section 7, the occupier must give 15 days notice to the State
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
government or chief inspector of factories before he begins to occupy or use an
y
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
premises as a factory. Such notice should contain the following:
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
(a) The name and situation of the factory;
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
(b) The name and address of the occupier;
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
(c) The name and address of the owner of the premises or building
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
(including the precincts thereof);
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
(d) The address to which communications relating to the factory may
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
be sent;
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
(e) The nature of the manufacturing process to be carried on in the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
factory during the next 12 months;
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
(f) The total rated horse power installed or to be installed in the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
factory (not including the rated horse power of any separate
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
stand-by plant);
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
(g) The name of the manager of the factory for the purpose of this
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9109\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Act; \par
}
\sect\sectd\pard\plain
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00ffd9
}}\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9017\absh3534 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f1
0 \fs19 \cf0 (h) The number of workers likely to be employed in the factory; and
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9017\absh3534 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
(i) Such other particulars as may be prescribed.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9017\absh3534 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
It is essential to intimate by notice the inspector with a copy addressed to
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9017\absh3534 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
the chief inspector of the factories if any new person is appointed as manager i
n
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9017\absh3534 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
a factory. Even an acting manager or a person without any designation as
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9017\absh3534 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
manager will be deemed to be an occupier if control and management of the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9017\absh3534 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
factory is governed by them. In the absence of a designated person as manager
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9017\absh3534 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
who ever is an occupier is deemed to be an occupier. [Kama Kishore
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9017\absh3534 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Jhunjhunwala vs. Prescribed Authority, (1976) 32 F.L.R.355].
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9017\absh3534 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Penalty for obstructing inspector (Section 9)
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9017\absh3534 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
When a factory inspector is prevented or obstructed from exercising his powers,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9017\absh3534 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
such person shall be punished with imprisonment for 6 months or fine upto Rs,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9017\absh3534 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
10,000 or with both. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy5573\absw8984\absh2421 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs19
\cf0 Certifying Surgeons (Section10)
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy5573\absw8984\absh2421 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Certifying surgeons are qualified medical practitioners, who are appointed by
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy5573\absw8984\absh2421 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
the State government for specified areas or factories. With the approval of the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy5573\absw8984\absh2421 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
State government, a certifying surgeon may authorize and qualified medical
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy5573\absw8984\absh2421 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
practitioners to exercise any of the powers used by him. However, an occupier
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy5573\absw8984\absh2421 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
of a factory or any parson who becomes directly or indirectly interested in such
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy5573\absw8984\absh2421 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
factory cannot be appointed as a certifying surgeon. These restrictions could be

\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy5573\absw8984\absh2421 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0


exempted by the State Government in appropriate cases by passing orders in
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy5573\absw8984\absh2421 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
writing. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8862\absw8798\absh1868 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs19
\cf0 HEALTH, SAFETY AND WELFARE MEASURES
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8862\absw8798\absh1868 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
By way of implementing the recommendation of the Royal Commission on
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8862\absw8798\absh1868 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Labour in India, the present Factories Act, has underlined the importance of
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8862\absw8798\absh1868 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
health, safety and welfare of the workers. It has made special provisions for
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8862\absw8798\absh1868 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
health under Sections 11 to 20, for safety under Sections 21 to 40 including
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8862\absw8798\absh1868 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Chapter IV A (1987 Amendment Act) and welfare of the workers under Sections
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8862\absw8798\absh1868 \sl-312 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
42 to 50. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy11533\absw8825\absh2145 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs1
9 \cf0 HEALTH (SECTIONS 11 TO 20)
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy11533\absw8825\absh2145 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Cleanliness (Section 11) : Housekeeping is the modern term used for
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy11533\absw8825\absh2145 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
keeping the factory premises clean and tidy. Factories must not only be kept
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy11533\absw8825\absh2145 \sl-310 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
clean but must be maintained with cleanliness in such a way that accumulation
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy11533\absw8825\absh2145 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
