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the present volume was originally


was intended

to contain an account of Russian folk-

lore in general

of the stories, legends, riddles, pro-



epic as well as lyric poems,

which oral

tradition has preserved


the Russian peasantry.


I soon found that the subject

was one which,


treated at

in detail,

would require more time and
I thought

space than I had expected.

best to

myself for the present to a part of


leaving the rest to

be described



this first instalment of the work, therefore, I


dealt chiefly,

though not exclusively, with the

poetry of the peasantry; the next will be mainly

devoted to their Popular Tales and their Metrical

In order to render


the songs I have

has been necessary to give some slight

account of the religious ideas attributed to the ancient




and the superstitions



their descendants, as well as of

some of the manners

and customs of the Russian peasantry, especially with
regard to marriages and funerals.


my book can

make no pretence
grappling with the


any thing

like a satisfactory




ethnological, philological, historical

suggested by

the study of Slavonic antiquities.

Perhaps the best

excuse I can




shortcomings with respect

to those questions

is this.

A great part of the ground

over which I have hastily skimmed has been explored

by a scholar who
than I am.


far better qualified for the task


work on " The
time, all

so to Mr. Morfill's forthcoming " I refer, at all events for a Slaves
for fuller

who wish


on the

In the translations contained in the present volume
I have attempted to give, in every case, as literal a

version of the original as possible.

My rule has been

to translate the songs into prose, line for line



word, and this rule has scarcely ever been


Only here and

there, in the introductory

chapter and in that on Marriage, I have been sometimes almost unconsciously led into following, to some
slight extent, the

rhythmical flow of the Eussian.



my readers are probably aware, very rarely


appears in any but modern Russian Songs, and upon
recent poetry I have not touched.

For inconsistency in the use of accents I have only On my " copy " I had marked this excuse to offer.
every accented syllable, but typographical difficulties


me from

carrying out


original idea.

After having begun to print, however, I found that

words were


liable to

be mispro-

nounced, so I inserted a few marks here and there,

where they seemed to be most needed,

in order to

show on which

syllable the accent

ought to

"With respect to the authorities I have consulted,


may be

as well to say a few words.




has been to render available to such students of

mythology and

folk-lore as

may happen

not to read

Russian, some part, at least, of the evidence bearing

upon those


which has been collected in

Russia, but which has not been hitherto rendered

generally intelligible


and therefore I

have not thought

necessary to

make more than

occasional reference to books written in, or translated

the languages of Western Europe


Of the



of books in various languages on Slavonic AntiI.


given by Dr.



slawiscJien Mytlius, pp. 48 been faithfully translated


See Die Wissenschaft des number of Eussian Songs have
Goetze, under the




Stimmen des russiscken

VolJcs in Liedern.

Stuttgart, 1828.




Russian authorities on which I have principally relied
full list will

be given at the end of the book.


Songs contained in the present volume have been
taken, for the most part, from the rich collections

made by Sakharof and Shein
rowed from the valuable


the descriptions of

popular manners and customs have been mainly bor-

works of Snegiref and

the greater part of the chapter on

Funeral Songs I have extracted from the erudite
" by Kotlyarevsky, On the Funeral Rites of the Heathen Slavonian s;" and for the arrangement

and much of the contents of the chapter on Mythic and Ritual Songs


indebted to Orest Miller's

" Historical Survey of Russian Literature."

But it is to Alexander Nikolaevich



recent and premature death cannot sufficiently be
deplored, that I

His great work,

am under " On the

the deepest obligations. Poetic Views of the Old

Slavonians about Nature"

a rich storehouse to

which I have had constant recourse in the present
on his excellent collections of Russian

Popular Tales and Legends the next volume will be

and from his writings

in general I

have de-

rived frequent assistance while studying the Builinas,
few occur
also in the collection entitled Balalaika.



slawischer Lieder von


von Waldlruhl.

Leipzig, 1848.



or Metrical


with respect to which the

books of reference are the collections of Ruib2

nikof and Kiryeevsky

and the


works of

Buslaef, Bezsonof, Maikof, Orest Miller, Schiefner,

and many others.



one other Russian

scholar to


I wish to render hearty acknowledg-


for aid constantly received.



not for

the great dictionary " of the living Russian language

by Vladimir Dahl, a foreigner would be hopelessly bewildered when trying to make his way through
difficult field

of Russian folk-lore.
offer cordial

Finally, let


thanks for the


ance personally tendered to
friends, as well

me by many





upon other occasions as on those of Russia in 1868 and 1870. To them
book, trusting that, imperfect as
it is,

I dedicate


they will recognize in

such traces of honest work


render them lenient towards


both of

omission and of commission.
January, 1872.


A new

poems by the

collection of builinas is now in the press, containing the written down from the dictation of the Olonets "rhapsodists"

A. F. Hilferding. They will not be arranged to their subjects, nor chronologically ; but they will be according grouped in relation to their reciters all the poems dictated by each
rhapsodist being kept together.

I seen

has recently been published, to which, had



book went

to press, I should

have made frequent reference

Professor Bernhard

Schmidt's Das Volksleben der Neugriechen und das
hellenische Alterthum.



between the

folk-lore of the

modern Greeks,

as described in


and that of the Russians,
so, that it

most striking



seems to point to something more than a
Professor Schmidt utterly


origin ages ago.

repudiates Fallmerayer's doctrine

with respect to

the preponderance of the Slavonic element in the

population of modern Greece, and he will not allow
that Slavonic myths have at

seriously affected

those of Hellenic descent.




many of

the customs and songs which I have quoted
in the

works of Wachsmuth, Ulrichs, Passow, Kind, Fauriel, Firmenich-Kichartz, and many others, of most of which an account is given in the "Notes on the ballads, tales, and classical
superstitions of the



of the Eev.

modern Greeks," contained in chapters 21 and H. F. Tozer's "^Researches in the Highlands of


in the present




a singular resemblance to

those of the

modern Greeks, one which

often far

closer than that

which can be traced between them

and the

rest of their kin in other lands.
in this Preface to

may be

worth while
details in

mention a few of the

which Slavonic and Hellenic


seem most


The Russian Khorovod

the circling dance to song

often of a serious or even sad nature, which Kavelin

back to heathen


performed in


around an

appears to be closely akin to the

dances which in Greece
religious character.



of their old

The Russian


or blind

psalm-singers, and the reciters of the luilinas, find
their exact counterpart in Greece.

Such ideas as

are held

by the Slavonians about the demoniacal character of mid-day, and which are common to




influence on the


The Slavonic nymphs

Rusalkas, Yilas,


bear a


closer resemblance to the

Neraides of modern Greece than they do to their
sisters in other

European lands.


similar resem-



to be found between the Greek

Lamia and

the Russian
are identical

Baba Yaga.


ideas about vampires


the Greeks and Slavonians, the


for a vampire being one of the very

few words




Slavonic origin in

modern Greek.



monies, also, attendant on the building of a


house are almost the same, whether the builders be

Greeks or Slavonians.

The three Baba Yagas


Russian Storyland are very like the three Moirais


in Greece

have succeeded to the old Fates.


the Slavonic folk-beliefs with respect to the
like as

beyond the grave,
Latin, Teutonic,

they are to those held in
lands, yet




closely resemble those of the

modern Greeks.

Since the Preface to the


was printed

I have read Professor Hilferding's

most interesting




March number


of the

Evropui) of his recent expedition to the " " Rhapsodists described by Ruibnikof.


I have, for

the present, availed myself in a few instances only
of his criticisms, but they will

be of the utmost

value to

me when



" metrical dealing with the


in detail.

may be

as well to observe that, throughout the

following chapters, I have generally confined myself
to stating, without criticizing, the opinions held


the Russian Mythologists
April, 1872.


I have quoted.



Khorovod, or Choral, Songs

The Posidyelka, TheBesyeda

or Social Gathering



32 36

Divisions of Songs


Cossack and Eobber Songs
Soldier Songs


Builinas, or Metrical





Story of Svyatogor Story of Sukhman

64 67

Euibnikof s Eesearches





y Other Slavonic

Old Slavonic Mythology Perun


Ideas about the Soul


The Domovoy,

or House-spirit






House-changing Ceremonies




The Eusalka, or Naiad The Vodyany, or Water-sprite The Lyeshy, or Wood- demon

148 153


The Baba Yaga,
The Witch The Snake The Water-king Swan Maidens

or Ogress


Koshchei the Immortal





Tom Thumb

Kolyadki, or Christmas Songs


Gadaniya, or G-uessings


Ovsen and

New Year


. . . . . . .


Feast of the Epiphany

207 210

Death of Winter
Eeception of the Spring

Cuckoo Christening

.211 .214 .219

Krasnaya'Gorka Dodola Songs
George Songs Semik and Whitsuntide Songs


.227 .229



Funeral of Kostroma, or Yarilo



Harvest Eites

-.. . A modern Peasant Wedding Old Slavonian ideas about Marriage Purchase of the Bride Bride's Sorrow at leaving her 263 282 283 Home 287 292 Her affection towards her Parents Mitigation of Patriarchal Severity 293 295 303 305 306 Love Songs A Bride's Complaint Songs of Married Life Mythical Wedding Guests CHAPTER V... 251 254 The Ovin.309 310 313 Modern Funeral Rites Funeral Banquets Ghost Banquets Ancient Funeral Rites 320 321 322 Human Sacrifices 327 331 Strava and Trizna . XV PAGE ... the Cattle-God September Customs Dmitry's Saturday . MARRIAGE SONGS. Death Weddings TheRadunitsa ...CONTENTS. or Corn-kiln 257 260 CHAPTER IV. FUNERAL SONGS.

.....) 437 Note on Metres .. 440 . . 404 409 417 427 433 History of Eussian Witchcraft Mythological Explanations Conclusion APPENDICES.) List of Authorities (B. 346 357 374 376 The stone Alatuir Wizards and Witches Amulets Poisoners Cattle. Zagadkas. PAGE Lament of Orphans A Widow's Lament Wailings at Graves .XVI CONTENTS. 378 387 389 393 Cattle-plague Spells 395 Cholera and Small-pox 402 Werewolves Vampires . or Spells Buyan.spells . 334 338 343 . or Enigmas Zagov6rs. (A.. CHAPTEE VI. SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. . the Elysian Isle ...

aspect of Russian popular poetry . of the times and places when and where they are usually to be heard. and of what manner of persons they are who sing them. it to fix the fleeting images they offer of present.spread system of sorcery which have drifted down to our days in the form of truncated spells. CHAPTER INTEODUCTOBY. so far at least as the younger members of the . to give some brief account of the songs which are sung on ordinary as well to tarry awhile in the to trace a rapid outline of the general may be by the peasantry.THE SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. the remains of a wide. and incantations. BEFOEE entering upon the consideration of the more important features of the poetical folk-lore of Russia the relics of mythic and ritual song. and the fragmentary before epics or metrical romances called Builinas endeavouring the past. I. And perhaps the simplest method of conveying this occasions information will be to describe in a few words what are. exorcisms.

or at what period they gained their hold upon the Slavonic peoples. As soon as the long winter has fully passed away. to pass successively into those of summer and autumn. and the Posidyelka. All that the Russian peasant cares to know about them is. and that the songs which belong to them have been for the most part carefully handed down from parent to child from some remote period of time of which he has but a very vague idea. two of the most popular the Khorovod. or choral institutions of Russia dance. on the poetical delineations . word Khorovod one of which the is among many of the Slavonians. peasantry are concerned. Nor have the researches of the learned thrown any very clear light on thesufy'ect.2 SONGS OF THE EUSSIAN PEOPLE. nothing definite being known even as to the origin of the equivalent. before they disappear at the approach of wintry weather. a circle. that they formed the favourite solace of generation after generation of his ever-toiling and often suffering ancestors. and the spring has made its welcome influence felt. derived these circling dances to the sound of song. but rather on the songs associated with it. the simpler term Kolo. or social gathering. what are called the vernal Khorovod s are making their voices heard all over the land. the thoughts of the younger members of every village Russia begin to turn towards the blended dance and song of the Khorovod. Before community in long. But it is not on the history of the it is Khorovod that proposed to dwell at present. neither history Whence were nor tradition can say.

How rich in popular poetry that country is but few foreigners are thoroughly aware. historical past of Russia is supposed by most of their B 2 . and the careful study of natives who have but the songs of the common people being results of comparatively recent times. as well as interesting. on the long series of versified domestic dramas towards the performance of which it has from immemorial times contributed successive generations of actors. of often echoing the expressions. with among whom they whose inner lives it is not easy to become acquainted. of the many millions of Russian men and women of low degree. charm alone that They have the additional merit of frequently offering a faithful picture of the manners of the people by or are sung. But it is not on their their value depends. fragmentary epics dealing with the adventures of the dimly-seen form of the princes and heroes. of the institutions of the country. the popular poetry of Russia the To the student Khorovod is one of of the most instructive." to which the people love to listen. or " metrical romances.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. of Russian social as at once canvas life 3 itself for which it has offered and frame. And indeed there are many of its a very slight idea of the poetic wealth amassed by the great body of their countrymen the full appreciation. and so in the songs A vein there poetic is which accompany him through life a true poetic ring. and embodying the sentiments. among the of natural and genuine poetry runs through the thought and speech of the Russian peasant. As in the Builinas.

and the sports of it is his earliest feelings of love. with croons " about the " evil Tartars of olden days. whether carried on out of doors. The younger generation grows up. enlivens the repose of the holiday.4 SONGS OF THE EUSSIAN PEOPLE. and gives expression to In the ears of the girls always ringing. amid exposure to sun and wind. by common consent. and mourns parents of whom their children have taken what may be a last farewell. giving animation to the choral dance by day and the social gathering by night. and teaches them how. it by the feeble light of a pinewood splinter . the wedded daughter to her new home. remarks one of the principal collectors of his country's popular Compoetry their songs have no slight influence. . in glowing colours. may be recognized the principal features of the life led within the family circle by the Russian peasants. iii. the happiness of mutual attachment. it also paints. song accompanies the Russian man during the games of his childhood his youth. 1 On them. m. p. and song escorts the conscript son to the army. over the sorrow of the 1 Kuibnikof. Song lightens the toil of the working hours. commentators to reveal so in the songs of the villagers. itself. . to lull their it babes to sleep. and to soothe the restlessness of their elder children. mencing at the side of his cradle. and rain and frost. and if it depicts in sombre hues the unwelcome change from maiden freedom to wedded subjection. To the husband and wife suggests many a form of loving words. or within the stifling hut.

O tired hen comes the final scene of all. says these Tereshchenko 2 . after the fashion of their pagan ancestors. song hovers around the silent form. song rises again above the graves of the departed. including those relating to marriage. for. as each returning spring brings back the memory of the past together with fresh hopes for heedless ears passionate words Nor does its ministering cease the future. but the rest to the Seventeenth or Eighteenth. and addresses to its of loving entreaty. those used by Khorovod performers. to a much later date. quoted. and many of the ritual songs. he IV. . and when the yes are closed for ever. we have to do at present. evidently come down from heathen times.the Who unmistakable stamp of great antiquity. 136. but not distant A few of those which will presently be periods. composed these songs no one can say. even then. Judging by their structure. such as the "Millet Sowing. and even what date ought to be assigned to them cannot The mythical fragments have well be determined. must be referred.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. 1 As to their composers. and the weary hands are crossed in peace. bearing . as. so far at least as their present form is concerned. the villagers celebrate their yearly memorial of the dead." he attributes to the ^Sixteenth Century." the "Tit" mouse/' and the Poppy Growing. have probably been sung for many hundreds But the majority of the songs with which of years. songs belong to different.

and talk about their fields and their flocks. that we can determine about them is they must have belonged to the common people. even the saddest looking of Russian hamlets assumes a lively aspect 3 In front of their wooden huts the old people sit " simply chatting in a rustic row. and their house- hold free affairs. younger men and women gather together in groups. all that for otherwise they never could have expressed with the simple thoughts and feelings of the villagers. and loses itself among fringe woods which darken the plain and the horizon. and with so complete a freedom from artificial embellishso much sympathy ment. from labour for the day. but as regards the dates of the songs Tereshchenko's arguments have not been universally accepted as conclusive. each sex apart from the other. or described with such accuracy. their families. neighbouring church beyond the log-houses a streak of road stretches away into the distance. . the commonplace occurrences of village-life.6 continues. The latter part of this criticism is not likely to be disputed. in fine spring weather. 136 140. Across the river they see their horses. . merrily wending towards the open space in which the Khorovods are always held. SONGS OF THE KUSSIAN PEOPLE. When a holiday arrives. and singing as they go Tereshchenko. browsing in the green meadows above the copse rises the blue cupola of a . IT." the . Along the village street and the the slope towards the river stroll the girls in their holiday array.

the appointed spot is reached they form a take hands. lead a life of ease in the home of a mother. and the two bands move towards If the village is a large are formed. . or round and round. 7 The From And have set the nightingale upon the grass. On the grassy turf. While you While you still still are at liberty in a father's home. them. And the beautiful maidens will begin to dance But the young wives will pour forth tears." When circle. singing The bright falcons have met in the oak-forest : Into the greenwood have flown the white cygnets. If they become tired of performing by they invite the village youths to join themselves. and begin moving this way and that. beautiful maidens have come forth within the gates. " Play on. when they blend together. .SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. or leader of the dance. on the blue flowers. The nightingale will break into song. one at each each other singing a song which changes. to wander out of doors. They have carried out with them a nightingale. into the Byzantium-remembering chorus To Tsargorod With my Will I go. ye beautiful maidens. After this they proceed with their games and songs under the guidance of the Khorovodnitsa. will I pierce. lance the wall Will I pierce. Fluttering about from bush to bush. will I go. one a couple of Khorovods end of the street.

" a' drunken Pan." The Lady. fair How shall How shall we Ladushki we maidens form our Khorovod ones begin carols ?" Often. the following number of which is may be taken as speci- mens: In the Murmanka Shlyapa. followed by a Pan'ya. possibly * . Of these brief metrical dramas. Pondering. Ladi. comes staggering in. and then she who plays the male part in any of what may be called the little operettas which they perform. " How shall we make ourselves nests ? How " shall we build ourselves ! warm new nests ?" ? Didi. replies in the pride of her maiden liberty. richly adorned with fur. the considerable. in order to be in keeping with her assumed character. am not thy handmaid. pick up. worn in old times by the Grand Dukes and Boyars. considering. Pick up. father The Murmanki were large caps. or Lady. or Lord. come hither." my Lord. the ' Khorovod remains composed of girls alone. sometimes adopts a man's hat or cap. however. Presently his cap falls off. I am the handmaid of my And of my mother. The word may be corrupted from the name Norman. " Come hither. " I. cap. and he orders the Lady to pick it up. Didi. The chorus sings From the Prince has come a drunken Lord. the " Murman Cap 4 .8 SONGS OF THE EUSSIAN PEOPLE. my Murman cap. He has dropped his Murman To the Lady young the Lord has cried. Lady young.

He has dropped his Murman To his Lady young the Lord has " Come hither. 158. My Lady young. I am thy handmaid. the mother of Ivan the Terrible. I Wife. By this Lord. so she no longer refuses to obey his commands. Pick up. I will buy thee Muslin for a sleeve." "My The idea of the despotic power of the husband is expressed still more strongly in the favourite game of "A Wife's Love. the bazaar 6 . And I will place it on thy daring head 5 . or bazaar outside the Kremlin. wife. my is wifie. My sable Murman cap. thy heart. who begin Wife. take their place in the middle of the circle of singers. China-Town of Moscow. IV. my wine. but replies with humility. See. is part of the It takes its name from Kitaigrod in Podolia. The Kitai-Gorod." time the Lady has become his wife. I will pick up thy sable Murman cap. . is Hard thy heart. Wife. the birthplace of Helena. here is Muslin for a sleeve. or more A frequently two girls. Wife.SONGS OF THE EUSSIAN PEOPLE. am To walk through going.'* youth and a girl. pick up. U The chorus recommences From the Prince has come a drunken Lord. cap. come hither. 5 " Hard Tereshchenko. one of whom wears a man's hat. cried.

Soft is thy heart 7 7 . Tereshchenko. Wife. Is your dear present ! She looks upon him affectionately. The chorus sings. 238. never bows down to him. it The husband no better which the buys his wife a golden ring. ! Good husband at all Never agrees with him. From him turns away ! ! people. only see loves her ! Lord ! Always agrees with him. A This time says when he brings his new offering. in husband cries Wife. I will go To the bazaar Wife. he gives her a blow with the whip. Gives him kisses. . . and flings offers his present. At first his wife will not look at it it presently she snatches it from his on the ground.10 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. and she bows low before him and kisses him. the satisfied husband concludes with the words. but than his former present. The husband hand. wife. IV. I will buy thee silken whip. and There. Then comes the third and final fares act. my wine. while the chorus sings Good How well she And people. always bows down to him. only see She does not love her The second act is similar to the first.

to get married unsuccessful attempts. 11 The subject of wife-beating plays a considerable The following song part in Russian popular poetry." the "Hedge" and the Beer-Brewing" will occur in a later chapter the " " Geese. foot along it passed. determines so his sister. " "Millet-Sowing." the Sparrow. ought to be described among the "games" : The of which the Russian people possess so rich a store. are the first is Bench. but there are a few others in which historical allusions occur. after marriage. " Titmouse" and the " Oak instance. father dear. But I alone." The subject of the finch. Across the Don No I a plank lay.SONGS OF THE KUSSIAN PEOPLE. went along to it with ! And my : true love dear. my love I said darling. . And Far And my my mother dear They cannot hear my voice. for good cause beat thou thy for a great offence. the Titmouse. thin and bending . They cannot see my burning tears farther still ." and many others of the same kind. Such. I. away is wife. rather than among their poems. and which therefore for seem to deserve especial attention. from the hill. invites 1 Shein. and therefore we will not dwell upon them at present. 8 . dear But only Beat not thy wife without a cause. 403. may serve as a specimen of the manner in which it is treated. The Bui- many . the young one.

In the " Oak Bench" a hands. Tereshchenko. not grand. May brew the beer. though uninvited. and borrowed hops. seeking bride among its members.12 SONGS OF THE KUSSIAN PEOPLE. and I will marry her 9 . Bulfinch dear ? " Fain would I marry could I find a bride. who sing for his Beyond the sea the Titmouse lived. the brandy may distil will invite as guests the little birds. The Owl caressed the feathers of her head. But there. move around 9 her. with linked girl sits Boyar. Lord. came. The person who represents the Bulfinch wanders about inside the Khorovod. We The widow Owl. I'd take the Titmouse only she's my sister. I'd take the Linnet only she's my mother. 1533 1584) but to have been prohibited for a time. Bought malt." " Grant us. the birds to her dwelling. 280. on account of containing allusions to the life its of a certain influential pensively in the middle of a circle of young people who. . that we the beer may brew." Among " : : This song is said to have been written during the reign of Ivan the Terrible (A. themselves the birds began to say. Not sumptuous was her state but beer she brewed. across the water. in order that he may choose a spouse.D. singing iv. The Blackbird And the distiller was the Eagle grey. I'd take the Magpie but she chatters so. " Why ever don't you marry. brewed. The Bulfinch wandered through the passages. lives the Quail Neither my mother nor my aunt is she Her do I love.

and Presently some of the youths leave the circle lay hands on her There have come dragoons.SONGS OF THE EUSSIAN PEOPLE. . The prisoner begins to weep. others strike up merry music. With a girdle of silk. Well done ! 0. ye dragoons ! Ye know how to seize a Swedish woman. They tootle on their fifes. In a blue pelisse. have laid hold of the Swedish woman. By An oaken plank On that oaken bench Sits a fair young Swede. And at consoling a Swedish woman are ye 1 1 expert . Tereshchenko. 13 the river side Lies an oaken bench. the captive forgets her sorrows. Young cavaliers. while the chorus sings At the sight of so much merriment The Swedish woman has grown more joyous. iv. and the rest break into a lively dance The Swedish woman has begun But the dragoons console her. to weep piteously. on which some of the youths console her. They have seized. and joins her warders in the dance. 165. The Swede has begun to dance. Have set her in a carriage. Have taken her along the banks of the Moskva. They strike upon their drums. And having danced she has bowed low.

But such chants before going farther. prefacing them. although rendered interesting by their historical associations. There are two points in which these dramatic sketches of Russian life may seem defective to foreign -eyes still they more it to lack variety of form. composers not unnaturally revolved in a narrow In the choice of their themes. the slavery which weighed so heavily on the mass of the people from the time of Boris Godunof to that of Alexander II. is apt to be painfully subdued. to give some specimens of songs which possess intrinsic as well as accidental merit.. In this. And the tone of their compositions. unbroken by a sparkle of high light. by a few words of deprecatory criticism. This song is one of many similar relics of the war between Peter the Great and Charles the Twelfth of Sweden. if ever. It may be as well. to be wanting in contrast of colour. however. unrelieved by a touch of warm colour. therefore. however. Although one of the saddest features of Russian peasant life. they are not out of keeping with the landscape of certain . are not remarkably poetic. at least.14 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. the popular circle. yet a settled gloom too often prevails in many of the pictures they offer. treatment of their subjects they rarely deviated from the ordinary method. is seldom. as this. poets seldom ventured off the beaten track in the . alluded to in the popular songs. undoubtedly. the ideas of their sombre. may appear and Nor can be denied that they are often monotonous and In former days.

sweet valley thou wide valley ! ! A Within that valley Guelder-rose tree grew. 15 parts of Russia. But such drawbacks being ad- no sound is only fair to recognize the merits also of the untutored freshness these songs of the people of their thought. their complete freedom from the sickly affectation. the wearisome sentimentality. or of dark forests where heard but the sighing of the wind through the pines. that they lay most stress. of course. it is on its sorrows. its dis- appointments. it is next to impossible to give in a faithful it however of the may is be.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. the musical ring of their versification. and the tawdry ornamentation of the mock pastorals and spurious idylls of the age in which very many of them were composed. any idea stuffed of the greater part of these merits. . for instance. suggestive as they are of grey plains dotted with sad brown huts. the following lyric Valley of mine. Such is the case. but it is generally the darker side of love which they reveal . The betrayals. the inspirer of the great majority of these songs. The but nightingale taxidermist a poor exchange land. for instance. Unfortunately translation. in favourite themes. is one of their its Generally it is a girl who bewails her lot. for the living songster of the wood- Love is. the nervous vigour of their lanmitted. lamenting over the departure of him who is so dear to her. it is guage. separation of lovers.

? Art thou kookooing Wherefore. calling me her dear " Why. In a Merchant's garden did I find my Dove. " sad maiden. 310. Shein. ' 3 Art thou sorrowing ? " can I. lose awoke. " Dove. With the other embraced me. thither. In a Merchant's garden. My mate was with me. in homes of Nobles. The Dove sleeping. Merchants. Slept on one wing. dash'd himself. poor Cuckoo. Hither. darling. poor Dove. underneath an apple-tree 3 ." was gone ! Hither. ' ! How ! The young Sometimes love stolen it is one. embraced me with the other. thither. be joyous ? Late last night my mate was with me. . i. Homes of Nobles. Princes. my dovelet. alone 2 ! ' the youth who mourns for a lost away from him perhaps by a richer rival. sad maiden. my Cuckoo. art thou so joyless ? How can I. " Dear beloved one Dovelet blue Sleep. " Cease from sorrowing ? " One green garden had I And that is withering 66 One dear friend had I And he is departing Alone does he leave me.16 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. And on " " that tree There sat a Cuckoo kookooing. on one wing she slept. his mate me. ! ! Only do not. yet do not sleep. " Cease from kookooing ? " How can I. Wherefore. he flung himself. one.

Mournful is the maiden. I. 17 ! Underneath an apple-tree. misty . None the sun can see. Wounded her with a weapon of gold 3 . Nor her sister dear. wounded sore with shot The Merchant's son had wounded my Dove." . " love. Neither at dawn nor by the evening glow ?" Thus did the maiden in her grief reply " Then only my dear love will I forget. Neither by day nor yet by night. mournful. mournful None her grief can tell. the sunlight. And coffin boards my bosom white conceal ." The girl's heart remains faithful to its love. I. ' ' ? When my swift feet shall under me give way. But the desertion is generally on the part of the good youth.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. Canst not thou find a solace for thy woe Canst not thou thy dear friend forget ? Misty is : . iii. dear The waxen taper burn no more. nor her mother dear. dovelet white. Shein. The 4 last line is translated from another copy. And to my side my hands fall helplessly What time my eyes are filled with dust. Sakharof. a girl is sometimes described as being so crushed by the blow that her lover is When she can no longer endure to live. 4 taken from her. 208. Not her father dear. Mournful is the maiden. C . 323. this is described in a song which Such a despair as commences with a broken-hearted youth's complaint Keep watch no more by night.

my love. Two mates the dove knows not. father I will not disobey. scattered them across the open plain ! father has arranged. Sakliar-of. coffin lies the maiden fair 5 . 208. And thus with tears she spake " Oh thou. my eye's delight! No dweller in the white light will I be When thou art gone. And I will take another as my wife My My ! My My Another will I wed Death early wooed. That I should take another as my wife There blaze not in the sky two suns. Death early wooed by violence !" Then melted into tears the maiden fair. her heart's beloved. No more await me at the midnight hour. mother has enjoined." exclaims in her grief A Forth will I go To the meadows green. ! And The stormy wind has carried off our joys. But still the waxen taper burns. Ah me our sunny days have passed away. Upon Within the the table stands a coffin new. maiden whose parents wish her to marry a " stranger and give up her hope. . Nor shine two moons. I." No longer keeps she watch by night. my source of hope : ! The swan knows not two mates. Nor I two loves.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. iii. With outcry loud On Harm 6 will I call. Nor can the youth's heart two loves know. mother's behests I will fulfil.

And here is a slightly modified extract from another. warm winds. Warm autumn winds. But hither fly ye stormy winds From the Northern side ." Sometimes lovers it is death that steps in between two for ever." winds. And And furrowing the open field. The open. and separates them Here is part of a song expressing the passionate grief of a youth whose " dovelet dear. Breathe not. As he which is fair lies maiden" at there in his last agony. I. At the c 7 Sakharof. Sakharof. in heard the wailing of a " the death-bed of her lover. of times. I iii. on his left his brother and his sister." has " at the passed away rising of the bright sun. come Ye beasts of prey ! " hither." whose " sweet cygnet. at his right hand stand his father and mother. Asunder rend moist mother earth.SONGS OP THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. And To ! bear it away the hands of my dear one. sweeping Reveal to let plain. To my planks. 19 Come hither. 20(5. 204. Here luscious food Come tear me to shreds Only leave untouched is ! My beating heart. Ah there let him see How fondly I loved him 6 . beloved one say farewell 7 me the coffin me for the last . iii. c 2 . ye are not wanted here.

iii 207. In one instance a brave youth lies dead beside a thicket in the plain There weeps his mother as a river runs . Were it but for one idle day. together died . darling. There weeps his sister as a streamlet flows . The sun will rise and gather up the dew 9 . . his friends. iif. We And To at death part. If place it on my Then homewards Would " We Nor say. leading him in glad content. my love." or of a mother or a sister. Though it were only for one little hourThen wonld I wander with my love. say farewell for ever to the light my : Leaving behind us some such fame as this That we two loved each other tenderly. two will My darling's head. Would pluck the flow'rets blue. my love ! keep together. head of his couch are heart" stands the " lamenting. his children 9 Sakharof." 8 the tears of a wife the songs attach less importance than to those of " a dear friend. 209. Would tread the mossy turf. indeed a dying husband often seems to think less about the sorrow of his wife than about that of his parents 8 And and i. There weeps his youthful wife as falls the dew. fair " Opposite his maiden" weeping and bitterly And God would grant my love his health.20 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. till love. hope. loyally. Would weave a garland for my love. i. Sakharof.

but they find a fruitful theme in the hatred into which that indifference sometimes deepens.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. wife. for instance." 1 Sakharof. especially to stories of poisoning. said to be founded on fact. iii. . thanks to the blue pitcher It has rid me of my cares. 204. sometimes in order that he may fill her place with one scribes with repulsive realism the who is nearer to his heart. sometimes merely because he is tired of her. wife ? Get worse and worse then. my my My darling little ones are left. Not only do the songs frequently difference describe the in- which is likely to attend upon marriages contracted without the intervention of love. ! ! My real " Make Then affliction was my wife. de- murder of an old husband by his young and faithless wife. To suffer pangs of hunger and of cold 1 . 21 Not Nor But for iny kinsman do I grieve. It is generally husband rids by the agency of poison that a himself of the wife who has become an encumbrance Thanks. Hast not thou long been ailing. for youthful wife for little ones I grieve. Many One of the most striking among them which is are devoted to tales of crime. of them. But it is generally the husband who makes away with his wife. I. haste to die ! shall I lead a freer life. my longings Not that cares afflicted me. Dear little tiny innocents.

deep I I down ! ! washed the evil root. ! And do But thou die. The epithet applied to youth or a horse "good.22 SONGS Or THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. avenges her real or fancied wrongs by the deadly cup. so small. rise again. Dressed it and meant it For To cruel love. "I dug for the evil root. our own mother dear 2 is !" In many cases the poisoner a girl. Through the meadow she went The wicked one She dug for an evil root. And to my children a cruel stepmother. a pitcher blue. my That 2 a purely conventional one. And I will take to myself a young wife. driven wild by passion or hate. I will fell a young pine . I will take a sharp axe . cruel stepmother ! rise. i. who. a girl beautiful. I will build a new room ." so likhaya. I all dry ! pounded the evil root. . a hand white. I will set in it a glazed stove. White. is the stepmother always styled . Small. I will seek the green copse . I dressed the evil root. 358. the lot of my own dear brother evil root fell. Deep. But the children answered him and said : " Be thou thou new room burnt with fire. all white dried the evil root Dry. malicious. the stepmother is Just as in the songs an axe is always called sharp. and a Shein.

which instantly begins to burn. A curse invoke 3 . At midnight. 328. my brother Began to moan. I. or of some mythological fragment which has given rise to various stories somewhat similar kind as. Shein. ." In one song. for instance. But this piece of oriental savagery is merely a lyrical setting either of ideas connected with the old and deeply rooted belief in witchcraft. a a deadly draught to her brother. and is probably of a mythical character. All who pass by Will pray to God. with the design of consuming him with fire. With the grey " light. in his "Bridal of Triermain. my brother Called for the priest. my . Bury me. remarking that she is a snake and no sister of his. 23 At eventide. sister. brother* Passed away." from the German of a . my sister Between three roads The Petersburg and the Moscow And the road that leads to Tver. that of Arthur's narrow escape from death at the hands of Guendolen an incident which Sir Walter Scott borrowed. which bears the stamp of a foreign origin.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. He happens. however. to let a drop fall from the cup sister intentionally offers on his horse's mane. of which an account will be given in another chapter. Andjon thee. Thereupon he cuts off her head at once.

24 tale of SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. to water you ? To shelter you from evil frosts ? father and my mother are too old. 541. not be looked upon as in any way typical of the relations existing between brothers and sisters in Russia. In his garden green A youth sowed flowers. of Oldenburg was invited by a fairy maiden to drink from a magic horn. And ha\ing sown them. the hair of which it immediately burnt 4 off But whatever may be its origin. 128. sister had I once. it decidedly must . " Ah me blue flow'rets ! Who My dear. and how he let a portion of the proffered beverage fall on his how Count Otto white steed. Deutsche Sagen. moreover. but still there are to On be found among them expressions of brotherly or sisOf such a nature is the followterly love or regret. But she for water to the Danube went. ing lament. which is interesting. Was she drowned in the Danube's waves ? Was she lost in the forest dark ? is A Did the wolves her body rend ? Or Tartars carry her away ? In the Danube had she been drowned. these relations the Russian songs do not dwell nearly so much as the Servian. inasmuch as it contains one of the allusions to the Tartars those terrible enemies who used in to overrun the land which are to be met with Russian popular poetry so much less often than might have been expected. wept. in. . Turbid with sand the Danube's waves would evil roll 4 Thorpe's Northern Mythology.

Neither in feeling nor thought. as a female being. in which an unnaThe cry of tural husband longs for his wife's death. " Ho there My beautiful Death ! ! Turn thee back Make an end of again. . the beautiful. Love will I make to the girls. Scarce had I time to look round Shrouded in linen white was her corpse Struck was the stroke on the bell 6 . Surely some tidings would have reached my ears 5 .SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. If the wolves 25 had her body rent. The vowel sounds pronounced as in Italian. oo 7 which occurs in it is the Slavonic equivalent One more extract may be A 5 7 Sakharof. 356. I have taken an evil wife. u. I. As for that wife of mine I will go pray for her death. Death " my wife ! ! Scarce had I spoken when Death Began her work with my wife. 205. ! given. unless under strong ecclesiastical influence." It must be remembered that to his death was usually represented by the Slavonians. lie. Across the stream will I go. not to my liking. An evil one. fl Shein. Lovingly live with her that will I not." In one instance a husband's mere wish proves fatal " evil wife. iii. Scattered across the plain her bones would If the Tartars had carried her off. goes. i. Against my will was I married . Along the bank of the stream Death. a.

the fair maiden. and the news of her death is brought to him to whom she used to be dear. cast him into the swift stream. darling Mashenka. i. but with her to be linked 1 whom fate." " Oh arise.26 SONGS OP THE EUSSIAN PEOPLE. . That fair maiden. my call. of the Australian Coo-ey. Not far art thou. " A-oo A-oo Thou dear friend. 341." In the next song the " olden love" dies. Ere she'd gathered her berries and mushrooms. The first watcher my wife's father. Masha was gathering berries and mushrooms. For over me are watchers three Watchers three three stern ones they. She lost her way in the gloomy forest. dear wilt not thou answer to ! ! . has not allowed Shein. when the young people wander through them gathering nuts and berries Out in the dreamy woods. and is a call with which the woods of Russia may be heard ringing in summer and autumn. ! I The fair maiden my olden love 8 . The third watcher my young wife. we will consume him with fire . There goes wandering a fair maiden. spare. thou terrible storm-cloud ! ! Strike dead my wife's father Pierce her mother with thy arrow. Beat my young wife to death with the rush of rain But spare." " I cannot answer to thy call. The second watcher my wife's mother." " We will find him. Began to A-oo to her dear friend. Consume him with fire.

But for a maiden well beloved. Seethes the heart of the youth. compared with that of Eussia. nor pitch seethes. Hasten to the church of God. 27 From under tlie stone. maiden fair. Nor for a young wife well-beloved. the white stone. is very cramping to a Such odious terms as father-in-law.SONGS OF THE EUSSIAN PEOPLE. Lead my good my Split open. damp Mother Earth ! ! ! Fly asunder. and the rest of the endearing appellatranslator. For her who used to be his love. by Shein. my olden love 9 " ! great number of the songs are devoted to the sorrows of a young wife. ye coffin planks brocade of gold Unroll. But a youth's heart is seething. awake. 9 Quoted from an old MS. I will sadly to the stable : best horse forth. mother-in-law. Fire blazes not. maiden fair. nor for his mother dear. Not for his father dear. the poverty of our own family nomenclature. Quickly follows them a letter The maiden fair is dead. Stamp upon the mould. old be as well to take this opportunity of remarking that when poetry which deals with the various relationships of married life has to be rendered into English. " There had reached me broken tidings That the maiden fair was ill. condemned to live with an A and uncongenial husband. . i n 324. The following is one It may of the most characteristic of her complaints. Tie my horse beside the belfry. Awake.

FATHER-IN-LAW. THE WIFE. dreaming Heavy lies my head upon the pillow. . : CHORUS. they have been retained by them in many instances all but intact. : CHORUS. Thumping. scolding. thumping. tions of a spouse's kinsfolk so ominously terminating in law. up. Fain would I be sleeping. thou sloven there Up. thou sluggard there ! ! Slovenly. Up and down the passage goes my husband's mother.28 SONGS OF THE EUSSIAN PEOPLE. scolding. Angrily about it keeps she pacing. scolding. sluggardish slut ! THE WIFE. up. Never lets her daughter sleep. Up and down the passage goes my husband's father. Angrily about it keeps he pacing. Up. up. up. slatternly. Never lets his daughter sleep. thumping. Fain would I be sleeping. are all but inadmissible. scolding. Inherited by the Slavonians from their affected Aryan ancestors in Central Asia. to the vigour of their family life. dreaming Heavy lies my head upon the pillow. and it is absolutely- impossible to find English equivalents for many of the numerous Slavonic names for persons mutually by the various degrees of consanguinity and connexion. and they remain among them to bear witness to the strength of their domestic attachments. Thumping.

up appearances by singand hears another voice in unison with his own. is . married too soon ! ! ! If the last is song was dark with discontent. sleep. sleep. Sleep. woe. sluggardish slut ! THE WIFE. well-beloved one. Up. Fain would I be sleeping. a probably the largest with which itself. a being who. up ! ! thou sloven there thou sluggard there ! ! Slovenly. often figures in the popular tales as for instance. . my precious one 1 Driven out. for which he cannot account until he discovers that it stricken wretch tries to keep belongs to Gore company. 1 Shein. in that in which a poverty- meaning misfortune. 29 MOTHER-IN-LAW.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. who is keeping him fish into which sorrow is supposed song to turn large Caspian fish. dreaming : Heavy lies my head upon the Up and down the passage pillow. the poet was acquainted. thrown away. up Up. keeps he whisp'ring. I. up. slatternly. up. the next The expressive of the utter blackness of despair. steals my All so lightly. softly. my darling one Sleep. word rendered in it by sorrow is the Russian Gore calamity. the Byelaya Ruibitsa. THE LOVER. 3:6. sleep. in the The to misery. ing. sleep. as will be seen farther on.

I have driven." these dolorous laments might leave on the mind of the reader the erroneous impression that Russian popular poetry is of a morbid character. the blue sea. over the open field. I will find the fair maiden. I will fell. I will find the fair maiden. Then will Sorrow stand over me.30 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. I will find the fair maiden. 2 Shein. I will seek. " I have driven. it will be as well to give at least one specimen of a love-song. 322. After me runs Sorrow with an axe. I will mow the open field . " I will mow. The little From The little wild birds have come flying beyond the sea. the maiden into the damp As earth 2 . " I will drink. and cry triumphantly. I will seek. If I take to my bed to escape from Sorrow Sorrow sits beside my pillow. . the fair maiden. I will swallow the blue sea I will seek. flee from Sorrow ? If I fly from Sorrow into the dark forest. All have their mates and rejoice in love. birds go fluttering About the bushes. I. in which the pathetic does not deepen into the tragic. I will fell the green oaks . Whither shall I." If I seek refuge from Sorrow in marriage : Sorrow follows me as my dowry." If I fly from Sorrow into the open field. " After me runs Sorrow with a scythe." Whither then shall I flee from Sorrow ? If I rush from Sorrow into the blue sea After me comes Sorrow as a huge fish. And when I shall have fled from Sorrow into the damp earth Sorrow will come after me with a spade.

orphan in the wide world. I. as Tereshchenko. their period varying in different localities. Uttering words of kind endearment. Should he go out into the open field There to trample underfoot his cares. Alexandrushka. His sorrow will not fly away. The beautiful maiden has fallen in love With the lad. The poor lad has no one. In the villages. She has spoken to him terms of endearment. off The heart of the good youth Is eaten up with care. iii. Grieves like a pining cuckoo. 31 A homeless Only the good youth. . 345. To the youth not even God's light But Dunya dear has taken pity is dear ! the poor fellow. 11. She has caressed the homeless one. he withers in his loneliness. and being most prolonged in the neighbourhood of towns or in places where manufactories bring together large numbers 8 of young people. And melts away in burning tears. No one ever brings joy to the orphan. her beloved one And his sorrow and sighing have passed away 3 . During the summer months. His misery and his bitter longing His longing and his misery not to be shaken Or should he go out into the dark forest. Like a blade of grass in the midst of a wild plain. No one in the wide world to fondle him. 130. it is in the Khorovods that songs are chiefly to be heard. Alexandrushka On She has covered him with her silken veil. on the orphan. as has already been observed.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. Sakharof. He fades. She has called him her darling.

poor Dunya. or the character *of their sweethearts. In the so it is greater part of Russia the Posidyelka prevails called from poswyef. . This is how : described by Tereshchenko When the appointed evening comes. As they sit at lighten it with much laughter and chattering." or The green copse All night moaned But I. 156. v. to sit awhile. discussing their domestic affairs. my spinner Spin. idle not!" " would I have ! " Gladly spun. By degrees the youths make their appearance. and there spend some hours in spinning and combing flax. the village girls take their work to a cottage selected for the purpose. and wool. and the evenings begin to grow dark and long. > After a time the distaffs. v Tereshchenko.32 SONGS OF THE EUSSIAN PEOPLE. soon as the harvest and other field-labours are over. they all spin away steadily. hemp. called Posidyelki. com- mence the social gatherings of the young people etc. Dosvitki. and exchange first At greetings with the girls. 4 Waiting for my love . but about a couple of hours after supper-time they throw aside their work. called But to the neighbour's I'm At the Besyeda to feast. Besyedui. All night sat up. or they sing such their work they songs as Spin. and take to playing games.