of dirt and refuse must be avoided. Constant cleaning of effluvia (disagreeable
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy11533\absw8825\absh2145 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
vapours) arising from any drain is needed. Removal of dirt and refuse alone is
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy11533\absw8825\absh2145 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
not enough, but they have to be disposed of in a suitable manner without,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy11533\absw8825\absh2145 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
causing detriment to the residents of the locality. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy14512\absw9073\absh1032 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs1
9 \cf0 Disposal of wastes and effluents (Section 2) : Wastes and effluents are t
o be
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy14512\absw9073\absh1032 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
disposed of in order to maintain the hygiene inside the factory. However, such
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy14512\absw9073\absh1032 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
wastes cannot be let out without treatment. This is because wastes would pollut
e
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy14512\absw9073\absh1032 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
the surroundings. Norms laid down by the State Pollution Control Board have to
\par
}
\sect\sectd\pard\plain
\pgwsxn11906\pghsxn16838
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00ffd9
}}\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw3814\absh198 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f10
\fs19 \cf0 be observed strictly in this regard. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1867\absw8824\absh1866 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs19
\cf0 Ventilation and Temperature (Section 13): Ventilation and air circulation
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1867\absw8824\absh1866 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
ensure normal health to the workmen. In order to maintain ventilation and fresh
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1867\absw8824\absh1866 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
air circulation, temperature in the working place should be secured. For this
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1867\absw8824\absh1866 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
purpose, the interior walls and roofs of the factory must be properly designed
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1867\absw8824\absh1866 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
and provided with heat resisting or heatproof materials by way of insulation.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1867\absw8824\absh1866 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Reasonable care should be taken for colour washing interior walls with
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1867\absw8824\absh1866 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
psychologically pleasing colours such as light green, etc. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4536\absw9044\absh4370 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs19
\cf0 Dust and Fumes (Section 14) : Effective measures have to be adopted in
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4536\absw9044\absh4370 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
order to prevent the workers inhaling dusts, fumes and other impurities that are
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4536\absw9044\absh4370 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
present (which cannot be seen through naked eye) in the air. Control devices or
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4536\absw9044\absh4370 \sl-310 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
tools have to be used for the purpose of preventing dust and fumes. Use of
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4536\absw9044\absh4370 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
exhaust fans is highly recommended in such places.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4536\absw9044\absh4370 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
No stationary internal combustion engine is allowed to be operated
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4536\absw9044\absh4370 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
unless proper arrangements are made to prevent accumulation of injurious fume
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4536\absw9044\absh4370 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
are caused thereon. [Gregeon vs. Hick Hargreavaes (1955) All E.R.860].
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4536\absw9044\absh4370 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Artificial Humidification (Section 15) : In factories where artificial
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4536\absw9044\absh4370 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
humidification is adopted from the point of view of manufacturing a product
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4536\absw9044\absh4370 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
(e.g., in a textile mill), the norms prescribed by the Government must be strict
ly
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4536\absw9044\absh4370 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
followed for increasing or decreasing or maintaining such artificial
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4536\absw9044\absh4370 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
humidification, Humidifiers for keeping air moisture at even level shall be
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4536\absw9044\absh4370 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
provided.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4536\absw9044\absh4370 \sl-310 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Water used in these plants must constantly be changed and it must be
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4536\absw9044\absh4370 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
pure. Otherwise it will give room for water borne diseases among workers. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9987\absw9116\absh1589 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs19
\cf0 Overcrowding (Section16) : Every worker requires at least 350 cubic feet (
now
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9987\absw9116\absh1589 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
after the commencement of the Act, 500 cubic feet) for the purpose of enabling
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9987\absw9116\absh1589 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
him to work with ease and comfort ensuring mobility. However, while
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9987\absw9116\absh1589 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
calculating the aggregate space, no account shall be taken of any space, which i
s
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9987\absw9116\absh1589 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
more than 14 feet above the level of the floor. The Chief Inspector of Factories
,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9987\absw9116\absh1589 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
by notice may specify the number of persons to be employed in a room. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12352\absw10155\absh2976 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs
19 \cf0 Lighting (Section17) : Too much light throws glare on normal vision. Dif
fused
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12352\absw10155\absh2976 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf
0 light does not help to promote proper vision. Hence, the required light with
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12352\absw10155\absh2976 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf
0 minimum power must be provided. Glazed windows and sky lights through
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12352\absw10155\absh2976 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf
0 which rooms are ventilated have to be constantly cleaned from the inner and
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12352\absw10155\absh2976 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf
0 outer surfaces. Glares and shadows must be avoided from distorting the vision
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12352\absw10155\absh2976 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf
0 of eye. Otherwise, workmen would strain their eyes leading to risks.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12352\absw10155\absh2976 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf
0 Drinking water (Section18) : Potable, pure or wholesome drinking water shall
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12352\absw10155\absh2976 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf
0 be made available to workmen at convenient points, A notice board must be
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12352\absw10155\absh2976 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf
0 displayed indicating availability of such facility. The notice shall also cont
ain
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12352\absw10155\absh2976 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf
0 thecaption{\f63 \u853\'3f}'drinkingwater'inlocallanguage.Ifthestrengthoftheworkers
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy12352\absw10155\absh2976 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf
0 increases beyond 250, cool water equipment must be provided to ensure supply \
par
}
\sect\sectd\pard\plain
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00ffd9
}}\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10410\absh1587 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f
10 \fs19 \cf0 of chilled water. The points at which drinking water is supplied s
hall legibly
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10410\absh1587 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
marked"Drinkingwater"inalanguageunderstoodbyamajorityofemployees.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10410\absh1587 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Such water points must be located beyond 6 meters or any washing place,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10410\absh1587 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
urinals, latrine, spittoon and open drainage, carrying silage or effluent. Shor
ter
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10410\absh1587 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
distance shall be permitted for locating water points only with the approval of
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10410\absh1587 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Chief Inspector of Factories. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3410\absw8730\absh2700 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs19
\cf0 Latrines and Urinals (Section 19) : For a human being, two places are very
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3410\absw8730\absh2700 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
important and both of them have to dept clean and tidy. They are - (i) Latrines
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3410\absw8730\absh2700 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
and urinals; (ii) Places where people rest and relax.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3410\absw8730\absh2700 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Factories where more than 250 workers are ordinarily employed, the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3410\absw8730\absh2700 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
latrine and urinal accommodation shall be of the prescribed sanitary type. The
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3410\absw8730\absh2700 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
floors and internal walls upto a height of 3 feet and above from the floor level
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3410\absw8730\absh2700 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
should be laid in glazed tiles. If tiles are not provided for, the latrines cann
ot be
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3410\absw8730\absh2700 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
dept clean, as the bad water would pass through the pores of latrine walls.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3410\absw8730\absh2700 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Sweepers shall be employed whose primary duty is to keep the latrines and
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3410\absw8730\absh2700 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
urinals clean and washing places tidy. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7009\absw8766\absh1587 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs19
\cf0 Spittoons (Section 20) : Spittoons are nothing but pots that are specially
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7009\absw8766\absh1587 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
provided for, into which, the workers have to spit. Workers cannot spit, as they
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7009\absw8766\absh1587 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
like, as that would spoil the cleanliness and hygiene of the factory. Sufficient
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7009\absw8766\absh1587 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
number of spittoons should be provided, taking into account the number of
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7009\absw8766\absh1587 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
persons employed. A fine of Rs.5 would be imposed on any one who violated
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7009\absw8766\absh1587 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
the rule. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs19
\cf0 SAFETY (Sections 21 to 40)
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Safety is prior to security. According to this concept, the present Factories Ac
t
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
ensures several safety measures as sound in Sections 21 to 40, which are
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
enumerated below:
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Fencing of Machinery (Section 21)
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
In every factory the following namely,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
{\f0\fs25 \bullet }Everymovingpartofaprimemover{\f63 \u853\'3f}andeveryfly-wheel
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
connected to a prime mover, whether the prime mover or fly-wheel
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
is in the engine house or not;
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
{\f0\fs25 \bullet }Theheadraceandtailraceofeverywaterwheel and water-turbine;
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \sl-310 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
{\f0\fs25 \bullet }nypartofastock-bar, which projects beyond the headstock of a
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
lathe;
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
{\f0\fs25 \bullet }Everypartofanelectricgenerator{\f63 \u853\'3f}amotororrotaryconverter{\f
63 \u854\'3f}
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
{\f0\fs25 \bullet }Everypartoftransmissionmachinery{\f63 \u854\'3f}and
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
{\f0\fs25 \bullet }Everydangerouspartofanyothermachinerymust be fenced in a
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
secured manner by substantial construction, which should be
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
constantly maintained. They have to be dept in proper position
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
when the parts of machinery are in motion (Section 21).
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
The manager of the factory should take particular care to provide
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
safeguard devices to deep the machine in tact, so that it cannot come into
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy9371\absw8820\absh5759 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
contact with workers and thereby cause injury. \par
}
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00ffd9
}}\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f
10 \fs19 \cf0 Work on or near Machinery in motion (Section 22) :Such of those pa
rts of
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
machine that are in motion may have to be constantly examined in order to
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
ensure that there is no friction, The examination, including lubrication on the
se
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
moving parts of the machinery must be done only by the adult male workers
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
with tight fitting clothes, It is better such tight fitting clothes are supplie
d by the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
occupier.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Employment of Young persons on Dangerous machines (Section 23):
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Where complex machinery is functioning in a factory, it becomes very essential
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
to stop any machinery either by striking a gear or for cutting off power. In ol
d
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
type of machines, driving belts were mounted on fast and loose pulleys. They
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
were used forming part of transmission machinery. Hence, power must be cut
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
off in order to prevent the driving belts riding upon moving shafts. Suitable,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
efficient mechanical device must be provided for instantaneously stopping the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
machines.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-310 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Self-acting Machines (Section 25) : In a factory, traversing part of a self act
ing
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
machine together with a material carried on by it could be allowed to run over
a
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
space under which any person is liable to pass.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
However, such machinery shall be allowed to traverse both outward and
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
inward directions only beyond a distance of 45 cms from any fixed structure.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
The fixed structure shall not be part of the machine. Workers must be capable o
f
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
passing under the moving part of self-acting machine in connection with their
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
employment.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Casing of new machinery (Section 26) : Power driven machinery, revolving
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
shaft, spindle wheel and pinion should be properly encased, i.e., covered and
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
guarded effectively. Spur wheel, helical wheel, fly wheel, friction gear not
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-310 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
requiring adjustments which are in constant motion should be safely encased.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Even hiring these machines without the safeguards is punishable with fine upto
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Rs.500 and imprisonment for 3 months or both.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Prohibition of Employment of Women and Children near Cotton openers
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
(Section27) : Women and children are generally prohibited in being employed
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
in pressing cotton in which a cotton opener is at work. If the feed end of a co
tton
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
opener is portioned by a separate wall or screen extending upto the ceiling or
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
roof from the delivery end, then women and children could be employed on the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
side of the feeding end and definitely not at the delivery end.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Hoists and lifts (Section28) : In a factory where hoists and lifts are in use,
their
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
construction must have been done out of quality materials with adequate
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
strength to withstand the strain of weight. Such lifts should be fitted with ga
tes
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
and enclosures. Lifts have to be thoroughly examined at least once in six month
s
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
by competent persons, besides this, routine and other examinations have to be
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
conducted. Entries have to be made recording the date of examination.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Lifting machine, chains, and ropes and lifting tackles (Section29) : Lifting
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
machines and cranes that are used in a factory must be properly fastened and
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
strongly coupled with chains and ropes. These chains and ropes tied up with the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
hoists sufficiently protect the lifts and cranes in contingencies like power fa
ilure
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
or mechanical failure. The lifts should be fitted with ropes or chains connecte
d
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
with a cage so that the balance could be maintained with weights. The chief
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Inspector of factories has to ensure whether these lifts and cranes including t
he
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9066\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
ropes are maintained properly. \par
}
\sect\sectd\pard\plain
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00ffd9
}}\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9117\absh1866 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0 \b \f1
0 \fs21 \cf0 Revolving machinery (Section 30) : In the case of use of revolving
or grinding
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9117\absh1866 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
machines, it is necessary that the optimum speed should be indicated for the saf
e
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9117\absh1866 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
working of the machine. Although indications may be there signifying the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9117\absh1866 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
maximum speed, the optimum speed must be written on the machine for the safe
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9117\absh1866 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
use of it. This would enable prevention of risk to the user and reduction of str
ain
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9117\absh1866 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
to the machine. Such a notice must be displayed on the peripheral space of the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9117\absh1866 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
grinding stone, abrasive wheel, etc. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs21
\cf0 HAZARDOUS PROCESSES
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Section 41-A-41-H: Hazardous process has become an important subject after
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
the Bhopal gas tragedy. Precautionary measures and for handling situations
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
involving hazardous processes have been highlighted under Chapter IV-A. What
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
is hazardous process has become a major issue, so as to enforce the provisions
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
under Chapter IV-A. It is for this reason; a new concept under hazardous
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
processes has been introduced with effect from 1.10.1987.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
With view to avoid hazards, in storing, handling, transporting and using
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
dangerous materials, these new provisions have been provided by way of
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
addition to the existing ones under safety measures.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
WELFARE OF WORKERS
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