" Sometimes the songs are of a very melancholy nature. marry ! I am going to wed 5 . Day and night singing kookoo. and other musical instruments. combs. dear. dear. window she weeps Tereshchenko. my own. two together. for instance : Oak wood. scattered her young. D . 33 and hackles are put away. He has He has torn her warm nest. She never is still. I. dear oak wood. dear. all the birds flown ? One bird still lingers. 157. balalaikas. spindles. v. my own. as. would wander. from the oak wood. The cuckoo so sad. > My How we Or " sit former love. my love has changed her mind " : Marry. very soon. and the young people begin dancing to the sound of reed or pipes. Green oak wood of mine ! Why Low From Have moaning so early ? bending thy boughs ? thee. Her cuckoolings A maiden fair By the 6 In her lofty chamber sits . must never marry. And whisper sweet secret words.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. Of the wandering falcon The cuckoo complains. the maiden. through the dark autumnal nights. will never wed. Thou. remember. such as Remember." Soon. of songs sung by the girls in chorus.

each alternate line is composed of the exclamation. change places. far off. Of the wandering youth The maiden complains From her father and mother He To lured her away a strange far off home. and beat time to the music with their girls will " feet. As a spring wells she sobs.34 SONGS OP THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. 159. and sing what are called plyasovuiya pyesni. dance-songs from plyasdt'. Strange. unknown. to a specimen. as in the Khorovod. then they turn round in opposite directions. Water it seeks for its soldier lord. In the original. the series of such melancholy songs suddenly begin to dance. As a rivulet flows. Here words of the preceding line : Ah on the hill a Ah dear Lord ! ! pine-tree stands a pine-tree stands Under the pine a soldier lies Ah dear Lord a soldier lies Over the soldier a black steed stands. and anew stamp on the ground. v." of song. Akh! moy Bozhin'ka! followed by a repetition of the last is dance. The performers (says Tereshchenko) stand facing each other. has lured her and now Fain would fling her aside 6 He . . ! ! ! ! ! ! ! With its right hoof tearing up the ground. If they dance to the sound girls and anew turn round. the women and form a circle around them. In the middle of a as these. 6 Tereshchenko.

That grey-haired dame is my mother dear. troop I serve. and the White-Russian Supretki. among it the hot-blooded Cossacks. and his attentions almost 7 Tereshchenko. v. 35 " Water. and in Little-Russia Vechernitsui from vecher. the ground the soldier will never rise. There will come to greet thee a grey-haired dame. my steed From my steed. and even to murders. 165. On spring and summer evenings. dark steed. also. but it is said that was always very rare for them to be accompanied by any bad consequences so far as the girls who took part in them were concerned. Posidyelki of Great-Russia correspond the Little-Russian Dosvitki. D 2 . not. By bank and brae. Each 'girl is attended at these gatherings by her regular and acknowledged sweetheart. are held social festivals which often last all night. They Say But will join in questioning thee. thou wilt not find. my steed. They will join in caressing thee. my steed.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. so called because the young To the people keep up their amusements do svita. In my His His death steed. evening. and which in White-Russia are called Dozhinki. gallop on to my home." death gains the soldier beneath the pine. Gallop. till the dawn. These Vechernitsui often led in old times to quarrels. tell my them my my ! ! dear Lord beneath the pine 7 . step I gain. There will come to greet thee a lady fair That lady fair is my youthful wife To greet thee will little lordlings come Those little lordlings my children are. by bank and brae. that I bleeding lie I serve in troop.

the young of each village choose some clean and spacious When cottage. with liberal On the left of the door is a brick ample space between it and the wall. and then attempt to evade making amends for his wrong-doing. special When music is required. in which the songs of old times have been pleasant and picturesque account has been given by Ruibnikof. Each of the men pays the owner of the cottage from two to seven o'clock. also. This is the case. always end in marriage.36 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. we find ourselves in a spacious izba a term applied to the whole cottage as well as to its "keeping-room". As a general rule the girls are admitted free. Its ceiling is made of interlacing planks. of Great Russia. etc. or from twenty-five to thirty [from tenpence to a shilling] for the whole season. if we follow the guidance of Ruibnikof to one of these merry gatherings. Besyedui. A sin- conceded to the rustic lover. These gatherings commence at a late hour. Of the Besyedas of those in the Olonets Government one outlying districts in the north-east of Russia. and meet in it almost every evening during till the winter months. or . stove. but he would meet with general reprobation were he is 1 gular amount of liberty to take advantage of his position. men October comes. at the PosidyelM. a collector to whom students of Russian folklore are deeply inbest preserved a very debted. and last three kopecks a night for the right of entry. they make a collection for the purpose. he says. and accommodation for sleepers on the polati.. but in some districts they pay their share of the expenses.

Round their necks are thrown handkerchiefs of different colours. dressed for the most part in thin chemises with short sleeves. called the One of the walls is window. their heads they wear a network of horsehair. people and the married couples sit near the stove and take no active part in the amusements. . decorated with lace and beads. is somewhat larger than the others. unless it be that here and there some old woman holds a lighted fir wood splinter for the benefit of the guests. Before long the room becomes full. Near the door stands the owner of the cottage and collects the The young men stroll about on the entrance-money. 37 raised flooring carried from the stove to the opposite side of the room. Along the walls stretch benches. with fair a lamp burning before them. also of glass. the middle one of which. but not so as to hide their necklaces of glass beads. to which some add The old a sort of ornamented coronet of glass beads. On In their ears are large earrings. or stuff petticoats. some of them coming from places as much as eight or nine miles distant. or holy pictures.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. and above them shelves. and in red sarafans. and at the end of that wall is the corner of honour where stand the iconui. but also the lads and lasses from the surrounding villages have met together. The scene is lighted up by a number of candles placed on the cross beams and shelves. Not only the immediate neighbours. girls The fastened at the waist with a girdle of ribbon. red or pierced by three windows. occupy the benches extending from the stove to the centre window.

8 Ruibnikof. which are not chosen capri- ciously at the will of the singers. and.38 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. though here and there a burlak. Hour after hour the singing goes on 5 ' until the party breaks up. wears a long surtout. . in. 127 429.habit of working for side opposite that occupied wages in Petersburg. in which should be portrayed the It bright side of social life among those Russian peasants manners and customs who remain faithful to the old But to do full justice to the subject a whole volume would be required. a man who is in the. but will proceed to clear the way for the discussion of the mythical -and ritual follow. longer in the region of the picturesque. escorted by " their dear friends. attended by songs. The songs which have been quoted in the preceding pages belong for the most part to the class of those called Golosovuiya (golos = voice) or Protyazhnuiya. most of them dressed in blue caftans. by or ceremonial songs which have to giving a rapid sketch of some divisions of the general subject which have not yet been noticed. 8 " or even a Palmerston-Paletot . but are accepted in accordance with the dictates of established usage. the lights are put out. games and dances following each other in regular order. the girls speed home across the snow." After a time the amusements of the evening begin. by the girls. And so we will tarry no of their ancestors. and not a mere introductory chapter. would be easy to give picture after picture of a similar kind.

four comprise. those of a mythical nature being taken together. them. There memories of the people. epic as well as lyric. or Marriage Songs. . together with some others. and the Svddebnuiya Pyesni. to which a considerable Of five it space has will been devoted by Sakharof in his collection. a vast * number of poems called Builinas in The word " song " is used here in the sense The Russian term Pyesni is rally employ it. being discussed in a separate chapter. or dance-songs. or friendly taken among assistance rendered to a man by his neighbours at harvest time. is ranked in the collection from which it is the Obryddnuiya. other divisions. however that of the wounded soldier has already been referred to the division of the PlyaThe song in which the sovuiya. or Ritual and Ceremonial Songs. 39 One of long drawn out (protyagdt* =-to prolong). sufficient merely to give a few specimens." " Robber Songs. [Svad'ba marriage] of which one or two specimens have already been given. by far the most important Russian songs a detailed account will be given farther on. of all which we gene- applied to poems kinds. wife begs not to be beaten except for good cause. inasmuch as it specially belongs to the Obrydd [feast or ceremony] of the Toloka. 9 ." " " Soldier Songs. the " Cossack Songs." most of which may be arranged exist in the together as descendants or imitators of the old semi-historical poetry of Russia. Of the Obryddnuiya class of Pyesni. or Waitings for the Dead. be Of these five divisions. as also will = be the Zapldchki. as has already been observed." and Historical Songs.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE.

fragmentary epics. and sometimes gives birth to metrical effusions which are caught up by their hearers. As " " for the popular poetry laboriously produced nowa-days in the towns. speaking " of the neighbourhood of Lake Onega. and all neighbourhood. contrasting as it does most unfavourably with that which flowed spontaneously in olden days from the well of Russian undefiled. much " is not " Soldier Songs/ or poetry to be found in the As a general >! rule. in Here and there. can give expression to her feelings of distress. the old Slavonic faculty still of improvisation the peasantry.40 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. there 5 Historical Songs in Sakharof s collection. and often contain scraps of poetry which have been borrowed from them." says Ruibnikof. however. and so added to the lives among common " stock of current song. either by constructing a new lament (zapldchka) t or by adapting an old one to the circumstances/' And he proceeds to speak of a zapldchka improvised by a young woman of the first cousin of hers died. remote parts of the country. A the family bitterly lamented his loss. to which neither our metrical romances nor our historical ballads exactly correspond. although they offer certain points of resemblance and the historical songs. are generally written in the same style and metre as the Builinas. and most of the others of which we have just spoken. and unblushingly fathered upon soldiers and gipsies. it is not worthy of serious notice. however. grief But his cousin's was expressed in a lyrical form with such force ac- and clearness. Almost every woman. that her zapldchka immediately .

unhappy me. My pleasant way And But all of life. along the banks of those rivers ride the Cossack horse. I would have given To death. swift-footed. 3 Kuibnikof. but there are also Of remarkable for their some are not a little promany of them that are as freshness and vigour. Unhappy that I am. . my golden store ungrudgingly never would have let my cousin dear depart 2 . which third of the whole : forms about a Against Who To My my mother do I make complaint. Sadly would I have begged My cousin dear to speak. 423. saic . the Cossack and Robber Songs given by Sakharof. said If only just one secret word Which I would then have sadly told To my dear aunt beloved. did not let me go. in. who now sing it whenever a similar calamity befalls them 1 . . xlvii. Perchance to me he might have spoken. or on their waters float the 1 Euibriikof. courageous. and the other songs called Udaluiya bold. the loved. 41 quired notoriety.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. as for the interesting nature of the historical allusions they The Cossack Songs are generally about the contain. . Don or the Volga . keen. cousin dear. in. Grieving I would have sat The sick. the painful bed beside. My raiment gay. and was adopted by other women. daring. etc. Some idea of its nature may be obtained from the following extract. the dear. . him.

iii. Father orthodox Tsar Judge us according to a just decision. message to his home. And having killed him. of loyalty. " Eespect." boast- They. they said to his corpse. In one song a young Cossack. suspecting his intention. Thou art master of our bold heads 3 . . starts from Moscow for " the quiet Don all Ivanovich." ! " 3 Sakharof. Of the Tsar himself they . Order to be done to us what pleaseth thee. Thereupon they rose in commotion. doff their caps.42 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. And threw his white body into the quiet Don . in the middle of which he takes his stand and begins to read aloud " the Tsar's Ukases. the same conspeak. in another he sends from his last field a farewell Cossack boats. with devotion but his messengers are not always treated with respect. sorrowfully parts from his betrothed . tempt for death. 238. i. describes how a great Boyar (probably a certain Prince Dolgoruky). Flung themselves upon the Boyar. meet together and form a great circle. In all of them breathe the same feelings of courage. the Gosudar." When he comes to the royal titles the Cossacks all ing that he will hang up the Cossacks. Don't go glorying or giving yourself airs before him. the same attachment to a free life. Cut off his proud head. of independence." : Then they went to the Tsar with their confession thou. riding away on a foray. as a general rule. for instance. Boyar. but he keeps his on. One of the songs.

On " His Sultanic hearing this Majesty" immediately " field-marshals. But with my burning tears. The brave youth. he turns to the he loves.SONGS OF THE EUSSIAN PEOPLE. and she immediately hastens to release him. Tsar. To his White Tsar 4 . adding. Let him go to his Russian land." hears Tsar himself" go by. quiet Don will rise in anger The whole Cossack circle will fly to arms They will shatter the Turkish forces. To my comrades on the quiet Don. the Turkish Azof. demand- "a ing that he may be set free. iii. The glorious. and calls out to him._i. but they say they cannot do so ." " cries to his Set free the brave youth. 43 A is subject which is frequently treated in the songs that of a Cossack who lies grieving in a dark In one instance he entreats his parents to ransom him." within the white stone walls of " the famous city of " His Sultanic Majesty. And lead thee. . 237." Of a more poetic nature is the following address : to the favourite river of the Cossacks 4 Sakharof. If thou dost not order me to be let out. then prison. In another song a prisoner who has lain for twenty-two years fair " maiden" whom in dark dungeon without windows or doors. away into captivity. I will at once write a letter. the Don Cossack. Not with pen and ink. . .

all troubled dost thou Father of ours ! ! ! flow. 5 ' And Tartars so : is this description of a battle with the Beyond the famous river Utva. Deprived of them my steep banks crumble down. the Don-Kazaks. My falcons bright. nor with wheat.44 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. I. Not with rye. Don. famous. That thou didst swiftly run in olden days. But that cornfield was sown With bold Cossack heads. Swiftly but all clearly didst thou run. quiet Don thus made reply. Not with rain was it moistened. Not with the plough was the field ploughed. But with keen Tartar spears. iii. Among the Utvinsk valley. That field was moistened With burning Cossack tears 6 cornfield . quiet Don Don Ivanovich. iii. Troubled unto thy depths art thou. Not with strong autumn showers . But with swift feet of horses. .than troubled can I be ? otherwise I have sent forth my falcons bright. But now. was the field sown. Then " How glorious. 240. A Most of what have been styled the 6 " Robber 243. I. In a wide was ploughed. Great praise and words of honour. 6 Deprived of them my shoals are thick with sand . our nourisher. * Sakharof. hills. Sakharof. our nourisher Great praise of thee is spoken. Not with a harrow was the field harrowed.

and soon afterwards was taken prisoner and sent to Moscow. Our oars we wave a ship we board. Give warmth to us. from Simbirsk to the Caspian. a kind of slung shot. Once he surrendered. called Stenka Razin. but he soon broke out into even more furious revolt than before. Our maces we wave a caravan we seize. he long set the forces of the Tsar at defiance. rise. forcing the merchant-ships which sailed down that river to pay him tribute. but also of the Volga. Rise. In one of the Songs the entreated to rise " above the high hill. above the landmarks of the brave Sun is youth Stepan Timofeevich.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. above the green oak wood. Both on land and on the rivers. A hand we wave a maiden we carry off 8 7 7 . " 45 Songs of the are reminiscences of the famous insurrection Cossacks." for the thick fogs of night lie heavy on the hearts of the insurgents : red Sun. . not only of the Don. and promised to live peaceably. The Kisten Sakharof. as well as on the Caspian Sea. where he was put to a cruel death in the year 1672. and at times setting the country in a blaze. is wooden handle 8 is a metal ball to which a leather strap or a short " attached. For several against the Tsar Alexis Mikhailovich. We are the workmen of Stenka Razin. headed by Stenka Razin. years that insurgent chief maintained his power Don along the course. I." 227. poor sufferers. At last he was beaten near Simbirsk. iii. No thieves are we. nor highwaymen.

With a green sod under my head That they may say. they a point of honour to maintain a defiant in the presence of their capturers. Before my life-bestowing cross will he utter a pray At the sight of my black steed will he be startled. Let me have length and breadth enough. when I am dead. " own ballad of Eobin Hood's Death and Burial " : " Lay me a green sod under : my head. At my head set a life-bestowing cross. " Surely this is a brigand who is buried here son of tha brigand. The Kief and the Moscow. sadly thinking of his comrades who are either dead or in prison. iii. Whoever passes by will stop. but no sooner does he reach the other side than he feels that death is close at hand.46 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. Which was my music sweet And make my grave of gravel and green. Bury me. the bold Stenka Razin 9 " ! A ! When make it these freebooters are taken prisoners. And another at my feet And lay my bent bow by my side. Which is most right and meet. In my right hand place my keen sabre. brothers. and the Murom famed story. so he cries. At the sight of my keen sword will he be terrified. between three roads. I. . he is rowed across it by the ferrymen. in At my feet fasten my horse. demeanour 8 One The same idea occurs at the end of our Sakharof." . Arriving at a river. 226. in The last survivor of a band which has been crushed fight makes his way slowly homewards through the dark forests. : Here lies bold Kobin Hood.

in the year 1698. third companion my good steed. second companion a knife of steel. . source of hope. orthodox Tsar. first companion the dark night. no doubt. with two pillars and a cross-beam. and who they were with whom he robbed and stole. This is his answer " : My My My My I will tell thee. fourth companion a tough bow. is being led to the block from the Kremlin In front of him goes the terrible headsman." condemned to " death " for treason against the Tsar's Majesty an allusion. a Boyar Prince. one of them it is a Knyaz Boydrin. And my messengers were keen arrows. the Russian PrgetoAs the Ataman [Hetman] rians. to the executions which took place under Peter the Great. and who prefers death to the humiliation of asking for pardon in another the bold criminal is " a great Boyar.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. who is going to the scaffold amid the tears of his family. of 47 them is asked by the Tsar himself whether he has had many companions in his forays." It is not always a freebooter whose courage in the In presence of his enemies is lauded in the songs. Bearing in his hand a sharp axe ." and rewards him with " a lofty dwelling in the midst of the plain. All the truth will I tell to thee." Whereupon the Tsar compliments him upon his " knowledge of how to steal and to make bold reply. after the failure of the Third Insurrection of the StryeVtsui. the Strelitz Ataman. The number of my companions was four. the whole truth.

They weep as a river flows. He stiffens his neck and defies the Tsar. His who are obeyed. And amid their sobs they incessantly entreat him. "Will leave thy bold head on thy strong shoulders.48 SONGS OF THE EUSSIAN PEOPLE. 224. and enters into the " the service of King of Lithuania. After him follow his father and his mother. Not listening to his father and mother. He was led to the Red Field." who shows him The great favour. . ! Offer him thy confession. Not pitying his young wife. Their sobbing is like the sound of a rushing stream. iii. a fact of which made aware by the youth's " own evil repeat the idle boastings in which he had indulged when under the influence of strong The King in his wrath orders his favourite drink. is the outline of a romantic story. His father and his mother and his young wife . my mother T Sakharof. Many A youth leaves his native Ukraine. for brave instance. 1 my father and I. to be taken out at once to the place of execution." Hard as a stone grows the heart of the brave youth. the foot of the gallows commands and the youth soon stands : at On " the first step mounted the youth : Farewell. dear child of ours Humble thyself before the Tsar. Feeling no sorrow for his children. And there his bold head Was struck off from his strong shoulders r . whose young Cossack. of the songs are devoted to love." is King has a fair daughter. " child. Perchance the Gosudar Tsar will pardon thee. Here. farewell. heart is won by the her father brothers.

E . took two steel daggers. To a young dweller by the sea. I. Brought her up and gave her in marriage. It was evil robbers who pounced upon them. On the daggers bends down the Princess and dies 2 She She She She . two years.SONGS OP THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. farewell. And set off to pay her mother a visit. : 49 " On : hastened into her lofty chamber. * Sakharof. It was not evil crows that flew down on them. the following romance of may be given : was in the city of Kief That there lived a rich widow Nine sons had she. Her tenth child was a daughter dear. But in the third year they grew weary. 231. : did her brothers carefully bring up. He took her to the seaside. The third day they made a halt. In the open field swings the brave youth. seized her golden keys. my sweet Princess !" The Princess heard the voice afar off. and to let their horses graze. Her They travelled one day. iii. my kith and kin !" On the third step mounted the youth " Farewell. they travelled two days. the second step mounted the youth Farewell. To cook kasha. 230. To a rich Boyar. And pierced her white bosom. And there they lived a year. The only consolation which the bereaved father can find is that of cutting off the heads of the fatal informers. By way robber It life of conclusion. opened a silver coffer.

for instance. We will endow thee more richly than before." ! ! We But our own sister's son No mere seaside woman have we taken captive But with tears does the sister reply. But one of their number did not lie down to after that lie they lay sleep. . The With a loud cry exclaimed he then " ! No We No brothers. our own sister Do not tell this to our mother. Moryanka. His wife they kept as a prisoner. took to questioning the captive. The husband they put to death. I. one in which * Moryanka means a female is dweller by the seaside. but prayed to God. 228. Moryanushka From what city dost thou come ? Who are thy father and thy mother ?" captive tells her story in the words with which the song opens.50 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. 3 . to the horror of her listener. iii." 4 Of the Soldier Songs some refer to the wars with " General Sweden. And And " down to sleep. Moryan- ushka 4 an affectionate diminutive of the word. have slain the dear husband of our sister mere child have we flung into the sea. His child they flung into the sea. ! ! have taken captive our own sister Sister dear. Moryanka. as. brothers of mine mere dweller by the sea have we slain. " With whatsoever ye may endow me. Ye cannot bring my dear one back to life . Sakharof. We will find thee another husband. Did not down.

" and another in which a girl tells her mother of a dream she has had how in a vision of the night she a white rock . holding in its claws a black crow. 232. In one. rified of them refer to various military and naval one describing how a Russian Admiral terthe Turks." and hear him lament as his long locks fall >efore the official scissors : " Not for my 5 black curls do I mourn. home. And the black crow is the Swedish King. we see the " young conscript enrolled among the Imperial dragoons. another telling how the blood of the infidels was poured forth at the taking of Azof. The dark blue eagle is our father the Orthodox Tsar. the cytisus bush is the Kremlin palace . saw a steep hill on which lay and on this rock grew a cytisus bush. will explain the To which dream : the mother replies that she The steep hill is stone-built Moskva. for But I mourn my own I. and his troops " chase the Swedish general up to the very walls of Dorpat. E 2 . on which sat a dark blue eagle. 51 " Boris Petrovich Sheremetef marches out of Pskoff. And Many exploits. for instance. iii. as he steered across the Caspian Sea one of a fleet of thirty Russian ships. And the King himself will lead into captivity 5 .SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. and a third embodying the expressions used by the Orthodox Tsar himself. Sakharof. Some of the most interesting are devoted to the soldier's sorrows. Our Gosudar will conquer the Swedish land. The white rock is our Kreml Gorod.

my home are three sorrows. beyond the In the house of an old widow Is her only son river. old and young. . Favour has he found in the eyes of the girls. red Sun ! bright Moon [Myesyats] with the clear stars. From my orphaned boys. Good and pleasing is he by nature. and amid sobs and tears would listen to the sad lament : Warm. From my young wife. iii." 6 In the days when long terms of military service were the rule. warm. and the occasion of his departure was one of great sorrow and mourning. So that we. 460. inhabitants of the village. From the poor to take and so to ruin. I : Beyond the brook. the old thieves-bloodsuckers. * Sakharof. a conscript was generally looked upon as lost to his native village. shine. 234. And the first sorrow is I have parted from my father and mother. Ivanushko Of him will we make a soldier. is Here The in a district of the Archangel Government. would collect on such an occasion. Shine. a song which used to be sung by the relations of a recruit when he took leave of his home. ill.52 In SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. From my father and from my mother. 7 Ruibnikof. Together Together with the bright Moon [Luna]. From my little children . May be able to see to go to the dram-shop To go to the dram-shop and take counsel From the rich to take and not to restore. i. Of service has he been to all the commune 7 .

all powdered. By the tomb of the Emperor. For from the evening to the midnight hour. At A young sergeant prayed to God. So was it with us. in Holy Russia. 235. His tears flow for the mighty monarch : who is no more ! thou bright moon. am sad Going to a far-off land To an unknown. 53 In another song we witness the setting out of a mighty army : The powerful army of the White the Tsar. far-off land Do I go in the service of the it is Gosudar 8 . Sturdily soldiers march. In Petersburg. in former times. Not as in old. "Do Not thou alone art unhappy. to the Prussian land. i. the bold youfch. Dost thou hide thyself behind clouds. is " all joyous. iii. Peter the First. batyushka Not as in old times dost thou shine. By the tomb of Peter the First. Dost thou cover thyself with black vapour. for after him not follows a fair maiden. In a third not for his own sorrows that the soldier weeps. I also. trying to comfort her. ! Ah the right side of the choir. brothers. Going. From the midnight hour till the grey dawn." one only of them sad." he says.SONGS OF THE EUSSIAN PEOPLE. ' Sakharof. weep. . the Great. In the church of Peter and Paul. that famous city. bitterly weeping.

" and those of a similar nature.54 SONGS OF THE EUSSIAN PEOPLE. 232. Awake Batyushka. Alexis Mikhailovich." lost all This song class styled may serve " also as a fair specimen of the faculty of composing Builinas. The Emperor. The well loved. Of these Builinas whether of the Vladimir cycle. is supposed by some writers to Historical. iii. Open. On all four sides coffin planks. Orthodox Tsar. and then to have expired during the great brought about by that monarch. And thus amid his sobs he spake. . it may not be amiss to say a few words about the Builinas and their reciters. and other Tsars who lived after the Tartar period I hope at some future period to give a detailed account. Look upon thy army dear. as a river flows. ye Unroll. Without thee are we all orphans. 9 Sakharof. social revolution or of the series referring to Ivan the Terrible." The have existed among the people till the time of Peter the Great. But before parting with the subject. the brave. awake. brocade of gold And do thou arise. or what are usually styled the real historical poems of Russia. i. For the recent death of the Emperor. Gosudar. Having become orphans. At present it is rather with lyric than with epic poetry that I propose to deal. have we 9 strength . Peter the First. and therefore I will not dwell any longer on the "Historical Songs. " damp mother Earth Split asunder. Weeping the while.

55 Until the beginning of the present century very few persons even suspected that Russia could boast of possessing a national epos. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. 470 548. a great number of whose manuscripts are preserved in the Bodleian Library. and spent the ensuing winter in the extreme north. It was vaguely reported that a considerable mass of more or less historical poetry was floating about in the memories of the people. From time to time small collections were made. This was the work entitled "Ancient Russian " Poems. towards the middle of the 18th century. having been formed by Richard James. is that which is now at Oxford. an English clergyman. Fourteen years later the entire collection was edited by Kalaidovich. in the Government of Perm. His collection consists of six poems. They have been printed the St.SONGS OP THE EUSSIAN PEOPLE. He was in Moscow in the summer of 1619. i. Ocherki. 1st. where he was detained on his return home by way of Archangel." containing 26 out of the 61 old epic " poems which purported to have been collected by a certain Kirsha Danilof. In the year 1804 there appeared at Moscow a book which extended the growing knowledge that there existed in Russia a rich mine of historical poetry. one of the most interesting of which. but little had been done to secure and preserve it. chiefly relating to events which had recently taken place in Russia 1 . by . No farther steps of any importance were taken till about twenty 1 Professor Buslaef has written an interesting article on these pOBms. at the Demidof mining works. so far as English readers are concerned.

The former is still in progress. to the effect that the poems which are regarded as records of Russia's earliest days are merely renderings borrowed by Russian minstrels from Mongol and Turkish sources. when. which have been . N. to enter . Into the questions raised by the antagonism of these two theories I hope.56 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. and some ten years later the first parts appeared of the two great collections made. but meets with only scant favour. But it should also be mentioned that another theory exists. and the other by P. such scholars. Dahl. Kiryeevsky. at present I content myself with stating their existence. According to one of the supporters of the first of eastern romances. the latter was completed two rich in the year 1867. and altered in accordance with Russian ideas.Kostomarof. years ago the St. the one by P. Bezsonof. forinstance. " the faculty of composing epic" poetry dwindled away. and that in them may be studied its successive phases. and their aiders or supervisors. With respect to the contents of these storehouses of national poetry for the building up of which the greatest credit is due to the patient explorers and collectors just mentioned. as Aksakof. from the days of heathenism to the period of social revolution under Peter the Great. Petersburg Academy of Sciences began to publish a rich collection of national songs. Buslaef. and many others the theory most in repute in Russia is that they are all poetic relics of the past history of the country. B. at the fitting time. Ruibnikof. togefar-off ther with many other things appertaining to the past.

by the school of critics to which he belongs." personages generally known as the " and considered to be evident personifications of the Powers of Nature. the Slavonic counterpart of Arthur or of Charlemagne. 1. as he holds high revel within the halls of Kief. which deals with really historic characters and is and ultimately resolves itself into the classes of Historical and Soldier Songs of which notice has events. to be that which deals with the mythical " Elder Heroes. already been taken." Cycle named a number of fragmentary epic poems chiefly relating " " to the deeds of the the Russian Younger Heroes Closely connected with it is the after Vladimir the Great. Next Cycle. or Kief is placed that of Novgorod. whose somewhat shadowy forms are seen grouped around that of Vladimir himself. and containing Paladins of ancient days. we may take the story of Svyatogor. in order of time to the Vladimir. 2 57 epos of the Builinas may be divided into certain cycles. The fourth place occupied by the Royal or Moscow Cycle. some extent expressive of the actions and the senti- ments.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. The earliest of these cycles supposed. the characteristics. " On the Builinas of the Vladimir Cycle. . of its is own period." p. prized for the pictures of life it is supposed to offer during the days of that ancient Republic's pride and prosperity. He is one of the most 9 See Maikof. and is to the outer and inner life. As a specimen of the mythical Builinas. each of which has its own poetic theory .

And he goes forth into the open With Svyatogor field. that it is a burden even to himself. Svyatogor. fastened together so as to be thrown across the shoulders or the saddle." ture. however. v svyatuikh goralch." striking of the His name is is derived from his dwelling-place. 4 . See now. has made himself ready to start on an expedition : He saddles his good horse. He is of gigantic sta- and his weight is such that the earth itself can His strength is so prodigious scarcely support him. Heavily laden is he with strength as with a weighty burden.58 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. we are told. Svyatogor exclaims " Could I but find its 3 equal in weight I would lift the whole earth !" Svyatogor riding over the steppe 4 Lights upon a little wallet He takes his whip and pushes the wallet : . the strength through his veins Courses with right living force. which 66 among the Holy Mountains. is somewhat similar to that attributed to Archimedes. it proves insufficient. On one occasion. In order to Peremetnaya Sumochka. it does not does not move : He He tries to move it with a finger but it yield : grasps it it will from on horseback with one hand not be lifted. but 8 Tyaga seems to mean here the equivalent of the earthly weight. " Elder Heroes. And is no one equal in strength. lift the earth Svyatogor must find a standing-place The remark capable of supporting him when so heavily burdened. a pair of wallets or bags.

he slumbers on for three days and three nights. but of blood 5 . With both hands he seizes the wallet. after a time in the tent is a Going to sleep. to such a wonder has my riding never brought me. the third day his good steed Hears a loud roar from the northern Damp mother earth staggers. Ilya Muromets. The dark forests rock. Such a marvel have I never seen before . as he rides afield. huge bed. the representative of the younger race of heroes. he sees a white tent beneath a tall oak. and goes out in search of adventures. . 32. has been told by the mystic beings infused almost matchless strength into his formerly crippled limbs. On side : The streams overflow Then the good hoofs. that he might safely fight with the heroes he might meet except three or four the first of the exceptions being Svyatogor. !" Lifts the wallet a little higher than his knees : But into the earth up to his knees sinks Svyatogor. Down his white face pours a stream not of tears. but cannot their steep banks. on which he lies down. One day. and ingly. not let itself be lifted Down from his good steed lights Svyatogor. 59 " Many But a year have I ridden about the world. That a little wallet Will not move.SONGS OF THE EUSSIAN PEOPLE. it cries aloud with Kuibnikof. steed strikes the ground with its wake 6 Ilya until I. Accordall who he saddles his good steed. nor yield.

Opens the coffer with a golden key Out comes thence a heroic woman. Then his good horse began to stumble. Bearing on his shoulders a crystal coffer. As soon His wife comes out from the tent. The hero comes to the green oak. Sat upon his good horse. and tells him that Svyatogor is coming his horse go to the tent. Placed him in her husband's vast pocket. . the hero's wife.60 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. and orders him to come down." but the sequel is different. and Svyatogor eats and drinks. And aroused her husband from his deep sleep. and climbs up among the branches of the oak. Placed his wife in the crystal coffer. lets free. : as she leaves the coffer she proceeds to spread a sumptuous table. Takes from his shoulder the crystal coffer. Locked it with the golden key. Then the horse said. Such a beauty on the whole earth Had never been seen. Whose head reaches to the fleeting clouds. never been heard of. sees Ilya in the This part of the tree. The The hero Svyatogor awoke. narrative almost identical with a portion of the " story told in the first chapter of the Arabian Nights. and then goes into the tent and falls asleep. Ilya leaps to his feet. And started for the Holy Mountains. a human voice. After Ilya has obeyed. is beautiful one. And the hero struck it with his silken whip On its stout haunches. with a human voice. Thence he sees how There comes a hero taller than the standing woods.

Down lay the hero Him did the coffin Svyatogor fit. On this coffin was written " Whosoever is destined to He will he down in it. lie in this coffin. elder brother. who he was and how he came Tnto his deep pocket. Muromets lay down in it For him was the coffin too long and too broad. for me." and on their way they come to a great coffin. But now I bear the hero's wife and two No wonder that I stumble !" And the hero Svyatogor drew out Ilya Muromets from his pocket. Intending to bury thyself. . Cover me up. after making himself a widower. enters into a bond of " fraternity with him. 61 " Formerly I carried the hero and the hero's wife. Hya. The two comIlya tells rades afterwards travel on together " to the Northern Mountains." Thus answered Ilya Muromets." Then the hero took the lid and closed the coffin with it himself. adopting him as his younger and instructing him in all the science with brother. . heroes.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. But when he wished to raise it. " The coffin is made exactly lid. : Thus spake the hero." which it befits a hero to be acquainted." Ilya this inscription. him all that has happened. Nor will I cover thee up No little joke is this thou art playing. Now lift the " I will not lift the lid. and Svyatogor. And began As to to question him.

Bend down to the chink. and he lifted the sword of steel." Ilya Muromets struck the coffin lid lengthways. and where the sword of steel had struck. In no manner could he do so. I cannot Do Ilya the coffin-lid. He struggled and strove hard to lift it. but what could he do Then thus spoke the hero Svyatogor. thou try to lift it. and the hero Svyatogorbreathed upon him with his heroic breath. " younger brother Surely my fate has found ! ! Ah me out . and I will breathe on thee once more. and will give over to thee all my great strength. to lift : Svyatogor called to him and said " Bend down it. and there also there sprang up a ridge of iron. once more try to strike with the sword this time along the coffin-lid." " My The breath (duM) was supposed with the soul (dusha). younger brother. Again the hero Svyatogor exclaimed. And he cried aloud to Ilya Muromets.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. younger brother. Then Ilya felt that thrice as much strength as he had possessed before was added unto him." But the Svyatogor' s sword of steel was beyond Then the hero strength of Ilya Muromets. to be intimately connected . " Lift up my sword of steel. From that mighty blow wide flew the sparks. on that spot stood out a ridge of iron. breath deserts me. is in to the coffin. Again did the hero Svyatogor call to him "I stifle." lift the coffin-lid [the story goes on to say in prose]. to the little chink that and I will breathe upon thee with heroic breath 6 ." So Ilya bent down. and struck across the coffin-lid. and strike across the to lift ! Muromets tried coffin-lid.

" than I can hold that steed Then passed out of the chink his dying breath.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. and Ilya bade farewell to Svyatogor. girded Svyatogor' s sword of steel on his loins. I should have breathed on thee with the breath of the grave. the earth would not be able to support me. and had I more. in that thou didst not obey my last command. elder brother. a specimen of the romances which are referred partly to the mythical cycle. as told in a Builina heard by Euibnikof near Petrozavodsk. Strength enough have I. sitting in silence at the oaken table. named we may being held at Kief. made fast his good steed to his coffin. younger brother. And now farewell Take to thyself my sword of steel." Then spake the hero Svyatogor. or has 7 Euibnikof. has he not received the wine-cup in his some drunkard insulted him. Were it otherwise. "The The But the wise man boasts fool brags of his young wife. One day a great feast is after Vladimir. idiots vaunt their wealth of gold. I." Only Sukhman utters no vaunt. Vladimir asks what ails him. and went his way into the open field 7 . Noticing this. in hand. " Well hast thou done. 3342. but ! No other fasten to my coffin my good heroic steed. and partly to that As take the story of the hero Sukhman. of his old mother. . 63 But " Ilya Muromets replied. or has he been allotted a lower seat than that to which his He replies: father's merits entitle him ? turn. By the evening the guests have waxed merry and boastful over their cups. in Vladimir's palace. and thou wouldst have lain dead near me.

Creek after creek does he examine. but all her waters are turbid with sand. " By day they build bridges . caught by his hands : without having been wounded. " How can I flow as of old ?" replies the river. . Having thus spoken. Mother Dnieper ?" he cries. he says. quits the festal hall. And my seat is that which my father's son may claim. or small grey ducks." Sukhman his resolves to attack the infidels. and then goes on to complain that she is beset by forty thousand pagan Tartars. saddles his and rides away till he comes to a blue sea. and clears it at a bound. and uses it as a club against the Tartars. he determines to ride on to the banks of " Mother Dnieper.64 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. " Why dost thou not flow as of old. so he sets horse at the river. but in none of them good steed." So. he will not yield like the rest to merriment and boasting. " swim either geese. Then he tears an oak out of the ground. he sees that Mother When Dnieper is not flowing as she used to flow. who are building bridges across her. by night I sweep is them away Utterly at the end of her strength Mother Dnieper." he reaches that river. And no drunkard Still. when he comes up . " The wine-cup came to me in its proper course. into which lead creeks with quiet waters. has insulted me. as he cannot think of returning empty-handed to Kief. he rises from table. or swans. but this he will do he will bring to Vladimir a white swan.

makes light. Each swing of his terrible weapon " cuts a street in their ranks. And he sends his nephew Dobruinya to Mother Dnieper. Dobruinya visits the field of battle. Bring him before my bright eyes. Seizing Sukhman by the white hands. And recompense him with towns and suburbs. and carries back to Kief the fragments of the great oak which Sukhman had shattered in the fight." each backhanded sweep "clears away a cross-street. when he is asked for the "live and unwounded swan" he had promised. 65 with them. and await Sukhman. and " cries : trusty servants Swiftly run to the deep dungeon ! What ho my ! . but not before he has been Of these. Lead Sukhman forth. however. and " applying poppy leaves to his bleeding wounds. to make inquiries about Sukhman's conduct. To fling the brave youth into a dark dungeon." On his return to Kief. and puts them to death. with arrows fitted to their bowstrings. he pierced by three arrows. He follows them. I will show favour unto the youth For this his great service." At length all the Tartars are killed. he describes the victory he has obtained. pulling them out. sees the bodies of the dead Tartars. . He ordered his trusty servants. Vladimir hears his report.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. but Vladimir will not believe him. with the exception of three who hide among the willow bushes which fringe the Dnieper's shore.

Ruibnikof.66 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. Or with Or with tillages and hamlets. 26 . And thus did Sukhman speak " Flow on. a name frequently given to Vla- dimir in these poems. the number of verses in the entire work amounting to rather more than 50. How great was his industry may P. I will attempt to convey some idea of the manner in which those poems were colThe best method of doing so seems to be to lected. Sukhman-Biver. the whole of which has not yet been published. From out of my burning blood . And Sukhman comes out from the dungeon. 0. and goes forth into the open fieldBut then spake the brave youth these words " The Sun 8 knew not how to show me favour. is on fully as great a scale. The Sun knew not how to reward me . 9 My burning blood shed uselessly off his : From ' ! : Having given these specimens of the contents of the two great collections of national poems recently published in Russia. I." 32. condense the graphic account of his exploring journeys drawn up by one of the chief compilers. be measured by the fact that its results fill four large volumes. So now his bright eyes shall not behold me He tore the leaves of the poppy : ! : bleeding wounds . countless wealth of gold at will/ So they hasten to the dungeon. Kiryeevsky's collection. These contain 236 Builinas.000. or "Dear Sun. N. 9 Ruibnikof. 8 SolnuisJiTco. and tell Sukhman that he is to reap the reward of his brave deeds.

" he " I began to ask them to sing any thing they says. and during the ensuing winter he betook himself to the task of collecting these " memorials of national poetry." From their dictation Ruibnikof wrote down a number of poems. they had warmed themselves and talked a little.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. however. knew. and so appeared at the Fair. and sang through self recited the pieces they knew. and there they would sit by the churchyard and sing songs to crowds of listeners. and brought them to his lodgings. and would no longer allow them to which he paid to the Shungsk Fair." At his urgent request. whither he sing in the streets. At first they would not. Thither. But in the year 1850 " the police had begun to drive the singers away from the churchyard. he was informed. 67 In the course of the year 1859 Ruibnikof. but when I had my- something to them from memory out of the Kniga Golubinaya. numbers of KaliM (in modern days generally blind psalm-singers) formerly used to repair. a town situated on the western shore of Lake Onega. took up their old quarters by ally J F 2 ." making especial use of the opportunity afforded him by a visit was sent in search of certain statistics. and then another. the Police-master contrived to find a couple of min" When strels. they began first one Stikh (religious poem). who was then employed upon Government business in Petrozavodsk. Eventuall he induced the police authorities to cease from " from that time they again harassing them. was informed that a number of old and curious songs were preserved among the rural population of the Olonets Government.