The present Factories Act has provided several measures under Chapter V for
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
welfare of the workers under Sections 42 to 48, dealing with washing facilities,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
facilities for storing and dressing, facilities for sitting, First-aid appliance
s,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
canteen, shelter, rest rooms, lunch rooms and crèches
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Washing facilities (Section 42) : Suitable and adequate washing facilities, as
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
prescribed by the State government have tobe provided separately and
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
exclusively for male and female workers. These places should be accessible.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Facilities for storing and drying clothes (Section 43) : Suitable places must be
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
provided by the occupier to enable the workers to keep their clothes safe so tha
t
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
there is no risk of theft in that place.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Sitting Facilities (Section 44) : Arrangements shall be made for workers to
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
sit and take rest where their work involves a standing posture.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
First Aid appliances (Section 45) : The term first aid itself signifies immediat
e
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
medical help required by the affected parties. First aid boxes containing essent
ial
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
medicines, including cotton must be provided for every department with not less
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
than 150 workers.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Where in a factory, 500 or more workers are employed, the occupier
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-310 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
should provide an ambulance room, which is indispensable in the matter of
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
giving medical attention to workers who have e sustained serious injuries.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Canteen (Section 46) : Factories employing 250 or more workers shall provide
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
one or more canteens as per the rules of the State government. A managing
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
committee consisting of representatives of employees and employers should
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9076\absh9371 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
manage such canteens. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy14730\absw8322\absh753 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs21
\cf0 Shelters, rest rooms and lunch rooms (Section 47) : Suitable shelters, res
t
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy14730\absw8322\absh753 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
rooms, lunch rooms with provision for drinking water shall be provided for
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy14730\absw8322\absh753 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
every factory employing 150 or more workers. \par
}
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00ffd9
}}\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8995\absh2145 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f1
0 \fs19 \cf0 Creches (Section 48) : Creche is a room or place for accommodating
children
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8995\absh2145 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
below the age of six. Such creche must be properly lighted and adequately
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8995\absh2145 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
ventilated. Trained women assistants shall be employed to attend to the children
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8995\absh2145 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
and maintain them clean and healthy.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8995\absh2145 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Welfare Officers (Section49) : In factories, where 500 or more workers are
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8995\absh2145 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
employed, there shall be such number of qualified welfare officers employed by
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8995\absh2145 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
the management as per norms prescribed by the State government regarding
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8995\absh2145 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
their qualification, duties and conditions of service. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4027\absw7934\absh2426 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs19
\cf0 WORKING HOURS, HOLIDAYS & ANNUAL LEAVE
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4027\absw7934\absh2426 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Adult [Section 2(a)], Adolescent [Section 2(b)] and Child [Section 2(c)]
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4027\absw7934\absh2426 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
An adult is a person who has completed the age of 18. An
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4027\absw7934\absh2426 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
adolescent is a person who has completed the age of 15 but has not
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4027\absw7934\absh2426 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
completed the age of 18. A child is a person who has not completed the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4027\absw7934\absh2426 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
age of 15.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4027\absw7934\absh2426 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
It is very important to note that according to Section 67, a child
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4027\absw7934\absh2426 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
who has not completed the age of 14 cannot be employed to work in a
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4027\absw7934\absh2426 \sl-312 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
factory. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs19
\cf0 Working Hours
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Weekly hours (Section 51): No adult worker shall be required or allowed
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
to work in a factory for more than 48 hours in a week. At present it is
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
reduced to 40 hours.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Work not done in the factory under direction of office will not be
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-310 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
counted. [Superintendent & Remembrancer of Legal Affairs, Bengal Vs.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
J.J. Andrews, (1931) I.L.R. 50 Cal. 519].
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Daily Hours (Section 54): No adult worker shall be required or
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
allowed to work in a factory for more than 9 hours in any day and 40
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
hours in a week. However, to facilitate the change of shift, this limit
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
may be exceeded, subject to the previous approval of the Chief Inspector
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
of factories.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Where work of the same kind is carried out by two or more sets of
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
workers working during different periods of the day, each of such sets is
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
calleda"group"or"relay"andeachofsuchperiodsiscalled"shift"
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
[Section 2(r)].
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Classification of Workers : The manager of the factory shall classify
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
the workers into such groups, as he may deem fit and proper. This
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
would depend upon the nature of work, the number of workers in each
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
group, wherein all the adult workers are not required for such work
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
during the same period [Section 61 (4)]. For each group, which is not
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
required to work on a system of shifts, the manager of the factory shall
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
fix the periods during which the group may be required to work. [Section
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
61 (5)].