" But so far as Builinas were concerned. only rumours reached his ears. with whom. the merchants gave up their minds to business alone. The Shungsk people did not care for such things. She it is who teaches the bride to mourn " maiden freein becoming verse for the loss of her dom. according to Ruibnikof. and the rest of tne community seemed by no means well disposed towards such profane poetry as is represented by the Builina. even to a district inhabited by Old-Ritualists. who kept up ancient customs with great strictness.68 SONGS OF THE UUSSIAN PEOPLE. as we shall see farther on. The Chinovniks (or civil officials) thought his interest in them was a proof of sheer idleness. and they." About the same time he became acquainted with a " celebrated Voplenitsa or professional Wailer. and were. In to to be him that part of the country the Russian Puritans known as Old-Ritualists abound. and once more solicited alms from the public by singing religious poems. for it sees that old customs are religiously prein a served at marriages and funerals." The Wailer she is. able to do their own " howling" for themselves. and on other solemn occasions. the churchyard. Hilferding has . a personage of no small importance is who Russian community. The particular Wailer in question enjoyed so widely spread areputation that she was often summoned to remote spots." and prompts the widow and the orphan to wail as befits them over the coffin or the grave of the departed. as a general rule. however. From her he obtained a number of good wedding songs and funeral " complaints.

who was in the habit of roaming from village to village. but he could not succeed in finding him. or Government how difficult it is and how especially official." was a certain tailor called Butuilka (or the Bottle). and he profited by it to the utterof Olonets. and of singing Bui. and is of a sympathetic nature. and once traversing its waters in a wretched boat. for a It is well known. they are by no means inaccessible. they see that their visitor respects their customs. or to obtain from them any details about their way of living. if It is an advantage readily respond to his advances. Ruibnikof immediately set off in search of him. to the inquirer to wear the national dress. 69 recently declared himself completely at variance on this point feel for secular poetry what was felt in olden days by the Slavonic framers of the rules drawn up for persons leading an ascetic life. " But his not the main point. In the summer of 1860 Ruibnikof received a roving commission to collect statistics about the Government This gave him an excellent opportunity of studying the manners and customs of the peasantry in remote districts.told that there linas as But he was he worked. they Still. Bdrin difficult it is a "gentleman" for a Chinovnik. It was not till 1863 that he made the poetical tailor's acquaintance.SONGS OF THE KUSSIAN PEOPLE. he says. to gain the confidence of the common people. On the contrary. who were forbidden " to sing Satanic songs or to scandalize the profane world. What he must do is to respect the independence of the religious beliefs of dress is . most. twice crossing Lake Onega on the ice.

for several other boats had been forced to take shelter from the storm. Before long he was awakened by strange sounds. Ruibnikof went down to the quay at Petrozavodsk. although it could offer but small accommodaThe boat left the quay tion." And so. and at the same time to fling aside all bookish prejudices In that case the peasant will not refuse to recognize as a brother even a man who has received a university education. and will readily tell and fine airs. only one boat from passage. however. and about six o'clock in the morning the weary rowers were glad to take refuge under the lee of a desolate little island about eight miles from Petrozavodsk. rowed by three men and a woman." having donned the dress of the compeople. that part of the shore to which he wished to go. . and then lay down to sleep on the bare ground. laden with butter. and manned by peasants who gave their services as rowers in return for a free There was. he was obliged to start. him all he wants to know. so he made himself for the benefit of some tea at a wood fire which was burning outside. but had not got far on its way when a strong head wind arose. but boats had already begun to arrive from different parts of the lake.70 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. " one fresh May mon morning. and began to look for a boat to take him to the other side of Lake Onega. at night. The ice had scarcely had time to thaw. the people. and meal. the characteristics of their way of life. So in it. eggs. but it was full of peasants. Ruibnikof landed and walked to a small hut intended weather-bound mariners. the hard labour of the agriculturist and the artisan.

and that by skilled minstrels. but never such a one as that to which he was now listening. His age was seventy . who helped to speed the hours by singing snatches of song to the men and by his some of new gossiping with the women. and now with broken flow seemed to recall to mind something antique. " Lively. he says. keen eyes. When one song was ended another began. pleasant was it to remain under the influence of an entirely new impression. change boats and to accompany circle acquaintances to their village. the second song came to an end Ruibnikof got up and made acquaintance with the singer. joyous." Half slumbrously he could see a group of peasants sitting a little way off. on the desolate island amid the wild waves of Lake Onega.SONGS OF THE EUSSIAN PEOPLE. fantastic. which turned out to be one of the Novgorod Builinas. it Some one was now streamed rapidly along. but their performance never again pro- When duced the strong impression which was made upon him by the broken voice of the old singer to whom he listened that stormy spring morning. a peasant named Leonty Bogdanovich. One of the party was the singer. and a kindly expression |of countenance. who formed a Ruibnikof agreed to round the wood fire. He heard many Builinas sung afterwards. listening to a song sung by a grey-haired old man. 71 singing beside the fire. For something forgotten by our generation. unwilling to move. He had heard many songs. with a full white beard." a time Ruibnikof remained betwixt sleeping and " so waking. After spending some hours in friendly chat with the peasants.

did mother Volga give to drink." but he was brisk and hearty. Nor My mother can I not it recall to mind. To me. " though he had known but few good days in his life. he was told by host that the two best skaziteli'Or reciters of .72 years SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. the orphan. Here and there appeared villages and hamlets. and little piers to which skiffs were attached. Leonty Bogdanovich singing the following song. in which the rest joined in chorus It is not the cuckoo that is mourning in the moist wood. the good youth. and along the edge of the water were cottages. And who was who gave to me." About midday the boat came to the " Monk" a long and narrow sandbank in the middle of the lake. who had on showing him hospitality. did the Orthodox Commune give to eat and to drink. My yellow And curls did a beauteous maiden twine. Leonty Bogdanovich. Alas. On went the voyagers. dotted with many islands. to eat and to drink ? To me. That evening as Ruibnikof was insisted his tage of the old singer. late in the evening they landed below the sitting in the cot- village of Seredka. it is a good youth who tearfully laments in a time of need. " with a tail. the nightingale that is sadly complaining in the green garden. the orphan. much dreaded in stormy weather and towards evening it was gliding between the indented shores of a secluded gulf.

" and used to take it in turns to do his share of the spect . The other fishermen held him in great re- " on account of his knowledge of epic poetry. you'll get nothing out of him. and first said and then sang one of the epic poems." he at " It would be improper to recite profane songs at is " to-day present. He is a proud "I and a stubborn one. If you don't persuade him be- forehand. While they were talking and telling him stories. having a good allotment of land." said Ruibnikof. and making a fair livelihood by fishing. some hero or other. many of whom afterwards came to spend the evening with him." there could be no sin in reciting Builinas. and made acquaintance with a number of the cottagers. To Ruibnikof's request that he first would sing " about refused to accede. man. ing. their names being Kozma Ivanof Romanof and Trofim Grigorief " Take me to Ryabinin. a fast. nikof's Such was the commencement of Ruibacquaintance with a "reciter" from whom he afterwards obtained three-and-twenty Builinas. Ryabinin to-morrow morn" No. 73 the neighbourhood lived close by." replied Leonty. an old man of middle height. which treated of " ancient Princes and Holy-Russian heroes." he replied. This was Ryabinin. stepped across the threshold. One should Ruibnikof explained that sing religious songs.SONGS OF THE EUSSIAN PEOPLE. must give him notice first. with flaxen hair and a small grey beard." The next day Ruibnikof wandered about the village. stoutly built." and at last Ryabinin allowed himself to be persuaded. Ryabinin was well off for a peasant.

then Ilya And he would reply. who lived in a rude hut with an old woman to wait upon . was a blind. and thought fit to account for his gift. In Ryabinin differed from him. Romanof. and could sing for whole days about different heroes. who kept a traldir. is This acquaintance of the other reciter.' And if one of the richer peasants produced the coin the old man would at once commence his recital. or tavern." and to a certain common. fishing in work when they were out that they might listen to his his stock of poetry partly by listening to an uncle who was a celebrated "reciter. " Give me sing us a Builina." ! a poltina (half a rouble) . the principal reciter of the " whole province of Olonets." The peasants " used to gather round him and say.74 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. Now. and the reception of my present. for his pride prevented him from taking money from Ruibnikof. He had acquired Kokotin. in order songs. then I'll sing a Builina. he imme- diately presented me with an embroidered towel. " In spite of my urgent request. he would not consent to receive any thing from me in return for this respect what he had taught me. at my departure. But his chief instructor had been one Ilya Elustaf ef. as follows it c : When ' friends part for customary among us to exchange presents by way of remembrance. gave his eldest daughter a handkerchief. who says. of which he had a collection in manuscript. Petersand who was a great lover of Builinas.' A few days after his arrival Ruibnikof made the a long time. burg. at St. who knew a countless number of Builinas. When I. white-haired old man of ninety.

Moreover he kept a cow. and also a sum of six roubles allowed him yearly by the Duma or council. after his return home to Petroza- vodsk. He is of opinion that women have their own balji starinui (women's old poems). and whose niece also was able to sing several poems. which are could sing. He had for his support the rent derived from his allotment of ground. . and " then the " reciters used to sing Builinas to them. being too weak to undertake field-labour." such as Shchegolenkof. who. At first sung by them with special pleasure. The rent he received each year for his piece of ground was paid in kind. and three loads of hay. a pood of salt. kept up the acquaintance he had made with him and with Ryabinin. he be- came acquainted with several other "reciters. but not so reabut this statement has been condily by the men. Besides these two. the pood being equal to about 3 Gibs. and had money laid up for " a black day. a tailor who wandered about the neighbouring villages in search of work. On one occasion Ruibnikof was taken to see another woman who she refused to do so.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. according to his account. 75 him. and when he was invited to do so he poured forth Builina after Builina Romanof was very which he had learnt in early days. men and women to was customary for the old meet together and make nets." In another village an old tradicted by Hilferding. From Romanof fourteen Builinas were obtained by Ruibnikof. but eventually complied with his request while suckling " her babe. a pood of groats. for instance. and amounted to 20 poods of rye flour." willing to sing. it In former times.

and Peter Ivanof Kornilof. woman sang him a starina. In one of the villages Euibnikof found an excellent in search of him. in search of him. and that he had fancied Ruibnikof was an officer of the law who had come to inflict legal penalties upon him. who sent back word that he was too ill to come. Euibnikof set off was told Thither he went that he had gone off to the woods. living in a solitary hut he had constructed for himself. only now and then interrupting the story by But at the most exciting pastheir exclamations. having previously stipulated for a small piece of money in return. As soon as Ruibnikof had told him his real mission. a surly man of fifty. his cottage " The old all the time. at his cottage and arriving Prokhorof by name. and he took his place beside the stump on which his visitor had sat down. and then and there sang him a Builina. Andrei Sarafanof. the peasant's fear left him. who sang away to him during the whole of two evenings. full of singer. an elderly blind man living with his relations. JSTikifor being peasants people listened and the younger ones also sat quietly. and having found him. and deriving from the rent paid him for the use of On one occasion a his share of the communal lands. a fair livelihood singer of local fame was summoned. Among the other singers whom Ruibnikof turned to account was Terenty Jevlef.76 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. trouble about a fire in the woods. silently. asked him why he had taken to flight in so unnecessary a manThe singer explained that he had got into ner. a middle-aged man occupied in fishing. .

even the civil officials being included in the number. tent. inn in the habit of telling stories who kept an which his father had kept before him. used to meet together . ing and often sit up all night listening to his Jong stories about different heroes. in the evenings on purpose to listen to Builinas but long before his visit they had gone out of fashion. and who was and " Travellers go reciting ballads to to him in the even- his customers." he " I had been accustomed to offer says. but ." One of the KaliM had a cottage of his own. money of my own accord in return for singing. Andrei Sorokin. builine poetry used once to be held in great respect. who looked on their singing and reciting from a thoroughly commercial point of view. 77 sages they fidgetted a little on their seats." In the Kargopol district Ruibnikof found that the KaliM.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. for instance. when I Some of the singers refused to take my money. others accepted it. asked payment for all that they contributed in the way of " ballad poetry or hymns. who gained his living by field-labour. either as a gift or as a recompense for their loss of time. Up to this time. especially took away a peasant from his work. when he not recognizing his father. bent his toughbow and shot an arrow into Ilya's white told Ilya's son. as Ruibnikof was informed. as. Sixty years ago the merchants and other townspeople. them how From Nikifor Prokhorof. Fortunately he made the acquaint- ance of a young man. In the town of Pudoj. Ruibnikof obtained twelve Builinas. and bent forwards towards the reciter.

and there to gain Along the spiritual songs. this Kalika sometimes recited Builinas. received named Bogdanof. result was he fortified himself with strong liquors and returned to the attack. but the to be discouraged . which he tried to repeat to Ruibnikof. in quest of which he spends nearly the whole winter. scarcely ever lived in it. going to a Kabalc. Eventually he became so troublesome that he had to be abruptly sent about his Another time a village " scribe" brought business. and traditions. " however. legends. Ruibnikof made acquaintance in 1863. breaking down. though they profess to object to In the Archangel Government." money by singing river Onega live numbers of sectaries. Sometimes an attempt was made to deceive Ruibnikof. He is the possessor of a good piece of land. at the end of the first ten lines. but his main income is derived from tailor's work. however. wandering from . some money from him for singing wanted to earn more. who told him a starina. where there are rich peasants in the villages.78 SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. all that is mundane. Ruibnikof half-a-dozen poems which he professed to have heard." unsatisfactory. preferring to go about with his comrades to fairs and markets. who are very fond of such poetry. Failing a second time. With Butuilka (the Bottle) whose real name was Chukkoef. for instance. and did his best to weave them into a The minstrel was not Builina. so he " recalled to mind a number of fragments of tales. but which he had really transcribed bodily from the printed collection of Kirsha Danilof. he betook himself to a neighbour. A peasant who had Builinas.

pp. or reciters. Every peasant there acquainted with the contents of some Builinas." and every intelligent man of a certain age has a Builina or two committed to memory. after the deaths of the best representatives of the present generation of singers. In some of the districts around Lake Onega. for instance. however. in others they are only from the Kaliki." Hilferding. the Builinas. and with the names of certain heroes. as. them from Most of the Kalild make a point of handing them down to " But the their children. who sing them from a love to be heard for poetry. village to village in 79 on Lake Onega. "leave no heirs for their poetic stores. he he reflects awhile. in those of one of the districts bordering afterwards visited Euibnikof at Petrozavodsk andPudoj. vi Hi. and in the course of twenty or thirty years. in. . denies that Ruibnikof. who make a livelihood out of them. will be preserved in the memories of but a very few members of the rural 1 population 1 . He Petrozavodsk. As a general rule the singers have learnt their fathers or grandfathers.SONGS OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE. if first that he knows nothing about them." says Ruibnikof. In some places they are chiefly retained in the memories of the SkazUeli. the remains of the old epic poetry are carefully preserved " is by the rural population. find at least fragments of them coming into his mind. Even if he thinks at will. even in the Government of Olonetz. the Builinas are dying out. greater part of the reciters. and there sang to him all the Builinas he knew.

handed from one generation to another. of which only a few fragments have come down to the present day. but of several of . some collection of Slavonic Vedas. in which the religious teaching of the day was embodied. Of it. there can now be formed its only a dim separate features it is possible to gain at least some idea by studying and piecing together the fragments of popular poetry conception. THE OLD GODS. of tongue and worshipped the same gods. Among these relics of an almost forgotten past.CHAPTER MYTHOLOGY. but when. SECTION I. as a whole. what are now the various Slavonic peoples spoke the same AT some remote period. II. which very little is known with certainty. prevailed among them. in all probability. by no means the least important are the songs which have been preserved by the people in their different dialects. some kind of mythological system. to have belonged to some great mass of national poetry. it may be supposed. and watched over with a jealous care which has prevented them from entirely losing their as a precious heirloom down In ancient times they seem original characteristics.

whether they form the heritage of the " Orthodox Russian or Servian. and the writers who claim to pronounce upon with authority not seldom differ among themselves. become transformed into the capricious and often deities whom they grotesque beings with whom the superstition of the Russian peasant peoples the spiritual world. Each land has its own songs now. and to convey some idea of the process by which the venerable adored have. but almost every inference that may be deduced from their testimony.THE OLD GODS. for there is a lack of precise information on the subject. 81 which that exist. the mythological system which they illustrate to attempt to sketch the principal features of the religious worship of the old Slavonians. or of the " Catholic " Pole or Czekh. in every land inhabited by a Slavonic population. as well as among their Lettic cousins. It is mainly with the songs which are still current in modern Russia that it is >: proposed to deal at present. in the course of time. The task is not one which can be completed in a satisfactory manner. can be supported also by that of their kin among the Slavonic brethren of the Russians. But it is to be hoped that the G it . more or less abundantly. but there is such a is strong family likeness between all these memorials of old times as clearly points to a common origin. with reference to the old days of heathenism. it Before entering upon the subject of these songs will be as well to say a few prefatory words about . whether they come from the shores of the Baltic or of the Adriatic.

in the introduction " to his History of Russia " remember nothing about still their arrival in Europe. but those writers may have been somewhat biassed by their theological hatred of stiff-necked idolaters. The religion of the Eastern Slavonians among fairly be included the ancestors of at least a great part of the present Russians appears whom may . will. Of the Drevlyane the old chroniclers have spoken with great harshness. that it is hang over this period of their obtain any thing like a clear view of what was happening before some of difficult to their number built Novgorod on the shores of Lake Ilmen. as might be supposed from their name. apparently towards the north-east. of whom the latter the milder and more civilized. move are the clouds which history. help to render intelligible the fragmentary songs which are to follow them. though tradition speaks of their early sojourn along history be silent the banks of the Danube. Kief. and gave it the name city. ^ tree]. and others founded.82 MYTHOLOGY. what was to become the chief city of South Russia. the Drevlyane. and the Polyane. or a field]. of About the time of the foundation of that the country adjacent to the Dnieper seems to have been inhabited chiefly by two great tribes. The Slavonians says Solovief. at remarks which are about to be made here least. near the conflux of the Dyesna and the Dnieper. or Foresters [Drevo Field-people [Pole = were. under the pressure of some hostile So thick force. and of their being compelled if even to thence.

the elements. like that of all other Aryan races. sooner or later. among whom These Eastern Slavonians seem to have regular temples. personifying the powers of nature under various forms. They seem to have worshipped the sun. the moon. man and wife. Perun. but who probably resembled to a considerable degree the Finnish Conjurors. king. and judge. and the they connected with the phenomena of the storm. and thus creating a certain number of spirits deities. T. on the other to the spirits of the dead. its place was Rod. upon the reverence paid.God. or Gens The chief of the Rod exercised the functions of priest. in its widest relatives. attributed to the Thunder. G 2 . Prophets seem to have existed in the persons of certain wizards Volkhvui of whom very little is known. as it were. The modern Russian word for "family.THE OLD GODS. and the sacred rites were performed by the Elders. his sense. and built no in striking contrast with the Lithuanians. ." Sem'yati should be observed originally had the same meaning The word which supplied as Suprugi. whom the supremacy was. the stars. 1 Solovief. which meant family whole of a man's 1 . Istoriya Rossii. not to speak of some of the Western Slavonians they appear not to have acknowledged any regular class of priests. or heads of family communities. Their sacrifices were or beside offered up under a tree generally an oak running water. on the one hand to the forces of nature. including the Clan.317. to 83 the have been founded.

Thunderbolt. who The attributed to the souls of the dead passions and appetites like to those which sway the living. and who attached great importance to the manifestation of respect for the spirits of their forefathers. retained a strong hold on the affections of the people. in detail. and especially for family. the Brownie. Such are the most salient points of the old Slavonic mythology. who were. as in other lands. but the spiritual beings to whom reverence was paid gradually lost their original dignity.84 MYTHOLOGY. until at last the majestic form of the household divinity became degraded into that of the Domovoy the house-spirit in whom the Russian peasant still firmly believes. The that of the original founder of the worship of the Slavonic Lares and Penates." i. who once haunted our own firesides. even after Christianity had driven out the connected with the great gods of old . We will now examine it a little more commencing with the ideas attached by the early inhabitants of Russia to those solar gods who are supposed by many eminent scholars to have originally held higher rank than the wielder of the 2 . cultus of ancestors formed an important pa of the religious system of the old Slavonians. intimately fire burning on the domestic hearth. extract from The following Their Gods appear to have been mere abstractions personifications of those powers of nature on whom they relied for good : " . or Hobgoblin. Perun 2 Mr. 8) people seems to be perfectly applicable to the primitive Slavonians. Talboys Wheeler's description " " Vedic of the religion of the (" History of India.

and the confounding together of different " Buslaef." p." i. . I shall not refer in this chapter of Dazhbog. apparently the Slavonic counterpart of the Vedic Varuna and the Hellenic Ouranos." i." 3 these there appears to have been personifications. who personage. about Nature. and it appears to be proved that he was identical with Khors." to the celebrated epic reserve that poem the Expedition of Igor. Language. That the harvests. the Influence of Christianity on the Slavonic " Poetic Views of the Slavonians Afanasief. the According to an old saying. who among us in the East received the name 1st." says The epoch of Perun and Volos . in his Svarog.THE OLD GODS. German. " Historical " Sketches. "On . The Sun and the Fire are spoken of as his chilis dren. i. 85 is The most ancient among these deities said to have been Svarog. On Solovief decidedly identifies Perun with 61'. Buslaef. Dags. . 50. deduced by Russian philologists from a root corresponding with the Sanskrit Sur to shine. was preceded by another. 82. 364. That Dazhbog was the Sun seems clear. Svarog is given to repose.God. See his " History of Eussia. heaven. Tag~\ so that Dazhbog is equivalent to Day. name of Dazhbog. But from the very in some confusion deities. 65. and the later word Svarga. one common to all the Slavonians the epoch of Svarozhich. deputing to his children the work of creation and the task of ruling the universe 3 ." as I wish to for a future occasion. is His name and compared by some of them with the Vedic Svar. tival is sometimes spoken of as a different The word Dazh is said to be the adjec9 form of Dag [Gothic. the former under the latter under that of Ogon'. which led both to a first multiplicity of deities. 322. Och.

how many to whom traces speech and the customs of the modern Russians. they " Zuarasici " mentioned by DietSvarog' s son the mar. = Agni]. as among us in the form o who 5 says of the Slavonians. in the a worship which was closely connected with place that of which the spirits of ancestors were the objects. for word Bog stands also that it God is " reappears Puck. . have escaped from the limbo to which the lapse of time has assigned the dimly-seen form of Svarog. Fire. is supposed to be proved by the evidence of a thirteenth century writer. or to the stove which eventually took its still appear to exist. or whether his name was merely an epithet of Indra. 364. call " They pray Svarozhich. Russian mythologists identify the name of Perun with that of the Vedic Parjanya. G. and Bug That Ogon'. was considered the son of Svarog. does not appear to be certain. V already well known. but we shall at least derer. ultimately became the supreme god of the Slavonians Perun. Bogy.86 MYTHOLOGY. of the worship once paid to Ogon'. [pronounced Agon. In the Slovo nyekoego Khristolyultsa. and on his account to the domestic hearth. nor are philologists agreed as to whether 4 5 Cox's " Mythology of the Aryan Nations. W. We shall see. Whether the latter was an independent deity." or Ogon'." n. the Heaven. the Thunto the deity We now come who In dealing with him we shall by no means be treading upon certain ground. a little farther on.

87 " the rain " or " the thunderer . v." 1859. the Aryans of India and the Teutonic tribes continued to worship him as a subordinate member of the family of the gods. Biihler's translation. " 7 8 " Kig Rig Veda. 154 Dr. the personification of the thundering cloud. the bountiful. forgot him entirely . and the upholder of justice. Prof. 83. bent on the adoration of Dyaus. 63. Wilson's translation. but the LettoSlavonians raised him to the dignity of a supreme leader of all other deities 6 . 2. who impregnates the plants with rain. the showerer." and gives birth to plants for man's enjoyment. or Pargana. Veda." In the hymns addressed to Parjanya in the Big Yeda he is called " the thunderer. to be armed with the lightning. previously to the separation of the Aryan race. whom they believed to rouse the thunder-storm." Parjanya means but "it is very probable that our ancestors adored. .THE OLD GODS." of Benfey's Orient und Occident. Biihler." v." The description of Parjanya 6 is in all respects ' On the Hindu God " Transactions of the contained in the Philological Parjanya.' See also his essay on the same 168. pp. to be the procreator of plants. in an excellent article " " subject in vol." fertilizes the soil with showers " 7 and destroys Sometimes " he strikes " the wicked down the trees" (clouds). Gr. Society. Dr. a god called Parjana. to send the rain." at others he speaks a wonderful gleam-accompanied word which 8 " brings refreshment . i." and it is said that " Earth becomes for all (fit) creatures when Parjanya . pt. Afterwards the GrsecoItalian nation.

" shaped it before fire " in the image of the lightning. the Russian parit' In Lithuania Perkunas. As a group of consonants formed by rTc or rg would be in disharmony with the phonetic rules established in the Slavonic languages. Soc. 249. legend. to bear. the Bohemian Peraun. applicable to the deity worshipped by the different branches of the Slavo-Lettic family under various names. the Thunder. Biihler the word PerJcuna is exactly equivalent to a Sanskrit Parjana. This elision may perhaps be attributed to the position of the r." With respect to the absence of 9 the k in the Slavonic forms of the name he " says. to which the affix ya was added without change of signification. as the . not " According to Dr. known also to other Indo-European nations. was worshipped with great reverence. being akin to the Latin pario. V. it was rekindled by means His name is of sparks struck from the stone. such as the Lithuanian Perkunas. Trans. the Lettish Perlcons. 1809. the Polish Piomn.88 MYTHOLOGY. and the Russian Perun 9 ." and If the constantly burnt an oak-wood fire. See also the Deutsche Mytho- loyie. His statue is said to have held in its hand " a precious stone like fire. p. I. 1G4.God created the universe by the action of warmth According to a Lithuanian PerJmnas ids iszperieje. S. God of Thunder. the Old Prussian PerJcunos. and the usual transposition of the liquid was not effected. 156. and to hatch. P. form periu) means to } The verb perieti (present produce by means of warmth. by any chance went out. an unusual remedy only could hinder the violation of the laws of the language." Phil. 1 Afanasief. .

Among the kindred Livonians a feast used to be celebrated at the beginning of Spring. The Moon wandered alone. PerMns grumena. . It is not used. Courted the Morning Star. Dainos} is a Lithuanian word for a song. in the case of a song of a serious or religious cast. and who still sing dainos in is which he is mentioned. No. a third the following myth is related about the marriage of the Moon. Did the north wind blow. " Wherefore dost thou depart from the Sun ? Wandering by night alone ? Courting the Morning Star ?" 3 Full of sorrow [was his] heart . Or did Perkunas thunder or send lightnings In another it is ? told how when The Morning Star held a wedding-feast.THE OLD GODS. Struck down the green oak. during which Daina (plur. Perkunas greatly wroth Cleft him with a sword. The Sun arose early The Moon departed from her. 3 2 Nessclinaim's Littauische Vol/cslieder. when the thun2 der rolls. 2. 89 yet forgotten by the people. who say. which bears a special name. a male deity in the SlavoLettic languages : And in The Moon wedded the Sun In the first spring. however. Perkunas rode through the doorway. In one of these a girl who mourning for the loss of her flowers is asked.

Three lighten. three thunder. 4 5 Afanasief. P. there occur several allusions to Perkons.V. forests. . in order that the crops may thrive 66 Perkons ! father ! . either regarded as the thunder-god or as the thunder itself. Bestow.90 MYTHOLOGY. S. in Lett and Russian. I. In one we are told that Father Perkons Has nine Sons Three strike. the following prayer is said to have been uttered by the officiating priest :- f thy children lead this faultless victim to thy altar. May Parom show thee his teeth! 5 " that is to say. May the lightning strike thee In a most valuable collection of Lettish songs. : Another / states that Perkons drove across the sea. where they will not frighten mankind and give sunshine and rain. thy blessing and on the corn. ' ' ! 5: ' ! recently published at Wilna. In order to marry beyond the sea : I Quoted by Dr. and large deserts. De Diis Samogitarum have not as yet succeeded in verifying the quotation. Biihler from Lasicius. Drive away all black haily clouds to the great moors. gentle falling 4 rain. ' ! Among many of the Western Slavonians the name of this thunder-god is still preserved under various forms in the speech of the people. The White-Russian peasant to this day uses such expressions in his and the Slovaks have wrath as " Perun smite thee " retained a curse. 251. May golden straw on the plough with great well-filled ears rise abundantly as rushes. father.

the remains of which they keep by them during the rest of the year.THE OLD GODS. 316 (" 7 . Memorials of Lettish Popular Poetry. p. a name which is applied in part of Russian Lithuania as an epithet of the Virgin Mary." collected and edited by Ivan Sprogis). etc. who is called Panna [Lady] Maria Percunatele. lighting them before their holy pictures 7 . 91 Sun followed with a dowry Bestowing gifts on all the woods To the Oak a golden girdle. and one of them 6 is in Kief. and during service on that day the faithful stand in church holding lighted tapers. Only two Russian localities." or Russia proper.. and it has left scarcely any traces behind. and the other in the Govern- Pamyatniki Latuishskago Narodnago TvorcJiestva. N. To the Maple motley gloves. . p. the name of Perun has disappeared from the memory of the common people. 195. Wilna. the Very Holy Mary the Thunderer. the spring To the very depths In it the Sun's daughter yesterday was drowned While washing golden goblets 6 Strike. According to a Polish tradition. bear names which seem to be derived from his.315. the mother of the thunder is called Percunatele. Schoppiug's K. says Schopping. from time to time when storms impend In " Great-Russia. . the : Him And a third addresses the Thunderer as follows : Perkons. In the Government of Yilna the second of February is devoted to the Presvyataya Mariya Gromnitsa. 1868.

however. and exAfterwards. or Suarasici. and the latter that of their Slavonic subjects. one of the most erudite of Slavonic scholars. while Perun has become forgotten. At all events. a far higher authority. 360) that Perun was a generally worshipped Slavonic deity long before the division of the Slavonians into their Eastern and Western branches. N. Greeks they swore by Perun and Volos. 8 In Kief. the genitive case of Dazhbog. or Dashuba. Och. holds (1st. however. Dazhb.92 MYTHOLOGY. it is said. was corrected. he saw that the name was merely a slightly spelling More unfortunate were the mistakes altered form of Svarozhich. mentioned by Schopping (R. west and south-west. Slavonic Mythology. . 16). Schafarik. which derived a" god Uslyad. " Golden Moustaches. places directly under Varanhis theory being that the Scandi- ment of Novgorod. out of a common-place contraction of Dazhboga." from a couple of words describing the personal appearance of Perun. he had Buslaef." 9 The following facts will serve to show how treacherous is the ground on which the antiquarian has to tread while endeavouring to discover such remains as may The name mentioned by Dietmar. the Day-God. was misprinted in Wagner's edition Luarasici. wrote the name Lua-Eazic. and his attributes have been transferred to the 9 Prophet Elijah and various Christian Saints The descriptions we have of the appearance presented by the statues of Perun all come from the . when the plained it as meaning Lion-King. p. and evolved a mysterious deity or called elucidate the early history of of the god Zuarasici. and some commentators have supposed that the former was the peculiar deity of the Scandinavian rulers. both gian influence navian rulers of Russia were the chief promoters of In their treaties with the the worship of Perun 8 . Led astray by this mistake. Yolos has retained his hold on the memory of the Russian peasants. " I.

by their flight. and crushes with his blazing darts the demons. and who. Ukko. 1171. to pour forth rain. but known about it. corresponds with Thor. grasping in his left full hand a quiver of arrows. and a long golden beard. and the Lithuanians used to pay special honour to a great hammer with which a certain giant perhaps Perkunas had freed the Sun from imprisonment. answering to Thor's hammer. White-Russian traPeruii as ta]l ditions. of which the Russian words for a molot and molniya may be compared with hammer and for lightning. while the head was of little silver. in many respects. more its is with moustaches of gold. and in his right a fiery bow. Perun goes forth in his fiery car. and causes them forth. 93 a statue of which the trunk was of wood. name *. says Afanasief. the to storms. . also. He rides in a flaming car. Sometimes he flies abroad on a great millstone. according to a White-Russian tradition. from whose wounds the blood is sometimes described as streaming the lightning pierces the clouds at that season of the year. except that it bore among weapons a mace. has his hammer. the Finnish Thunder-God. and one of the points of similarity is the mace which he bears. give rise Perun.THE OLD GODS. which is supported by the mountain.spirits who are in subjection to him. is That to say. describe and well-shaped. with black hair. The myth is one which the Slavonians doubtless 1 Deutsche Mythologie. Mjolnir. In the Spring.

that this voice of Perun may be heard. and on these occasions the citizens run together and lash each other with ropes. that it swam against it into the river Volchov .' says the Veda. from 2 whose fiery chariot the lightnings 16. who comes loud shouting in his car. 26. saying. to let loose their ' and the battered clouds are forced ' is This. Even now it happens from time to time on certain days of the year. This for you. as day by day the long array of clouds enlarges . and hurls his thunderbolt at the demon ' Yritra. inhabitants of Novogorod. Vladimir. 3 The people of Novogorod idol formerly offered their chief worship subsequently they received baptism. and that at Novgorod Volkhof 3 and the people who used to worship him had accepted just so much of Christianity as left them what the chronicler called had been cast into the . When the stream." " i. they removed it from its place. and that near the bridge a voice was heard. it." then his attributes were transferred to a number of the personages whom the new reli- In the minds of most of gion brought into honour. that all the efforts of the Governor can scarcely assuage vol. and such a tumult arises therefrom. . the people he became changed into the Prophet Ilya. impetuous showers. but there is no rain until a rattling thunderstorm charges through their ranks. Mr. p. Mrs. Indra. Major's translation. " two-faithed. and adoration to a certain named Perun." Herberstein.94 MYTHOLOGY. brought with them from some such climes as those in which "anxious multitudes watch the gradual gathering of the sky. and at the same time a certain rope was thrown upon the bridge. or Elijah. II. Manning's " Ancient India. and threw and the story goes. in memory of me ' ' .' After Perun' s statue at Kief had been flung into the Dnieper by St.

the conqueror of the powers of darkness. supposed that these bolts sink deep but that at the end of three or seven years they return to the surface in the shape of longish stones of a black or dark grey colour- probably belemnites. flashed 95 and the thunders pealed as they had done in days of yore from that of Perun. 251. 5 " Poetic Views. loyie. From it. our own St. safety fugitives who wished to be put out of the 4 Afanasief. which explains itself In some cases the flaming dart of Perun became. With its it he unlocked the earth. its capWith it also he locked away in tive founts of light. Afanasief. in the imagination of the people. an idea which is known also to the Finns. 164. and in Courland their name 5 . 248. George 4 Perun' s bow is sometimes identified with the rain. according to the White-Russians. i. a golden key. bow. The fame of his battles with the demons survived in the legends about the Archangel Michael. and other traditions relating to him may be traced in stories told about the Apostle Peter." Grimm. are shot burning arrows. or masses of fused sand which are called thunderbolts. and brought to light concealed treasures. 771. In many parts of Russia (as well as of Germany) it is into the soil. is Perkuhnsteine.THE OLD GODS. 1 ' i. " Poetic Views. The Finns call them Ukonkiwi the stone of the thunder-god Ukko. Deutsche Mytlio- . its restrained waters. which set on fire all things that they touch. and considered as excellent preservatives against lightning and conflagrations. or about Yury the Brave.

and from that idea. a locked padlock is brought. . Perun's golden key the lightning with which in spring he rends the lets loose winter-bound earth and offices the frozen streams or are pierces more usually performed by the sun the clouds. locking the invoker's In this case the veins " with his heavenly key. John the Baptist is represented as standing upon a stone in the Holy Sea [i. instance. its As be far as the still key is concerned. According to the mythologists. as some commentators suppose." myth has passed into a rite. and the blood is allowed to drop through aperture. the Archangel Michael is called upon to secure the invoker behind an iron door fastened by twenty-seven locks. In order to stay a violent bleeding from the nose. Appeals to him to exercise these functions still exist in the spells used by the peasants. in heaven]. but his name has given way to that of In one of them. the keys of which are given to the angels to be carried to heaven. have always been looked upon as specially healthgiving. and is called upon to stay the flow of blood from a wound. arose the myth of the Water of Life which figures in the folk-lore of so many different races. In another. e. and frees the rains which These spring rains imprisoned in those airy castles. the belief seems to is maintained among ourselves. for some Christian personage.96 MYTHOLOGY. power of malignant conjurors. either plan being expected to prove efficacious. resting upon an iron crook or staff. or the sufferer grasps a key in each hand. and performed various other good offices.

the third join inflicted by H . of life.THE OLD GODS. and the Hail. called the strong " one is called " the dead water (mertvaya voda) . which is But they differ from most of the similar ' stories in They have two species of what is " " The or the " heroic water. it is Perun who dies. to fetch four different kinds of herbs. the monkey-chief. usually remarking long I have been sprinkle it 6 ' ! asleep In other stories the representative of Perun recovers gems or treasures which evil spirits have hidden away within mountains or under deep waters [that is to say. abound in accounts of how a dead hero is restored to life by means of this precious liquid." When that has been done. he brings out the lights of heaven from behind the dark veil of winter. the Thunder. and the fourth Indrajit's arrows. this respect. " " the other the (zhivaya living [or vivifying] water " When the "dead water is applied to the voda). sometimes by their types the Raven. like those with which we are more familiar. 97 The Slavonic tales. the corpse first shudders and then sits " How up. the Hawk. Sometimes. Hanuman. wounds of a corpse it heals them. ?] or from out of the depths of the cloud-sea ever. howand then remains lying veiled in a shroud [of fog ?] or floating over dark ' In tlic liamayana. it is necessary to with the " living water. sometimes brought by the Whirlwind. is sent to the first Himalayas which the restore the dead to the second drive cure all broken parts. away the wounds pain. the Eagle. and the Dove. but before the dead body can be brought to life.

periods of the year for evil spirits it At certain bursts into golden or fiery blossoms. lived among and most longand that which was consecrated Its to the Thunderer. a cudgel. originally (like the Greek drus) meant a tree or wood. when they accepted Christianity. The best way to take a cloth on which an Easter cake has been blessed. them off. other peoples. The ideas which were associated with the fern in other lands are current also in Russia. or grmov. the fire which burnt before the statue of Perkunas was fed with oak-wood. can be concealed from him. but they disappear almost instantaneously. difficult task. which now was used to designate the hardest trees. and then go into . As has already been stated. and the knife with which the cake has been cut. a form which is evidently akin to the Russian onomatopoeic word grom. as may be seen in such words as dubina. the oak was a sacred tree. name in Servian is grm. swarm thickly around them. and carry Whoever can gather these flowers will be and no treasures But to obtain them is a is able to read the secrets of the earth. even when they consented to their idols being overthrown. The name confined to the oak. and was closely connected with the worship of the thunder-god. which they carefully hedged around. the thunder. they protested against those trees being hewn down. Afterwards is it As among dub. that.98 MYTHOLOGY. the oak. and so profoundly did the old Lithuanians respect their sacred oaks. waters in a coffin [of cloud. so among the Slavonians. until the spring recalls him to life ?] .

K. with eyes steadily fixed upon the plant. flames to surround the intruder. the forest on 99 Easter Eve. attempting to overcome him by a magic sleep. prevent his obtaining the fiery blossoms. having covered himself with the cloth. Just at the moment when the words " Christ is arisen are sung in the churches. so that success is rare. thunder to roar. the Croats. When he has reached home he should cut his hand with the and insert the plant into the wound." H 2 . V. when it gleams for a moment across the According to a tradition preserved in the Government of Kherson. name The . the The watcher should then seize it fern will blossom. lightning to flash. trace a circle with the knife around the fern. Indo-European Tradition and Folk-lore. will be found. which appear on St. Then all 7 secret things will become visible to him The fern-gatherer must remain in the magic circle until he has secured the flowers. 8 " Kelly's pp. 181 Curiosities of 200. and causing the earth to rock. in an English dress.THE OLD GODS. otherwise the demons will pull him to pieces. Afanasief. gleaned from German sources. They do all they can to knife . and taking care not to look behind him. T A number of similar traditions about the fern. These magic blossoms. 379. as well as on Easter-day. and the flash of the summer lightning. and sit down within the circle. spread out the cloth. or Perun's Flower 8 are called among lightning was endowed by ancient fancy with the faculty of sight. John's day at Midsummer. P. n. in Mr. S. W. by the of Perenovo Tsvetje. >: ! and run home. says Afanasief.

100 MYTHOLOGY. This adhering lids. wink]. and when he wishes is obliged to call lift who Yii. till the time comes for it to make manifest its terrible personified the There is strength. Morgni. eyebrows and eyelashes with iron to gaze " pitchforks. his stare is as fatal as was that of Medusa. In Servia he appears in the form of the a mysterious being. so rarely seen. to ashes. but even whole cities. being the flash which remains hidden by the clouds. a well-known Lithuanian story. When his eyelids have been lifted by the aid of pitchforks. heavens. so that he is compelled to wear a bandage over his eyes. So abnormal has been their growth. wielder of baleful regards is supposed to have been one of the many forms under which the popular fancy lightning his basilisk glance. in which . is still associated by the people in many places with Thus the Little-Russians the winking of an eye. whose glance reduces not only men. wink. but they are almost always covered by their closely- and by his bushy brows. up his upon God's world. whose ardent glances set on fire all that they regard. and then hides itself behind the dark clouds. that they have darkened his vision. Morgavko MprgavJco /" of the Bohemians and Slovaks tell of a giant named 9 ' ! Swifteye. call the summer lightning MorgavJca [morgat = to " Morgni." he for a number of powerful assistants. Nothing can be concealed from his eyes when they are open. " The stories Wink. and say as they look at it. and the Eussian stories describe a wondrous Ancient with huge eyebrows and enormously long eyelashes.

THE OLD GODS. Time passed by and the three companions agreed to separate. and the Carpenter cooked. and besought a music-lesson. providing The Devil and Perkun himself beforehand with a fiddle. so as to keep off beasts of prey. waggon. and lived in it. Perkun thundered and flashed lightnings. According to it a young Carpenter once went roaming about the world with Perkun and the Devil. under the pretence of making her fingers more fit for fiddling. . but at last a thief took to stealing their turnips. this drew from Carpenter. induced her to place them in a from which he knocked out a wedge. successively tried to catch the thief. All went well for a while. Perkun praying and singing psalms all night. who appeared in the form of a Laume. or superThe natural hag. After a time they built a hut. but could not decide who should occupy the hut. and began to till the land and to grow vegetables. At last they settled that it should belong to that one of their number who succeeded ening the two others. and the whip with which she had belaboured his comrades. 101 Perun occupies an intermediate place between that of a deity and of a demon. the Devil hunted. First hand. Then the Carpenter undertook the task. and took away her iron split tree-stump. but only got well thrashed for their pains. and raised such a storm that he drove Perkun in frightthe Devil tried his But the Carpenter held out bravely. and so captured her. Before he let her go he made her promise not to return. Next out of the house. The music he instrument greatly pleased the thief.