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Group working on a system of shifts : The manager shall fix the period
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
during which each relay of the group may be required to work on shifts.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy7318\absw9555\absh7424 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
This is done in spite of the reason that there is already a pre-determined \par
}
\sect\sectd\pard\plain
\pgwsxn11906\pghsxn16838
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00ffd9
}}\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0 \b \f
10 \fs21 \cf0 schedule that has been fixed as a system specifying the shift in w
hich the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
respective relays have to work [Section 61 (6)].
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Register of Adult Workers (Section 62) : Registers disclosing the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
particulars of adult workers working in the factory shall be maintained
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
by the manager incorporating the changes from time to time. Registers
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
shall show (a) the name of each adult worker in the factory, (b) the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
nature of his work, (c) the group, if any, in which he is included, (d) the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
place or spot where his group works on shifts, the relay to which he is
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
allotted; and (e) such other particulars as may be prescribed.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Work in accordance with Notice (Section 63) : All adult workers
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
who are required or allowed to work in the factory, shall be in
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
accordance with the notice periods of work as displayed on the general
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
notice board and in conformity with the entries made in the register of
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
adult workers.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-310 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
It shall be the duty of the occupier or manager in the factory, not
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
to allow any adult worker beyond the stipulated period of hours of work.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Furthermore, he shall not allow the total number of workers to exceed
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
the number that has already been notified and allocated for work. The
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
plea of payment of overtime wages would not justify employing a worker
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
to do work beyond the usual hours of work.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-308 \par\b \f10 \fs21
\cf0 HOLIDAYS (SECTIONS 52 & 53)
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
No adult worker shall be required or allowed to work in a factory, on the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-311 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
first day of the week, which is a Sunday. This would mean that a worker,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-253 \par\b \f10 \fs21
\cf0 shall have a holiday for every six days of continuous work.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
However, the manager may call upon a worker to work on a Sunday. In
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
such cases, one day holiday must be given either out of the 3 days
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
preceding the Sunday or out of the 3 days succeeding the Sunday. Before
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
making this arrangement, a manager shall deliver a notice to the office of
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
the inspector expressing his intention to that effect.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Furthermore, notice must also be displayed in the factory,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
intimating such change. No substitution can however be made, in such a
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
way that it makes a worker to work for more than l0 days consecutively.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Sunday, shall for the purpose of calculating weekly hours of work be
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
included in the preceding week, where any worker works on a Sunday.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Compensatory Holidays : It is mandatory that a worker shall be allowed
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-310 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
compensatory holidays of equal number to the holidays so lost. This
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
arises on account of the worker being deprived of the weekly holidays
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
under Section 52 made by the State Government exempting the factory
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
from such provisions. The compensatory holidays must be allowed to
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
the workman within 2 months or within a month in which the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
substitution of such holidays becomes due. The manner in which
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
compensatory holidays has to be allowed, is prescribed by the State
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8290\absh12333 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Government. \par
}
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00ffd9
}}\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8223\absh1866 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0 \b \f1
0 \fs21 \cf0 ANNUAL LEAVE WITH WAGES (SECTION 79 TO 82)
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8223\absh1866 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Section 78 to 84 of the Factories Act deal with annual leave with wages.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8223\absh1866 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
If any award or agreement including settlement or contract of service
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8223\absh1866 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
provides for a longer annual leave with wages under provisions of
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8223\absh1866 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Section 79 to 82, the worker shall be entitled to such leave. But there
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8223\absh1866 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
cannot be any award or settlement reducing the annual leave as provided
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw8223\absh1866 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
under the Act. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs2
1 \cf0 RULES RELATING TO ANNUAL LEAVE WITH WAGES
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
(SECTION 79)
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
There are two cumulative conditions that are said to be mandatory for
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
the purpose of availing of annual leave with wages: (a) A worker should
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
have put in continuous years of service which means that he should have
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
actually worked for 240 days or more during the calendar year. (b)
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
During that year, for every 20 days of actual work put in by him, a
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
workman becomes eligible for one day rest leave in the succeeding year.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
In the case of a child, one day for every 15 days of work performed
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
during the previous calendar year.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
In spite of the fact that a worker might not have completed 240
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
days in a calendar year, the legal representative or nominee of such
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
worker shall be entitled to claim such earned wages proportionately
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
before the expiry of the second working day from the date of such
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
discharge or dismissal or quitting.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
(2) However, if a worker has been superannuated or has expired,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
then such earned wages must be settled before the expiry of two months
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
from the date of such superannuation or death [Section 79 (2)].