30] made Nergal.102 put forth all his MYTHOLOGY. 141-5. of all the Carpenter penter still held his own. as has already been observed. and Mokosh. to have been two forms of one deity. LitauiscJie " See Mdrchen. on which were set images of several other gods Khors. and Dazhbog are supposed. xvii. Of the others very little indeed is known. and uttering the words he had heard her use while she was stealing turnips. 37 . and Stribog was the God of Winds. 39. horribly by his and frightened the Devil thunder and lightning. left in The statue of Perun. and has been likened to Astarte. upon a piece up also the Dazhbog. cracking her whip. the Sun-god." : 1 names with those of the Second Book of In pursuance of a similar idea Mokosh has been taken to be a female deity. and the Carpenter was 9 possession of the house . in the Laume's waggon." 1841. II. Last In the middle of the night up he drove set to work. Immediately away flew both the Devil and Perkun. Of these Khors Stribog. ver. Simargla. and the men of Hamath made Ashima . 41 the Russian Journal of the Ministry of National En43. the names of two deities who are so shrouded in obscurity that one commentator in default of all trustworthy evidence has had recourse to a some- what rash comparison of their the Assyrian gods mentioned in " And the men of Cuth Kings [ch. Simargla is generally taken to be a corruption of Sim and Regl. The name Schleicher. lightenment. But these are the wildest of 9 1 conjectures. at Kief. stood of rising ground. but the Carterrors.

is represented as an old That mythical personage with a long white beard. and be recognized in various geographical designations. air. there are the Byeluie Bogi. and carrying a staff in his hand. for instance. in the White-Russians preserved in the memory of Byelbog still traditions about Byelun. and the Porkhof district. for they of their do not figure in the popular prose or poetry of Russia. in Byelbog. Some it nyms. etc. In Russia. the representative of supposed by some writers to have once been common to the whole Slavonic family. and Yarovit that Professor Sreznyevsky considers them as different appellations of the Sun-god. for geography has preserved the names of the antagonistic deities in divers places. man who appears . and who assists travellers to find their way out of the dark forests. the Troitsko-Byelbozhsky Monastery in the diocese of Kostroma. the Black God. The belief attributed to the Western Slavonians in the warring principles of good and evil. the Among is Chernobozh'e. preserved by various Slavonic races. On the other deities is known to the Western Slavo- nians there no occasion to dwell at present. only by day. and are probably synowill be sufficient to say of such forms as names Svyatovit. derived from = the or a certain state of the atmosphere). the a word Stri ( 103 is God of the Winds. the darkness is Russians included. such as Stribog' s Lake may still (Stribozhe Ozero). dressed in white. the representative of light and in Chernobog. the White God. of Stribog.THE OLD GODS. Radigast. near Moscow.

as appears from such expres(i. writer has gone so far as to maintain may be vonic counterpart of Freyja. S. meant bright. V. but there are two names which are very often mentioned. Of that these it two of the meaningless refrains that occur in Eussian songs 3 But the generally received idea is that Lado was a name for the Sungod. Collected iv. or byely den. but many of them These may be left to be dealt with as they occur. and fertility. In the Russian songs several other mythological names are supposed to b^ merely special designations either of Perun or *of Dazhbog of the thunder or of the sun such as Tur. the goddess of the spring 2 Afanasief. Works. The adjective byeloi or byely [from a root byel or bit] which now means white.] has been pointed out by Jacob Grimm (Deutsche Mythologie." and the horses 53 are " white which draw the chariot of the sun 2 is . p. answering to Freyr. I. as a critic. P. etc. and that Lada was the Slaare merely . 5 ments His merits as a compiler. v. etc. the white light or day.e. and his deTereshchenko. discussion has arisen those of Lado and Lada. 9296. . and about which some Ovsen'. 56. The intimate connexion between Byelbog and the Light-god Baldag [Baldur. originally and at the corn-fields. is He the bestower of wealth and harvest time he often appears in assists the reapers. One Lado and Lada as well to say a few words. bright) In the same sense of the word the moon often spoken of as " white. 3 20. 203). Yarilo. have been ably pointed out by Kavelin. occur. sions as byely svyet.104 MYTHOLOGY.

union. 227229. I. that is Perun 4 4 ." and speak of her in their songs as the sister of Elijah the Thunderer. In the songs of the Russian people the words lado and lada are constantly used as equivalents. of mirth. they don't require also Idad (a treasure). Afanasief." to whom those who were about to marry offered sacrifices. "I fear thee not. " Servians call her Fiery Mary. in order to secure a fortunate union. ." the introduction of Christianity the reverence that was originally paid to peace. In Lithuanian songs Lada deve /" }: addressed "Lada. V. After lad. which frequently One Lithuanian song occurs in the Russian songs. S. And nearly the same words are used about Lada. and in the other for mistress bride. a husband and wife have Lada became transferred to On that account it is that the the Virgin Mary. Lad means " When as in the proverb. 105 is and of as love. bride- groom. or great. or wife. on the authority of an old tradition. in the one case for lover. distinctly couples the sun.THE OLD GODS. 5: ! of the wolf! The god with the sunny curls will not let thee apIn one of the Sun-Lado Lado. P. And the epithet dido. A name of Lado with that shepherd sings. " The God of old chronicles Lado is mentioned as marriage. harmony. our great goddess may account for the form Did-Lado. of pleasure. Lada. proach. Lada. and 483. or husband. dido musu ! "Lada. and of general happiness.

retain their hold on the world. at least in outThe lying districts. popular tale is But . which they still haunt as Lyeshie. and have 6 A if it generally called a skazka in Russian. faith of the and has degraded and disfigured many of them. for they still. name of Vodyanuie. where they remain in the shape of Some were received by the woods KarliJd or dwarfs. which they now inhabit under the . some remained in the air [vozduJcli]. to a considerable degree. DEMIGODS AND FAIE1ES. Russian peasant. and under the designation of Vozdushnuie delight in riding the whirlwind and directing the storm . or water-sprites . were expelled from heaven. says a popular legenda some of the exiled spirits fell into the lowest recesses of the under- ground world. [lyesa]. relates to religious matters it is called a legenda. maintain a vigorous existence. FEOM the Gods of the Eastern Slavonians we may now turn to the inferior inhabitants of their spirit- In considering these we have no longer to deal almost exclusively with the past. resembling fauns or satyrs some dived into the waters [vodui].106 MYTHOLOGY. yet their original features be recognized by a careful observer. Church has waged war against them for centuries. or sylvan demons. and. may easily When Satan and all his hosts 5 . but although their expression has in many cases become greatly altered. SECTION II. and some have attached themselves to the houses [doma] of mankind.

the Slavo- Domovoy nians believed that after death the soul had to begin a long journey. At least. a very great part of the opinions held by the peasants of modern Russia. and from the to the spirits of the dead.money were placed in every . are the results of comparatively recent ideas about the world of spirits. for they will be more fitly discussed in that at devoted to " Funeral Songs. groups of demons may be referred back to a very ancient period. but their demoniacal character. to the It is especially or house-spirit. In common with the other Aryan races. any length in this chapter on the ideas and the customs of the Russian peasantry with respect to the dead. are evidently founded upon the reverence paid by their forefathers From it. that they apply." but. According to one idea it was obliged to sail across a wide sea. it will be as well to say something about the views which the old Slavonians held with reference to the unseen world. a species of Naiad or Undine.DEMIGODS AND FAIRIES. and pay divine honours to them. 107 thence obtained the name of Domovuie. or domestic The distinctions made between the various spirits. and the Rusalka. with respect to these supernatural beings. for the spirit's and therefore coins intended passage. and the reason given for their appearance on earth. in order to account for the characteristics of some of the inhabitants of the Slavonic fairy-land. ancient tendency to personify the elements. seem to have sprung most of the superstitions which to the present day make ghostly forms abound in woods and waters and about It is not necessary to dwell the domestic hearth.

p. also. V. is passed through a hole made in the roof over his head. when a dying man's agony is greatly prolonged. and the black dog which in Ruthenia. 7 Afanasief. intended to be worn during the pilgrimage and discarded at its terminafoot. a custom said to linger still among the Bohe- Kotlyarevsky thinks that there is reason to suppose that a conductor of the dead was mian peasants. jectures. 204. 282. is and as their Psycho- pomp he inclined to recognize the deity whom Dlugosz mentions under the name of Nija. This practice is still kept up among the Rusgrave. What is certain is that the Slavonians believed in a road leading from this to the other 6 Kotlyarevsky. or boat-shaped coffins. S. tion. . but whom another old writer calls " The Leader 6 . According to another idea the journey had to be made on and so a corpse was sometimes provided with a pair of boots. some of the archaeologists are inclined to turn for an explanation of the old Slavonic custom of burning or burying the dead in boats. in. in the hope of thereby expediting the liberation of the soul from the body 7 But these are mere con.108 MYTHOLOGY. P. sian peasants. though in many cases they have lost sight of the original meaning of the custom. known to the old Slavonians. and compares with Pluto. who throw small copper or silver coins into the grave at a funeral." And Afanasief thinks that some connexion Yama. To the idea of this voyage. traced between the dark dogs of which guarded the road to the dwelling-place may be of the Fathers.

and that Baty's Road led thither. sometimes recognizing more often in the Milky Way. that the path led from the cloud-hills in which the spirits of the storm were imprisoned. in which the " Holy Elders" live. sometimes supposed to be A third made of iron. the view of the soul's wanderings was that it had to climb a steep hill-side. Scandinavian watcher of the Rainbow-bridge between heaven and earth. according to a Tula still Russian peasant tradition.DEMIGODS AND FAIEIES. or Fathers. The Holy Elders are the dead. on the summit . who guard the sacred road. the Halting-Place." and " Iron runs from the Hills. sometimes of glass. it 109 in the rainbow." the mouse being a well-known figure for the soul. a term exactly answering to the Yedic Pitris. In the Nijegorod Govern- ment it is called the " Mouse Path. there stand four mowers. for in the middle ages the Tartars were commonly substituted in legends for the evil spirits of an earlier age. At the head of the Milky Way." the " Eoad to Jerusalem About Perm it is known as . world. associated with this old belief. but To the latter various names. whom the addresses as Roditeli. in all probability." the Tambof peasantry say that it are confined the Tartar invaders to lead Baty's Road. In the Government of Yaroslaf the Raskolniks say that there is a sacred city hidden beneath deep waters." within which call it " whom Baty used the original idea having been. and cut to pieces all who attempt to traverse it a myth closely akin to that of Heimdall. are still given by the Russian peasants. In that of Tula it " Traveller's is the Stanovishche.

held similar ideas. the parings were placed along with it in the grave. ing to heaven . P. In the Government of little make Yoroneje a ladder of this sort. and therefore hill Before ascending the high certain aids to climbing were buried with the corpse. or crossing the wide sea. similar pieces ' Afanasief. about three feet high. is set up at the time when a coffin is being carried to the grave . 120.110 of MYTHOLOGY. . indeed the Russian Nonconformists. in rings or among whom old amulets. The Raskolniks. therefore. One of the most interesting specimens of Sur- vival to be found among the customs of the Russian at the peasantry is connected with this idea. ladders of dough. which was situated the heavenly Paradise. if the nails of a corpse were pared. Such relics are supposed by the peasantry in many parts of Russia to be of the greatest use to a man after his death. And. S. for by their means his soul will be able to clamber up the steep sides of the hill lead8 The Lithuanians. in some districts. the soul had to rise from the grave. ideas are religiously kept alive are in the habit of carrying about with them. parings of an owl's claws and of their own nails. it is well known. Among these were plaited thongs of leather and small ladders. when many of them have forgotten the origin of the custom. they still. Even present day. and have them baked for the benefit of the dead. a custom still kept up among the Russian peasantry. and used to burn the claws of wild beasts on their funeral pyres. in some other places I. V.

in Lithuanian rojus. and entered among groves of gold and silver liar and gem-bearing trees. At last he saw hanging in the air a ladder made of birds' feathers. and one of its forms. Up this he clambered for three months. Ill of dough are baked in behalf of departed relatives on the fortieth day after their death. The word Rai. Accord- Afanasief. In some villages these pies. is derived by Kotlyarevsky from the Sanskrit root raj. and the future 9 The abode of the dead was known to the old Sla- vonians under three names. with the past. Vuirei. Nava. V. had the same meaning. Afanasief with the Elysian vireta of Virgil. the present. how a certain pilgrim. but in the course of time the first and the last became associated with two different sets of ideas. 124-5." The peasants sion Day and fling them down from the fall belfry. or Ladderlings. and in modern Russian Rai stands for Heaven and PeMo for Hell. Rai." have seven bars or rungs. in reference to the "Seven Heavens. and accept of their their condition after their as an omen own Mazovian legend tells probable fate after death.DEMIGODS AND FAIRIES. at the end of which he reached the Garden of Paradise. all of which were fami. and PeMo. is compared by They originally. on his way to worship at the A Holy Sepulchre. or long pies marked cross ways with bars are taken to church on Ascen- divided between the priest and the poor. it is supposed. which are known as " Lyesenki. P. became lost in a rocky place from which he could not for a long time extricate himself. . S.

in which are preserved the seeds and types of all things that live upon the earth. No cold winds ever blow there. in Galicia. or sea. many is Slavonic traditions. according to a tradition curthe Lithuanians. will they return. or the home of the sun. and whither birds and insects repair at the end of the autumn. p. due probably to the apocryphal books about Alexander of Macedon. 1 in the existence of west. there to run dwells the happy 1 For other details about tins happy land. there still lingers a tradition that seas. beyond the dark the land from which the sun goes forth daily course.112 ing to Vuirei MYTHOLOGY. of eastern climes to which they attached the idea of perennial warmth and light. winter never enters those blissful realms. to re-appear among men There seems to have with the return of spring prevailed in almost all parts of the world a belief . as well as among some of the Slavonic peoples. see infra. when disembodied. the home Islands lying towards the of the setting sun. an island surrounded by the Thither repairs the sun when his day's toil is . and in his somewhere far away. Iry. lying eastward bein yond the ocean. 375. Thus. thither also fly the souls of little children [provided that they have not died unchristened]. this Rai. and there they play among the trees and gather their finished golden rent fruits. but among the Happy Slavonians there appears to have been widely spread some idea. among There. dwell the spirits which at some future time are to be sent to live upon earth in mortal bodies. . and thither.

P.DEMIGODS AND FAIRIES. means a mortal. [as a substantive] a stove. 492. Peklo. nation of the Rakhmane. the atmospheric ocean across which the winds breathe. who seem akin to Homer's The people who were Brahmans have become Rakhmane.. into an expression for persons who are (1) joyous. Nava. Buslaef. etc." by them on the day on which the shell of a consecrated Easter egg floats to them across the wide sea which divides them from the lands in- The name of these habited by ordinary mortals. V. etc . . I 2 Afanasief. " blameless Easterns. etc. in.. but all that can be deduced from such comparisons is that in nava there may possibly be some reference to the sea traversed by the dead. (2) soft. S. " the Rakhmanian with the exception of one day. in the minds of the people. has gradually passed. 2 minded. uncertain. third designation. or the Latin navis. After a time it probably acquired the signification of the 195318. weakof The derivation of the second term for the is home the dead. seems to be that of a place of warmth. 113 life. (3) dreary. as well as with nekus. and their name Ethiopians" explains itself. nav'e. 1st. They lead a holy for they abstain from eating flesh all the year round. mild. etc. Ockcrki. to kill. unaviti is The word nav. and Comparisons have been made by the philologists between nava and the Sanskrit and Greek naus. The primary meaning of the being derived from the same root -as Pech\ [as a verb] to parch. And that festival is celebrated Easter Sunday. hospitable.

" that the earth may lie light 4 on you. abode of bad souls only. enjoy and in Little-Russia they add. 28. v. the subterranean place of punishment in which evil spirits tor- ment the souls of the wicked 3 .114 MYTHOLOGY. 199202. " God grant repose. Side by side with the traditions which point to a distant habitation of the dead. and that your It is this idea of residence eyes may see Christ !" in the material grave that lies at the root of the cus- tom and pouring libations on the tombs of departed relatives. " Dark and joyless is our prisonhouse. and under the influence of Christian teaching it became Hell." is the reply constantly made by ghosts when " Stone and earth questioned as to their habitation. They appear to have looked on the beyond the grave as a mere prolongation of that led on earth the rich man retained at least some of his possessions. . our Especially during the winters do the dead suffer. an opinion 4 Kotlyarevsky. when the " Our fathers spring returns the peasants say. our eyes are fast closed. the slave life remained a posed to 3 slave. or griefs assuaged. there exist others in which the grave itself is spoken of as the home of the departed spirit. with which we shall meet in the section devoted to funeral songs/ The old heathen Slavonians seem to have had no of periodically visiting idea of a future state in which present wrongs should be redressed. live Thus wedded people were suptogether in a future state. lie heavy on our hearts. Tereshchenko." hands and feet are frozen by the cold.

The spirits of those who are thus remembered. but the Slavonic people. lurking. accompanied by an at- tendant angel. and which. in the secrecy of the cottage. and tree waiting sets out till sits on the nearest Afterwards it the funeral is over. where on a certain day it calls for a service in respirit. remains in the neighbourhood of the body. The Mazovians say that the soul remains with the coffin. there seems always to have prevailed an idea that death does not finally sever the ties between the living and every where. say the peasants. This idea has taken various forms. Such traditions as these vary in different localities. for in the will claim world to come. 115 on which some of the funeral ceremonies of the present day are founded. and there keeping alive the cultus of the domestic or showing itself openly in the village church. on its long journey. Nor does a widower often find any one but a widow who will accept him. his first wife suc- him and take him away from her first cessor. in heathen times. frequently induced wives to their kill themselves when husbands died. attend the i 2 . settled into several membrance of the dead. and widely differing superstitions.DEMIGODS AND FAIRIES. among all the dead. it is supposed. The Bulgarians hold that it assumes the After death the soul at form of a bird or a butterfly. sitting upon the upper part of it until the burial is over. and therefore among them widows seldom marry. when it flies away. The Bulgarians hold the same doctrine even at the present day. for instance. and then follows it to the tomb.

peasants hold that there are just as the sky as there are extinguished at the time of the In the Government of Perm the many stars in human beings on earth. a new star appearing whenever a babe is born. the will Servians say " Some is one's light has gone out. So. by numerous images. it is besoul going up to heaven. not to be banished till the necessary prayers have been said still believes that of a wedded couple that one will die the first whose taper was first marriage ceremony. the soul is meaning some one often represented dead. it Ancient kindled in was a spark of heavenly the human body by the thunder-god. and disappearing when its corresponding mortal dies. But those who are left 5 . when a star falls. unremembered weep bitterly all through the day In the mythic songs and stories current among the old Slavonians the soul of man was represented under various forms. spirit it is uttered at the moment when the go straight up with the rejoicing to the throne of God.116 MYTHOLOGY. or 5 Kotlyarevsky." star. service. In Ruthenia a looked upon as the track of an angel flying to receive a departed spirit. traditions affirmed that fire. taking their place behind the altar. fire Besides being likened to and a by Russian tradition as a smoke. or of a righteous In the latter case. And in accordance with this idea the superstition of the Russian peasant of to-day often sees ghostly flames gleaming above graves. 199. shooting star is lieved that if a wish star shoots by. .

man's reflected image is munion with his inner self. In the opinion of the Raskolniks a mirror thing. or a current of air.DEMIGODS AND FAIRIES. or popular vapour. the soul. and distribute food among together them. is an accursed butterfly seems to have been universally accepted by the Slavonians as an emblem of the soul. religious poems. In Bohemia man tradition says that if the first butterfly a sees in the spring is a white one. the dead man's soul will reveal itself to his relatives in the form of a moth flying about the flame of a candle. fearing that if they do so they will die before the year is out. there are persons there who object to having their silhouettes taken. they call the poor. who hold that a man's soul has its residence in his windpipe. In that of Kherson ifc is believed that if the usual alms are not distributed at a funeral. The In the Government of Yaroslav. is as common a metaphor for the soul in Russia as else- A where. a caressing diminutive of dusha. whence it arises that. even at the present day. an idea which prevails also among the people of South Siberia. The Servians believe that the soul of a witch often leaves her body while she is . the Angel of Death receives the disembodied spirit from " the sweet lips " of the righteous dead. he is destined to die within the year. a supposed to be in com- often forbidden to look at themselves in a glass. The day after receiving such a warning visit. shadow. invented by the devil. 117 In the StiJcM. one of its names is dushiehka. also. and therefore children are In the same way. lest their sleep should be disturbed at night.

It is generally into pigeons or crows that the dead are transformed. the souls of " the martyrs. in the Thus when the Deacon Theodore and his three schismatic brethren were burnt in 1681. In Volhynia dead children are supposed to come back in the spring to their native village under the semblance of swallows and other small birds. also. In certain districts bread-crumbs are placed on a piece of white linen at a window during those six weeks. absence her body be turned round. In Little-E-ussia of a family will often. according to Slavonic superstitions. and so will be shut out from her body. the Russian peasantry is that the spirits of the departed haunt their old homes for the space of six weeks. after returning from a funeral. appeared in the air as pigeons. fly After that time they away to the other world. and the soul is believed to come and feed upon them shape of a bird. MYTHOLOGY. as the " Old. in the belief that the spirit of their women dead relative will come in the form of a fly. is intimately . the soul-butterfly will not ba able to find her mouth. and to seek by soft twittering or song to console their sorrowing parents. The cuckoo. sit up all night watching a dish in which water with honey in it has been placed.Believers affirm. and flies If during its that her feet abroad in the shape of a butterfly. so are placed where her head was before. Gnats and flies are often looked upon as equally the old spiritual creatures. and sip the proffered liquid. Thereupon the witch will die.118 asleep. and watch the sorrowing of the mourners. during which they eat and A common belief among drink.

and in a Russian marriage-song the orphan bride implores the cuckoo to fetch her dead parents from the other world. or house-spirit. and so . merely the Slavonic counterdays. and sometimes solaced or conciliated clear. and it is not easy to decide what were the exact opinions they held as to the relations between the inhabitants of this world and of the other. ought always to be regarded with pious veneration. a fact which accounts for the modern Russia having come to be considered the special haunt of the Domovoy. part of the house-spirit of other lands. closely connected with that of the fire burning on the domestic hearth. But there can be no" doubt about their belief that the souls of fathers watched over their children and their children's children. of course. as among so many other peoples. that they may bless her before she enters on her new life. from what has been said. that the cultus of the dead was among them. that the views of the Old Slavonians about a future state were not defined with any great precision. It is moreover. to In Little-Russia she weep over corpses. but his memory has been so well preserved in Russia. The Servians and Lithuanians look on her as a sister whom nothing can console for the loss of a brother . whose position in the esteem of the people is looked stove of upon as a trace of the ancestor worship of olden He is. It is evident. and that therefore departed spirits. and especially those of ancestors.DEMIGODS AND FAIRIES. by prayer and sacrifice. 119 flies connected with the dead.

the fire is raked out of the old stove into a jar and solemnly conveyed to the 3 new those Golovesliki (golova = head). even to the palms of his hands and the soles of his feet. He is supposed to live behind the stove now. shaggy feet may be seen in winter time in the snow his hairy hands are felt by night gliding over the faces of sleepers. even when dead children are being spoken of. which may account for the fact that he is supposed to be a hirsute creature. When his hand feels soft and a sign of good luck when it is cold and bristly. being covered with thick hair. around his eyes and nose is bare. to the defunct. 7 Roditeli (rodit\ razhdaf . something of a demoniacal nature has attached itself to the character and the appearance of theDomovoy. were held to be in even more direct relations with the fire is of whom he now In the Nijegorod Government it is still forbidden to break up the smouldering remains of the 6 faggots in a stove with a poker. that he well worthy of a detailed notice. the harder parts of logs to beget).120 MYTHOLOGY. or the spirits of the dead ancestors. to do so might be to cause one's "ancestors" to fall through into Hell. the chief representative. Only the space The tracks of his . the whole of his body. j burning more slowly than the others. The term " ancestors 7 " is universally applied on the hearth. When a Russian family moves from one house to another. many Since the introduction of Christianity into Russia. but it is : warm in early times he. misfortune is to be looked for. seei legends are current about him.

and there are many hold that their departed ancestors look after their fields and herds. the 121 to the words " Welcome. after supper. Directly after a man's -burial. Similarly among the (non. a dead man's relations offer the corpse eggs. 67. do thou feed the chickens and look after the house. This and the following custom have been supposed to point to a time when the spirit and the flame were iden- home ' ! and when some now forgotten form of fireOn the 28th of January the worship was practised tified. one. the offering of corn was doubtless placed directly on the fire 8 In some districts tradition expressly refers to the ." In Galicia the people believe that their hearths are haunted by the souls of the dead. S. who make themselves useful to still Czekhs who the family. hearth in front of the stove. according 8 Afanasief. spirits of the dead the functions which are generally attributed to the Domovoy. grandfather. and surrounded with hot embers. n. : peasants.Slavonic) Mordvins in the Penza and Saratof Governments. leave out a pot of stewed This pot is placed on the grain for the Domovoy. : : and when I gather the harvest. and assist in hunting and fishing. and money. butter. In olden days. new being uttered when it arrives. P.DEMIGODS AND FAIRIES. and they are supposed to keep careful watch over the house of a descendant who honours them and provides them with due offerings. . V. " Here is saying something for you Marfa has Watch over her corn and cattle. says Afanasief. brought you this.

The peasants sometimes make tiny cloaks. He has a wife and daughters. his hair is of a yellowish grey. In one district of the Yiatka Government the Do- movoy is described as a little old man. like German kobolds. the Kaukas put them on. the size of a five-year-old boy. idiomatic phrases. takes to wandering by nights about the old home. or dwarfs. eyes is glow the much same. beings. only sometimes he wears a blue caftan with a Every where he is given to grumbling and quarrelling. and always expresses himself in strong. Similar little The Ruthenians part of the coast of the Baltic. his like fire.122 to them. being not more than a foot high. and thenceforward devote their energies to serving the friendly proprietor of the But if they are badly used or neglected. and bury them in the ground within the cottage. called Krosnyata. but their favours are deadly to mortal men. the They are little creatures. his face He is wears a red shirt with a wrinkled. who are beautiful as were the Hellenic Nymphs. reverence in the person of the Domovoy the original constructor of the family hearth. the Slavonic inhabitants of a set his homestead on fire. blue girdle . who goes about the . In other places his appearance rose-coloured girdle. are supposed to exist among the Kashoubes. MYTHOLOGY. and watching that no evil befalls spirit Ms his heirs. In Lithuania the name given to the domestic spirits is Kaukas. his beard is white. they house. In Lusatia he takes the form of a beautiful boy. a term which has never been thoroughly explained.

it is The Russian Domovoy hides behind the stove all day. in baths . also. " In an old stove the is The Kussian bath is something like the Turkish. and in bath (banya) he is distilleries. especially if they have not prefaced their ablutions by a prayer. 123 house dressed in white. . water is going to be poured away. for if he is neglected he waxes wroth. that even if it. usual for peasants who quit a bath to leave a bucket of water and a whisk for the use of the Domovoy who takes their it is In the Smolensk Government place. but at night. 9 in places for the Domovoy is to be found. burnt down he still haunts stove. . When he haunts a . for the Domovoy may strangle the intruder in his sleep. by When hot his sad groaning. to pass the night in a corn-kiln. In Poland it is believed that the Domovoy is so loath to quit a building in which he has once taken it is up his quarters. drying corn. when all the house is asleep. the peasants avoid visiting a bath at late hours. that he may not be scalded. is always set aside for him. It is considered known dangerous. and as a Bannilc often suffocates them. only the heat moist. there about at night. and devours what is left In some families a portion of the supper out for him. and knocks the tables and benches Wherever fires are lighted.DEMIGODS AND FAIEIES. of impending woe. for the Bannik does not like people who bathe at night. he comes forth from his retreat. and warns its inhabitants. 9 continuing to dwell in the remains of the And so they say there. customary there to give warning to the Domovoy.

In " About the Devil Galicia the following story is told often in the Stove :" 7s and the Domovoy are the mouths of the people. who had inhabited had and so it remained empty. and lived in peacefully with his family. In White-Russia the Domovoy is called TsmoJc." said yard." So the poor man it settled all in that hut. and he entered the " Good hut. warms. " Live here. day to whomsoever is in this " " " "What dost thou want ? house cried out the Old "I am poor. . one of the forms under which the lightning was most commonly personified. But at last there came a man who was very poor.124 devil MYTBOLOGY. This House Snake brings all 1 Dyed'ko." sadly said the new comer. is is current in the lives in the who is called IsJcrzycki \Iskra Polish for all a of spark]. a snake. " the Old One. And In Galicia and Poland a belief existence of an invisible servant stove. and said. I have neither roof nor courtOne ! 1 . and look after thy children that they mayn't lie down upon it. the Old One took a whole potful of money out of the stove and gave it him. There was a hut in which no one would live. one evening. when he had been complaining about his poverty." for the devil synonymous terms in who regard Satan with more sorrow than anger. for it the children of every one died. grandfather. only tell thy wife to grease the stove every week. and most zealously performs sorts domestic duties for the master of the house.

But if this be not done the snake will burn down the house. was woe ! and ran back again. sorts of 125 good to the master wlio treats it well and gives it omelettes. guardian of the herds. and went for her buckets Not a bucket was to be seen ! Of course she thought a neighbour has taken them. candle in hand. Sometimes he appears as Vazila [from vozit to drive]. a being in shape like a man. mortal eyes. but having equine ears and hoofs at other times as Bagan. which should be placed on the roof of the house or on the threshing-floor. 9 . "Once upon a time a servant maid awoke one > It rarely shows itself to morning. and may be seen crouching in a corner of his He is very fond of horses. it is generally to warn the heads of the family to which it is attached of some coming woe. It is said that the Domovoy Hence he inspecting the stables and outhouses. and often rides stall. and there she saw the Domovoy a little old man in a red shirt who was drawing water in her buckets. and when it does so. derives a number of his names. But at home there All the house was in a blaze ' ! does not like to pass the night in the dark. taking up his quarters in a little crib filled for his benefit with hay. he . so he often strikes a light with a flint and steel. to give the bay mare to drink. lighted the to fetch water.DEMIGODS AND FAIRIES. On Easter is Sunday and the preceding Thursday he becomes visible.' Out she ran to the river. ' fire. . the protector of horses. and goes about. and he glared ever so at the girl his She was terribly eyes burned just like live coals ! frightened.

turning to each of the four corners of the " Here is a building in succession. Sometimes. it is customary in several places to go through the following ceremony. In accordance with a custom of great antiquity. some animal is killed and buried on the spot on which the first log In other places the carpenters who are going to build the house call out. the Government of Archangel. And idea that each house ought to have its familiar spirit. give him to eat beast for thee. believing that the creature thus named will rapidly consume away and perish. and that it is the soul of the founder With the of the homestead which appears in that capacity. the oldest member of a migrating household enters the new house in first. and in many places. also. and says. The animal is led to its stall. is brought home for the first time. strokes of the axe. all them night. and then its possessor bows low. may be connected the various superstitious ideas which attach themselves in Slavonic countries to the The Russian peasant building of a new house. Master ! and to drink ' ! animal was led is then the cord by which the attached to the kitchen-stove. believes that such an act is apt to be followed by the death of the head of the family for which the new dwelling is constructed. he goes When a newly purchased animal riding on a goat. at the first few or stone is laid. shaggy Love him. so that they are found in the morning foaming and exhausted. as for instance. On such occasions the . or that the member of the family who is the first to enter it will soon die. the name of some bird or beast.126 MYTHOLOGY.

the foundations of the house being sprinkled with the blood of a fowl. and it is expected that the man whose shadow has been thus treated will soon become but a shade himself. If they can- not succeed in getting at a make use of the shadow of the their way. when a new house was being founded. a custom which is evidently derived from that older one of offering sacri- honour of the Earth Goddess. under similar circumstances. being assured that their own names might be pro- nounced by those workmen provoked. 127 peasants take care to be very civil to the carpenters. their wives. No city was thought to be secure unless a human being. comes out the first to bring them refreshment. its sure to die quickly.DEMIGODS AND FAIEIES. or a lamb. The Bulgarians. was built a shadow was thus immured. they first animal that comes put to death on the occasion. In Servia a similar idea fices in used to apply to the fortifications of towns. or some is Sometimes a victim other species of scapegoat. buried under the foundation-stone. The two elder . so they determine to build into the wall which- ever of the three princesses. human shadow. or at least the When shadow of one. if they were neglected or it is said. for the Vilas pull down at night what has been built in the day. There is ballad one of those translated by Sir John Bowring -in which is described the building of Skadra [the owner was a well-known Servian Bulgarian Scutari] by a king and his two brothers. At first they cannot succeed in their task. into its walls. take a thread and measure the shadow The measure is then of some casual passer-by.

128 MYTHOLOGY. 9497). (Dyetina. among races grade. who pretend to be ill. who was buried alive under the foundation-stone of the new citadel. " E. so Acting on the advice of their wisest men. brothers warn their wives. but the youngest of the ladies hears nothing about the agreement. they determined to give a new name. story is The told about the second founding city was built by a colony of Slaves from the Danube." but subsequent writers are in- clined to look upon it as at least founded upon fact." . in his " Primitive Culture (i. Polynesia. . of which Europe has scarcely . " a Slavonian fable. if not in chronology. and immured alive. so she conies out. are mentioned by Jacob Grimm in the Deutsche Mythologie. and sometimes wears his 2 new city. A it plague devastated it. current in various lands. kept up more than the dim memory. with orders to seize upon the first living creature The victim proved to be a child they should meet. they sent out messengers before sunrise one morning in all directions. and Asia. Tylor. 1095 also by Mr. The city was on that account called Dyetinets 2 a name since applied to any citadel. A similar of Slavensk. A number of similar legends. who holds that " that it is plain hideous rites. and founded a the present Novgorod. earlier stages of civilization. He called it This story was told some time ago by Popof in his Dosugi. have held fast their ancient practice and meaning in who represent in Africa. archaic form of Ditya). p. The city was afterwards laid waste a second time. B. and is at once seized upon by her brothers-in-law. on which its inhabitants removed to a short distance. The Domovoy often appears in the likeness of the proprietor of the house.

For vonian mind. when the head of the family is about to die. weeping. and by making the watch-dogs dig holes in the court- yard and go howling through the village. He is industrious all and frugal. the Domovoy gives warning of it by knocking. even at K .DEMIGODS AND FAIRIES. clothes. When any member of the family dies. The Russian peasant draws a clear line between his own Domovoy and his neighbour's. When any misfortune is impending over a family. by riding at night on the horses till they are completely exhausted. He sympathizes with the joys and sorrows of the house to which he is attached. or pes- Domovoy tilence. counts the heads. a goose is its head is cut off and hung up in the poultry-yard. the Domovoys go out from a village and may be heard lamenting in the meadows. the forebodes the sad event by sighing. And he often rouses the head of the family from his sleep at night when the house is threatened with fire or robbery. the representative of the housekeeping ideal as it presents itself to the Slalie is. he watches over the homestead and it. or sitting at his work with his cap pulled over his eyes. He will not allow the forest-spirit to play pranks in the garden. that one of the flock has gone. For he is jealous of other spirits. when he When that belongs to sacrificed to the water-spirit. fire. who will do him good. in order that the Domovoy may not know. Before an outbreak of war. he may be heard (like the Banshee) wailing at night. nor witches to injure the cows. The former is a benignant spirit. 129 indeed.

There was a peasant once. the good Lar Familiaris. In order what it is. drive away forth. and hang it up in the stable. . This prevents any evil Domovoy. the expense of others being." households often engage in contests with one another. taken care to hang up a bear's head in the stable. dogs and cats of this hue. in certain districts. Each Domovoy has it is his own favourite colour. a peasant moves into a new house. having as a measure of precaution. and perhaps overcoming. he takes his own Domovoy with him. the Orel peasants take a piece of cake on Easter Sunday. in " some of which the assistance of " the bright gods " the terrible devil and the stranis invoked against The domestic spirits of different ger Domovoy. whom malicious neighbours may have introduced. as might be expected. drive him out of the house he haunts. When first. Domovoy likes. and take possession of it himself. all and important for the family to try and get their cattle. Some- times one will vanquish another. seeing that they are addicted to stealing from each other's possessions. wrap it in a rag. poultry. At the end of six weeks they look at it to see of what colour the maggots That is the colour which the are which are in it. Nijegorod the Domovoy . his poultry. the latter is a malevolent who will very likely steal his hay. and so Therefore incantations are provided against him. In the Governments of Yaroslaf and to find out takes a fancy to those horses and cows only which are of the colour of his own hide. from fighting with. for his neighbour's benefit.130 MYTHOLOGY. the story runs.

colour." pinches sleepers as the fairies in Windsor Park pinched Falstaff. exclaiming. and go out into the yard. 131 who lost all his horses because they were of the wrong ruined. go away home !" and on the evening of the same day to dress in holiday array. Sometimes a man's own Domovoy takes to behaving K 2 . waving a fire. At last the poor man. who was almost bought a miserable hack. Call'd Robin Goodfellow. What a horse ! there's something like Quite different from the other ones !" exclaimed the delighted Domovoy.DEMIGODS AND FAIRIES. which is to take brooms. and quits the house. It is a terrible thing for a family when a strange Domovoy gets into a house ritual occupant. which was of the " right hue. and uttering an incantation. Sometimes the shovel is dipped in tar. and turns out its friendly spiThe new comer plays all the pranks attributed to " That shrewd and knavish sprite. " Grandfather Come home to us to Domovoy and tend the cattle !" Another means is to ride on horseback about the yard. ! and call out to the original tenant of the hearth. and from that a horse ! moment all went well with the peasant. and with them to strike the walls and fences. but without equally good reason. habitable make the house When the Domovoy rubs his head against it he is disgusted. Fortunately there is a means of expelling him. and renders life a burden to the haunted household.shovel in the air. " Stranger Domovoy.

and in various ways annoy the sleeping members of the When the regular Domovoy does this. . Besides See Grimm's Deutsche Mythologie. often manifested themselves as destructive agents . 569. for the domestic spirits have a dual nature. Every now and then. just as fire is at one time friendly to man. is his fondness for plaiting the manes of Another is his tendency to interfere with horses. forsooth And from the cats. and flung her on the ground. although generally good to his friends. all family. Domovoy when he had : caught up the cat. in Various Here is one of them. the breathing of people * who are asleep. One day. The same forces of nature which fattened the earth and made it bring forth harvests. stories prove the truth of this assertion. he needs general is a mild scolding. In a certain house the " took to playing pranks. at another hostile 3 believe. throw about sticks and stones. who make terrible noises at night. absolutely malicious beings. unpleasantly to him. so the Domovoy. answering to that which the old Slavonians attributed to the spirits of the storm.132 MYTHOLOGY. sometimes does them harm. the peasants a house becomes haunted by teazing." in that time the Domovoy gave up troubling One of the many points resembles the Elves with which the Domovoy are so well ac- whom we quainted. if not . J ! A pretty manager. the housewife expostulated with him as follows Why did you do that ? Is that the way to manage ' a house ? We can't get on without our cat.

Montenegro. Once a Mora so tormented a Grimm's Deutsche For the derivation of the word. he can scarcely be looked for upon as benignant. or who have been cursed by their parents. But when he plays the part of our own nightmare. If she forgot to do so the Mara would come at night and spoil all her work for her. In Servia. and oppresses the breathing of sleepers at night. 133 plaiting manes. of evil spirits. 4 Afanasief is probably the same as the provincial exincubus . and so have passed under the power According to a Servian tradition the herself into a horse. or into a Mora sometimes turns dlaka. he sometimes operates in a similar manner upon men's beards and the back hair of women. demon. who female beings called on stoves and spin by No woman in the Olonets Government thinks night.. pp. of laying aside her spindle without uttering a prayer. or tuft of hair. Bohe- mia. the demoniacal spirit which passes from a witch's lips in the form of a butterfly.DEMIGODS AND FAIRIES. 433 and 119K 4 see also . and Poland the word answering to mora. says Gauche-mare). The Kikimori are generally understood to be the souls of girls who have died unchristened. The Russians believe in certain little old sit Marui or Marukhi. his handiwork being generally considered a proof of his goodwill. Mythologie. etc. is The Russian word such an Kikimora or Shishimora (the French The first half of the word. half means the same as the German The second mar or our means mare in nightmare. pression sMsh = Domovoy.

If he is neglected he January. It is uncertain whether his short-lived fury at that season of the year arises from the fact that he is then changing his coat. and remains so from early dawn till midnight. on Eve of the Epiphany. Tomsk Government. at him. The Domovoy generally turns malicious on the 30th of March. and sups off it. found dead. that lie ]eft man his he stopped to pass the night in a certain house. Next morning the white horse was The horse. followed after him. the tuft of hair. is set out for him on the evening of the 28th of Exactly at midnight he comes out from under the stove. so he went to look last rode away on it. home. took his white horse anc But wherever he wandered the Mora At that his guest was being suffocated by a long tuft of white hair which lay So he cut it in two with a pair over his mouth. so it is as well to keep the cattle and poultry at home that day. . Anyhow it is considered wise to propitiate him feels by offerings. These In the gifts can take almost any the edible shape. and the all nightmare. were one. At that time he makes no distinction between friends and strangers. Some authorities hold that a kind of mania comes over him then. the master of which heard him groaning terribly in his sleep. the peasants place in a certain part of the stove little cakes made expressly for In other places a pot of stewed grain the Domovoy. others that he a sudden craving to get married to a witch. and not to go to the window more than is necessary.134 MYTHOLOGY. Then he saw of scissors.

This corner. exactly where the " upper corner" of the building is to stand. : 135 A waxes wroth. neiI have ther black nor green. who kills a cock and lets its blood run on to one of the whisks used in baths in . the head of which is cut off and buried. in all privacy. the Domovoy will set his cottage on fire. will become quiet. It may be as well to remark. who call it " Great" and the "Beautiful. but he may be appeased as follows wizard is called in. and. uttering incantations the while. already mentioned the custom of literally or figuratively sacrificing a victim on the spot which a projected house is to cover. to turn his face to the " Master stand before me as moon. ! the leaf before the grass [an ordinary formula]. must not talk about this midnight meeting. If he will does. when he has received But the peasant the red egg. or will induce him to commit suicide.DEMIGODS AND FAIRIES." Thereupon the Domovoy ! assume a human form." There also the spread the daily meal in which the ancestors of the family were always the table stands on which is . Another way of pacifying the spirit is for the irritated domestic head of the family to go out at mid- night into the courtyard. that victim is We have opposite to which stands the stove. but just like me brought thee a red egg. with this hand he sprinkles the corners of the cottage inside and out. that while unclean spirits fear it the crowing of cocks. and to say. Generally speaking a cock. never in any way affects the Domovoy. is looked upon with great reverence by the peasants.

it is customary for its father to hold it for a while over the threshold. but since the introduction of Christianity they have been replaced by holy icons. intending them as an offering to the hungry ghosts. take up their quarters in the cottage behind the sacred pictures.136 MYTHOLOGY. who are knocking in order to summon one of their descendants to join them. and therefore they place hot cakes upon the ledge which supports those pictures. also. In Lithuania. a wooden cross. On it a cross is drawn to keep In Bohemia Maras (hags). one Russian commentator. as soon as the bodies they used to inhabit are buried. or sacred In that same corner every thing that is most revered is placed. it is The sound of the death-watch in England. The threshold of a cottage is not so important as " front its corner. In all probability. when a new house is off being built. is There. Towards it every one who enters the still cottage makes low obeisance. says supposed to participate. as Paschal eggs and Whitsunpictures." but many curious superstitions are attached to it. their images used to stand close by. Under it the peasants bury stillborn children. tide verdure. is believed to be as ominous in Russia as supposed to be caused by such ghosts as have just been mentioned. when a being brought back from church. or some article which has been handed down from past generations. is placed under the threshold. " so as to place the new newly-baptized child . The peasants believe that the souls of the dead. and were transferred to the table at meal-time.

are supposed to have been afflicted by an evil eye. himself not." threshold that power which produces peace and its influence. pre- midday. who who reside there. together into the pechurJca (a niche in the stove). turning to the "back corner. So strange are they. when he it is steps over a threshold. to sit down on one. and in this cisely at jar. She then covering them over with the napkin. Allusion has already been made to the customs observed when a Russian peasant family is about to migrate into a new house. with the help of the Penates Sick children. that they are well deserving of a fuller notice. throws open the house-door. the malady may be driven out of doors. she deposits the burning embers. and he ought believed in some places. and waits till midday. (grandfather) to our new home ' ! " Then she carries the fire-containing jar to the court- yard of the new dwelling. in order that. goodwill in a family loses so kinsfolk ought to carry on their mutual relations as much as A man should always cross possible within doors. 137 member of the family under the protection of the On the other side of the domestic divinities. clean jar and a white napkin A have been previously provided. the mother-in-law." namely come.DEMIGODS AND FAIBIES. dyedushka Welto the stove. lights a fire for the last time in the When the wood is well alight she rakes it stove. and. After every thing movable has been taken away from the old house. are washed on the threshold of their cottage. says. at the opened gates of which . or the oldest woman in the family.

to my cattle and family !" After this they for the Be kind all set off house. the visitors welcome ?" on which the heads of the " Welcome. when the Smolensk peasants migrate to other Governments. dyedushka." When corners. napkin and places the jar on the stove. family reply. takes shakes it towards each of the four and empties the burning embers into the pechurka. who "Are have come to offer bread and salt to the Domovoy. its master preceding her with the bread and off the salt.138 MYTHOLOGY. Neighbouring. as. with a profound obeisance. who carries a cock and a hen. bows down. and afterwards the master of the house takes down the icons.The jar is then broken. led by the father. what may be called the cellar. and its fragments are buried at night under the " front corner. a fire-shovel and other implements appertain- ing to the domestic hearth are taken instead. and covers them over with the front of his Then he opens the door which leads into dress. she finds the master and mistress of the house. asking. . for instance. In the " Government of Perm such " Sittings take place by The house-mistress covers a table with a cloth and places bread and salt on it. all pray to God. to the new spot !" After that invitation she enters the cottage. The old woman strikes the door-posts. night. so let us live also in the new one. As we have lived in the old home well and ! " happily. distance renders it impossible to transfer fire from the old to the new habitation. brotherling let us go to the new home. A candle is then lighted before the holy icons. and says. When they arrive at the cottage new .

109. who occupy a position which corresponds in many respects with that filled by the elves and fairies The it origin of their name of Western Europe. but far supeThe rior to him in poetic interest. If the cock refuses to icons dates. Rusalkas are female water.spirits. and " Enter. but appears to be connected with rus. and with several other kindred words. . 115119. from the time in which Christianity became the part religion of the country. places the icons on their stand.DEMIGODS AND FAIEIES. sometimes half constill 5 and which by a Christian garb. P. but a similar may formerly have been played by images of domestic gods or deified ancestors. an old Slavonic word for a stream. S. or with ruslo. and wait till the cock crows. II. The part allotted in them to the great antiquity. ments. neighbouring. The whole ceremony is one of the most striking relics of that heathendom which entire face of the land. . V. 110. 139 they turn the fowls loose in it. dew. such as rosd. and then the mistress lays the cloth. sometimes exposing itself in downright pagan nakedness /Next in importance to the Domovoy. prayer follows. which have reference to water./ seems to be doubtful. brotherling !" Family says. /They are 5 See Afanasief. once prevailed over the many cealed of its crops up in remoter districts. is the Rusalka. Then the master enters. and looks after her cooking arrange- crow it is a sign of These customs are all of impending misfortune. 8386. lights the fire. opens the cellar-flaps. of course. the bed of a river.

loud. 339. and sit upon its banks. at the bottom of which they usually dwell in crystal halls. and green as is the Their dress is either a covering of green grass. to raise storms and vex shipping. to acquired the sense of See Afanasief. and try to allure him to join them. but their complexion is pale. unhurt. Their long and thick and wavy. as. about Astrakhan. generally represented under the form of beauteous maidens with full and snow-white bosoms. . P. But as a general rule the Rusalkas are looked upon in Russia as haunting lakes and streams. and with Their feet are small. leaves. eyes are wild. or a long white shift. combing and plaiting their flowing locks. they fling any one happens to themselves into the waters. Whomsoever they get hold of they tickle 6 Witches alone can bathe with them to death . or they cling to a mill-wheel.140 MYTHOLOGY. S. for instance. hair is At times they emerge from the waters of the lake or river in which they dwell. their faces are fair to see. round with it amid approach. who are supposed. piercing to do sounds. and turn If the splash of the stream. V. Sometimes. however. their long and slender limbs. and there divert themselves. and afterwards what produces shrill laughter. to laugh shrilly. in marine Rusalkas. their expression anxious. or used to believe. they are not so sumptuously housed. radiant with gold and silver and precious stones. worn without a girdle. In certain districts bordering on the sea the people believe. 6 The verb ShchekotaC originally meant to utter tickle. ii. in some places.

If a Rusalka's hair becomes dry she dies. the approach of winter the Rusalkas disappear. and ask for linen garments. all intended as a present to the Rusalkas. no . they sit upon trees. So long as she has a comb she can always produce a flood by passing it through her waving locks. or some scrap torn from his dress.DEMIGODS AND FAIRIES." the seventh after Easter. During the week before Whitsuntide. as well as to many other In the Ukraine the Thursday before Whitsuntide is called the Great Day. Up to the present day. shifts and rags and skeins of thread. in Little-Russia. at that time of year. in others they are given to washing linen. unless. when every home is adorned with boughs and green leaves. a day which in olden times was dear to them. In some places they are fond of spinning. or Easter spiritual beings. indeed. In Little-Russia they are supposed to appear on the On Thursday in Holy Week." at Whitsuntide. Sunday. and whoever meets them. 141 but have to make for themselves nests out of straw and feathers collected during the " Green Week. must fling them a handkerchief. it is customary to hang on the boughs of oaks and other trees. and therefore she is generally afraid of going far from the water. of the Rusalkas. if he wishes to escape a premature death. she has a comb with her. In White- Russia the peasants affirm that during that week the forests are traversed by naked women and children. as many songs testify. During the days called the " Green Svyatki. and do not show themselves again until it is over.

142 MYTHOLOGY. one dares to work for fear of offending the Rusalkas. or becomes a cripple the Rusalnaya (or Rusalkas') dry toses all his those who desecrate are week by working . Vitus' dance. Any one who treads upon the linen which the Rusalkas have laid out to . where Rusalkas (or MavJci as they are there have danced. Involuntarily he imitates their gestures. Especially must women abstain from sewing or washing linen. and throw or sighing of the breeze. and men from weaving fences and such occupations too closely resembling those of the supernatural weavers and washers. or float them down a stream. Peter's day. June 29. fields. and go strolling about the fields and forests. At that time the peasant-girls go into the woods. asking for rich husbands in return. or is a victim to St. strength. All night long they dance to his music in the morning a hollow marks : the spot where his foot has beaten time. It the like. continuing to do so until the end of June. the Rusalkas dance by night beneath the moon. and in Little-Russia and Galicia. Sometimes a man encounters Rusalkas who begin to writhe and contort themselves after a strange fashion. grass are found in the called) circles of darker. seeing in their movements omens of future happiness or sorrow. and for the rest of his life he is deformed. and the garlands to the Rusalkas. All that time their voices ling may be heard in the rust- splash of running water betrays their dancing feet. and of richer Sometimes they induce a shepherd to play to them. is chiefly at that time that the spirits leave their watery abodes. After St.

In some parts of Russia there is performed. or strangle or drown them. it. and at other times ruining it by rain and wind. and tickle them to death.Sunday Eve they go out to the corn-fields. Afterwards a Khorovod is formed.DEMIGODS AND FAIRIES. after which the performers return home. one of which attacks the figure. On the first Monday of the "Peter's Fast" a figure made of draped in woman's clothes." and chase the . 143 punished by the loss of their cattle and poultry. On while the other defends pieces. and swing to and fro. so that the corn undu- beneath a strong wind. Government of Tula the women and girls go out to the fields during the " Green Week. she who holds the straw Rusalka in her hand bounding about in the middle of the choral circle. and in Little-Russia it is believed that on Whit. The peasants in "WhiteRussia say that the Rusalkas dwell amid the standing corn . form two arriving at the fields the singers bodies. At times the Rusalkas entice into their haunts both youths and maidens. The Rusalkas have much to do with the harvest. sometimes making it plenteous. and there. with joyous singing and clapping of hands. the lates as if ceremony of expelling the Rusalkas. immediately after the end of the Whitsuntide festival. Eventually it is torn to to and the straw of which it was made is thrown the winds. they scamper through the rye or hang on to its stalks. so as to represent a Rusalka. and the assembled company go out to the fields with straw is dance and song. In the saying they have expelled the Rusalka.



who is supposed to be stealing the grain. Having made a straw figure, they take it to the banks
of a stream and fling it into the water. In some districts the young people run about the fields on

Whit-Sunday Eve, waving brooms, and crying, "Pursue! pursue!" There are people who affirm that they have seen the hunted Rusalkas running out of the corn-fields into the woods, and have heard their sobs and cries.
Besides the full-grown Rusalkas there are little ones, having the appearance of seven-year-old girls. These are supposed, by the Russian peasants, to be
the ghosts of still-born children, or such as have died before there was time to baptize them. Such children
the Rusalkas are in the habit of stealing after death, taking them from their graves, or even from the
cottages in which they

and carrying them off to subaqueous dwellings. Every Whitsuntide, for

seven successive years, the souls of these children If any person fly about, asking to be christened. who hears one of them lamenting will exclaim, " I baptize thee in the name of the Father, and of the
Son, and of the Holy Ghost," the soul of that child will be saved, and will go straight to heaven. re-


ligious service, annually

performed on the first Mon" Peter's Fast," in behalf of an unbaptized day of the child will be equally efficacious. But if the stray
during seven years, neither hears the baptismal formula pronounced, nor feels the effect of the divine

service, it

becomes enrolled

for ever in the ranks of
fate befalls those

the Rusalkas.

The same




mothers have cursed before they were born, or in the interval between their birth and their


Such small Rusalkas, who abound among baptism. the Little-Russian Mavki, are evidently akin to our own fairies. Like them they make the grass grow
where they dance, they float on the water in egg-shells, and some of them are sadly troubled by

doubts about a future



least it is believed in

the Government of Astrakhan that the sea Rusalkas come to the surface and ask mariners, " Is the end of the world near at hand ?" Besides the children

mention has been made, women who kill themselves, and all those who are drowned, choked,
of or strangled, and who do not obtain Christian burial, are liable to become Rusalkas. During the Rusalka


week the

drowned or strangled persons go out to their graves, taking with them pancakes, and spirits, and red eggs. The eggs are broken, and
relatives of

the spirits poured over the graves, after which the remnants are left for the Rusalkas, these lines being



Queen Rusalka, Maiden fair,

Do not destroy the soul, Do not cause it to be choked, And we will make obeisance to


the people


forget to do this the Rusalkas 7 In the Saratof Governtheir vengeance


ment the Rusalkas

are held in bad repute.


Afanasief, P. V, S.





they are described as hideous, humpbacked, hairy creatures, with sharp claws, and an iron hook with

which they try to


ventures to bathe in

on passers-by. If any one a river on Whit-Sunday, without

having uttered a preliminary prayer, they instantly drag him down to the bottom. Or if he goes into a wood without taking a handful of wormwood (Poluin),

he runs a serious risk, for the Rusalkas may ask him, " What have you got in your hands ? is it Poluin or If he replies Poluin, they cry, PetrushJca (Parsley)." " Hide under the tuin and he is safe. But





(hedge)," says, Petrushka, they exclaim affectionately, my duslika" and begin tickling him till he

foams at the mouth.

In either case they seem to be

greatly under the influence of rhyme. In the vicinity of the Dnieper the peasants believe

that the wild-fires which are sometimes seen at night flickering above graves, or around the tumuli called

Kurgans, or in woods and swampy places, are lighted by the Rusalkas, who wish thereby to allure incautious
travellers to their ruin

but in


" Wills




places these are regarded as being


the souls of unbaptized children,and so small Rusalkas


In many parts of Russia the Rusalkas

are represented in the songs of the people as propounding riddles to girls, and tickling and teasing those who cannot answer them. Sometimes the

Rusalkas are asked similar questions, which they answer at once, being very sharp-witted.

The Servian Vilas







they equal in beauty, and generally



higher compliment can be paid to a Servian maiden than to say that she is " lovely

outdo in malice.


But once upon a time, says a story, a " more proud husband boasted that his wife was beautiful than the white Vila." His vaunt was overas a Vila."

heard by the




Show me thy love who than the white Yila from the






So he took his wife by the hand and led her forth, and what he had said was true. She was three
times as beautiful as the Vila, and


the Vila

saw that




she cried out,
is it


of thine, youth, that thy the Vila from the hill. Her a I, mother bare, wrapped her in silken swaddling-clothes, and nourished her with a mother's milk. But me, the Vila from the hill me the hill itself bare, swaddled me in green leaves. The morning dew fell nourished me the Vila ; the breeze blew from the hill rocked me the Vila 8 ."


great vaunt




spiritual being of the


same class is the the Lusatians, under the name

of Prezpolnica or Pripolnica, she appears in the fields exactly at mid-day (in Russian, Polden or Poluden " half-day"), holding a sickle in her hand. There she addresses any woman whom she finds tarrying afield

instead of returning home for mid-day repose, and questions her on the cultivation and the spinning of flax, cutting off the head or dividing the neck of an

Quoted from


Karadjich by Buslaef,





L 2



unsatisfactory answerer. She seems to be akin to the dcemon Meridianus, " the sickness that destroyeth in

the noonday

worthy of remark that the Russian peasants make use of a verb, Poludnovaf to


It is


express the action of drawing one's last breath

body scarcely poludnoet" they say. In the Government of Archangel tradition tells of " Twelve Midnight Sisters (Polunochnitsas), who attack children, and force them to cry out with pain ."


soul in his


traditions of the Russian peasants people the

waters with other spiritual inhabitants besides the Their songs and stories often speak of Rusalkas.
the Tsar Morskoi, the Marine or

Water King, who

dwells in the depths of the sea, or the lake, or the To pool, and who rules over the subaqueous world.
this Slavonic

Neptune a family of daughters



quently attributed, maidens of exceeding beauty, who, when they don their feather dresses, become the

Swan Maidens who
of so

figure in the popular literature



These graceful creatures, how-

as well as their royal parent, belong to the realm of the peasant's imagination rather than to

that -of his belief.


this is

not the case with the

are called Vodyanuie, the male counterIn them he still believes, parts of the Rusalkas. and of them he often stands in considerable awe.


The Vodyany, or Water- sprite, like his kin spirit the Domovoy, is affectionately called Dyedushka, or Grandfather, by the peasants. He generally inhabits

Grimm, D. M.


Afanasief, P. V. S. in. 77.



0. 233.



the depths of rivers, lakes, or pools ; but sometimes he dwells in swamps, and he is specially fond of

taking up his quarters in a mill-stream, close to the wheel. Every mill is supposed to have a Yodyany
attached to

or several

if it

has more wheels than

Consequently millers are generally obliged to be well-versed in the black art, for if they do not


to treat the water-spirits all will


with them.

represented by the people as a naked old man, with a great paunch and a bloated

The Yodyany

given to drinking, and delights in carouses and card-playing. He is a patron of



bee-keeping, and it is customary to enclose the first swarm of the year in a bag, and to throw it, weighted

with a stone, into the nearest river, as an offering to him. He who does this will flourish as a bee-master,
especially if he takes a

honeycomb from a hive on

Zosima's day, and flings


midnight into a mill-


The water-sprites have
well-stocked with


subaqueous dwellings

which they drive out into the fields to graze by night. They have wives and children too, under the waves, the former
sorts of cattle,

sometimes being

women who have been drowned,



a parent's curse has placed within the power of the Evil One. Many a girl who has drowned her-

has been turned into a Rusalka or some such


and then has married a Yodyanv.



occasion of such a marriage, or indeed of any subaqueous wedding, the Yodyanies indulge in such



and mad pranks that the waters are wildly agitated, and often carry away bridges or mill-dams

at least, that is

dents as arise

how the peasants explain such acciwhen the snows melt and the streams


a water- sprite's wife is about to bear a child he assumes the appearance of an


ordinary mortal, and fetches a midwife from some neighbouring village to attend her. Once a water-

baby was caught by some fishermen
It splashed about joyously as long as

in their nets.


in the

water, but wailed sorely



was taken

into a

Its capturers returned

to its father on

his promising to drive plenty of fish into their nets in future a promise which he conscientiously fulfilled.



one of the stories about a mixed

marriage beneath the waves. Except at the end, it is very like that which forms the groundwork of

Mr. Matthew Arnold's exquisite romaunt of " The Forsaken Merman." " Once upon a time a girl was drowned, and she lived for many years after that
day she swam to the shore, and saw the red sun, and the green woods and fields, and heard the humming of insects and the distant sound of church-bells. Then a longing
with a water- sprite.

But one

on earth came over her, and she could not resist the temptation. So she came out from the water, and went to her native village. But
after her old life

there neither her relatives nor her friends recognized her. Sadly did she return in the evening to the

and passed once more into the power of

the water-sprite.


days later her mutilated



corpse floated on to the sands, while the river roared The remorseful waterand was wildly agitated.

was lamenting

his irrevocable loss ."
it is



a Vodyany appears in a village

easy to

recognize him, for water is always dripping from his left skirt, and the spot on which he sits instantly

becomes wet.

In his

own realm he not

only rules

the fishes that swim, but he greatly inSometimes fluences the lot of fishers and mariners.

he brings them good luck sometimes he lures them to destruction. Sometimes he gets caught in nets,

but he immediately tears them asunder, and all the fish that had been enclosed in them swim out after

fisherman once found a dead body floating about in the water, so he took it into his boat. But


to his horror the corpse suddenly





a wild laugh, and jumped overboard.

That was one

of the Yodyany' s pranks. sportsman once waded into a river after a wounded duck. The Yodyany


got hold of him by the neck, and would have pulled him under if he had not cut himself loose with his


he got home his neck was


over blue


by the Yodyany' s fingers. Sometimes the Yodyany will jump on a horse and ride it to death so, to keep him away while horses are fording a river, the peasants sign a cross on the water with

One should not bathe, say the a knife or a scythe. peasants, without a cross round one's neck, or after

Especially dangerous

is it

to bathe during

Afanasief, P. V. S. n. 239.

the week in which


the feast of the Prophet Ilya then (Elijah, formerly Perun, the Thunderer), for the Yodyany is on the look out for victims. During the day he generally
lies at

pools, but at night he sits hair, or he sports in the water, diving with a splash

the bottom of the deep on the shore combing his

sometimes, also, he fights with the wood-sprites, the noise of their combats In Bohemia fishermen are being heard afar off.

and coming up




of assisting a drowning man, thinking the Yodyany will be offended and will drive away the

from their nets and they say he often sits on the shore with a club in his hand, from which hang

ribbons of various hues
dren, and those


with these he allures



he gets hold of he drowns.

The souls of his victims the Yodyany keeps, making them his servants, but their bodies he allows to float
to shore.

Sometimes he changes himself into a fish, generally a pike. Sometimes, also, he is represented, like the western Merman, with a fish's tail. In the Ukraine

rough, such half-fishy "marine people" appear on the surface of the water and sing songs. The ChumaM (local caris

a tradition that,


the sea



go down at such times to the sea-side, and there hear those wonderful songs which they after-

wards sing

towns and villages. In other " sea " Pharaohs," places these people" are called being supposed, like the seals in Iceland, to be the
in the

remains of that host of Pharaoh which perished in



DEMIGODS AND FAIRIES. than the grass of the field. if the frost has broken up. into the middle of a river. and manifests his anger by various spiteful actions. at one time than the trees of the forest. As the Vodyany haunts the waters. or. 153 but with During the winter the Vodyany sleeps. is gene- rally presented to him in the middle of September. as they do so. and millers once a year sacrifice a black pig to him. the early spring he awakes. as a return for his having watched over the farmer's ducks and geese during the summer months. so does "the Lyeshy make the forest [Lyes] his home. and at midnight fling it into an ice-hole. but ungirdled. begging him. and they hold that their hypothesis is confirmed by the fact that he can assume different shapes. making himself taller and at another shorter He often appears as a peasant dressed in a sheepskin. then they tie its legs together. to be good to them. Three days long has the Yodyany two millstones to its awaited manifesting his impatience by groanings and upheavings of water. as is always the case with evil spirits. which they feed well for three days . present. and alter his stature at will. He is supposed by some critics to be one of the spirits who belong to the realm of cloudland and storm. wrathful and hungry. attach neck. and with the left . smear its head with honey. adorn its mane with red ribbons. his men propitiate oil him at the same season of the year by pouring on the water. In order to propitiate him the peasants in some places buy a horse. A goose. also. After he Fisherhas received his due he becomes quiet.

One of his tricks is to suck their milk from the cows. One Sometimes. his head and body are covered with shaggy hair. dwindle away till they are no higher than the stubble. The one consists of giants of an ashy hue .. his feet are like those of a goat. he will see to the pasturing of the village cattle. is supposed to be the protector of the These wood-demons frequently quarrel among themselves. it In the Olonetsk Government is believed that a herdsman ought to give a cow every summer to the Lyeshy if he fail to do so. and without clothes. In Little -Russia. the peasants divide the Lyeshies into two classes. using as their weapons huge trees and masess of rock. which is sometimes as green as that of the Rusalkas.154* MYTHOLOGY. on the other hand. and. he wolves. In the Government of Archangel it is held that if the herdsmen succeed in : pleasing the Lyeshy. the other of beings who. From his forehead spring horns. after it. he has but one eye. like a Cyclops. usually attributed . is. When he appears in his own shape. the revengeful spirit will destroy the whole herd. of his peculiarities that he never has any eyebrows or eyelashes. his fingers are tipped with long In the Governments of Kief and Chernigof claws. The devastations. skirt crossed over the right. before the harvest. The Lyeshy is malicious. he greatly resembles the mediaeval pictures of the devil. and to those who do not conciliate him he often does much mischief. belonging respectively to the woods and to the cornfields. are of the same height as the growing corn.

and did much the Lyeshy goes round to inspect his domains. and guards him from the assaults of the water-sprites. he strives hard to turn out the intruder. When in some hut in the depths of the woods. When the squirrels. field-mice. A travelling merchant chanced to come that way. By night he sleeps for him afterwards. and released the captive demon. the peasants say. the uninvited guest will not retire. are in reality. the forest roars around him and the trees shake. too much and some other animals go forth in troops upo/n their . who was so grateful that he sent his benefactor home in a whirlwind. A battle ensued. His favourite is the bear. If. sweeping over the hut in the form of a whirl- wind which makes the door while all rattle around the trees and the roof heave. tied his hands so tightly together that he could not move. 155 to hurricanes. and if by chance he finds that a belated traveller or sportsman has taken up his quarters in the refuge he had intended for himself. who watches over him when he has taken of the strong drink he loves so well. he runs the risk of being lost next day in the woods. his only servant. All the birds and beasts which inhabit the forest are under the protection of the Lyeshy. In Government a story is told of a Lyeshy who quarrelled with two others of his race about some forest rights. and then left him to his fate. all of or swallowed up in a swamp. in which the Archangel they overcame him. due to these mighty combatants of the forest world. bend and writhe. and a forest.DEMIGODS AND FAIKIES. terrible howling goes through the in spite these hints.

. on his treatment of the Lyeshy. They have been staked and But neither the Lyeshy lost by the local Vodyany. Any thing like the sign of the cross [or Perun's hammer-mace] is distasteful to demons.tobacco. periodical migrations. he makes an offering of a piece of bread. leaving it forest. The Perm peasants offer up prayers once a year to the Lyeshy. sprinkled with salt.sprites. presenting him with a packet of leaf. and the neighbouring peasants said that it was because a Lyeshy in the Vyatka Government had gambled away all his squirrels to a brother demon in that of Vologda. or a pancake.156 MYTHOLOGY. to a In great extent. In some districts the hunters make an first offering to the bag. In 1843 a great number of migrating squirrels appeared in certain districts of Kussia. and lays it on the stump of a tree. the peasants explain the fact by saying that the Lyeshies are driving their flocks from one forest to another. and the lost property was on its way to its new at master. order to please that wayward spirit. nor the Vodyany will use a pack of cards in which any clubs occur. Fisherthat certain fish suddenly desert particular spots. One of the incantations intended to be used " " by a hunter calls upon the Devils and Lyeshies to drive the hares into his power. is of which he very fond. A sportsman's success in the woods depends. and its magic force is animal they Lyeshy of whatever for him in an oak supposed to be so great that the wood-demons must obey. tions are frequent men know among once why it is Similar gambling transacthe water.

157 The Lyeshy the woods. also. For in this respect the Lyeshies resemble their sisters the Eusalkas. would chat away unconcernedly. So loud is his laughter. [Zuiblca all =a cradle]. when forests were larger and denser than they are now. and making them lose their way. he would himself take the form of a traveller. looking round. till. Then a loud laugh would be heard. the sounds. At such times he makes manner of noises. the lowing of cows. when the winds make the woods resound. with the intention of tickling him to death if they can get hold of him. is very fond of diverting himself in springing from bough to bough. or would assume the likeness of some tree by which the Sometimes neighbours were accustomed to steer. he would see the Lyeshy at a little distance grinning . In olden days. the Lyeshy used to be constantly deluding travellers. imitating the neighing of horses. clapping his hands. and His victim engage a passer-by in conversation. he found himself in a swamp or ravine. the voice of the Lyeshy may be heard in what ignorant people might think was the creaking of branches or the crashing of stems. that it may be heard for versts around. who wish to allure an unwary sportsman or woodcutter on to dangerous ground. and rocking himself among the branches as if in a cradle. all of a sudden. which are erroneously attributed to an echo are in reality the calls of demons.DEMIGODS AND FAIRIES. and. Sometimes he would alter the landmarks. In their opinion. say the peasants. shrieking with laughter. whence in some places he is called Zuibochnik. the barking of dogs.

On his arrival there he utters a prayer over his offering. bably fall into a foaming stream. and reverse to their linings. His best plan is to take off his shoes trail. the Lyeshy amuses himself in many ways at their expense. Sometimes by night a forest-keeper would hear the wailing of a child. which rushed along where no stream had ever been seen before. so " Don't that a popular saying conveys this advice. travellers lose their Besides making way. leaves it as a sacrifice to the Lyeshy. Lyeshy' s track. Wherever the Lyeshy goes. freezing their sledges tight to the ground. covering the traces of his If by any footsteps with sand. so that when any one falls ill after returning from " He has crossed the the woods. go into the forest. and carries them to the forest. wraps them in a clean rag. he always tries to leave no track behind. His only safe course under such circumstances was to go straight onwards. MYTHOLOGY. chance a passer-by strikes upon the Lyeshy' s recent he becomes bewildered. and returns home with the firm conviction that he has left his illness behind him. or leaves. . without paying any attention If he followed them he would proto those noises." In order to get cured he takes bread and salt. or groans apparently proceeding from some one in the agonies of death. and it may be as well also turn his shirt or pelisse inside out. and does not easily find his way again. he often brings illness upon them. and so forth. the Lyeshy plays tricks there ' ! Worse than that. his friends say. blowing dust into their eyes and their caps off their heads.158 at him. or snow.

! the aspen will begin to whisper as if a light breeze were blowing over them. tells how a woman one day found a baby Lyeshy lying naked on the ground and crying So she covered it up warm with her cloak. woman any one wishes to invoke a Lyeshy he should cut down a number of young birch -trees. nor as a black raven. looking between " Uncle Lyeshy appear not as a grey wolf. Then he must stand upon the stump. "Dyedushka!" "Grandfather!" will and the Lyeshy appear immediately. and make them their wives. On such occasions he is to make a bargain with his invoker. standing within the out loudly. are merely female Lyeshies. hairy and hideous. solitary life. and say. bend downwards. But whether they . 159 Sometimes the Lyeshy is described as leading a Sometimes he has a wife and children. all ready kinds Sometimes the Lyeshies carry off mortal maidens. closely resembling one told in Germany of a Hohweibchen. bitterly. and after a time came her mother. Or he should go into the forest on St. and rewarded the If with a potful of burning coals. and fell an aspen.DEMIGODS AND FAIRIES. taking care that it falls towards the East. giving of assistance in return for the other's soul. A Little-Russian story. and. nor as a fir for burning: appear just like me!" Then the leaves of his feet. with his face turned eastward. and place them in a circle with he must take off his circle. Then cross. a Lisunka. or forest girls and women. John's Eve. and the Lyeshy will appear in the form of a man. which afterwards turned into bright golden ducats. call their tops in the middle. The Lisunlci.

the newly-married couple splash water over him. In the Government of Archangel a whirlwind is set down to the wild On the second dancing of a Lyeshy with his bride. and if SECTION HI. there are a few fantastic creatures who belong world. with for the most part only to his story- whom he is rendered familiar by tradition. their weddings are always attended by noisy revels and by violent storms. and drench him from head to foot. according to the custom prevalent in Russia. goes to the bath with any mortal passes by at the time. STORYLAND BEINGS. day after his marriage the Lyeshy. for he would be afraid of a wood-demon's bridal procession coming that way and crushing him in his slumbers. a number of its : trees will fall. or making themselves a habitation in the neighbouring woods and waters. many of the cottages will be injured if a forest. If the wed- ding procession traverses a village. . his young wife. BESIDES the spiritual beings in whom the Russian peasant actually believes as haunting his house.160 MYTHOLOGY. intermarry or no. A peasant will rarely dare to lie down to sleep in a forest path.

STORYLAND BEINGS. der the form of a hideous old ture. the Baba Yaga lives in a larger building. As she lies in her hut she often " stretches across from one corner to the other. as also are her long pendant breasts and her strong sharp teeth. the most prominent is the Yaga Baba. or . or. on slender Her usual The door looks towards the forest. she iron mortar. however. Of these apparently mythic personages. 161 but on whose present existence he does not place implicit reliance. and instead of a lock there is a mouth with sharp teeth. the meaning of the word is Yaga (the accent on the second syllable) uncertain. very tall in sta- bony of limb. but supports. and tipped with their skulls. Her nose is sometimes de- scribed as being of iron. with an excessively long nose. when the hut is adjured in the right words it turns round. izbushJca] which stands " on fowls' legs. Sometimes. a sort " 3 Bala stands falls for woman " . and her nose goes right through the ceiling. very woman." that is. round which stands a fence made of the bones of the people she has eaten. who play popular tales. Baba Yaga pernatural being. and with dishevelled hair. rides in an This she propels with the pestle. dim. to use the more 3 She is a supopular form of her name. who is generally represented un- important parts in the Skazlci. so that its back is towards the forest and its front towards the person addressing it. H ." When the Baba Yaga goes abroad." habitation is a cottage [izba. The uprights are human of the gates are human legs. the bolts " arms.

during the time of her flight. According to some Day. often supplying belated travellers. the earth groans.flying carpet." of " self" self-playing gusli" of a leagued] boots." cutting sword. indeed. and as she goes she sweeps away the traces of her passage with a broom. At such times she greatly resembles the Fiery Snake. the wave of which suffices to turn any living creature into stone. the elements fulfil her behests. the Baba-yaga and the Snake often appear to be identical personages." of " With self. sevenfire-breathing horses. She is " to love to suck the white breasts of supposed . the winds howl. trunkless hands wait upon her." and a all these means and appliances she is able to secure " many victims. which plays a leading part in the Slavonic stories. a stories the Sun. are described as " baneful snakes. and that. and. She possesses a magic cudgel. and she can always avail herself of single " courier.. of club." tastes One of the which characterize the snake of fable is some- times attributed to the Baba Yaga also. In the Ukraine the flying witch is usually called a snake in a Slovak tale the sons of a Baba Yaga . also with The White -Russians flies declare that the Baba Yaga through the sky in a fiery mortar. and the Night are her servants. and the trees writhe and crack. [i. often stealit ing children for her table. which she urges on with a burning broom.162 MYTHOLOGY. different versions of the same narrative employing sometimes the one name and sometimes the other for the same mythical being. whom she cooks and eats. e.

and always hungering after human flesh. According to some traditions she even feeds on the souls of the dead. the Slavonians always represented Death as a female being. beautiful 163 women. also. when the wind bows down the ears of corn the peasants say that the Baba Yaga is run- ning after children." 4 feed on the souls as light as means become In some places. who. with the intention of blinding It has already been observed that Afanasief. But. I. Sometimes three Baba Yagas are mentioned in a In that case they are usually three sisters story.STOEYLAND BEINGS." Like the Snake. and by that spirits . 120. are not of an unkindly " fairy prince nature. with whom she often goes prowling about." who were looked upon with so much and bestowThese seem to be days of heathenism. for instance. M 2 . and who tale. or other hero of the giving him good ing upon him magic presents. the word representing death in each of the Slavonic languages in 4 Russian Smert' being of the feminine gender. assist the " advice. Skazki. affirm that " Death gives the dead to the Baba Yaga. as a general rule. The White-Russians. and who became degraded into vulgarwitches under the influence of Christianity. she keeps guard over and knows the use of the founts of "Living Water" that water which cures wounds and restores the dead to life. connected with the " Prophetesses/' or " Wise Women. the Baba honour in the old Yaga is described as a being utterly malevolent. And that the Baba Yaga and her subordinate witches pf people. in spite of their name.

To and sweeping away the traces of her progress with a broom. the forest." answering to the German Kornpuppe." " iron" and " long-nosed" Bertha [Frau Precht mit der latigen Nase] seems.164 MYTHOLOGY. whence comes Okostenyet' to ossify. and " the called the Jitnaya Baba Corn-woman. known as the "Iron Tooth. she is looked upon as the whirl- " a black cloud" she chases fugitive heroes." is carries about live coals in a pitcher. perhaps. . a figurative expression for " to . with the unfavour- able representations of those once kindly deities. the last sheaf in harvest-time is dressed up in woman's clothes. The " wild. she seems to be the thunder-cloud which wind. Russian critics are inclined to identify the Baba Yaga with Holda or Bertha or. Servian Baba Yaga. Corn- haunted by the Baba Yaga. indeed. to make hard as a bone or a stone. distaffs of lazy spinners. in them or pounding them fields are specially an iron churn. When as threatens to blot out the light of day. His name is derived from the word Kost\ a bone." who is considered to be a mythical representation of Winter. in remembrance of whom. making the trees writhe and howl as she passes. to have many points in common with the Baba Yaga. at least. Another strange being who figures in many of the " Koshchei the stories is Immortal. the Grosse Mutter or Die Alte of the harvest-home. especially as the latter The frequently represented as spinning. and burns the the mythologists the Baba Yaga appears to be an impersonification of the When she tears her way through spirit of the storm.

and in the duck is an egg. " Haltrich's Deutsche Volksmarchen aus dem SacJisenlande in Siebenburgen. There stands an oak. the Witch . he " the Giant who had no heart in his body being 6 5 of the Norse Tale the Deccan Punchkin . is is always hard to detect. and in the hare is a duck. unable to show themselves to admiring beholders till his spell is broken and power is overthrown. Like the Baba Yaga." And when.STOBYLAND BEINGS. . Miss Frere's " Old Deccan Days. wars against sunlight and 5 6 7 fair weather. who Dasent's Tales from the Norse. Koshchei is. freeze. one of the many forms in which is personified the Evil Spirit who of the German story 7 . Koshchei dies . and such a place. and in the casket is a hare." 165 locked up by the Winter say the Russian commentators as the bright and bloomthe earth is As ing Spring cannot become visible till the wintry season is past. in the opinion of the mythologists." p. Sometimes it is a hero's mother his whom Koshchei suddenly carries off. p. but sooner or later Koshchei generally induced to make some such revelation as this." p. In either case she is kept a prisoner until the hero finds out in what manner the immortal one can be rendered mortal in what place his " death" can be The secret discovered and brought home to him. sometimes it is his wife. so are beautiful princesses kept in imprisonment by Koshchei. is. and in the egg is "My death is in such my death. 188. the ' egg has been found and broken. and under the oak is a casket. and 76. after many adventures.

i. bursts forth in a whirlwind. he enters a forbidden chamber. and when he has obtained it. explanation of this story is. and there finds Koshchei hung up and bound with twelve chains. he goes. and carries off the fair The mythological Marya Morevna." it is Koshchei who carries off the Princess. realm of nature awakes from its winter slumbers. and throws her. which eventually the forehead : away. he recovers his flies lost strength.166 is MYTHOLOGY. the or icy chains of winter. into a magic slumber. " Sleeping Beauty. Prince sea). at the first it Just as. Koshchei is the storm which is bound by the iron strength. is their music heard than the sleepers No all sooner awake and return to busy gists. the life. say the mytholosounds of the spring thunders. But when he has drunk his fill. until with his wife the Queen Marya Morevna (Mary.. after the first spring rains the thunder- . steed. as well as all the in- habitants of her father's kingdom. he regains his vigour. sleeping. e. that fair Daughter of the Sea. and so has lost its Queen. bursts his chains. usually personified in the Russian stories under In a Polish version of the the form of a snake. carrying off the Queen as Fortunately the Prince obtains a magic fells and Koshchei by a kick on so all goes well. Ivan lives happily In a Russian story. saying he has hung there without drinking for ten years. and has drunk his fill. At last the destined rescuer comes. is the Springtide Sun. Koshchei begs for water. who con- quers Koshchei and seizes his magic gusli. the one day. during her absence. as were petrified. daughter of More.

the duck. He first declares that his death resides in a besom. the Wind." gives way and dies. the last His fair captive has the fence. . snake is substituted for Koshchei. the hare. or a stone inside an egg but Afanasief points out that such animals are always chosen as either the are frequently employed as types of the clouds In one variant. the winds arise.STOEYLAND BEINGS. and the sun carries off the sea's fair daughter. and the sunlight suffers for a time eclipse. boar. for it is is even more hero was expressly stated that the assisted in his search for the fatal egg by the Thunder. the dark clouds gather. and its death lies in a little stone within the yolk of the mystic egg. At who has been " rushing from one corner to the In another variant a other. and shines out again. Then the Prince kills Koshchei The thundergod Perun overcomes the storm-cloud. first besom tipped with gold and then he divulges the secret. and of which the . 167 storms begin to resume their strength. In another Russian story. and then that it lies in the fence which surrounds the house. when Koshchei. the mythological nature of the story clearly apparent. In different versions of the story different animals are represented as forming the chain which secures the life of Koshchei. last link is an egg. the bull. the description of the manner in which Koshchei' s secret as to his death is obtained from him still more closely resembles that given in the Norse tale. and shifts it from one hand to the other till it breaks. and the Prince gets hold of the fatal egg. and the Hail.

Her name. and famine. medicine. of Ivan]. as the mother of Grendel. however. the VyecCma is not the old Slavonian Wise Woman. it is true. the wise or knowing woman. In the Skazkas. and often identical with the Baba Yaga is the Vyed'ma." In the old heathen times the Vyed'ma was the Vyeshchaya zhena. poetess." and by its aid she entices him into her power. gets a blacksmith to forge her "just such a thin little voice as Ivashko' s mother has. .168 MYTHOLOGY. whence eyedat*. after getting the witch's daughter baked instead of himself. she exercised solemn functions. as rapacious. same of the story is nearly the as that of the Norse tale of Buttercup [Dasent. The end p. but not so for- midable. As prophetess. seems to have suffered cruelly at the hands of the furious populace .woman. as well as that of the Vyedun. or to gladden the earth with its rays. Closely connected with Koshchei. whether male or female. to prevent the sun from shining. a female fiend always longing to feed upon human flesh. and was held in high reverence. springs from the root vyed. In times of drought the whole race of warlocks. she was supposed to control the elements. or Wizard. but the divining profession did not fall into utter disrepute until some time after the introduction of Christianity. but a witch of the worst possible character. of a boy called Ivashko [dim. and the like. to be able to compel the clouds to withhold or to pour forth rain. 146]. soothsayers. whom Beowulf In one story a witch who longs to get hold slew. for Ivashko contrives to escape." to know. conjurors. or Witch.

the Sun's Sister." but finding that they must all die some day. so he takes to flight. and prepares to eat him. The witch arrives soon afterwards. where he no living thing except his sister. and he had managed to member the only she has not devoured. proposes that he and she two shall the castle. after some parley. This is agreed upon. so that at last One of the only the walls remain" of the palace in which she lives. " no sooner did she put her foot into it than up shot Prince Ivan. a young prince who had left his father's " home before she was born. is make his way to the abode of the " Sun's Sister. but. and into the room . while she is " and succeeds in escaping to the castle of his friend and protector. outside with the stipulation that the heavier of the be at liberty to eat the lighter. made the At last he pays a visit to his old home." where he remained. and that with such force that he flew right up to the sky. of her family whom He had been warned that his as yet unborn sister would eat him if she could. His sister prepares to get into the other. and. he had not stopped long with them. that of a witch who consumes every thing on which she can lay her hands.STORYLAND BEINGS. 169 strangest of the stories of these devouring harpies is. and the Prince steps first into one of the scales. On his way there he had acquaintance of certain weird sewing " Leveller of Mountains" and an women. says the story. Her brother. and of a " Uprooter of Trees. shall be weighed against each other. who receives him with cordiality. But sees sharpening her teeth" he is warned of his impending fate by a mouse.

perpetually chases her brother the Day. Skazki. The soul is weighed in the balance. But the Witch. it is the Day Star who is the Those who consider the story to be a moral allegory. who tries to seize it and carry it off to the Then comes a form of judgment. Dawn.Snake remained How plainly little is known precisely about such witches is shown by the variety of explanations which Investigators who treat it as a solar myth recognize the Dawn as the Sun's Sister. Dawn. pursued by the DeathWitch. In what seems to be a variant of the same story. of darkness.170 of the Sun's Sister. there to shine in heaven as a star. Afanasief remarks. a man sets out to seek "the is 8 Afanasief. p. my dear little Dawn Sister of the Sun ! ! In the Servian songs Sun's Sister. 57. there on earth ". but there appears to be good reason for supposing that the Witch Death. may look on the Prince as the type of the soul of man. and if it is heavy with crime it goes down into the world depths of her gloomy realm. . 8 MYTHOLOGY. current in Little-Russia. who and is Dawn. only driven away by the interposition of the One of the Russian songs. This seems to be going rather too far. 283. looking upon the devouring witch as the this story has called forth. begins with the words. it has been suggested. vi. and the object of her chase is the soul. but if it be light it flies aloft into the realm of bliss. Night.

and becomes may be seen in seizes 9 the sky near the Moon . 274. So on St." in Miss Frere's " Old Deccan much evil is . George's day he lets down from heaven a golden swing. on which he shoots up into " a star which the air. l Afanasief." says the Moon but Death perseveres in her claim. the moon in him by the feet. swing away in it. 9 Afanasief. At last Death. and who are to die when they have used up their needles. while Death . when he hears that the wolf to die as soon as she has uprooted an oak with her tail. wrought 380. which remains Small and great suspended close by her house. but. island 171 where there is no death. how I am." A wolf invites is him to stop. and asks for " her soul. " This is At last he visits who heaven is old.STOEYLAND BEINGS. and when it is young. When I am old. Skazki. which fill some women several says. 50]. vm. But no sooner has she done so than the golden swing flies up to heaven. 1 Days" [p. At last the Moon] takes the man by the head. comes to the Moon. young also. after consulting the Wolf and the Sewers. he finds sewing in a hut. whom huge boxes. V. . he goes on In the same way he refuses the hospitable offers of . and bears the maiden [as the eagle bore Ganymede] to her radiant lover In the story of " Truth's Triumph. P." " It isn't yours. I am So the man stops with the Moon a the Moon." hundred years and more." Somewhat of the same kind also story in which the Sun falls the Bulgarian in love with the fair is maiden Grozdanka. S. in. till at last Grozdanka steps into it.

" her hair hangs around her in a thick black tangle." in his History of India. Talboys Wheeler. Koshchei. first. then a high mountain to rise. I. or towel. is the wife of a slain snake. 147) "these 2 ( . who generally have recourse for the purpose to the agency of a magic comb. and when she chases him he waves it. there a fettered serpent meets the eye. and the Witch. and causes. speaking of the "Scythic Nagas. In one variant of a story. who has taken the form of " an ugly old woman. but then she is The mythical being the home of the Sun's the " Witchcalled the until end of the Snake 2 .172 MYTHOLOGY. generally known as the Baba Yaga. The hero of the tale steals it. a RaJcshasa. who chases her brother up to Sister is spoken of as a human witch story." closely resembling the Vyed'ma or the Baba Yaga. between him and her obstacles which are frequently produced in similar emergencies by the heroes of Russian tales. The three embodiments of the Spirit of Evil." and she possesses a magic wand with which she can work wonders. seem to be mere varieties of the general form it assumes in the stories that of the Snake. Here Koshchei is which the seen hanging in chains in the room Prince is forbidden to enter. the terrible Fiery Serpent. a great river to flow. brush. She has long claws instead of hands." In process of time " (says Mr. by an evil spirit. Their names appear to be interchangeable at will with that of the great antagonist of the heroes of the Skazkas. it is a Baba Yaga who pursues a band of it fugitives . in another.