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
(3) In calculating leave period, fraction of leave of half a day or
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
moreshallbetreatedasonefullday'sleave.Theunavailedleavebya
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
worker shall be carried forward to the succeeding year, provided no such
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
accumulation of unavailed leave shall exceed 30 days in a year. In case
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
of excess, unavailed earned leave would lapse. But the number of times
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
the leave that may be taken during any year shall not exceed 3 times.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Other Provisions of Chapter VIII (Section 81 to 84): A worker who
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
has been allowed earned leave for not less than 4 days in the case of an
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
adult and 5 days in the case of a child, they shall be paid the wages due
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
for the period before their leave begins respectively. If the employer
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-310 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
does not make such payment, it shall be recoverable as delayed wages
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
under the provisions of Payment of Wages Act, 1936.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Power to make rules (Section 83): The State Government may make
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
rules directing managers of factories to keep registers containing
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
prescribed particulars and requiring the register to be available for
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
examination by Inspectors.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
Power to exempt factories (Section 84): The State Government may
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
exempt a factory from the operation of the leave rules, it is satisfied that
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
its own leave rules provide benefits, which are not less favourable to the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
workers than that of the statutory leave rules.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy3720\absw9555\absh10762 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs21 \cf0
RECENT AMENDMENTS IN THE ACT \par
}
\sect\sectd\pard\plain
\pgwsxn11906\pghsxn16838
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00ffd9
}}\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f
10 \fs19 \cf0 Government has introduced the Social Security Scheme for the unorg
anized
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
sector worker on a pilot basis in 50 districts of the Country, which was launch
ed
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
on 23/01/2004. This would cover workers in the unorganized sector drawing
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
not more than Rs. 6500 per month.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
The scheme provides,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
{\f0\fs25 \bullet }flatratepensionofRs.500permonthonretirementattheageof60
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
and total disablement. Family pension in case of death of the workers.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
{\f0\fs25 \bullet }personalaccidentinsurancecoverforrupeesonelakhand
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
309
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
{\f0\fs25 \bullet }Universalhealthinsuranceschemeforaworkerandhisfamilyatthecost
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
of Rs. 548 per annum for a family of 5 members or Rs. 365 per annum
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
for a family of 3 members.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Further, the Ministry took several measures such as labour welfare funds,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
welfare fund for overseas Indian workers etc.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-310 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
The Factories (Amendment) Bill, 2003 was introduced on the Lok Sabha
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
on July 29, 2003. The bill proposes to amend Sec. 66 of the Factories Act, 1948
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
so as to provide flexibility in the matter of employment of women during night
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
with adequate safeguard for their safety, dignity, honour and transportation fr
om
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
the factory premises to the nearest point of their residence.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
The Parliamentary Standing Committee on labour and welfare examined
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
the contents and submitted its report on August 27, 2003. The report of the II
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
National Commission on labour was submitted to the Government on June 29,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw10050\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
2002. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs1
9 \cf0 SUMMARY
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
The Factories Act, 1948 was passed with an intention of making the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
work life of persons employed in factories free from hazards and
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
injuries. The protection is afforded to all workers - men, women, and
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
children. Women and children are given special protection, as they are
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
considered more vulnerable. As the employer prepares the environment,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
the law seeks to regulate the same in the interests of the workmen. The
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
law provides for scrutiny of the place and approval of plans and
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
specifications before they are registered under the Act for the purpose of
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
ensuring health, safety and welfare of the workers.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-308 \par\b \f10 \fs19
\cf0 Appropriate standards are also prescribed. Working hours of
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-310 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
adults are made subject to regulations. Employment of children below
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
the age of 14 is prohibited. The law regulates the employment of minors
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
who are permitted to work. Law provides for the entitlement of annual
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
leave with wages. Special provisions are also envisaged to meet certain
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
eventualities.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Labour reforms in India, in the context of globalization is much desired,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
but also feared and misinterpreted. This issue has been a sensitive one ever
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
since the liberalization era begins under the Narasima Rao Government in the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
early 1990. In the hurry to reform and to keep up with the globalization trend
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
set in motion by the GATT (now replace by the WTO), the immediate forms
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy8662\absw10560\absh6314 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