. and Yolkh Yseslav'evich. in which case he may be the lightning. S. It seems to be in the latter capacity that he is spoken of as guarding treasures of bright metals and gleaming gems. Son of the Mountain [Gora = a mountain]. Sometimes he bears the patronymic of Goruinuich. and the result has been a myths between serpents and human 3 beings. and as carrying off and imprisoning fair maidens." is described in the stories " fiery. with a raven perched on his shoulder and a hound following at his heels. such unions spring heroes of magic powers." Afanasief. hero cuts off its head. But it is generally a mortal maiden with whom he elopes." "many-headed. In one story a snake is said to have stolen the luminaries of the night. the cloud. of whom more will be said hereafter. V.STOKYLAND BEINGS. looked upon as the offspring of the In others he seems to aerial mountain. and also Nagas became identified strange confusion in the ancient with serpents." Sometimes form. as in a story which mentions his blotting out the light of day. 635. IT. becoming a youth of marvellous beauty in the presence of his beloved. and whom he retains much such as Tugarin Zmyeevich. be intended for the cloud itself. e. P. From against her will. and out from the slain monster issue "the A Bright Morning Stars . a warrior mounted on a he assumes a human noble charger. or. 173 The Serpent \_Zmy ei\ as "winged. i. when going to meet a foe." and in another the Bear and the " Ocean Monster" carry off the Moon and the Beautiful Princesses Luna and Zvyezda 3 [Star] .

which harass sleepers. In some of the stories he bears a surname which who points to his connexion with the Deity of the Hearth. The princely brideis groom has been changed by the magic spells of a foe " a terrible into But the loving bride serpent. and brings about a union fraught with happy consequences to the earth 4 . 13. being called Zapechny. demon eats the maidens whom he carries off. and the serpent turns into a handsome prince. or Incubi. who marries his rescuer that is. In the stories and songs the fair prisoner is generally rescued by a hero who penetrates into the castle of the Snake. In a few of the stories the Thunder-god himself appears under the form of a snake. disperses the Cloud and frees the life-bestowing Rain and the fair Sunlight. fiendish shapes like the Kikimori. or pepel [ashes]. and there fights and conquers him. . the hot breath of the Goddess of Spring recalls Perun to life. from pecJi [the stove] or truba [the stoveSometimes the pipe or chimney]." breaks the spell by a kiss. 4 See Grimm Deutsche Sag en. I. . and whom a Slavonic Perseus saves from a " seven-headed snake" stories which hastening to devour her. getting possession at the same time of the "living water" [the rain?] on which depends the snake's [or the cloud's] power. says Afanasief. the Popyalof frequently speaking of a beautiful princess who is exposed like Andromeda.174 MYTHOLOGY. or . This hero is supposed to be the Thunder-god. or Zatrubnik.

aiding them in growing rapidly rich. or her former charms are restored to the Earth. at the end of the seven winter months." And he goes on to say that healing powers are still attributed to the heads and skins of snakes. passed in darkness and Goddess of the Spring regains her power. enchanted by Koshchei or some other mythic being. seclusion. who honoured them good service." says Afanasief. snakes were domesticated in the houses of the people. The Lusatian Wends believe that snakes sometimes do men as Penates. the hero who rescues her has first to remain for seven years shut up in a castle of metal on a steep hill. These ideas may have been handed down from a time when serpent-worship The the Slavonians in general. By The idea the common people of the present day snakes are there looked upon with much respect and even affection. In one story. Old Prussians are said to have worshipped a prevailed among fiery serpent over which priests kept careful watch. Among the most striking of the Russian Snake- . To kill such a snake would be a very great sin. is turned into a snake. i. " Our peasants. and requiring nothing in return but simple offerings. the of a serpent as a terrible enemy is now preserved in Russia only in the popular literature. e. 175 Sometimes a captive princess. according to Kromer. and fowls. and they gladly set out milk for it. In Poland and Lithuania. " consider it a happy omen if a snake takes up its quarters in a cottage. cheese. eggs. At the end of that time the princess recovers her former shape and beauty.STORYLAND BEINGS. and made offerings to them of milk.

a twelve-headed one. and to burn it without fire he is killed by the irritated Snake. the story relating that a fair Princess has been carried off by the Snake. immediately there was bright light throughout the whole kingdom. rescued by she is confined of course always the hero of the tale. or that "Winter has imprisoned the Spring. " in that in which it is expressly stated that kingdom in which Ivan lived there was no day. . and of gold kills and her serpent-gaoler. who finds out where is She sometimes after having traversed the kingdoms of copper. of silver." As a general rule. night : that however." So when the snake. it is not openly stated that the Snake-Cloud has blotted out the light of day. her. but always was a snake's doing. but the idea is conveyed in a mythical form. In one of the stories a Seven -headed Snake carries a girl as she taking food to her two brothers in The elder of the two goes in search of is off the forest. they cut off and destroyed its " and heads. who takes out his eyes and puts them into a pot. stories which seem to be clearly nature- myths may be mentioned the tale of Ivan Popyalof. and then hangs his dead body to a beam. but as he can neither eat iron bread and iron beans. nor accomplish the tasks which are set him to cut up a huge log without a hatchet.1 76 stories MYTHOLOGY. had been killed by Ivan and his brothers. common to all Indo-European folklore. the same After a time the younger brother undergoes fate. first and arrives at the Snake's dwelling. He is at cordially received.

Sknzki. and afterwards he obtains the water of life. name of Pokatigoroshek [from lcatit\ and gorokk. A mortal combat ensues. a wolf and Pokatigoroshek becomes the being known in Russian Grimm as Malchik-s-Palchik. is. and resuscitates his dead brothers 5 .German warg. 177 As their mother is weeping one day. who has already been alluded to. 6 15. Arriving at the Snake's dwelling. to a monster called a Chudo-Yudo [Yudo Judas: Cliudo now means marvel or prodigy in olden times it was synonymous with Velilcan." but into dust the snake's is broken off. the Tsar Morskoi. In a Croatian variant of this story the Snake is replaced by the Devil. and the result is that she bears a son. in which he kills the Snake.STORYLAND BEINGS." she Saying to herself. with a finger's touch he turns the huge log and ashes. his hand " only turns blue. in some of them. and it often corresponds in some points with that filled by the Slavonic Neptune. and com- plaining to God. a Giant]. and who eventually goes to look for his two brothers. The part assigned in most of the stories to the Snake. or Sea King. and then he tries his strength When he and the Snake grasp against the Snake. 2. in. given . she sees a pea come rolling along. pp. each other's hands. a word compared by with the Old High. eats it. our Tom Thumb [Malchik. N . peas]. who receives the to roll. a boy. " This is a gift from God. Vrag. of palets\ a finger]. he devours the iron food which is offered to him . but who is worthy of a more detailed * Afanasief. palchik dim.

and there : Sadko ' found a dwelling entirely made of wood. he went down to the shore of Lake Ilmen. and Presently the Tsar Morskoi appeared. and many ships with ing. or metrical romances. .178 MYTHOLOGY. and nothing would make it move on. " the waters of the lake were troubled. and they fixed the blame upon Sadko. was sailing over the blue sea. due to his being so poor that he had no possessions beyond the gusli on which he performed at festivals. and told him to begin play- Sadko obeyed. as also are his daughters. the Swan Maidens. to offer bread and salt to the blue Caspian. how the same Sadko. who said he had been expecting Sadko for twelve years. began to dance. and promised him a rich reward. and there began to play. and drew a Another of the poems tells great treasure to land. the following story is told of a Novgorod trader. Then he confessed that he had now been sailing to and fro for twelve years." Thereupon the sailors flung him overboard. notice. In one of the Builinas.' who thanked him for his music. who " Then the blue sea was troubled. Thereupon Sadko flung a net into the lake. after he had become a wealthy merchant. Presently his ship stopped. and immediately the ship once more proceeded on its way. but had not remembered to pay fitting tribute to the King of the " Waters. and charmed the Tsar. whose fair sisters are known in all lands. Inside lay the Tsar Morskoi. Sadko sank to the bottom of the sea. and the swift rivers overflowed. Lots were cast to find out whose guilt was the cause of this delay. named Once in a fit of dreariness.

he hides among the bushes on the shore. Her dress [sorochJca. splash After a time arrives a about." They fling off their clothes. their freights 179 were submerged. which also becomes a maiden." and holds him fast until he promises to give in ransom his infant son. and sing songs. every one of them of indescribable loveliness. run into the water. 1 So when her 343. and there " play. fairer than all the rest. and " turn into beautiful maidens. and there deserted. during his slumber.STORYLAND BEINGS. whom the chase has rendered athirst. that being the name of the river which runs past Novgorod : And at midnight." The Ocean King was so pleased with the music." that he offered the hand of any one of his thirty daughters to the musician. Acting upon the advice of a friendly sorceress. but the Tsar Morskoi seizes him by the beard. He touched his young wife with his left foot From his sleep arose Sadko. and waits till twelve pigeons arrive. lies down flat on the ground and drinks of the cool waters of a lake. He found himself under [the walls of] Novgorod. laugh. sisters have re- Kirsha Danilof. a shift] Prince Ivan steals. " He drinks and suspects no danger. which strike the ground. When the young Prince has grown up he is taken by his father to the edge of the fatal lake. N2 ." thirteenth pigeon. In one of the prose stories a king. So Sadko married the nymph Volkhof. And his left foot was in the river Yolkhof 6 .

If middlebe my brother.King's daughters. you shall you shall be my father. take the shape of pigeons. Tales. 81 )." and eventually he becomes her husband The Water. Kinder" und Hausmarchen. until at last she cries. sumed and flown away. 205 vonic counterpart of the tales De beiden Kunigeskinner. The pigeon was in ancient times consecrated to the thunder-god. and others of her " trusty servants." but he performs them all. If of my own age. 48. geese. and shows him the way to her subaqueous abode. and meadows. pp. she has to remain behind. VI. and sets The Water-King him various difficult him tasks. are who have my shift. and." you be my Ivan appears. and receives verdant groves." (Dasent's Norse 13) and but the Tsar Morskoi has more individuality than or the the German king Norse giant." angrily. . who in this story is 7 . come here. you are shall aged. loved one. as has already been observed. 1 The Mastermaid. tells him she is Vassilissa the Wise. one of which "to build a church of pure wax. and stretch ploughed lands. and flies away. Then she assumes her pigeonshape. Afanasief. there " There the light is just the same as There the dear sun shines warmly. often appear under the forms of ducks. " If Whoever you old. p. Skazfci. or swans. thanks to the aid of Yassilissa and the ants. the bees. their feathered garb. in 7 some places Slavonic The story is a Sla213. Ivan enters the world beneath the waters.180 MYTHOLOGY. with us. and she gives him a golden ring. the daughter of the Tsar Morskoi. vainly searching for her missing garment.

window fore- In some parts of Russia the swan. demand "the dark eyes of those who drink. instead of to Perun this and so to day they look upon the slaying of a pigeon as a great sin. they will all die. and will will After the Russians carry thee into foreign parts. "Do not shoot at fair me!" comes flying up to him. in return for a draught of water from the foun" tains they guard. and maiden. and to assure the house they haunt against fire. one which will bring a murrain upon the its Pigeons are supposed to bring good luck with them. " Do not rain come. is looked upon as a bird which ought not to be shot at. 181 it when they want ! to come flying. when it cries aloud. perpetrator. but considered it -sacred to the Third . will Three pigeons take thee on their wings. and tradition affirms that " if a killed is swan which has been In shown to children. of a pigeon into a house through the bodes a conflagration." set with pearls and is going to let fly an arrow at it. who." had become Christians. its head formed of "red gold. In a Bulgarian song a youth meets with one of the weird beings called Vilas the South-Slavonian Rusalkas. stop. also. But he does not allow the Vila " to .STOBYLAND BEINGS. herds of a white pigeon will extinguish the flames if it is thrown among them on the other hand the flying . If a building does catch fire. children still sing to the rain. Person of the Trinity. they retained their reverence for the bird." one of the metrical romances a hero sees a wondrous swan its plumage all golden. who afterwards becomes turns into a his wife.

" Somewhat akin to the story of how the Tsar Morskoi demanded from the king his son. At last." He seizes her by her ruddy locks. catches sight of them. or King Bear. finds The Bear Bear returns. 296. which burns the hawk's wings. wing. shuts it up in a coffer. she will gentle it "suckle 8 breeze . Second Series. At the christening she is entreated to dance. and takes her to his home. and compels it to drop the An eagle next attempts to rescue them. ." see Baring-Gould's " Curious Myths." if it wishes to be " rock its cradle with a lulled to sleep. fugitives. drink out his dark eyes." etc. and makes her Three years pass by. and sends forth a flame. Her husband's mother calls to her to come back.. But the ground retreat. 8 For a detailed account of " Swan-Maidens. and tries to fly away with them. but she replies that she cannot do so properly unless she is So it is restored to given back her missing wing. During his absence a hawk takes them on its wings. is that which tells how another king had to give up both his son and his daughter to Tsar Medvyed. strikes his head against the ground.182 MYTHOLOGY. p. but meets with the same fate as the hawk. To which she replies that if it cries for food she will with copious dew. asking who is to feed her child and rock its cradle. and she bears a son. her. In vain does their father hide them away in an under- them out and carries them off. There he tears off her right his wife. throws her across his swift steed. whereupon she flies away and does not return.

and the bull. The hawk. and from its ashes spring a horse. Daumling. said to be chosen partly on account of its fondness for honey [Med. a dog. times. . Deutsche Mythologie. Boroda-s-Lokotok. dim.Prussian name for a dwarf stuck. just as the Old. 419. In another version of the story there issues from the ashes of the bull one of those supernatural dwarfs who play so leading a part in the traditions of all nations. the little Mujik as big as a finger-nail. Acting on its directions the royal children consume it with fire. the eagle. or Mujichok-s- Nogotok. which. all of which play . and an apple-tree. 183 off however. or is Petit Poucet. The Slavonic Tom Thumb." in Dasent's Norse Tales. his long beard being the storm-cloud. generally known as the Malchik-s- Palchik. 1 p. the little finger]. however. a finger 1 was ParSome. with a beard as long as a fore-arm. Kulak = Trvyfwy]. the little Mujik as big as a fist [our Pygmy. of Mizinets. 9 important parts in the second half of the story The bear \_Medvy ed~\ is a well-known symbol of the thunder. a bull-calf succeeds in carrying them safely. are all equally familiar symbols of the cloud. as in the story alluded to. also. paVchik']. from maly. he is called Mujichok-s-Kulachok. small] who is only as long as a finger \_palets. as well as for his is 8 As in that of " Katie Wooden-cloak. or as Mizinchik [dim. In any case he taken to be an impersonification of the lightning. from the Lithuanian pirsztas. For the Tsar Morskoi. 420. in mythological language means rain]. the boy [MaFchik.STORILAND BEINGS.

mentioning. the Witch. What is certain is that they have been more or less subjected to manifold influences. become apparent to any one who carefully examines them. in another volume. without unhesitatingly adopting. of the sources from which are derived the stories and metrical romances current in Russia. well at least to attempt such a tracing. is as with a view to reducing it as far as possible to. To such an examination I hope. there are others who hold that those divisions of Russian folk-lore are comparatively modern. the theories propounded on the subject by the Russian This is not the place for a discussion mythologists. mythological explanations have been offered as have been supplied in the cases of the Baba Yaga. to devote fitting At present I must be contented with merely space.184 daughters. as plausible seems not a confidence. Koshchei. Scan- dinavian. and the like. But its it before investigating its mythical meaning. and regard them as the medium through which the west of Europe has obtained much of its popular fiction. Byzantine. I think. and the Fiery Snake. nor for an investigation of their age . the MYTHOLOGY. but it may be stated here that while some critics look on them as decidely ancient. But on some of them it Swan Maidens.its original . Persian. Turkish. And therefore the task of tracing a Russian story through off eastern home is wanderings from its far by no means an easy one. Arabian. hazardous to rely with any great That many of the stories of the Russian little peasantry may not unwarrantably be resolved into nature-myths will.

therefore. stories is different in this respect people. at some early period to which we can assign no definite date. comparatively speaking. Unfortunately. that of the from especially and romances. From these songs. and. their ancestors and have probably been. Some of them such fragments as have been preserved by the peasantry of the ancient ritual and mythical hymns of are evidently of very great antiquity. but little exposed to any foreign influence. rich as the store of "folk-songs" possessed by the Russian people. . When it has under- gone that operation it is fit to be subjected to the scrutiny of the comparative mythologist.STOBYLAND BEINGS. the number of such of undoubted relics Russian heathenism is is by no means great. 185 form by relieving it of the foreign matter which has adhered to it on its travels. The case of the songs of the Russian however. as to the religious ideas and the mythical teaching of those Slavonians who. spread themselves over the great plains in the north-east of Europe. in particular. it is allowable to expect some evidence as to old times. Of the songs which seem to be most closely connected with those subjects I will now endeavour to give some brief account.

stands for " the daily dole of alms to the poor." In Croatia the word has retained its old heathen associations : in the to the influence of Christianity. a wheel. name of Kotydda. but others are decidedly of opinion that it is merely an adaptation of the Roman into 1 word having been introduced the Slavonic languages by way of Byzantium Kalendce. chiefly in White-Russia and LittleThe Russia. 13. . being derived by one philologist from Kolo. a kind of yule log . The Croatian verb. the ] . Kolyadovati. as used by the Tver peasants. In none of them are the traces of the old religion more perceptible than in the songs which are sung at Christmas-tide. in most cases. and connected by another with festival celebrated at that Koloda. p." but the word Koleda. which is given to the lar time has been explained in various ways. but which in Russia. hallowed still retain much of that firm hold upon the popu- mind which they possessed in heathen times. EACH season for it of the year has its own songs set apart by old traditions. and which bear the name of KolyddJci. and linked with customs of which the original meaning has. MYTHIC AND EITUAL SONGS. long been forgotten. or Koleda. N. Russian provinces it has yielded See Schopping. means " to offer a sacrifice. R.CHAPTER III.

while KolyadJci were sung by the young people who attended her. summer And to this solar may still be kept up. we sought Holy Kolyada. seems to have referred in ancient times to the renewed life universally attributed to the Sun after the winter solstice.KOLYADA BONGS. the gloom of to the light of and urges her horses upon the goddess the people have given the name of Kolyada. and a custom used once to prevail in many places. 187 is However that may be. and which the influence of the Church has to some extent converted into a celebration of the birth of Christ. Here is one of the songs : sung at the Christmas ! festivals Kolyada Kolyada Kolyada has arrived ! On the Eve of the We Nativity. an iron fence. At that time. when the long nights begins to give way the lengthening day. takes her seat in her telega. went about. . and who had various presents made to them in return being supposed to have represented the contributions to a sacrifice which used to be . Round Peter's Court there is alleys. such gifts made still in the days of old. in all the We found Kolyada In Peter's Court. Through all the courts. the Sun a female being arrays herself in her holiday robe and head-dress. the festival which called that of Kolyada. and in some track. who was seated on a sledge and driven about from house to house. of representing her by a girl dressed in white. according to popular tradition.

the Sun is the mistress. to the Son of God. 56. for many 2 years ." and in another they are who have brought blessings with them from distant lands. for instance." or they are replaced appear " three kind by the Rain.188 MYTHIC AND KITUAL SONGS. and Bulgaria. Sun has a the young Ivan. and to the Children of God. The song then proceeds to explain that the Moon is the master of the house. : In the midst of the Court there are three rooms In the first room is the bright Moon . the In another of the Ruthenian Kolson. In some of the songs. and concludes by wish- ing them good health. TII. At present they occur in many songs under different forms. and are explained in In a Ruthenian version. in all probaInstead of the Stars sometimes bility. but as time went by." probability the celestial beings were originally introduced as objects of worship . In one song they are " three brothers guests. " For many years. a Christian form 8 is given to Tereshchenko. especially those sung in Bohemia. . Moravia. and new religious ideas came into play. various ways. who " speaks of the Bright Dawn" as his sister. the many Stars." yadki. the red Sun And in the third room. Jn the second room. they are likened to God. In all they were employed merely for the purpose 'of laudatory comparison. " the Bright Dawns. . and the Stars are their children. the Angels. the last being.

fly to her. Quickly did she hear that. 189 The Virgin Mary appears. the idea. for that of her brother A steep hill gave forth. Guarded the wine fell into a heavy slumber. being akin to the Lithuanian idea of Perun's mother daily bathing the weary and travelstained Sun. and and sister. Heavenly birds. and directly afterwards she bears a son. and would fain drink the wine. and lights are lit. saying that she has need of the wine for her own wedding. Or she bathes her child.KOLYADA SONGS. and the doors of a temple are opened. but are looked upon as old serves at the altar. and sending rejoicing. gave forth a sound. in a Little-Eussian KolyadJca. ! . " Away with you afield. On it as yet grew no silken grass. And wakened the fair lady. The There came flying heavenly birds. Grew only green wine. They plucked the green wine. and places him in the manger. heathen myths to which a Christian character has been given. and the angels come and carry him away to heaven. lady fair guarded the wine. it forth again bright and The Maiden who appears Virgin in these songs as the Mary is found in others guarding wine. either bathing or washing vestments in the Jordan. and Christ Himself These legends are not supposed to be of Christian origin. She waved at them her sleeve. heavenly birds To me myself is the wine needful. She awakes and drives them away.

" supposed to be some celestial being. Ivan's in his Court. i. arranges a marriage with the " Sun's Sister" Moon. The Little-Russian or Polish equivalent for the Great-Russian Gospodin. give in marriage my brother and my sister. the second pleasure to give his daughter in 4 marriage . and in another the appears as a bride. in which it is said that The Moon went wandering about the heaven. in which he is represented as besieging a town and whom some see the Morning-star. the French Monsieur. Dawn wherever hast thou been ? Wherever hast thou been ? Where dost thou intend ! to live?" live ? why at Pan Ivan's. to whom the part of a manager of weddings is openly ascribed in one Little-Russian song. whose hand is gained by a youth in is youth found in a number of Little-Russian Kolyadki. And the Moon met the bright Dawn." To And In her the mythologists see the Dawn. * Sakharof. iii. " O Dawn. 22. etc. iii 22. so closely con- nected with the Dawn. the German Herr. or rides on a it a bride. and in his dwelling. i. . In his Court. 3 I myself am a young betrothed one . A similar gaming from sits 8 6 and radiant. in one of which the Day-star. And in his dwelling are two pleasures " Where do I intend to At Pan : The And first pleasure to get his son married . marriages between the heavenly bodies being often mentioned in Slavonic songs especially in those of is Pan Ivan 5 Servia. he within a tent made of white silk.190 MYTHIC AND EITUAL SONGS. He is tall Sakharof.

From that girdle hang two or three pipes . also. of the Russian Kotyadki. Oh when he began to sound the pipe of horn.KOLYADA SONGS. just as he recognizes some thunderof one of the Ruthenian bearer in the " proud youth" KotyadM. From behind it has come forth a black cloud. V. one of the animals most frequently used as symbols of the thunder. There went up voices to the heavens 6 A A : ! A ! A . for they speak of the sacrifice of Some a goat. black cloud a flock of sheep . Oh when he began to sound the pipe of copper. horse with a 191 of gold . In it we see a dark mountain. After them has come forth a proud youth. S. The one pipe is of horn. proud youth to the foreground He has girded himself with a straw girdle. the sound of whose piping exercises a magic influence over all the realm of Nature. 757. . The dark mountain has grown black. ! . The second pipe is of copper. P. who enable him to drive away his foes and gain his bright bride. Here is one of them : 6 Afanasief. voice went through the forest. and after them follows a " proud youth" with three pipes. The third pipe is of aurochs horn. mane In him Orest Miller sees the lightning which pierces the dark clouds and rescues the fair sunlight from eclipse. his sabre flashes like the Sun. from behind which come a flock of sheep. voice went among the mountain tops Oh when he began to play on the aurochs pipe. in. seem to refer to the thunder-god. and so do the swords of his trusty comrades.

Around the stand benches. ? : But the bright stone Drags me down to the cauldron The yellow sands Have sucked dry my heart.192 MYTHIC AND BITUAL SONGS. the fair maidens. Literally . had been generally discarded in Russia. Kolyadka In their midst sits an old man . " ' ! Brother Ivanushko. Beyond the river. Come forth. Near the cauldron stands a goat. cauldron boils hotly. P. They are going to kill the goat. Kolyadka. P. In probability the fiery or inflammable stone. He A sharpens his steel knife. The good youths. Great fires are burning. spring out " Gladly would I have sprung out. R. fires ! Sing Kolyada songs. n." Oi Kolyadka Oi Kolyadka 8 ! . : There stand dense forests In those forests fires are burning. ' Snegiref. 68. the Oi Kolyadka ! swift river. the priestly all class existing r among " the Lithuanians. among whom it was customary for the shepherds and shepherdesses to assemble and light Long after heathenish rites a great songs. Stand oaken benches." the epithet being in general purely conventional. fire fire. they were kept up by the Lithuanians. round which they would sing religious Afterwards a goat would be brought to the sacrificed and by a priest. On those benches the good youths.

it should be mentioned. the pig. and not the goat. It. ! ! See Schopping. though its are of opinion that this song belongs to the Midsummer. Lord. 193 the sacrifice described in the song was actually performed in old days in Russia as well as in Lithuania. N. And the Mother of God carries the seed corn. those which " of the Kid occur in the story Prince. out in the open field ! And There a golden plough goes ploughing. Some writers. and that the latter feast to this day bears the name of the former in Dalmatia. not identical with. prays to the Lord God." a Russian song are very like. He says that the names Kolyada and Kupalo were not unfrequently confused. memory is now preserved in popular poetry alone. rather than to the Christmas festival. behind that plough is the Lord Himself. To some of these deities Christian names have been given. 9 . Carries the seed corn. The holy Peter helps Him to drive.und Hausmdrchen. as well as fragments of others referring to the relations between the gods and mankind.KOLYADA SONGS. In some of the KolyadJci may be found traces of cosmogonic myths. but the old heathen forms are plainly apparent under the ill-fitting garb which a later time has carelessly flung over them . p. afield. the strong wheat to grow. for instance. 10. The strong wheat and the vigorous corn The stalks there shall be like reeds " Make. if counterpart of that of Briiderchen und Schwesterchen in the Kinder. being the animal generally sacrificed in the winter 9 The last few lines of the . in this Carpathian Kolyadka : Afield.

take thy sickle and begin to reap." In a little time came a crowd of Jews in pursuit of her. And in the midst of the sea two oaks. . 758. but only blue sea. Perhaps the most curious of the cosmogonic Kolyadki is a Carpathian song." exwhy that must be twelve weeks ago claimed the Jews. P.MYTHIC AND RITUAL SONGS. 1 Afanasief. V. and she " God be with man As soon said to him thee. seeing that the barley was now ripe. Heaven nor earth. and the peasant was reaping it. ! good as thou hast sown. S." Here the Mother of God is evidently some such benignant divinity as the Teutonic Holda. and they turned back." he I ' : was sowing this barley. The same story is told in a Little-Russian Kolyadka. only the Virgin carries on her hand a hawk "just " Idiot ! ! when one of the symbols of the Sun-god instead of leading the infant Christ. replied. There is a tradition among the Lusatian Wends that the Virgin Mary and the infant Christ once passed by a field in which a peasant was sowing barley. and asked the peasant if he had seen a mother and child go by. " She passed not long ago. The ears shall be [plentiful] as blades of grass The sheaves shall be [in number] like the stars The stacks shall be like hills. The loads shall be gathered together like black ! ! clouds 1 . in which we find the fol- lowing description of the creation of the world : Once there was neither heaven nor earth. in.

The blue heavens. Their sacred character dates back to the period of heathenism. 195 There sat there two pigeons. n. as it is now. a conclusion is drawn as to the 2 Afanasief. and songs were sung.KOLYADA SONGS. The evenings during this festal and indeed the whole space of time included. 2 It is chiefly on Christmas Eve that the Kolyadki are sung. From the blue stone the blue heavens. are girls These guesses or divinings Gadaniya now for the most part kept up only among who wish to know something beforehand about Sometimes a horse is their destined husbands. sand the black earth. according to whether it stumbles or not. led across a piece of wood. o 2 . the bright sun. sea. V. cool waters. S. And began among themselves> To take counsel and to say. The bright sun. The clear moon and all the stars ". the clear moon. 466. ber of special games and songs. for social gatherings to take place at which games were played. Two pigeons on the two oaks. but the Christmas festival itself lasts until the Epiphany. and. the green grass. and to them belong a numperiod. P. bear the name of Svyatki. Fine sand and blue stone. and guesses were made about it the future. will breathe From the fine on the blue stone. and on them was customary. to take counsel We We The will sow the fine sand. " How can we create the world ? Let us go to the bottom of the Let us bring thence fine sand.

" When he comes the girl must keep her seat. Sometimes " a despairing maiden" takes a table into an empty room. which he gives. Then she shuts herself up in the room alone. leaving behind him whatever it was he had brought in his pocket.TUAL SONGS. Sometimes she listens at the window of some neighbour's house. and asks the first man whom she meets what his (Christian) name is her husband will bear the same name. or by a tapping on the window pane or the door. and prepares it as for a meal only neither a knife nor a fork must appear upon it. on hearing which he will vanish. or even " by an evil odour. Sometimes a girl goes out into the street. German writers of character of the coining man. only in those was a lance across which the horse was driven. and sit there beside . lays a cloth on it.196 MYTHIC AND KI. the mirthful or melancholy tone of the conversation she overhears serves to give her an idea of what will be the nature of her married life. and the subject about which an omen was sought was the issue of an impending war. and hold her peace until he sits down at the table. the eleventh and twelfth centuries bear witness to the fact that a similar divining process formerly prevailed among the Baltic Slavonians. Unmarried ladies of a mature age will sometimes go down to a frozen river by night. and calls to her destined husband to come and sup with her. According to tradition he may perhaps appear. Then she asks his name. days it . taking something out of his She is then to utter certain words. heralded by the sound of the night-wind beneath the window. pocket the while.

and its owner deduces an omen from the nature of the words which have just been sung. which afterwards covered with a cloth. and on water. in. beginning God in heaven. . thoughts of the harvest which and to summer was to ripen would necessarily arise. a hole in the ice. but in olden times they seem to have referred to other subjects. The at Sldva. At the end of each song one of the trinkets is drawn random. P. or 3 " Glory" Song. 150) says that the songs derived their name from the fact of their being sung at Snegiref. it is set a dish or bowl (blyudo) containing rings or other trin- The young people drop is kets into the dish. of the Sun was being the next celebrated. are Such the uses to which these " " guesses are now turned. P. R. them may have been originally due the song Glory to sung on those Christmas evenings. be married within the year will see her destined husband in the water .KOLYADA SONGS. and especially to the weather which At the the coming year was likely to bring with it. and then the Podblyudnuiya -Songs commence. 197 straining their eyes and ears for She who is going to prophetic sights and sounds. season when the birth. she who hears a single thump beneath the surface will remain un wedded. or the renewed life. Glory ! one of the most prominent among the Kolyadki. . table during a meal. is as follows : Tereshchenko (vn. 8. for with it always commences the singing This song is 3 At the of what are called the Podblyudnuiya Songs Christmas festival a table is covered with a cloth.

Glory I To the Corn we sing. seems to be used here in the sense of head of . Glory ! May the Right throughout Russia. Glory The Smith carries three hammers. Glory 4 ! Sakharof. lord of the household.198 MYTHIC AND EITUAL SONGS. the Corn we honour. Glory ! Bear their renown to the sea. Glory ! Forge me a crown both golden and new. Glory ! The little streams to the mill. The most intelligible are generally those which refer to marriage. There comes a Smith from the forge. forge me a crown. Glory I ! Smith. Glory ! For the good folks to hear. such as the following. Glory 4 ! ! The word Gosudar but it 9 translated " Lord " in the second line is the term generally applied to the Emperor. I. Of the other songs of the same class there are many which are very hard to understand. u. Smith. Glory For the old folks to enjoy. Glory ! Be for ever full to the brim. Glory ! May our Lord never grow old. Glory ! May his good steeds never be worn out. Glory ! To our Lord on this Earth. . iii. who became transformed in Christian times into the double saint duced the Slavonic Kuz'ma-Dem'yan [Cosmas and Demian]. in which the divine blacksmith (Kuznels) is intro- Yulcan. Glory ! But this song we sing to the Corn. Glory ! May the great rivers. Glory ! May his trusty servants never falter. Glory to God in Heaven. Glory ! May the Tsar's golden treasury. Glory I May his bright robes never be spoiled. the family. Glory ! Be fairer than the bright Sun.

Dunstan seized the devil to the plough. as. 6 Afanasief. those of which the refrain ! is. Glory And from the chips a pin. when he had just made a plough. i. vineyard. . that once. in which the foreign as that of the river. 12. V. and then it burst 6 Some of the songs sung at this time have evidently come from the regions inhabited by the South Slavo. 561. I. Kolyada ! Zenzevei is away from home. by the river. nians. Glory! With that ring will I be betrothed. S." The snake vainly prayed . a great snake But no sooner had it licked a tried to attack him. 5 Sakharof. lies an untuned lute. hole through the iron door of the smithy than the Saint seized it by the tongue with his pincers as harnessed it firmly as St. iii. Kolyada shall tune the lute ? Kolyada ! ! There Who Zenzevei Andryeyanovich Shall tune the lute. Glory ! In that crown Avill I be wedded. and forced it to plough up the land for a " from sea to sea. for instance. Glory ! With that pin will I fasten the nuptial kerchief. 199 ! Forge from the remnants a golden ring. the steep bank.KOLYADA SONGS. green and red or the following. name of the man is as By On the Danube. P. draught of water from the Dnieper the Saint drove it till it came to the Black Sea. Glory*! One of the legends about Kuz'ma-Dem'yan is. That sea it drank half dry.

I. 21. . Crossing over the plain. for four With three rods of gold. There are many variants of the song. to arrange agreements 7 Kolyada ! Among Gold. do not conceal it. dear companions Tell the truth. gold I bury.200 MYTHIC AND RITUAL SONGS. Whose hand The is holding The wings of the serpent girl in the middle replies. which a girl who stands inside the circle tries to detect. Give. He has gone to Tsargrad To settle questions. the rooms of my father. In the rooms. I bury . find out pretty one. With a fourth rod of pearl 8 7 . O my friends. iii. A Meanwhile : they sing in chorus the following verses See here. so high of my mother. Weaving with silk in and out Interlacing with gold. Gladly would I have guessed. iii. Guess. 17. oh give me back my My mother will beat me gold : ! For three days. Tlooms so high. Silver pure I bury. maiden. or had seen. and pass from hand to hand a gold ring. Plaiting the ruddy brown hair." the games in vogue at this season by far the most interesting is that called " The Burial of the number of girls form a circle. I bury . but they do not differ materially. Sakharof. Had I but known. 8 i. Sakharof.

" " between the Nativity During the holy evenings and the Epiphany the new-born Divinity comes down from heaven and wanders about on earth. P. the the waters of springs and rivers become animated. singing. has fallen. in. and receive a healing efficacy . of hiding a ring (or a coin. the radiant realms of Paradise in which the Sun dwells. festivals. Among the black currants. hidden away and. The ring has fallen. Afanasief. but the explanation given by the mythologists is. and disclose their treasures . our own included. V. that the golden ring represents the sun. wherefore every sort of labour during that period is held to be a sin. Grown All this is all over with moss. about the time of the New Year. According to rustic tradition. . or a bean) in a loaf or cake. on the eve of each of those heavenly doors are thrown open. with the custom prevalent among so many nations. to somewhat hard comprehend. At midnight. and that this game the counterpart of "hunt the slipper. 741. Hidden amid the mere dust.KOLYADA SONGS. : Disappeared has our gold. golden fruits ripen upon their boughs 9 9 . S." and many other recreations of the same kind is in It is evidently connected reality an ancient rite. the trees put forth blossoms. as it were. turn into wine. Among the guelders and raspberries. all sorts of hidden treasures are revealed at this period of the year. 201 The chorus breaks in. buried by wintry storms and clouds.

seems to have had several points in common and to the Slaves. such as the fol- Year's Eve boys go about from house to lowing : In the forest. called Ovsenevuiya of another divine being." who appears together with the New Year. of different kinds. Ovsen Oh. about whom very little is known. Ideas of this kind were common to the Teutons and a certain mysterious being.202 MYTHIC AND RITUAL SONGS. Oh. oats. and connected by others with The Feast of Ovsen was originally on the first of Vesnd. called Kolyada. in the pine-forest. March. making the way clear for it. Green and shaggy. Ovsen ! ! This name (pronounced avsen) is derived by some writers from Oves (pronounced av-yos). On New house. with one of the divinities known to German mythoIn the Kolyadki mention is made of a goddess logy. There stood a pine-tree. also seeming to represent the Sun. scattering grain and singing Ovsenevuiya Pyesni. Spring. but in whose honour songs are still sung in Russia at Christmastide. and her exist- He is represented as a given the name of Ovsen " good youth. and bringing from ] . but chiefly oats. . not by any properly constituted religious authorities. although recognized list ence seems to have been accepted only by the popular belief. which he distributes among mortals according to divine decrees. to whom is no such being appears in the of old Slavonic deities. Paradise rich gifts of fruitfulness. Similar mention is made in another set of songs.

K. Ovsen Who. The New Year. 1348. Ovsen ! Year." "What will he chase?" " " A brisk little pig. and this method of computation remained in force till A. whose speed was that of a horse.OVSEN SONGS. Sawed it into planks. M. whose golden fell made the night as clear as the day. ill. . to this idea. Ovsen 2 ! Another songs asks. 2 Sncgiref. P. Covered it with cloth. the Teutonic sun-god. it may be as well to remark. P. Cut down the pine. and who drew the car of the god 3 In reference. used to be offered as a sacrifice to the gods at the beginning of a New Year. who will go Along that bridge ? Ovsen will go there. Oh. Fastened it with nails. and giving them away as presents. ! ! And the New Oh. began in olden times with the month of March. D. Ovsen Oh. Built a bridge. pigs' trotters. oh. lui. On what will he come ?" " On a dusky swine. probably." This peculiarity seems to link Ovsen with Fro or Freyr. and the custom still prevails in Russia of preferring such dishes at that time. and the like. who possessed a boar. Gullinborsti. D. 203 The Boyars came. n. 3 Grimm. .

or Govsen. which held good till . by which they express in a symbolical form the idea that the New Year brings with it to each man his allotted share of weal and woe. Serve thou the White Tsar. The commencement of the New Year was then shifted to the 1st of September. the ninth brick. the end of almost every line. ! Koleda Tausen ! not go to the Horde. The refrain occurs in the original at . in which the names of Kolyada and Ovsen are coupled. of a later date than as it is those which have already been quoted. occurs as a refrain under the form of Tausen. 123. Peter is getting ready to go to the Horde.204 MYTHIC AND BITUAL SONGS. kept up by the peasants of White-Russia. Without thee surely can I not Eat bread and salt. On New Year's Eve they lead about from 4 8 Tereshchenko. do not serve the king. vii. Here is one. sometimes written. vn. Koleda Tausen Alexander fawns at his feet. I sleep in sorrow the bare boards. 90. the warm stove. Do Nor Now must On On On sleep upon a bed. Tereshchenko. Koleda Tausen 5 ! Among among the many strange customs preserved the people is a very singular one. an arrangement the year 1700. when it was made to begin with the 1st of January 4 In some of the songs the name Ovsen.

called the Rich Kolyada. most religiously preserved. and in the midst of them is set the family takes his seat children if they can see him. his choice falls If upon the Rich Kolyada. and wears on his head a wreath made of ears of rye. Kasha in this Orest Miller. which states that a good harvest awaits him. the was a 6 priest who hid himself behind a pile of sheaves Another custom." they reply. When they come to a cottage they wrap tell up each of the two youths in long coverings. is the preparing of Kasha a favourite Russian dish made of stewed grain 6 for the New Year. on the festival of the New Year. etc. 205 house to house two youths. and plenty of money. and the owner of the house to choose one of them. the other. whom they call the Poor Kolyada. I. In Little-Russia. Opuit. is dressed in new and holiday attire. A similar said by German writers of about the twelfth century to have prevailed in their times Baltic Slavonians. wears a ragged suit and a wreath made of threshed- out straw. a number of corn sheaves are piled upon a table. 52. but if he chooses the Poor Kolyada. The father of behind them.NEW YEAR'S DAY. We cannot see you. a song is sung by his visitors. On which he proceeds to express what seems to be a hope that the corn will grow so high in his fields that he may be invisible to his children when he walks custom is there in harvest-time. One of them. . and asks his a large " pie. then the singers warn him that he must expect poverty and death. only in that case it among .

with They awaited Buckwheat." son. the previous of Basil's or Yasily's Eve. they set Buckwheat at the oaken table to feast. and who comes attended by two other personages of importance. they invited our Buckwheat to visit Tsargrad. I. Both fair and rosy did our Buckwheat grow up. 5. Off set Buckwheat to visit Tsargrad. Basil the evening bears the name In one of the Little-Russian songs it is said that " Ilya comes on Yasily's Day. with Princes.e. 0. " Honourable Oats. and is spoken of as a living per- some great lady who is met on the threshold by boyars and princes. Princes and Boyars met Buckwheat." Here is one of the formulas and " Golden Barley. or fc the coming harvest.206 case is MYTHIC AND KITUAL SONGS. . with Honourable Oats. As a guest has our Buckwheat come unto us The singers of the songs about Ovsen receive 7 . on Basil's or New Year's Day comes the Sun-god or the Thunder7 Great. with Boyars. in some such terms as The the first day of the New Year being consecrated to memory of St. used as a general expression for corn. as recited during the cooking of the New Year's Kasha. They called. they tarried till its coming at the Stone Gates. they let it shoot up all the summer long. Miller. for which they ask presents. standing in lieu of the old contributions towards a sacrifice to the Gods. Golden Barley. CJirest." i. to feast at the princely banquet. " They sowed Buckwheat.

On man (or woman) who proposes . Dear little Stars ! All ye. originally fluences. the girls go out into the open air. and address this prayer to the stars : r Stars. vn. The Svat (or Svakha) is the or arranges a marriage in Russia. Hither he waves. 109. Thither he waves Corn grows 8 . Of one mother. on the 4th of January. under Christian Elijah. or llya. 207 in- Perun. Stars. Are the fair children Ruddy and white. who. the feast of the Epiphany. After dark. on the eve of which a curious custom is observed. An idea which is intended to be conveyed by the is still custom of scattering seeds which kept up by the singers of songs to Ovsen. Stars. bearer. in some places. The SvyatJci the Christmas or vities New Year festi- come to an end with the Feast of the Epiphany. became Ilya comes holds a whip Of iron wire And another of tin. Send forth through the christened world Proposers of marriages 9 .EVE OF THE EPIPHANY. On He Vasily's Day. a number of sheaves of various kinds of corn are heaped Tereshchenko.

and the corn sprinkled with holy water. when the cattle were first driven out and the animals are winter was past. in the courtyards after the up over. for the introducers of Christianity into Russia found that certain festivals. which the people had observed from time immemorial. This appears to be a relic of a festival observed in old times. Such an alteration has been brought about in some cases by the Church. the cattle are driven up to morning service is them.208 MYTHIC AND RITUAL SONGS." the bath often having to be taken in one of the holes in the ice kept open for the purpose of procuring water during the frosty season. or the date of the festival has been altered. the songs and customs having always been closely connected with each other. for sprinkling with afield after the water is a somewhat unseasonable custom at a time spring or stream is frozen. occurred during the season of Lent. In some may be . Not less inopportune is the custom which prevails in some " parts of bathing on the occasion of Meeting the when every Spring. they transferred to the them week preceding Lent the Mdslyanitsa. Either the custom has been imported from a southern land. but to this season have almost some idea of their nature obtained by a study of the customs appertaining to it. The songs appropriate entirely disappeared. or " Butterweek. but were not powerful As the enough utterly to abolish the feasts. Clergy objected to this." [Mdslo = oil or butter] answering to the Carnival of Western Europe. and seems to speak of a warmer clime as its birthplace.

specially felt who was supposed to make his power about the time of the vernal equinox. and on the wheel peculiar style. In Archangel an ox. occupies the place of honour on the sledge and . He probably represents the Sun. the Siberian equipage is looked upon by the mythologists as a type of the storm-compelling deity. and the bear is one of the familiar emblems of the thunder-god. conveying a Maslyanitsa. P. or an emblem of the productive powers of rain. and he seems to be a male counterpart of the girl who. resembling the French boeuf gras. is driven about at this time. in Siberia a ship. P. used to be driven about in a similar manner on the days immediately following the winter solstice.SPRINGTIDE CUSTOMS. followed by parts other sledges containing singers and musicians. an emblem of summer fruitfulness. R. nature. " Christmas Tree " In other a sort of places huge is carried round. of which a wheel was so well known an emblem. 209 of Russia a large sledge. with sails figure representing "Lady spread. and holding in his hands bread and a bottle of spirits. As in mythical speech a ship generally means a cloud. as the representative of Kolyada. n. 132. with bells sits a man dressed in a and cymbals attached to his clothes. . On the principal sledge is placed a pillar with a wheel on the top. drawn by twelve horses. manifesting themselves at springtide amid wind and thunder and 1 Snegiref. fraught with showers destined to enrich the earth." and a bear 1 .

is In some parts of Russia the end or death of winter " celebrated on the last day of the Butter-week. to have referred in olden times to the victory obis tained by the sun-beams the arrows of the far- darting Apollo ness.210 MYTHIC AND EITUAL SONGS. indeed. made of hemp and straw. one of them stumbles on the way and falls. over the forces of cold and dark- In every Slavonic country. whole week. The same custom prevails in Bulgaria. a custom which has descended to them from their remote ancestors. the There. traces of olden rites intended to typify the death of Winter and the birth of Spring or Summer. by some imaginative writers. Some of them have been preserved in customs almost identical with those still kept up by various Latin or Teutonic the destruction of a figure In Poland a puppet. representing Winter or Death. with the words peoples . at this period of the year. it believed that be will be sure to die within the . the firing of guns and pistols. and which supposed. and the singing of songs in honour of Lado or Lada." " " a heap of by the burning of the Straw Mujik straw. is flung into a pond or " The Devil take thee swamp. ' ! Then the and is if participators in ^he deed scamper home. as. also. there are to be found. to which each of the participators in the ceremony contributes his portion. accompanied by dancing round the bonfire. during the peculiar deity of Spring. the children amuse themselves by shooting with bows and arrows. for instance.

In many day still parts of Russia the 1st of March is the set apart in deference to old customs for the In the early morning the reception of the Spring. women and children go out to the highest places they can find. while it burns. as if in a shroud. and in the other a sickle one of the characteristic signs of the goddess whom the Old Slavonians represented as reaping the living harvest of the world. if the country -around is utterly flat. 211 In Upper Lusatia the figure of Death is constructed of straw and rags. and singing some of the numerous Vesnyanki. mounting the hills. In Slavonia the figure is thumped with bludgeons. and fastened to the end of a long pole. joyous invocations to the Spring. and in one hand is placed a besom. to be pelted with sticks and stones. or climbing on the roofs of barns and other buildings. dressed in white. and then is set on fire. or taken to the boundary of the its village lands and flung across it : bearers then carrying green boughs or an entire tree. and then torn in twain. the villagers singing. Afterwards the figure is either thrown return into water. year. p2 . Whoever knocks it off the pole is certain to live through the year. while springtide songs are being sung. in token of winter's sweeping storms. just as a somewhat similar puppet is treated in the middle of Lent in Spain and Italy. emblems of the springtide life which has taken the home Sometimes the figure is place of banished death. In Little-Russia a female figure is carried about. if there are any in their neighbourhood.DEATH OF WINTER.

In other places a similar custom prevails at a later period of the year. begins " Beautiful Spring On what hast thou come ? On what hast thou ridden ?" " On a plough. take hands round a hole in the ice. in the And hope that it may restore them to health. With abundant corn ! In some places the girls go into water up to the girdle. Spring. the Spring" commences with the first week after Easter. begin the circling dance and song of the Khorovod. Before sunset the 1st of May. Vesenniya Pyesni. healthful springtide water. With deep roots. and dance. on the Thursday in Holy Week. or on the In the Government of Tula. and sprinkled with water. or. silently repeat a prayer. with joy. young people of a nearest hill." . To us also give health ! sometimes sick persons are brought down to the banks of a river. if the streams are still frozen over. and sing. Spring. and then. songs appropriate to Vesnd. beautiful Spring Come. village go to the top of the turn towards the east. and an egg painted red ! in the other.212 MYTHIC AND RITUAL SONGS. such as. The principal singer. With great goodness ! : With tall flax. the vernal season. On a harrow. holding a loaf in one hand. for in" Invocation of the stance.

its winter's to sleep. a r in which he has away Tereehohenko. comes out of its utter its whistling cry. She embroiders a kerchief with gold. a great sorrow ! By whom It shall shall it be obtained ? be obtained by 9. T. calendar of their own.] the Baibak." On A Swallow comes flying from Paradise. or Steppe Marmot. awakes from hole. She sits in the upper room. and begins the 17th the ice on the rivers becomes so rotten that. according to which on the 1st of March [o. my destined husband 2 .SPRING SONGS. the day on which the larks are" supposed to arrive. 213 chora] Afterwards they songs : all commence one of the All the maidens are in the street All the fair maidens in the broad street ! . songs to Spring. On the 4th arrives the Rook. " On the 25th the Pike can send its tail through it. the rustics make clay images of those On March smear them with honey and tip their heads with tinsel. On . 11. She fastens a favour on a bridle. . and brings with it warmth to the earth. Ah. the vernal goddess of The peasants have a springtide love and fertility. or to Lada. according to a popular expression. Crickets bestir themselves the 5th of April the and on the 12th the Bear slept comes out of the den the winter. s. and on the 9th the Lark. One maiden is not there. and then carry them about singing birds.

Easter generally during the seventh week. it is stated that the people believed that the God Zywie. the Romans. The cuckoo. also. D. . whose presence keeps off fire and lightning. The name of the cuckoo is associated with a 4 sin- few weeks after gular custom of great antiquity. whose early arrival foretells an abundant harvest." joy the return of the swallow. of the Semik festival Grimm. See also Grimm. dress the faithful with ominous voice.214 MYTHIC AND EITUAL SONGS. M. mentioned by Mr. or at least brings out freckles on his face." are known to the Russian peasants. Virgin Mary's Bohemians name it. in order to ad- This deity is the male counterpart of Jiva. the giver of life (jizn*). and the Teutons the Old Slavonians seem to have greeted with special " the bird of God. the Slavonian Goddess of the Spring. the time the village women and girls meet together at some spot in the woods. Kelly in his " Curiosities of Indo-European Tradition and Folklore . and the robbing of whose nest bird. the Lord of Life. used to transform himself into a cuckoo. and there fasten to a bough a figure made of shreds and flowers. regarded with much respect in In the Old Polish Chronicle of Prokosz. Like the Greeks. quoted by Jacob Grimm in the Deutsche Mythologie (p. A 723. in Polish Ziewonia." as the brings down terrible evils on the head of the robber. whose name is a contracted form of " " Jivana. Page* 97 101. 543). " the as it is called in Ruthenia. D. M. 1088. Many of the other stories about the cuckoo and the swallow. that is. is Slavonic lands.

and have ex" " for life. love each other. . each other under the decorated arch. and on which they hang crosses. bend them down. darlings (kumushki." originally a connexion by common godmothership. or the dressed-up cuckoo6 Above this circle Dugi. which they adorn with ribbons. a. and the like. handkerchiefs. Kumuslika. Sometimes. golubusliki) Become gossips. make presents to each other ! ! Christening of the Cuckoos" When two girls have kissed (kreshchenie kukushek). " Scotch " Cummer. they place the figure of a cuckoo." our own Gossip. called a Dug The word Kuma. set cross ways. 6 The arch springing from the above the shafts of a Russian cart is head of the draught-horse. they become as intimately connected as if. or carriage. they pull " " cuckoo-grass up by the roots the plant called (orchis latifolia) . dress it it in up in a shift. and underneath they hang the little pectoral crosses which all Russians bear. 5 Gossips. Gossips changed crosses. dim. 215 and supposed it to represent a cuckoo. at the christening of This is called the " they had become attached to each other by the spiritual ties of co-godmothersbip. festival the villagers choose two young birch-trees in a wood. In the Orel and Tula Governments they place a small cross on the figure of the cuckoo itself.CUCKOO CHRISTENING. and sing. and fasten their branches together into a circle. On the Semik a child. is the French Commere. instead of this. and then bury 6 the earth underneath two semicircles of wood which they cover with handkerchiefs.

and remarking that the cuckoo is baptism which type in Russia of the orphan state. P. customary for iuen also to enter into the state of mutual cuckoo-gossipry 7 .216 grass. and from the sides they hang crosses. S. So that we may never be They then exchange crosses. Afterwards the whole party prepare and eat omelettes. The time Cuckoos little " Christening of the coincides with that in which the souls of set apart for the " died unchristened appear under the form of small Rusalkas 8 seeking for the children who have is Counecessary for their salvation. through which they kiss each other three times. so as to meet at the leafy circle. chorus. u. V. 1 See supra. 144. and divide the " Cuckc-o " into two parts. golubushka. 226 228. and finish the In the Orel Governday with dance and song. chap. it is. and give each other a yellow egg. Two girls then walk in different directions round the birchtrees. will kumushka. v. become gossips. p. or used to be. at variance. to be regarded as a syma 7 common Afanasief. one of which each of them keeps in memory of the occasion. ment. perhaps. according to Tereshchenko. in. Meantime the other women sing ! in spotted cuckoo To whom art thou a gossip ? We "We will become gossips. 41. . MYTHIC AND EITUAL SONGS. Tereshchenko. Afanasief suggests that the " Christening of the " Cuckoos ought. pling this fact with that of the soul being constantly represented as a bird.

After each round cottage. and taking her kuku. . kuku in turn by the hand. girl. whose eyes are bandaged. were exhumed for the purpose of being baptized. The bap- tismal idea must have originated during the Chris- tian period of Russian history perhaps about the time when. sits on a chair. brother 9 kuku. under the rule of Yaroslaf. the remains of the sons of Svyatoslaf. says Tereshchenko. tom very similar to the Russian Cuckoo. kuku ! Afanasief. 229." In Lithuania. ! I am thine. at Eastertide. round which the rest of the party dance in a circle. probability. P. after which they were interred within a church . and then they perform the cuckoo dance. nothing held at Eastertide in memory of the dead." and the girls "/riends . is. V. in. bolical rite 217 having reference to the christening of such children as have died unbaptized. in all more than a slightly altered form of the old pobratimstvo. the heathen princes Yaropolk and Oleg. sing. or mutual brotherhood by To this day the Servians keep up a cusadoption. but the kumovstvo. the young people of each village meet within some " sing various songs. and are there- fore obliged to fly wailing through the air.Christening. first There they A the men come up to her. Queen Cuckoo She replies. S.CUCKOO CHEISTENING. 9 adopted-brothers. with kiss- ings through willow circlets. or gossipship. and exchanges of red eggs. after which the men are called Pobrati.

and chooses three of the young men as her partners in the dance. district the Lithuanian girls Sister dear. being known to the Bohemians as Green Thursday. and they make her a present in return. Shall I soon be married ? The length of time during which the girl will have to wait will be signified to her by the number of repetitions of the Cuckoo's cry Among many of the Roman Catholic Slavonians a . the day before Good Friday. in the olden days. . . felt so keenly the loss of her three brothers. Palm Sunday is known Tereshchenko. Thou who feedest The horses of thy brothers Thou who spinnest Silken threads . and they call her their sister. Cuckoo. Say.218 MYTHTC AND EITUAL SONGS. and some traces of it are still feast. until a comIn one passionate deity turned her into a cuckoo. that she left her father's home and wan- dered about the forest weeping bitterly. Mottled Cuckoo. 1 honour of the Spring. 45 49. Thenceforward she calls them her brothers. Eventually she uncovers her eyes. still sing. originally in to be found among them even in Holy Week. Before parting she gives each of them a sash worked by her own hands. who all fell in one battle. This custom is supposed to be founded upon the popular tradition of a sister who. for instance. leaves her seat. v. is celebrated in the middle of Lent.

I. that God may make thee good." the next day. etc. 48. Willow Sunday. or sallow. At Eastertide. And on they do under the impression that the more noise they make the more fruit will they get. under the influence of Christianity. while the church-bells are ringThis ing.SPRING SONGS. and there. in some places. beaten with its boughs. to say. . . on their knees before a tree. "I pray. the Saturday in Holy Week. from a direct prayer to the tree to a prayer for it. and go about the garden clashing keys. as now. trees. was made use of at this time of year long before it became likened to the palms or branches of Christianity. Orest Miller customary for the Bohemians. says to go into their gardens. And And healthy. Before sunrise on that day falling it is 2 . " Bud. Even on Good Friday itself. while such olive songs were probably sung as that which is heard on such occasions in Little-Russia : still to be Be tall. children and cattle being then. And at night they run about the garden. according to a belief common to Germans and Slavonians. the old pagan practices show signs of life. bud ! or I will flog you. in Russia as 219 Verbnoe Voskresenie. exclaiming. green tree. like water rich. like the soil. The verba. they shake the trees. the Sun 8 is accustomed to Opuit." a formula which has probably been altered. like the willow .

it is much as is thought of them in unnecessary to dwell here at any length. But we may mention Russia. and eatables. of St." one which [unless it is borrowed from the Greek lamprd] may be derived from those heathen times in which our own ancestors worshipped the Goddess Ostara or Eastre. and so in Ruthenia the peasants rise before the dawn. " bright. and so. the viands generally figures a roast lamb or sucking-pig. in readiness for the heavenly guest. and of the Prophet Elijah. a particular kind of loaf is prepared in every house. hail. and climb high places in order In pagan times the gods to witness the spectacle. tect the crops from On Easter Eggs. during the time of the summer storms. In most of the villages of White- Russia songs are sung at this season in honour of the Virgin. dance in the heavens. as a preservative against lightning. that of Svyetlaya. In the Government of Smolensk it is believed that Christ always visits the earth on Thursday in Holy Week. adorned with green boughs. suggestive of the East and its brightness. from Easter Sunday to Ascension-day. the epithet given to the Paschal week in Russia. dressed in rags and asking alms. as they are so well known elsewhere and so much has been written about them. has . Christ and His Apostles wander about the world. George and St. Nicholas. are provided.220 MYTHIC AND RITUAL SONGS. and so the Russian peasant now believes that. whose name. the bones of which are afterwards either scattered about the fields to pro- Among or are kept in the houses to be burnt. were supposed to walk the earth at Springtide.

place. to which allusion has already been made. Turning her face towards the east she begins one of the vernal songs. D. to the brightness of the spring. these occasions is a woman. who chief singer on holds in her hands a The round loaf and a red egg each an emblem of the Sun. like the red colour of the first With the week after Easter Easter eggs. . or is Winter. on which the chorus joyfully exclaimed. and as they went they sang. Come Come to to life. the deity of the spring. which then taken up by the chorus." the epithet referring. . 221 In Littlebeen preserved by us in that of Easter 3 Russia it used to be the custom at Eastertide to celebrate the funeral of a being called Kostrubonko. 268. red. and in many places this is attended or followed by the destruction of the figure of Death. who moved if slowly around a girl who lay on the ground as dead. It lasts from Low Sunday till is on some high the end of June. the circling and its chief feature the Khorovod dance attended by choral song. M. life. and the name of" little hill " being given to it because it was originally held. circle was formed of A singers. or at least inaugurated. '* Grimm. come to come to life life has our Kostrubonko has our dear one ! ! commences the fes" the tival of the Krasnaya Gorka. dead Dead. dead until the girl is our Kostrubonko our dear one ! ! suddenly sprang up. or bright little hill.KRASNAYA GORKA. is Dead.

. is chiefly devoted to the memory of the dead. dress themselves in holiday attire. of the songs are addressed to the Goddess of Love. For further information on this subject see infra. or just after. v. The old pagan rites formerly performed in their honour are still kept up in some parts of Russia. and go out to the Krasnaya Gorka. in order them from troubling the repose of the dead. they sit down and proceed to eat. or at least Many have reference to her influence. and there "howl" over the graves of their dead girls still and friends and relatives. But the dead also are remembered at this season of the year. the presiding genius of the season. but there are also 1 Tereshchenko. When they have "howled" long enough. and with similar intent their flasks and drink4 Then they ing-cups are emptied over the graves return home. It has already been stated that the greater part of these songs relate exclusively to love. or to other subjects connected with social life.222 MYTHIC AND RITUAL SONGS. the fragments which remain over are thrown to the to prevent evil spirits. 17. deeming that the dead can " rejoice " with them. and in some places it is customary to sing them under the windows of young wedded couples. After their meal. pp. accompaniment. held at the same time with. 310 313. and be merry. In certain districts the women take food and drink to the cemeteries. to commence their songs and the games to which those songs form an . that of the Krasnaya Gorka. drink. The festival called Rddwwtisa.

The most widely spread of the choral is games bethat called longing to the Krasnaya Gorka festival . He goes. uplifted hands in the space enclosed by the circle of the Khorovod. Our Has Has Our bright Prince has gone. his high city : bright Prince seeks His bright Princess. as "Maigraf and Maigrafin." with a sharp sword. piercing with his beams. In this dramatic poem. 223 some which may possibly have a mythical significaIn one of these a young man wanders with tion. gone around gone around his city. He cuts. or the German Orest Miller. ? Find the maiden At this point the youth stands still. the Prince goes. with the leading idea of which may be compared the " Passage of the King and Queen " among the Czechs and Servians. Goes around the city. the chorus stops.KEASNAYA GORKA. fair bright Prince. I. he hews With his sword the gates. and he finishes the song as follows Wherever I shall find The fair princely maiden To that princely maiden Will I give a golden ring. Shall we soon. the icy obstacles by which Winter strives to keep him from his fair bride the Earth. '. as a bright Prince. [Opuit. 51] sees evident reference to the idea of the Sun. The chorus sings.

8 10. the maiden answers. and. with hands locked together after the manner of a fence. the dancers stand up in couples. See pp. " The Sowing of the Millet. to the season at which the young men arrive in the villages after their winter sojourn in the towns. Smilingly " Well do I fare. where they " are met by " the arrived ones the game belonging . a number of girls go out into the meadows. and then the others dancers is move round them singing. 283. dear friend How dost thou fare alone without me ? Long is it since I have seen thee. form in : line. From one street comes a youth. fence. . Since that time when we two parted." or Coming together (SJchodbishcJie)." In the game called Pleten\ a word meaning a wattled fence. And Be do thou be coiled up. circle of A formed. Their leader begins the follow- ing song Be twined together. 1 damask * See infra. in the middle of which a young couple take their places. Close have they drawn near to each other. to marriage 5 Of the in rest we have the first . be twined together golden pipe ! ! ! folded up." of which an account will be given in the chapter devoted to songs relating already given 6 In the several examples chapter " " "Meeting.224 MYTHIC AND EITUAL SONGS. rustling p. Then thus speaks the brave youth " Farest thou beauteous maiden?" well. Low have they bent in greeting. From another comes a fair maiden . : .

Unfold. while the chorus sings. . etc. 225 From behind the the ducks." Q . the Ivanovich. Eventually the song and game resolve themselves into those already described (at p. They have called the bold one. ! ! ! Ah ! Don. Untwine. It begins Now has our youth Come along the street to the end. 8). Ah ! Don. duckie Come away home. under the title of " The Murman Cap. changes in which he follows with suitable movements of his limbs. Ah Don. To sit at the gathering. Uncoil. the other couples pass under the arch so formed. hills the maiden has driven out ! Come away home. according to which the rivers Don and Shat are the offspring of Lake Ivan. Those who take part in it form a circle. untwine ! ! golden pipe rustling damask is ! The game called DON IVANOVICH associated with an old popular tradition.SPRING KHOROVODS. Then. who is supposed to represent Don As they go they sing a song. . Don Ivan's son Ah they have called the youth. When the chorus comes to an end the leading couple lift up on high their joined hands. and move around the leader. our Don. fence. gray one ! . To take part in the games. etc. To feast at the banquet. as in our own country-dance.

let thyself go well. be thou kind. 7 Snegiref. acquired a sacred character in their eyes. 3746. I will bring out. Like unto my own mother dear ! 7 ! In some of the songs which are now sung by the children only. barrel of treasure will I roll away I will give. the rains which play so important a part at this season of the year are either begged to When the first come. Like unto my own father dear Be thou ! I will bring out. I will go up to Tsar-gorod. I will give it To my harsh father-in-law ! ! ! kind. R. P.. or entreated to go away. Shower. but which used not to be confined to them alone. be thou kind. I will roll away.. I will shatter. a city which. With my lance will I shatter the wall I will roll away. one more of the songs sung at this time of a song specially worthy of notice on account is A I will go up. spring shower falls the children thus address ! it. shower Get thyself ready to be seen. Shower. Here year of the hostile expressions it contains with respect to Byzantium. P. I will go up. I will shatter. . I will give it A pelisse ! To my harsh mother-in-law Be thou kind. after the conversion of the Slavonians to Christianity. . of fox's skin will I bring out I will give.. in.226 MYTHIC AND RITUAL SONGS.

" but something like our own having no covering beyond one of leaves and flowers. but certain rites were observed. rain. rain The spring Peter [evidently Perun's successor] lifts up his voice and gives us wine. quicker. "St. Over the grandmother's rye. her companions " Dodola singing meanwhile Songs." " Jack in the Green. not only were songs sung. And in order to obtain that wine from the clouds. is conducted through the village. let And they make Dear it promises. and therefore it was customary to wash in it. Stronger. was supposed to produce a beneficial effect even upon the human body. Rain. Three pigeons will come flying. Warm us young ones. rain. that we may all drink our fill. They will take thee on their wings. she dancing Q 2 all the . Of such a kind are the well-known rites of Dodola celestial kept up among the During a drought a girl. " in verdure clad. thyself go. rain. Pour in bucketsful." says a Bohemian song. Its efficacy was increased if it came attended by thunder. saying. I will put it on an oak. Over the girls' flax.SPRING SONGS. 227 Pour." and afterwards the women pour water over her. literally Servians to the present day. dear rain. Will bear thee to a foreign land. I will cook thee some borshch [soup]. Over the grandfather's wheat.

supposed to have certain merits as a and at a Little-Russian marriage the bride is bound bridegroom to drink from a cup of wine in which a ring has been put. MYTHIC AND EITUAL SONGS. kept up as in Servia. panions. the village. and turning round and round. " We pass through the village. and the clouds go across the sky. and the clouds across the sky. who must be just fifteen years old. a ring drops from the clouds custom exists in Russia of catching rain that ' ! fields. and his compoured over him. the upon this occasion begin with a prayer for rain. as represented by the greenThe songs which are employed clad maiden Dodola. and see. and who dances and has water He is called Prpats.228 time. water that has been dropped through a is wedding-ring lotion." And " We A falls during a thunder-storm in a basin. who are young bachelors like himself. but the clouds have overtaken us. only instead called Dodola. and among modern Greeks by a years old. who is from eight to ten called Purpirouna. after which they say. In Dalmatia to give the the same custom of a girl who is dressed up. quicker. in the Eiazan Government. and the clouds We go quicker. In Wallachia child of . it is a young unmarried man is and who the is called Preperuga or Peperuga. bear the name Prporushe. and have bedewed the go through again. at the bottom of which rings have been placed. In Bulgaria the same part is played by a girl. The people believe that by this means there will be extorted from " " the clouds the rain for heavenly women which thirsts the earth.

it is supposed that a golden ring. apparent . The 23rd of April is Cappadocia. in mythical language. Yury's (or Yegory's) Day in the spring. and then flinging them into a brook. and in others referring to storm and rain. On it a festival is celebrated of a national.DODOLA. M. and Papeluga ! name has become Papeluga. The name of Dodola is by some from do'it' philologists derived give milk. From the mention of a ring made in the Dodola songs. and consecrated to St. is to be taken as a representation of the lightning's heavenly gold. open the gates.e. the Slavonic Genius it of the spring. a type of teeming nature. that the corn may grow well In different parts of Germany similar customs J: ! used to prevail. George of known as the Yurief Den (or is Yegorief Den) Vesenny. i. which Yegoriefsidy a Pyesni. send rain from on high. as well as of an ecclesiastical character. and Lado. = to Others connect anian Didis with Did-Lado. has now degenerated into a mere practical joke played off upon the lazy. and Jacob Grimm [D. Their mythical character in many cases. special songs. although the Wasservogel and he connects with custom of covering them with foliage. Dodola being looked upon as a bountiful mother. 229 the as appears from the song which the children sing in time of drought " Go into heaven. whom old rain-preserving rites. from the Lithugreat. and to it are devoted a it derive from number of the name of is. 560 thinks that the Dodola and Purpirouna were nally identical with the Bavarian 562] origi- the Austrian PfingstJconig.

that farmers and herdsmen. From From From the rapacious wolf. St. the flocks and herds are. the cruel bear. who " What the wolf holds in its Yegory has giyen. teeth. Here is one of the songs . It is not a slayer of dragons and protector of princesses who appears in these songs. A White-Russian song represents Yegory as opening with golden keys probably the sunbeams the soil which has been hard bound all the winter. our brave Yegory. In the field. serving to prove that the Christian hero.. Under the bright moon. and on whose day. a ram being killed by an old man. to who used be honoured at this time of year in heathen days. but a patron of preserves cattle from harm. In the forest. and beyond the forest. for the first time after the winter. George. and beyond the field." says a proverb. has merely taken the place of some old deity." In Bulgaria a regular sacrifice is said to be still offered up on the occasion. light-bringing or thunder-compelling.. " thou. sent out into the open fields. . enough.230 MYTHIC AND RITUAL SONGS. We have gone around the field.. Under the red sun. Save our cattle. the cunning beast. which : shows how completely he is supposed to rule over the fold and the stall. while girls spread grass on which the blood of the victims is poured forth. We have called Yegory . therefore.

said a tradition which prevailed in Russia up to the sixteenth century. 402 . Having scattered the clinging dew Over White-Russia and all the world 8 In Moravia they "meet the Spring following song : . V. Has unlocked the moist earth. George's Day in the autumn. George arose and unlocked the earth. Has gone to God. that day. Upon sea [Lukomorie] used to die to come to life again upon the corresponding Saint's Day. George's to drive the cattle afield through the morning it is dew. n. S.Sunday." Thursday keys?" ! what hast thou done with the "I gave them to St. George.ST. the divine envoy. so that the grass grew the green grass. P. Afanasief. St. Besides the springtide Yurie/Den. in April. ' with the " Death Week [The Fourth Sunday in Lent the time of the expulsion of Deaths Winter]. there is another St. what hast thou done with the keys ?" "I gave them to Palm." In White-Russia Day the custom on St." " what hast thou done with the ! Palm-Sunday keys?" "I gave them to Green Thursday [the day before ! Good " Green Friday]. -231 Holy Yury. GEORGE'S DAYS. the people in a certain district by the on the 26th of November. And having taken the golden keys. and in Little-Russia and Bulgaria the young people go out early and roll themselves in it. or rather winter.

of the people who lived beyond the bald-headed and goat-footed races. warmly. and which has also been explained as meaning that there were people who " lived in- away six doors in comparative darkness half the year 9 . This legend seems to be closely connected with that which Herodotus found himself unable to believe. and his legs up to the knees were of oral tradition. nor perceive the red sun. Before temporarily giving up the ghost. had him shut up in a deep dungeon. and the stormy winds arose. and who slept months of the year at a stretch a story which Heeren supposed to have referred to the length of the Polar night." ness for thirty years. . silver." The mythical character of Yegory the Brave becomes very apparent in some of the poems about him which have been preserved among the people by According to them he camo into the world a strange child. and his head was all of pearl.232 MYTHIC AND RITUAL SONGS. from which the neighbours who wanted them took them away. King Demianishche. 172. his pagan foe. When the time martyrdom came. for his arms up to the elbows were of gold. nor hear the sound of bells or of church-singing." and swept away all the bolts 9 So Yegory lay in utter darkThen " the red sun shone See Rawlinsoii's Herodotus. and of his " gave orders that he should not see the white light. The settlement of accounts took place as soon as the owners of the goods came to life again. in. and there came a thunder-cloud. they were in the habit of placing the wares they had on sale in a certain spot.



and bars of the dungeon, so that Yegory was able to come out of it, and once more to see the white light.
After that he fought many battles, including one with a fiery serpent, always coming off victorious, and

he killed the heathen king, from whose veins poured forth such a torrent that Yegory stood up

to his knees in blood.

nothing more

All this, says Afanasief, is than a poetic representation of the

struggle which takes place in spring between Perun and the dark storm-clouds, which are crushed beneath

mace, or pierced by the shafts of his lightning. For a time the demon of wintry storms may hide the sun, keeping him, as it were, imprisoned, but

the spring comes, the sunlight bursts out again in all its glory, and the thunder-god once more goes
forth conquering and to conquer On the Thursday of the seventh
l .


after Easter


Semik (from sem = seven). In heathen times a number of rites were performed,
held the feast called

and games were celebrated, during the month of May, after heain honour of the Goddess of the Spring thenism had given place to Christianity, these games,
accompanying rites, were transferred with altered names to the festivals of Ascension Day and Whitsuntide. And in that way

and some remnants of

many of them have now become attached to the Semik

Afanasief, P. V. S.




It should, however, be stated

that the above-mentioned legend about Yegory has been preserved in certain poems, which some critics assert to be of a different origin

from that of the songs to which the present chapter is mainly devoted. The question will be discussed on another occasion.

holiday, held


upon the Thursday before Trinity Day,

or Whit-Sunday. On that day the Russian villagers, and the common people in the towns, go out into the

woods, sing songs, weave garlands, and cut down a young birch-tree, which they dress up in woman's
clothes, or


adorn with many-coloured shreds and ribAfter that comes a feast, at the end of which

they take the dressed-up birch-tree, carry it home to their village with joyful dance and song, and set it up
in one of the houses,



remains as an honoured

the two intervening " " days they pay visits to the house where their guest is; but on the third day, Whit- Sunday, they take her



Whit- Sunday.


to a stream,



her into


waters, throwing

Semik garlands

after her.

on Whit-Monday, the peasant girls choose the handsomest of their number, envelope her in a mass of foliage taken from birchunder the name of Kust trees and maples, and
In the
district of Pinsk,

(shrub or bush)



carry her about, just as the Dodola In the Governcarried about in Servia.
in Little-Russia, they take

ment of Poltava,


"a poplar," represented by a girl with bright flowers In the neighbourhood of Voroneje, at in her hair. Whitsuntide, it was the custom in old times to construct a small hut in the middle of an oak copse, to

with garlands and flowers and fragrant grasses, and to place inside it a figure made of wood or straw, and dressed up in a male or female



holiday attire.


this spot the inhabitants of the

neighbourhood would flock together, bringing their

provisions with them, and would dance and merry around the hut.



instances the Semik birch-tree, the " bush," the poplar," and the "Whitsuntide puppet, are all representatives of some Deity of the Spring




whom the people worshipped in olden days, and whose
" the wearing of the green" has been adopted by the Church, and the birch-trees which once were put to pagan uses are



survives, although

now turned

into the ornaments of Christian temples.

All over Russia every village and every town is turned, a little before Whit- Sunday, into a sort of garden.

Everywhere along the
stand in

young birch-trees rows, every house and every room is

streets the

adorned with boughs, even the engines upon the railways are for the time decked with green leaves.
eve of Whit-Sunday the churches are dressed in green as ours are at Christmas, and the next day

On the

women and

children go to the



carrying posies, which they preserve during the rest of the year, deeming them a preservative against all sorts of maladies.



places, especially in Little-Russia, the


go out into the woods on Whit-Sunday, singing in chorus this song, in which there is a strange

medley of Christian and heathen designations

Mother of God We must go into the forest, We must weave wreaths, Ai Dido, Oi Lado




must weave wreaths,
pluck flowers.


the wreaths are ready they are exchanged between the youths and the maidens. The girls put them on their heads, the lads adorn their hats with


In the evening, after the Khorovod games are over, or on the following day, they go to a stream,

and throw


wreaths into


singing the while



go to the river Danube, stand on the steep bank, throw my wreath on the waters go afar off and see,
. .



If the
its late

sinks, or sinks not, wreath in the waters 2 .


wreath swims

without running ashore,

wearer will marry happily and live long if circles around one spot, there is reason to fear

some misfortune, a broken engagement, or an unrequited love; and its sinking is a very evil omen,
foreboding that he or she who wore it will either die soon, or at least go down to the grave unmarried.
are sung in the Khorovods on these occasions frequently refer to a contest between

The songs which

two apparently mythical personages, and two mythical names are mentioned in them those of Lado and of Tur. About Tur very little is known, but there seem to be reasonable grounds for identifying him with Perun or with Freyr 3 Lado, or Did-Lado,

2 8

Tereshchenko, VI. 169. See Afanasief, P. V. S.


662, 663.

The word




means an aurochs or



as has already been observed, is generally supposed to be the solar deity, or the god of the spring and

of the songs is as follows. of girls form a circle and sing, Ah on the grass, on the green turf, Around a great city, Strayed a bold youth.

of love.


A number

being sung, a girl, who wears a man's hat, walks with an air of pride around the circle. Then another girl, holding a handkerchief in her


this is

hand, goes


the circle, the



Oi, Tur, the bold



He from

out of the great city.

Has called the beauteous maiden To contend with him on the grass. Oi Did, Lado to contend.

Then the


with the kerchief comes out and

deprives the other of her hat, and pretends to strike her, the chorus singing,

The beauteous maiden has come out


has overcome the youth;

Has dropped him on the green turf, has dropped him. Oi, Did, Lado
The conqueror goes away, and the song ends as

The brave youth rising up, Hid his face in his hands, Dropped burning tears.
His grief he did not dare To good people to tell.







to tell 4


Snegiref, R. P. P. in. 124.





contest here described has been explained in various ways. Some commentators think it is the


same as that mentioned

in a Servian song, in


the Lightning-Maiden struggles with the ThunderYouth and conquers him. Others, taking Tur to be

the solar deity, refer it to the substitution for the daylight of the evening glow or the clear summer


traces of tree-worship
girls sing as

may be found

in the

song which the
for wreaths

they go out into the
to gather flowers

to fetch the birch-tree,

and garlands.

Rejoice not, Oaks ; Rejoice not, green Oaks. Not to you go the maidens,



you do they bring


Cakes, omelettes.
lo, lo,

Semik and Troitsa



Rejoice, Birch-trees, rejoice green ones





To you go the maidens To you they bring pies. Cakes, omelettes.
eatables here mentioned

seem to

refer to sacri-

fices offered in

olden days to the birch, the tree of
is offered,

The oak, to which no sacrifice the spring. is the summer tree.

On the banks

of the river Metch, near Tula, there

stands a circle of stones.

These, according to popular were once girls who formed a Khorovod on

and who danced on Whit- Sunday in so furious a manner that they were all thunder- smitten


into stone.

In some of these songs reference



to the

bathing of a gaily-attired maiden, to whom is given the name of Kostroma, and sometimes not only the " brave youth" bathing but also the drowning of a These allusions connect them is vaguely mentioned.

with the class of songs called Kupalskiya, which are



Midsummer, and which are evidently

rich in

mythical purport, though it is often difficult to ascertain their exact meaning, as they have come down to In the present day in a very mutilated condition.

popular speech the St. Agrafena [Agrippina], to whom the 23rd of June is dedicated, is surnamed
Kupalnitsa, and St. John the Baptist, who is honoured on the 24th, is known as Ivan Kupalo. The rites

which belong to these two festivals are also kept up on the Feast of All Saints, the first Sunday after

The word Kupalo has been explained in different ways, some philologists, for instance, connecting it with Icupdtf =.io bathe, and others with Mpa = a, heap heaps of straw or brushwood being used for
the bonfires which in Russia, as in

other parts of Europe, are the chief characteristics of these Midsummer festivals. Professor Buslaef points out the


fact that the root

Imp conveys the idea of something
also rapid, boiling, as

white, bright,


were, ve-


Russian yary, whence seems to be derived the name of the similar mythical being Yarilo. Jacob

Grimm [Klein. Schrift. II. 250] compares the German Haufe, and the Lithuanian
leap as,




a mound, etc.



In some parts of Russia an image of Kupalo is burnt or thrown into a stream on St. John's night. In others no image is used, but fires are lighted and

jump through them themselves, and


their cattle through them.

In Ruthenia the bonfires

are lighted by a flame -procured from tion, the operation being performed

wood by
by the



of the party, amid the respectful silence of the rest. But as soon as the fire is " churned," the bystanders

break forth with joyous songs, and when the bonfires are lit the young people take hands, and spring in couples through the smoke, if not through the flames,


after that the cattle in their turn are driven


In Little-Russia a stake


driven into

the ground on St. John's Night, wrapped in straw and set on fire. As the flame rises the peasant women

throw birch-tree boughs into



May my


be as


as this



The Poles


keep up the customs which were

described by a sixteenth century writer as being so " the demons themselves took diabolical that part in


According to him the


were in the habit

of offering grass as a sacrifice to evil spirits, after which they wove wreaths out of it with which they

adorned their heads, and then they lighted fires and " sang Satanic songs, and danced, and the Devil danced for joy with them, and they prayed to him

and magnified him, and forgot God



This picking

Tereshchenko, v,


of herbs and flowers on St. John's





Slavonic peoples, as also is the habit of washing in dew on the morning of the




at the present day, it is said, heathen rites are secretly observed in some of the remote districts of







it is




they prevailed in many places until a comparatively recent period, a fact which accounts for the signifi-

cance attached to these


festivals in


Of thoroughly heathenish origin eyes of the people. is a custom still kept up on the Eve of St. John.


figure of




of straw, the size some-

times of a boy, some-times of a man, and is dressed in woman's clothes, with a necklace and a floral crown.

Then a
tree, to

tree is felled, and, after being decked
is set


Near this which they give the name of Marena [Winup on some chosen

together with a table, on which stand spirits and viands. Afterwards a bonfire is lit, and the young men and maidens jump over it in couples, carrying the figure

ter or Death], the straw figure is placed,

with them.


the next day they strip the tree and

the figure of thedr ornaments, and throw into a stream.

them both

equally heathenish times also must be referred the song which the peasants in White-Russia sing at


sunrise on St. John's

Day: Ivan and Marya

Bathed on the

Where Ivan bathed

722] Perun and Lada bathed in the dewy springs on the hills of He shook the earth with his thunderbolts. way. on St. The Servians assert that the sun stands still three times on St. . That is. goes forth from her chamber in a car drawn by three horses golden. and diamond to meet her spouse the Moon. that day the Sun. at times for Perun. John's Day. 75. and therefore a maiden appears who leads it across the sky. The Bulgarians assert. that on the same day the sun dances and whirls swords about. says Afanasief. The mixture of nuptial and funereal ideas connected with this Midsummer festival gives it a double nature. . According to a Bulgarian John's Day. loses its tradition. heaven. she grow in the fields. in. The bank shook Where Marya bathed. a female being. also. and they account for its apparent pause at the time of the summer solstice by the fear which seizes on it at the thought of its downward career towards winter. silver. one if set of its rites and songs being joyous. The grass sprouted. Y. that is. [P.242 MYTHIC AND RITUAL SONGS. the sun. this maiden being the Dawn. as 6 to exult Tereshehenko. it sends forth specially bright and In Lithuania it is supposed that on dazzling rays. Both Kupalo and the similar mythical being grass made the called in the songs Yarilo appear to be intended at times for the Sun or the Spring. and on her way she dances and emits fiery sparks 6 .Y. S.

" Curiosities of Indo-European Tradition and Folk-lore. To the same belonged in olden days the decidedly heathenish rites which in modern times have been celebrated either in the week after Whitsunfestival in all probability tide. 58. 590. and immediately begins 7 to descend again ." p. The Bacchanalian character of those made the clergy anxious that they should not be observed See Kelly's Quoted by Kemble from a mediaeval MS. St. in the latter the its downward It is course of the sun towards wintry grave. and may there- not well known fore in this case have transferred to the week after Whitsuntide what were originally Midsummer ceremonies. June rites 29. and the other tragic. Deutsche Mytkologie. as if to lament In the former case it appears to be for a death. and therefore explain as solar myths any allusions to decay or death that may be conveyed in its songs and customs. were it it might at first sight seem difficult to that the Church arbitrarily altered the time of many popular festivals. Carinthia." common to so many lands. 243 over a marriage. John's " to signify that the sun ascends at that time Day. B 2 . or on the Sunday after St. a mystical union between the elements of fire and water that is celebrated . to the summit of his circle. observed also in some of the Slavonic countries The custom of rolling a blazing wheel on is in Croatia. 7 8 Grimm. true that the feast of All Saints generally occurs some weeks before the summer solstice. and Galicia 8 . where a full account is given of similar customs in other countries.MIDSUMMER CUSTOMS. Peter's Day.

Her companions then saluted her with low obeisances.244 MYTHIC AND RITUAL SONGS. but the figure which is there escorted to the In grave is supposed to represent the Spring. it gained the day. This was carried to the water's edge by a crowd which divided into two parts. and seemed to deplore the death of Kostroma. and There they carried her to the bank of a stream. In the Murom districts Kostroma was represented by a most part of straw. of which one attacked the figure and the other defended figure for the it. similar A . the figure's defenders hid their faces in their hands. and they evidently symbolize the decay and temporary suspension of the vivifying powers of nature as winter comes on. placed her on a piece of wood. stripped dress and ornaments. during the fast preceding that day. custom prevails in the Saratof Government. while the oldest member of the party made a basket of lime-tree bark. and so they have been transferred to a period a little before or after " The Funeral of Kosit. In the Governments of Penza and Simbirsk the " funeral" used to be represented in the following manner: A girl was chosen to act the part of Kostroma. made At last the assailants its the figure of foot. bathed her in the waters. going on. bear the name of They troma." or of Lada or Yarilo. and dressed in female attire. to end the day with games and dances. trod it under and flung into the stream the straw of which While this act of destruction was was made. and beat it like a drum. After that they all returned home.

holding in his hand a mallet an ancient emblem of the thunderbolt he paraded around. Some of the Russian archaeologists see in the names Kostroma. before the figure was buried. dead Yarilo as if the Slavonian representative of Adonis. and after him followed a noisy crowd. the figure was buried amid weeping and wailing. In the town of Kostroma the people chose an old man. and it cannot be denied that those names are of very uncertain derivation Kostroma. nothing more than the designations of as many summer festivals. singing. which eventually divided into two bodies. etc. between which a kind of boxing-match took place. This he carried out- side the town. for instance^ meaning osier twigs. whence it is supposed . after which games and dances were commenced. such as tares or darnel [Koster or Kostyor means a pyre] . Whoever was chosen for that purpose was and had small bells fastened to fantastically clad. and gave him a coffin containing a Priapuslike figure representing Yarilo. his dress. calling to mind the funeral games cele- dug.. rods. where. Kupalo. it with the hope of awaking the A was shaken. 245 Voroneje the people used to meet in an open place. gesticulating. Then. being attended on the way by women chanting dirges and expressing by their gestures Out in the fields a grave was grief and despair. similar custom used to prevail in Little-Russia. and Koster being a name for certain weeds. dancing. and decide who should represent Yarilo. and in it brated in old times by the pagan Slavonians. and Yarilo.FUNERAL OF YARILO.

or in sitting by a all. ! ! Oi Lado Oi Lad Weave or not at thy will.246 MYTHIC AND RITUAL SONGS. Y. seems to be that expressed by Afanasief [P. who says that the names conveyed to the popular mind the idea of living beings. P. June 29. inasmuch as its figure was made of straw mixed with weeds. Peter's Day. the people in some places do not go to bed at but spend the hours in games. and then they anxiously watch the sun as it being under the impression that it dances in the sky on that day as well as on Easter Sunday. S. tumulus. etc. or Oriole. 67. During the night before St. IT. The may . E. first autumnal festival. and that they appear to have originated at an exceedingly remote period. The general supposition. the 8 in the popular calendar. forest. and after him all the others take up this song : on the Kurgan The Nightingale is weaving its nest. choir begins to sing. The 29th of July forms. that the mythical being may have derived its name. fire kindled on a high place and singing songs till the day dawns. That day. in. the leader of the rises. But the Oriole is unweaving. P. twigs. however. Kurgan is a non-Slavonic word Ivolga. have been classed among the fire-bringing birds. As soon as its first rays appear. it is generally for a Snegiref. being golden-plumaged. Nightingale Thy nest will not be woven. similar to mankind. OiLado! Oi Lado 9 . Thy young ones will not be bred : ! They will not fly through the oak Nor peck the spring wheat. 726].

he thinks. Moreover. such a one will not be injured similar 1 Afanasief. will be forfeited to the devil 1 On the other hand." In the Christmas festivities the first song is sung in its honour the peasant who " is going to make a new loaf Lord. his soul. and he blessing would consider as a great sin the uttering of " bad addressed to any sort of corn. they are by evil spirits. pelling deity it since the introduction of Christianity has been transferred to Ilya. as the Servians call the Prophet Elijah. is a holy thing to Slavonic eyes . and also language " " the of bread. cannot pass 247 In olden by without thunder. But. they look upon " the it as gift of God. he who . shows it is fitting respect to his bread. times it was consecrated to Perun. A number of traditions are given by Grohmann etc. believed. the thunder-com. 102 in his Aberglauben Bohemian und &e- tranche aus Eohmen 104. S. if a man while of it. eating bread lets pieces collected fall to the ground. as he takes the flour in hand. most of which seem originally to have been rites performed in honour of the deities who were supposed Corn to watch over the grain-crops. there are no special songs devoted to Ilya's Day. pp. with death and famine. and if the weight of the heap thus formed ever becomes greater than that of the slovenly feeder himself. or the rolling of pellets messing : 5!l ! ): ' made Such conduct God punishes. after death. the Thunderer. P. V. During the harvest-tide many customs of great antiquity are observed. . 763. in. eating it even when stale and mouldy. grant Thy says. except among the Bulgarians.HAEVEST CUSTOMS.