wasontheretrenchmentofsurplusworkers'andtheclosureof'SICK'Public \par
}
\sect\sectd\pard\plain
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00ffd9
}}\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f
10 \fs19 \cf0 andPrivateSectorunits.TheTT'swerethePioneersinintroducinga
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
numberof'Firsts'inthefieldof labour welfare. Well ahead of any Indian
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
legislation on this front, several benefits - the eight hour working day, free
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
medical aid, provident fund, gratuity, leave with pay, maternity benefits were
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
incorporatedbytheTT'stheirworkplaceclimate.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
5.1.1 Activity
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
As an employee of a firm list out the restrictions that were violated by
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
your management regarding the employment of women and young
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
persons as per the provisions of Factories Act, 1948.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
5.1.2 Activity
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
A worker aged 25 years has been allowed leave for 4 days. Another
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
worker aged 14 years has been allowed leave for 5 days. Both the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
workers intend to get the wage before their leave begins. Advice the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
employer.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-310 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
5.1.3 Activity
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Visit a factory (or look into your own organisation, if it is a factory or indu
strial
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
establishment). Study the facilities / provisions for health, safety and other
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
working conditions. Analyse how they compare with the provisions and
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
standards set in the text of the Factories Act.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \par\b \f10 \fs19
\cf0 SELF-ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
1. Explain the requirements for constitution of a factory. Define a worker,
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
State the rights and duties of the worker.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
2. Explain and enumerate the procedure for Licensing and Registration of
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Factories. State the responsibilities of the Inspector of Factories with
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-310 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
regard to grant and registration of license.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
3. Explain the role of the designer and manufacturer in carrying out research
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
work in day-to-day activities of the factories.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
4. Discuss and explain briefly health, safety and welfare measures adopted
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
under the Factories Act, 1948.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
5. What is hazardous process? What are all the precautionary measures and
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
safety measures have to be adopted under Chapter IV-A of the Factories
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Act?
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
6. Write short notes on:
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
(a) Self-acting machines (b) Creches
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
(c) Canteen (d) Precaution in case of fire.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
7. Explain in detail the working hours prescribed for an adult woman
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
and young person, who are workers in a factory with regard to
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
timings, duration, overtime, etc.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
8. How a factory manager avoids double employment of workers?
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
What are the rules he has to observe for changing the system of
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
shifts for group workers?
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
9. Explain the method of declaring rest day in factories. Can it be
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
changed according to the discretion of occupier?
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
10. What is meant by annual leave with wages and what are the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
conditions to be fulfilled for availing of annual leave with wages?
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
KEY WORDS
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw9600\absh13264 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
o Administration: State Governments will administer the Act \par
}
\sect\sectd\pard\plain
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00ffd9
}}\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw7594\absh2700 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f1
0 \fs19 \cf0 through their own Factory Inspectors. The onus of compliance
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw7594\absh2700 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
with the provisions of the Act wholly rests on the occupier of the
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw7594\absh2700 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Factory.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw7594\absh2700 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
o Assessment: Factories Act would apply notwithstanding any
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw7594\absh2700 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
provisions inconsistent therewith in any other enactment.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw7594\absh2700 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
o Occupier: A person who has ultimate control and management
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw7594\absh2700 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
over the affairs of the factory.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw7594\absh2700 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
o Certifying Surgeons: They are qualified medical practitioners who
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw7594\absh2700 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
are appointed by the State Government for specified areas or
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy1048\absw7594\absh2700 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
factories. \par
}
{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4646\absw9420\absh1313 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0 \b \f10 \fs19
\cf0 FURTHER READINGS
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4646\absw9420\absh1313 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
{\f0\fs25 \bullet }garwal.S.L.1980LabourRegulationsLawinIndia(RevisedEdition){\f63 \u853\'3
f}
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4646\absw9420\absh1313 \sl-307 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Macmillan Company of India Ltd: Delhi.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4646\absw9420\absh1313 \sl-309 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
{\f0\fs25 \bullet }D.P.Jain, 1991 Industrial Law (Revised Edition), Konark Publish
ers Pvt.
\par}{\phpg\posx1008\pvpg\posy4646\absw9420\absh1313 \sl-312 \b \f10 \fs19 \cf0
Ltd., New Delhi \par
}
\sect\sectd\pard\plain
}

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