Crosses. along which trips a little girl adorned with ribbons of various to hues. and the south. small loaves this and are consecrated. The young people of each village meet together and draw up in two lines." About Trinity Sunday. On LadyDay. nor will live on. round which are twined festoons of green leaves and flowers. With the spring is commences the season of field- labour. the fields are solemnly visited by the peasants. linking their arms in such a manner as to form a kind of bridge. When the sowers go into the fields to sow r they bend low towards the east. in order to bear it to his plot of land at seed-time and harvest. but secure from poverty. and banners. ceremony which is he carefully preserves. water drown him. holy pictures. are carried in procession to the fields. The couples past whom she has gone run . and flinging a handful of corn. when the winter rye is beginning to ear. uttering prayers each time. a repeated before the commencement of the hay and corn harvests. will by the thunder. which inaugurated by a religious service. the west. or crumbled up among. and the priest blesses the soil.248 MYTHIC AND EITUAL SONGS. which are afterwards placed near. and on the day before Good Friday. At Candlemas each peasant has a wax candle specially consecrated. Until this ceremony has been performed they do not begin their regular work of sowing. In the Government of Vladimir there exists a custom called " Leading the Ears of Corn. to a green old age. and sprinkles it with holy water. the seed-corn.

with Buckwheat. Imyaninui a person = name-day. Out of the ear a measure. to the corn-field. bearing bread and salt When the and the Candlemas taper. runs with them to the girl and throws them down close to the church. corn. jumps down.HAEVEST CUSTOMS. There the Rye is thick. Or. grow. On their way The Ear has come To the white WheatBe thou produced abundantly Eye with Oats. is day consecrated to the saint after whom named. Eye and Oats Flourish richly Father and Son. to the fields the performers sing. the mistress of each household goes out afield. 249 the end of the lines and take up their places again. the Imyaninnik 2 and is taken home and set in the place of honour near the holy pictures . Where the Queen has gone. so that the bridge of arms is always renewed until the corn-fields are reached. The Ear is going to the young To the white Wheat. and begins to reap the The first sheaf which she gathers is called harvest. crops have ripened. Out of the grain a great loaf. village. There the plucks a handful of ears. Grow. . Imyaninnik. With Wheat. one who celebrates his name-day. afterwards it . And of the half-grain a pie. 2 Imya = name .

bring a crown of pure gold. : ! is it. Talaka Take. and Tol6k is a threshing-floor. ransom. and sing. the new gates. Good And 3 put on. In some Governments. and its grain is in part mixec with the next season's seed-corn. In some parts a specific against diseases of cattle. of Little-Russia reaping. in part set aside Its straw is used as as a preservative against evils. the crown of gold. put on This fair crown with flowers. any ears which may have These they weave into a crown. to the fields a priest who commences the At the end of the harvest the reapers go it is and been left uncut. Toloka in some parts of Eussia means the gathering of the hay or corn harvest by the united labour of a man's neighbours. We master.250 is MYTHIC AND RITUAL SONGS. the last sheaf is dressed up in woman's clothes. adorned with gold tinsel and with place it on the head of the prettiest after and girl of their party. headed by a boy who carries a sheaf decked with flowers. threshed separately. collect field-flowers. which they visit the house of the owner or tiller of the soil. ransom. . In White-Russia the harvest-home feast the is known by given also to a as may be seen from the following song evening. or a corn-field left to lie fallow. take from us This sheaf of corn. Open. name of Talaka a name which girl who plays the leading part in 3 . For the crown of gold is woven. come out. even on to the balcony. as in those of Penza and Simbirsk.

Similar customs are kept it up in various parts of Russia.HAEVEST CUSTOMS. in all proA very evident bability. is manifest in the custom of leaving patches of unreaped corn in the fields. and it is believed that if any one meddles with like he will shrivel up. and become twisted the interwoven ears. or holy having originally been intended. When the brought in procession to a house. These ears trace of sacrifice are eventually knotted together. for instance." and it is is supposed that after it has been performed no wizard or other evilly-disposed person will be able to hurt the produce of the fields. and given the place of honour during the ensuing feast. He. In olden times these customs were probably of a the sheaf. and the offering of bread and salt. The unreaped patch is looked upon as tabooed . and the ceremony " the called plaiting of the beard of Volos. at the end of which she takes off her crown. placed under the ikona. and gives it to the master of the house. the Lord and Master. and of placing bread and salt on the ground near them. which is sacrificial nature now taken home and picture. for instance. as an offering to the gods. 251 With these good things we To the Lord and Master. We will bring to him will go Thy good fortune into his rooms. a patch of rye usually left . the master and mistress come out to meet her with is Talaka low salutations. Near Kursk and is Voroneje. Will make ready for us the DojinoJc [Harvest-home]. Then she is invited indoors.

p. with the Greek )8eXtos. and in another disAs trict one of oats is consecrated to St. known as the God of Cattle. Nicholas. In Christian times the honours originally paid to Volos were transferred to his namesake. one of the forms of the name. VLas. Various explanations of his name have been offered. suggests that. appealed to in the oath by which Svyatoslaf ratified his treaty with the Greeks. as the cloud-compeller the clouds being the cattle of the sky was the guardian of the heavenly herds. Afanasief considers that the name was originally one of the epithets of Perun. 141. . or For a similar custom. d/k'Xios = 17X105. through the form Woden or Wode into that of Wold orW61. the Moscow and adduces in support of his suggestion the testimony of an urn found in a Wendish tomb near Dantzic in 1855. is and in that capacity he. honour of the Prophet Elijah. anciently observed in Mecklenburg in honour of Woden. it seems probable that Yolos really was.252 in MYTHIC AND EITUAL SONGS. in an article recently published (in Eussian) by Archa3ological Society. and that the epithet ultimately became regarded as the name of a distinct deity. in ancient times. who. Dr. on which is represented the face of a man with a barred or chequered beard. together with Perun. the Slavonians may have plaited their beards in Assyrian fashion. in ancient times. Mannhardt. see Grimm's Deutsche Myihologie.and Prince Yyazemsky connecting Veles. one of the names of the thunder-god 4 Volos in olden times was . it is well known that both the Saint and the Prophet have succeeded to the place once held in the estimation of the Eussian people by Perun. 4 St. which sometimes passed in the mouths of the people. Sabinin connecting it with that of Odin.

and have them secured against misfortune by prayer and the sprinkling of holy water. 253 Ylasy [Blasius]. He is popularly known as Simeon Lyetopro- vodets. With incense. singing as they go a song which will be quoted in full hereafter. embers. At the same time they carry offerings of butter to the church. who was a shepherd by profession. To him the peasants throughout Russia pray for the and on the day consafety of their flocks and herds. seeing that St. Ylas is going through the village. both by Church and State. when the villagers are ex" in solemn procession. him [February 11] they drive their cows to church. Ylas's picture a " custom which has given rise to the saying Ylas's secrated to bread is in butter 1" " In times of murrain. and accordingly it held that for . Simeon Stylites. Moscow decided that the latter of these two days should be accepted. Ylas. or year-leader. After Christianity had been introduced into Russia the 1st of March was some time accepted as the commencement of the Ecclesiastical year. inasmuch as the Russian year formerly began with his feast.VOLOS. and the 1st of September as In 1348 a Council held at that of the Civil year. And with burning The 1st of September is called Semen Den\ Simeon's Day. and with taper. calling on the epidemic to depart. and place them in front of St. being consecrated to St. as their New Year's Day. they pelling the Cow-Death almost invariably carry with them the picture of St.

judging by the abundance or rarity of the gossamer webs the women. what the coming winter will be like. and all field-work is ended for the year. after the harvest is over. The first apparent at that time of year but it seems really to be due to the fact that. until the year 1700 5 . the is . as has already been stated. . ' : German Alteweibersommer [D. p. in. Some critics have derived the name from that of the cluster of stars called in Russia Baba [the Pleiades]. who employ Tereshcheiiko. is current among them of an old sorceress frozen to death on the heights.254 MYTHIC AND EITUAL SONGS. position. 203. 744] in the fields. See supra. M. In the villages near guish ber. week of September bears the name of Seminskaya Nedyela or Simeon's Week. such as At this season the peasants predict etc. and it is also known as the Bab'e Lyeto or Woman's Summer. betake themselves to what is called woman's work (bab'i rabotui). or " special spinning. a story which may have been invented in order to explain the strange appearance of one of those stone female statues which used to stand who was by the roadside in some parts of Transylvania. which babas. " " the kindling being performed by the Wise Men or and light "Wise Women" * of the neighbourhood. By the year is a legend Carpathian Slavonians this season of the the Woman's Frost and called Bobbin Moroz . all the peasants extintheir fires on the eve of the 1st of Septem- Moscow them anew the next morning at sunrise. 10.

8 See supra. and then bury them with a great show of mourning 6 An equally strange eustom is . They must not be confounded with some other insects of a sturdy nature. " The Tarakan on Tarakans. p. They make small coffins of turnips and other vegetables. when a thread is fastened ." ." is the answer. and not easily to be expelled. and all the inmates of a cottage. special incantations this 255 and spells on the occasion. singular funeral ceremony performed by the girls in many parts of Russia. On day the swallows are supposed to hide or bury It is also set aside for a very themselves in wells. they think it will prevent the tarakans from returning. Philip's Fast. While the " expulsion is going on. to one of these obtrusive insects. unite in drawing it out " of doors. fast]. or other insect. hair at a " On what do ye feast ?" [before beginning to is." however. properly performed. The " Old Believers. deem such acts of expulIf this " ceremony is It has been already mentioned that the soul was often represented by the heathen Slavonians as a fly. The Tarakans are a kind of cockroaches. gnat. which the people call 7 Prusdki or " Prussians. or in any way subdued. 118. one of the women of the family stands with dishevelled window. with closed lips." And the Tarakan on what ?" she continues. the expulsion of tarakans 7 which takes place on the eve of St. and when the tarakan nears the threshold she knocks and asks.EXPULSION OF TARAKANS. to which the reply " On beef. enclose flies and other insects in them.

during the singing of which the girls imitate the gestures of a drunken man : have we brewed beer. 146." The younger women of the village." deal of merriment takes place among the peasants. this being the season for commencing such autumn But a good games as the following. On account of that beer shall we all part asunder That beer will make us all bend the knee in dance. go from cottage to cottage. and then to the young. v. a number of proverbs are current with reference to the month. which is called " The Beer Brewing. beer have we brewed For that beer shall we all meet together. Tereshchcnko. That beer will cause us to lie down to sleep. sion wrong. September is apt to be a gloomy month in Russia And as the as far as the weather is concerned. however ungenial the weather may be. Lado." " September's weather has its spleen has seized him. thinking that the presence of such insects blessing from on high. followed by a festive rout. Afterwards the choir-leader com- mences the following song.256 MYTHIC AND RITUAL SONGS." or "He has Septembrian thoughts. " As surly as September. such as.. On account of that beer shall we all clap our hands. Now on account of that beer shall we all take to the hill ! On : 8 quarrelling 8 . With that beer shall we all become drunken. Lado mine. brings with it influence on the spirits. For that beer shall we stand up again. . offering braga millet-beer first to the old.

in Matt. usually commencing with the sheaf which was gathered the first at harvestovin has always enjoyed a share of the In olden days respect paid to the domestic hearth. where our version has cast into the oven. Vladimir. by the " Ecclesiastical Ordinance" of St. The " to pray under the ovin" for that practice is expressly forbidden. 257 With September begins also the threshing-season. will go Greek " peasant ' who feels Ulfilas translates the K\ij3avo<s by Auhns. in order that their labours may prove richly productive." In the Orel Government it is still usual to kill a fowl in the ovin on the 4th of September . After the meal they stick a few ears into each corner of the barn or corn-kiln. and regales them with kasha. in some other places a cock is sacrificed there on the 1st of November.THE OVIN. it seems to have been customary for the peasants time. (A.. and next morning he calls together the threshers. which is closely connected with the German Ofen and our oven 9 means day of his ovin. in many parts of Russia. ceding evening he begins to heat the ovin." The is Salvonic peshcfi. together with many other heathenish customs. . the corn-kiln. In the Government of Yaroslaf a a pain in his loins [wm]. equivalent used in the Ostromir Gospel 1056-7) the modern pech. or place in which the corn is dried On the prebefore being submitted to the flail]. as the name[The word. and then they fall to work. a stove. 30. and one of the old' chroniclers says of the people that " they pray to Fire under the ovin. s . The day on which a farmer begins to thresh his corn is looked upon. VT.D.

and any bread-crumbs that may remain undisposed relics of the The of are tossed into the air. Hence the like ovins : " Churches are not old proverb says. was confined to such other. Father Ovin. e. Various other feasts of a similar nature are held after the harvest is over. meal are given to the poor. as belonged to each individual woris The 6th of September days one of the two principal the other being the 6th of December set aside for the celebration of the Bratchina.258 MYTHIC AND RITUAL SONGS. e. to pour in together] On these occasions offences which may have been committed . and say. held at the common On each of those days the villagers go in expense. one to which the feasters contribute the necessary ingredients [ssuipaf =." i. to the lower part (podlaz) of the ovin. cure my utin. or of the ovin. the former] the holy pictures are all alike. or brotherly feast [brat = brother]. it's all one whether you pray in your own parish church or in any But the old heathen worship of the domestic hearth. and there offer a large candle and have a service performed for the gaining of all things Afterwards they feast together and entertain hospitably their friends from the neighbouring vilgood. in order to propitiate the unclean spirits that might be tempted to destroy the trees or the cornfields. places only shipper. a body to church. such as the Ssuipchina. lages. rub his against the wall. . in them [i.

there I staggering Clung to the posts of the door. such as trespassings and the like. I drank. are forgiven. the day of its commeBaptist. for on it the great victorv was gained at Kulikovo by Dmitry Donskoi over the forces of the Tartar Khan Mamai. John the August 29. to the yard when I came. v. The 8th of September. The drunken woman. Hold me up. In memory of upon this occasion a solemn festival was instituted by the conqueror. was a memorable day for Russia. nor a glass. Not But But in a cup. 149 s 152. 259 during the summer. 2 . the drunken woman. Oaken door-post of mine. Meanwhile the young people betake themselves to unless it their circling dances. the tipsy rogue 1 . as the following : and sing such convivial songs At the feast was I. a bucketful I drank. Vodka delicious I drank. Home I went without wandering. The battle of Kulikovo having been fought on a Saturday. and was held for many years between the 18th and the fell the Christian warriors who 26th of October. in the year 1380. Mead I drank not. at the gathering.DMITRY'S SATURDAY. nor small beer. In 1769 Catherine II. I drank. and much good-will crowns the feast ends in a quarrel brought about by drink. ordered the day of its celebration to be changed to that of the commemoration of the beheading of St. moration has received the name of Dmitriefskaya 1 Tereshchenko.

Eoditeli otdokhnut. begins for the repose of the dead. frosts of winter. a name now given by Subbota. and there institute a lauding amidst many tears the virtues and good qualities of the dead. and afterwards they go out suffer from cold. that the dead from hunger. Dmitry's Saturday the peasants to the autumnal festival they hold every year in remembrance of their ancestors and dead If at that time a thaw follows the first relatives." It is customary on such occasions to hand over a portion of the articles provided for the feast to the officiating ecclesiastics and their assistants. On the day of the commemoration the peasants attend a church service. gatherings that the courtship of young Russians of the agricultural class is carried on courtship ." for they hold. as well as to the graves of their friends. " It is not always Dmitry's Saturday with priestly children. So important a feature in the this drinking." During the part of the winter preceding that Christmas festival of Kolyada with an account of which the present chapter commenced. " the Fathers enjoy repose. in the grave.260 MYTHIC AND RITUAL SONGS. feast. the people say. the principal amusements of the younger members of a village community are found in the Posidyelki which have already been It is to a great extent at these social described. and then drinking to their eternal rest. a fact to which allusion is made in the popular saying. ceremony is and one goes on for one's own pleasure. that it has given rise to " One a proverb. as will be seen in the chapter on Funeral Songs.

the next are over. 261 which.MARRIAGE. . some day after the cares and toils of harvest of the past are still preserved in the customs attendant upon a Russian marriage. in the great majority of cases. relics How many chapter will attempt to show. leads to a marriage. and how rich it is in old songs.

and still live in the memories and on the lips many of them relics of of the Russian peasantry we will now proceed to glance at that mass of popular poetry which is closely of the people. for the most part. to convey some idea of their nature and their worth. and therefore mainly to the marriage and funeral customs of the Russian people that this chapter and the next will be devoted. specially The consecrated to days of family joy or mourning. but all that can be done here is to attempt. in a hasty sketch. or Ritual divi- Songs pagan worship or mythical doctrine which. it will be necessary to give some account of the marriage customs and rites which they. after having undergone a more or less serious change. . MARRIAGE SONGS.CHAPTER IV. HAVING formed some idea of the various other sions of the Obryddnuiya Pyesni. principal occasions on which songs of this kind may life connected with the social be heard are those of a wedding or of a burial. The Marriage Songs it is alone are numerous enough to form a bulky volume. have come down to our own times. Before introducing the songs themselves.

but their purport is always the same." of which. In the rapid sketch of a peasant wedding in the present day which I am about to give. in order to understand list it aright. a married one Knyaginya. called In Russian an unmarried princess 2 is Knyazlma. as well as in Little-Russia. chief of the Bride- The Tmsyatskif [Captain or Chief]. "into a complete scenic representation. . The 1 Druzhlri [drug friend]. groom's party. Bride. These customs differ somewhat in the various districts of Russia. Tuisyacha = 1000. Teresh- chenko has devoted to the subject a volume of 618 pages.MARRIAGE CUSTOMS. or 1 i. i. e. White-Russia. e. 347-409] of a marriage in the neighbourhood of Lake Onega. e. The Bridegroom. The Groomsmen." he remarks. and Li- thuania. The Knyaz [Prince]. I shall partly rely upon the animated picture drawn by Ruibnikof [in. however much their form may have been warped by time or accident. In the refers. 263 accompany and illustrate. The The i. giving a detailed account of the mode of conducting a marriage in nine distinct Russian provinces. districts to which Ruibnikof s account " the marriage ceremony has developed. and partly upon that contained in the eighth chapter of Tereshchenko's exhaustive treatise. i. Knyaginya [Princess]. it is necessary to be familiar with this of DRAMATIS PERSONS. The Knyazhnd. e.

These are the principal characters. i. e. The female members of the cortege. In some districts. She will is also called the Plakalshchitsa. so far as what takes place in the bride's house is concerned. This term 1 is also applied to all the members of the bridal party. in the districts of which Ruibnikof speaks. The Baydre [Lords]. monies. The male members of the bridal cortege. = to wail or to cry).164 3 MARRIAGE SONGS. the unknown. called also Poyezzhane \_Poyezd = cortege] . 4 Vopit (plaJcaf chapter. The mistress of cere- TIcLeVoplenitsa* [Wailer] 5 i. The Boydruini [Ladies]. e. and a number of youths and maidens who attend upon the bride and bridegroom. e. called also Bryudgi. sob. and have glided into a sort of informal engagement. More be said about her in the next . one autumn or winter day the last. the male and female match-makers. during which they have been known as a paroclilca. i. The bride and bridegroom. have generally become acquainted at the gatherings called Besyedas. but besides them there are also the Svat and Svakha. Voplenitsa is or pair. it should be observed. who directs course the whole of the wedding. At family will lover has begged his father or godfather to go to her 3 having ascertained that the girl's not object.

brave young spark or springald This is = .MATCH-MAKING. Upon this a candle is lighted and placed before the holy picture. a the girl generally begins to lament. (1) a youth good Molodets D6bry (2) a young bachelor . family. eventually give their consent. having crossed themselves and uttered a prayer. or match-making. Having arrived at the house of the bride's father. in this sense (3) a gay. and settle the matter. strike hands on the bargain. plead for delay. We have a Dobry Molodets*. out on the Svdtanie. on which the visitors take off their caps and sit down to a meal." they say. and they choose a byeway. The parents they see no objection to the match. " We have not " to sit down. 5 Let them do what else they will with the stereotyped term in the songs for their heroes. After the Rukobitie [ruled. 265 So the envoy has set parents and ask for her hand. ask in marriage. but. 3 parents of the bride return thanks for the compliment. and to entreat her relatives to break off the hand. Milosti prosim> " Do us the favour. daring. a fair maiden. ~bit\ to beat] engagement. attended by various other members of the bridegroom's start at night. When they have come in they are asked to sit down. so as not to meet any one. . for a meeting would be an evil omen. The Might not the two be brought together?' . but to come. they knock at the window and ask for They always admission. : the word is often accentuated Molodets. and the contracting parties. a brave youth you have a Krdsnaya Dyevttsa. = . nor to feast." is the ordinary reply. but they refuse. When if it is over the matchat first makers ask for a final answer.

second is a match-maker from the abode of strangers. she cries. and so forth . crossed their bright eyes. she will be tlieir faithful servant. . the place of honour. or female match-maker. however. its members sending a Svakha. MAEEIAGE SONGS. only let them not send her away into a land of strangers. first of them is my father dear. The The chief. able. the revered corner. she proceeds to business. open But two match-makers have met within In the my home. the youth's parents in their turn send a Svat Presently. They have lighted candles of pure wax And have And have Before the wonder-working picture. 3^0. and 6 their Kuibnikof. In the districts of which Tereshchenko speaks. to suggest the idea of the marriage to the youth's parents. in. and then the young people make each other presents. the Svdtanie often is it is performed somewhat differently.266 her. 6 . . Very the girl's family which makes the first move. struck hand upon hand . in the dark in the Nor have two warriors ridden together plain. They receive her as if in total ignorance of her designs. or perhaps her wailing takes a narrative form : Not two ravens have flown together forest. If the idea proves accept- An agreement is soon to carry on the parleying. . They have taken close counsel together. and she at first pretends to have dropped in accidentally. arrived at between the two families.

n. where they 7 Tereshchenko. came to Efim's house. That verdure enchanting. and. as she tives. Part from her he cannot. To the birch woods bright. visits the bride. Two During the interval called. girls. To a spray. go straight to the bride's house. But wed her he will 7 .THE BETROTHAL. at which only cheerful songs are sung. elsewhere called obruchenie. having seen her. 267 engagement is celebrated by a feast. groomsmen lead the way. days after the hand. and then saw the fair Prascovia Andreevna. The nightingale flew. The nightingale pleased. without heeding. The songster delighted : He will And so not depart from it now. Towards the end of the second day arrive the The Tuisyatshj and bridegroom and his friends.striking. . may now be her rela- attended by half a score or a score of other with whom she sings various songs and zapldchki. or betrothal. continues Ruibnikof. begins the ceremony of poruchenie. and. without any settled purpose. That spray so alluring. or laments. such as The nightingale flew To the coppice green. M the song goes on to say. 117 124. having left the bridegroom and the rest of his escort at some house in the village. introducing the names of the youth and the maiden Luka Ivanovich.

268 MARRIAGE SONGS." The silent bridegroom expresses his satisfaction by a inclination of the head. or Godmother. but a bride. entreat her friends to get her ready as soon as posThis being promised." = They comply. go the Peredovthe " Foremen" and and shchiki Peredovshchitsui. veil. leaning on the arms of two Pristavlenitsui \_Pristdvit = When the procession draws near to the table. "Is the young Princess lyubd [pleasing] to you ? " ask the " Foremen. saying. sings \_pripyev what are called Pripyeval'nuiya songs . the bridegroom arrives with his festive and the whole party sit down to a table covered with a white cloth and provided with bread and salt. . paid to the VopUnitsa. and to the Tuisyatsky and the "Young Prince" in particular. Meanwhile the bride has been adorned in wedding apparel. ' : " Forewomen \jpered or pred = before] to set over. while the chorus of girls. but his escorters cry loudly . together at which the guests are seated. covering her face. and the bride is led up to it. on her head and train. yevdtf The Tuisyatsky then asks the bride's relatives to " We have come to see not a unveil her. and the unveiled bride bends low to the bridegroom's relatives in general. the leaders open out on both sides. the recognized directress of the ceremony. a sort of veil. or prip- accompany with singing]. with the Bozhatka. after a fee has been sible. with a fata. standing in one of the refrain corners. and bring her in state to the table In front. The girls etcJ] bride called follows. When she is ready her friends form a procsesion. = to accompaniment of song.

Ai-damolodets. strike their glasses together. . Meanwhile the bride sits on a bench. "But ask the young Princess. . but bow low as the men do. trying to lift his glass highest. Lord God. the young people help themselves. . " 269 "Lyubd." The bride replies by a low " bow or salaam (Russian peasant women do not curtsey. the bridegroom When all have been served. so as to pour some of its contents into the bride's glass. then to those of the bride- groom. is. she is pleasing]. if he a fine fellow is " successful. bewailing her impend" ing departure to the land of strangers. " [He table. in oriental fashion). To be talking and chattering. and the Voplenitsa intones a song beginning. the Russian whiskey. but her attendants exclaim " Lyub. and happy hour. having signed a cross over their eyes. if our young Prince is lyub to her. Grant Thy blessing. Lyub he is pleasing]. his friends exclaiming. and the women of her family lament over her. On the prosperous time and season." they continue. "There's ! After this the bride retires from the table. No have I to be sitting here. She takes them round the bridegroom to her filling them as they are emptied first own relatives. and.THE BETROTHAL." When they have finished. On the holy. leisure . the bride herself begins to sing sadly. The bridegroom now rises from the and hands to the bride a tray with two glasses of vodka. Lyubd [She is.

but immediately brings it back. takes the tray with glasses. act of betrothal. When he speaks it is like the giving of roubles." the table." says Ruibnikof. Then she rises. how- He sits there bright as a burning taper.270 MAHEIAGE SONGS. dresses the bridegroom. singing. ending with those of describing who is helped last. His cheeks are like the crimson poppy. His ruddiness is taken from the sun His fairness from the white snow. and After this the glasses are removed from press it. casket. " consists in " Its this. Thou Now hast given a coffer of metal work. table. and the bride inspects the gifts. remarking that The Voplenitsa adthe key does not accompany it. . Then comes the poruchenie. The bridegroom unlocks the carries it off. that essence. and the bridegroom offers to the bride a She takes it away from the casket of presents. give the golden key. and then usually re: turns her thanks in song . the should take the hand (rukd) of the bride. . His bright eyes are the eyes of a hawk. the bridegroom. The mowing time and the haymaking. having lifted a glass of vodka to his lips. whose praises meanwhile the Voplenitsa the bridegroom. The season for work has come. . . His brows are black with the blackness of a sable. and again makes the round of the guests. sings.

Wherefore. it grows dark a number of candles are lighted. serving them with drink. consoling her in her grief. child am I. and receiving gifts from them from the men shifts ribbons and kerchiefs. afterwards. and group themselves around her in a ring. accompanied with many tears. bewailing her coming departure. retire to their homes. and the like. is the most important. are placed on the table. they describe . and When inspecting her wedding-dress and presents. in which. In the central provinces of Russia this is known as the DyevwJmik. and from the women and pieces of different stuffs. Of this " girls' party [dyeva. and leads the songs. The girls then lead the bride to a raised seat. After the betrothal come two or three Vecherinki. young son of thy father. salt. following the account given by Tereshchenko [n. But the child of a simple peasant. One of their number wraps the Khlyeb-sol'. When they have left. on the eve of the wedding. 126 130]. dyevitsa = a maiden] ' : . bread and bride's head in the wedding-veil. of which the last. having been feasted and presented with various gifts by her family. we will now give a description. the bride who soon goes the round of her own relations. or social gatherings.THE GIRLS* PARTY. a particular kind of cake. and and Karavai. and spend the evening with her. Hast thou given me a coffer of metal-work 271 ? No No Priest's child Deacon's am I. After this she again offers spirits to the bridegroom's relatives. The day before the wedding the bride's unmarried friends meet at her house.

Not for gold do I mourn. Jcosd During the unplaiting of the the girl who superintends the operation begins to sing. plaits. signifying etc. Its unplaiting is a sign of the upon her. not cut short. if it is Their back hair. Kosoi = slanting. and Jcosd is about to be plaited anew. And The is it to unplait thee. especially in their Little-Russia. the principal source of her girlish pride. and the altered form of life which she will have to adopt." Unmarried Russian girls wear back hair hanging in a long. the cherished object of her care. with flowers. for change which is coming married women do not wear the Jcosd. she sings. long one to prepare thee ! When her the bride's tresses have been combed out. adorned with ribbons and sometimes. ! My And the dear plait. for instance. for the long journey. called Jcosd 8 a maiden's chief ornament. .272 MAEEIAGE SONGS. For the maiden beauty Of my ruddy 8 Jcosd. is and concealed under a kerchief. a scythe. Ruddy and golden girl who is assisting her Early replies. my plaitiing. For one thing only do I mourn. my plait. After a time they take off the bride's veil. is This plait. a curved spit of land. her impending departure from among them. bent. worn in two which are generally wound round the head. and begin comb" ing her ruddy tresses. Nor mourn I for bright silver. Kosd has several meanings. single plait.

Tearing out the gold from my braid. or some other personage deputed for the purTo the sale pose. Then he tries to get at the Jcosd. such as. Make not unhappy the fair maidens. of the girls 9 Turning to her brother. Nor break the strength of their hands Not for ever shall we remain unmarried. Singing of our maiden freedom. braid has she begun to rend. and tied with blue laces. Last night they twined my braid together. Jcosd I JcosniJc 9 ! Plait thy braid. The intending purchaser stands at the door. of the Jcosd a great It It many songs are devoted. while the bride weeps and sobs. the Svakha. Luka Ivanovich Heaven requite him ! Has My sent a pitiless SvaJcJia hither. was a maiden her ruddy braid lamenting. was not a horn that in the early morning sounded . T . ! While the Jcosd is being replaited the chorus sings. thou my dear. Weep not. Shaking the pearls from my ruddy braid. Stain not with tears their white faces. arrives. but the girls keep him off. Do thou plait. 273 To which one of her friends replies. dear Prascovia. and begins bidding for it. And interweaved my braid with pearls. the bridegroom's brother. she entreats him to is The Jcosnik the bunch of ribbons at the end of the Jcosd. weep not. and bows to the company. ever so finely. or to one who represents him.PURCHASE OF THE BRIDE. ever so tightly ! When the plait has been braided as tight as possible. my ruddy my silken my bride. Tie the knots. thou my dear.

and lays hold of her kosd. all defend her. After the sale of the girls sit has taken place. Then will the young Prince Love the young Princess. The Karavai For all the family is fit. their tone being generally in accordance with the feelings displayed by the bride. . events Stand to it. After the cake song. Taste it to-morrow . takes place the next day. The girls sing. Let the young Princess. * ! ! The brother replies. ! Tartar of a brother * The purchaser now goes up to the bride. In some places it is believed that if the bride tastes the cake on the eve of the wedding her husband will not love her.274 MAEEIAGE SONGS. Dear to a brother But dearer still is is a sister. the north-east districts to which Ruibnikof's account refers. in sign that it has been sold and bought. and not to sell her kosd. or at not to sell it cheaply. for gold. and sing the Karavai [cake] song. the down to table. just before the bride Jcosd goes to the church. hold out Sell not thy sister For a rouble. brother Brother. throwing money on the table as a This sale. a number of others are sung. gold. Then in chorus the girls exclaim.

Shall I let it go into the meads Shall I let ? Long There will it it wander about. T 2 . is the division by the bride of her krdsota among her One maiden " companions. It is intended to represent the ornaments which she used to twine in her braided hair in her girlish days. Will find a shelter . ? Shall I let 1 will give will its feet go down to the stream be set fast. 323. bright falcons. To that sweet fair maiden. 275 of the most poetic of the ideas to which the ceremonies of this girls' party gives expression. n." which is made of ribbons and placed on the table before the bride. beauty ? ? go into the woods Soon will it lose its way." on this particular occasion. 1 Tereshchenko. With her my beauty . A father of her own . The word usually means it beauty. the great. the following is a fair number of which is very example : my Whither friend. Fair swans are their wives A 1 . beloved shall I send it my companion. Brothers has she.CC T*TH TTmXT BEAUTY A SONG. is " a kind of crown applied to flowers. is about to exchange for the subjection of married Of the songs devoted to this subject. but. mother of her own has she. and so to typify the maiden liberty which she life. beauty my To my dear companion. Dear Olinka. The darling one will be lapped in ease.

! . or lament I have come to thee. and bow down. . After supper the girls retire for the night. . We will now proceed with Ruibnikof's account. she awakes them with laments devoted to that purAfterwards she addresses one of her married pose. he says. To her godfather : she addresses the fol- lowing zaplachka. to return the next morning and prepare the bride for the marriage ceremony. Bless. is spent by the bride in paying farewell visits to her relatives. . father dear I have been a giddy girl . girlish follies. ! Thou never-enough-to-be-looked-on Sun Bless me. the young one. my mother. Do thou forgive me. I. and be not angry Remember not. Bless me. . have come to thee. my own. The reply is that- Hard is it From From to part one's kith and kin. To bend low my forehead. one's father and mother. My My careless words ! Some of the bride's relatives spend the wedding in her father's house. . father dear. friends.276 MAER1AGE SONGS. asking her the night before In the morning kin (rod-plemya) is what parting with one's kith and like. Part of the day preceding the marriage. Beloved parent Godfather. ! Farewell. my own. my bright Sun. With an enduring benediction And before her godmother she sings.

the bridegroom and his friends or the friends only." while in if This word is a very difficult one to translate. and offer then open their ranks.. who take a grosh or two apiece. and let the bride pass through There they all "pray to God. Again the bridegroom's friends first to demand the bride.. To another father and mother . Presently the Svalcha begins^to unplait her braided hair for the last time. and at last.." " I . They beg that the bride may be brought to them. In the houses of " the gentry it means the antechambers. " Cleanse the threshold then will the young Princess cross the threshold. the bride is arrayed in wedding attire. and with the other turns her round three times " as the sun goes. but stops short at the door. Meantime. and in a bowl. 277 Hard is it to become accustomed To another family. When the operation has been performed." and into the Syeni." represents the space not devoted to the " have sometimes translated it by the passages. then the bridegroom is present lead the young people up to each other. in some places. and are waiting in the Syeni 2 at the open doors. but are told . The bridegroom places one hand on the bride's head. attended by her relatives and attendants. or rooms through which In a peasant's house admission is gained to the reception-rooms. amid much wailing song. the bridegroom having gone on to the church have come to the house.WEDDING CUSTOMS. the " Princess appears. after their request has " been many times repeated. " it 2 keeping-rooms." On this the bridegroom's friends place some copper coins bride's them to the relatives.

which. yours no more. party on the previous evening. so. we will not give thee up My darling. who have previously occupied all the places. the horses have galloped about." and sit down to table. the horses have galloped about My darling. if lie is adroit. in the districts of which Euibnikof speaks. fear not. but always in the same manner. in the province referred to by Tereshchenko. The word Sudd- ruinya. About this time." " Matushka now they are mounting the steps Sudaruinya now they are mounting the steps !" ! " Matushka ! ! : ! ! ! . he gives her a kiss. takes place the sale of the bride." : ! ! My : guests to our courtyard have 'come Sudaruinya guests to our courtyard have come !" " My child. sold the bride : she is is conferred at various times in different districts. we will not give thee up. is an abbreviation of Gosuddruinya. lady or mistress " Matushka what is that dust on the plain ? Sudaruinya what is that dust on the plain ?" " child. in order to induce them to give up their seats.278 doing MARRIAGE SONGS. and blesses her daughter with it. Then " they enter the living-room. groomsmen cry. The mother takes the holy image from the corner of honour. To this ceremony the last lines refer in the following song. which occurs in it. The Tuisyatsky makes the purchase. after the bridegroom has given a present to the children of the family." After this they prepare to go to church. handing money to the bride's female relatives till they pretend to be " Ye have on which the occurs at the girls* satisfied. do not fear. but not before the This bride has received her mother's last blessing.

fear not. for the peasants The novaya augur ill the happiness of her the new apartment. 134. ! ! ! ! ! As soon as the young couple arrive in the church. fear not. or icona the sacred picture taken down from the wall. in order to prevent the bride is wearied. epithet 4 The obraz." ! " " Matushka into the house 3 ! ! . we will not give thee up. darling. My darling. whence the rite is called vyenchanie. 279 . we will not give thee up. My child. they are blessing me now " My child! may the Lord be ever with thee 5 My darling may God be ever with thee !" ! " Matushka see.THE CEOWNING. do not fear. head. we will not give thee up. we will not give thee up. fear not. do not fear. literally. her crown from being kept actually above her head. or crowning]. says Tereshchenko. u. do not fear. we will not give thee up. do not fear. The crowns must be allowed to press to some extent on the the groomsmen hold crowns [vyentsui." Sudaruinya " child. we will not give thee up My darling." ! ! ! down has the picture 4 been taken Sudaruinya down has the picture been taken !" " My child. . fear not." but the has no real meaning." ! " Matushka ! ! they are blessing me now " Sudaruinya see. we will not give thee up My darling." have they gone Sudaruinya into the house have they gone !" " My child. the priest begins the wedding Over the heads of the bride and bridegroom service. we will not give thee up. in order to be used in the maternal benediction. " Matushka My My at the oak table they sit at the oak table they sit. 5 8 " Tereshchenko. gornitsa. for if.

the first that they may live in harmony and happiand the second " that their children ness. looked for also in the burning of the tapers which the young people hold in their hands. But if it is allowed to drop on IK Omens are head. 136 137. may be not black. having joined their hands with a piece of white Afterlinen." The young people enter the house and sit down on a bench. and give them fresh milk to drink . After that begins the Knyazhenetsky Stol or " Princely " of Russian peaTable. but white. he leads them round the reading-desk. leads his bride. terrible misfortunes are expected. divides her loosely hanging tresses into two parts. When the nuptial benediction is pronounced the wedding rings on their fingers. and bless them with bread and salt." the wedding-breakfast J: ' Tereshchenko. into the house his father and mother meet the couple.280 married life. n. takes hiding her face from sight with a Then comes her mother-in-law. the Princess [now no longer called Knyazhnd but Knyaginya. The ceremony is priest puts the over 6 . and then. MAEEIAGE SONGS. or an away the handkerchief. as being a married woman] handkerchief. and sets on her head the PovoiniJc. or married woman's headdress. and tells them to kiss each other. wards he three times gives them red wine to drink. . to his home. says RuibniOn the top of the steps leading kof. aunt. while some of the other relatives pour over them The bridegroom now young barley and down.

roubles . one of the party. towels and shirts . to 81. 8 16 5 7 1 1-fc To To bridegroom's mother. It is customary for him to make a hole in the middle of the omelette. pay when the poorest peasant would have to daughter was married. 6s. after having taken a bath. And at the end of a week the bride's family are entertained by the bridegroom. . . Finally each of the persons who took part in the wedding invites the young couple either to a dinner or an evening entertainment. 281 which is spirit. To the bryudgi. a counterpane each . Towards celebrated with great mirth and the end of it the young couple retire to their chamber. (The vedro being about 2| gallons)." and to the TuisyatsJcy. the young wife makes presents to the relations of her " Prince. 6 shifts and 10 towels To bridegroom's parents. . 2 Or from about 4.. Some days mother to of all later a dinner is given by the bride's the relatives on both sides. at the end which a number of presents are made. . . round which. used to watch.WEDDING EXPENSES. and the following list of expenses was made out for him [Ruibnikof asked his how much : For entertainments. into which a groomsman pours maslo butter. or oil and then breaks the pot from which the maslo was taken. in old times.7 . For 1 or 2 vedros of spirits . of our money. a shift each To others. and a little later her husband goes to his mother-in-law's house. etc. . without counting church fees. ' 8 to 10 . . . 3 shirts and 3 towels 2 4 \ 1 . 6 6 . sant life. 2 . where she offers him an omelette. For presents to Tuisyatsky . bridegroom's father. 8*. called a KlyetniJc. . . The next day. . . .

but who girls at the water. the Nestor. a subject on which no great amount of direct light has been thrown by history. who were un- " carried off acquainted with marriage. writing towards the close of the eleventh century he died about A. 1st. ." probably taking advantage of their 7 coming out to the river for water Among several . he remarks. such as the Syeveryane. Ross. Some of them are specially interesting and valuable. the specimens of marriage songs which will follow. T. 1114 states that monk very different ideas.] be avoided. This sketch of the nuptial customs of the present day will. he says." In such cases the marriage is formally solemnized in a church. 74. " allow their daughters to make says Ruibnikof. that in some cases. assist in rendering more intelligible than they would otherwise have been. SONGS. The earliest of the chroniclers of Old-Russia. I hope. inasmuch as there may be discovered in them traces of the habits and customs of the heathen Slavonians with respect to marriage. it true. prevailed in heathen times among the various Slavonic tribes in the neighbourhood of the Dniester. with respect to wedlock. seizing upon them during the religious festithere " Solovief thinks that the words among them was no marriage. men were is 7 in the habit of carrying off their brides. other tribes. this tax felt by the poorer peasants. they run-away in order that the expense of a regular wedding may marriages. There were the Drevlyane.282 So much is MAEEIAGE." merely mean that the Drevlyane paid no attention to the wishes of the families from which they took their wives. a milder custom prevailed.D. but the domestic rites are omitted. for Their young instance.

on the occasion of which a of dowry was paid.SOWING OF THE MILLET. posed to be typified in the game and choral song " The called Sowing of the Millet. Then they sing alternately. the deity of the Spring and of Love. it ? 2. But we trample it. a fact which may account for the invocation of Lado. which after every line of the original. it is as well to remark. Horses will we turn into it. on the other hand. which face each other and exchange winged words. namely. had regular marriages. trample Oi Did-Lado. will trample it. 2. but then the capture or abduction was per- formed with the consent of the girls themselves. will it. 1. What will ye ransom them with ? We will give a hundred roubles." The singers form two choirs. 1. 2. But we will catch the horses. at This custom is -supevents she was purchased. we have sown ! To which the other replies. a sum money given their consent. 2. What will ye catch them with ? With a silken rein. This song. The Polyane. is repeated The first chorus begins. we have sown Oi Did-Lado. all to the bride's parents in return for For if the bride was not captured. millet. 1. vals 283 which they celebrated from time to time in the villages. . But we will ransom the horses. 1 But with what will ye trample . belongs to the class of those devoted to vernal rites. We have sown.

" says a Vologda song. " The enemy " is near at hand. whose ideas have been considerably modified by foreign influences. in the second choir goes the two sides singing respectively." The bridegroom. " If ye will not give us a maiden. In a corresponding Servian song the winning side says in plain terms. iii. or the Lithuanians." to " shatter the guarding locks. Heaven knows whence. by a black cloud. the arrival of the bridegroom is still announced by the words. is it then ye want ? we want is a maiden." to fly the arrow of pearl. I. we will take one by force. A thousand is What What 2. groom is spoken of as a foreigner and a stranger. hostile to the bride. who has been wafted. also. In Russia he often called. is has come." and " Our band has gained. Czekhs. 27." In them the bridesays Orest Miller. the Tartars In order to get at the bride the bridegroom has " to " let batter down the walls of stone. . MARRIAGE SONGS. girls On this one of the first.284 1. band has lost. after the invaders of the land. not only of Russia. that evil thief." The game lasts until all the girls have gone over over to the " Our from one side to the other 8 . 1. not what we want. and who is surrounded by brave comEven among the panions." 8 She Sakharof. forcible carrying away of the bride seems "a long series of nuptial songs from all parts." To the to refer. but of the whole Slavonic world.

and we know of none such. in LittleRussia. on the eve of the marriage." the form of capture in marriage ceremonies.PUECHASE OP THE BRIDE. which evidently refer to the purchase of the bride. McLennan's " Primitive Marriage. for whom she must unplait her maiden braid. as performed at every peasant wedding. One of the songs refer to such bargains. Thus. and even to fling plaited. Mr. " match-makers " of them. and when the bridegroom comes they are not opened until after long parleys. and in default of any more plausible explanation. who is thereupon surrounded by her friends to the rescue 9 . for instance. ! bride. 8vo. and the cap is Then the grooms" " men. to your swords pretend to seize their knives and make a dash at the her cap angrily on the ground. old shoes after the bridegroom among ourIt is a sham assault on the person carrying off the lady. she is bound to resist with all her might. Numbers 9 " The hurling of selves may be a relic of a similar custom. 1865. and how. One of the many acts in the long drama. F. by whom her girlish beauty will be ruined. tells how the arrived. consists in a representation of the attack and defence of the bride. looks upon 285 him as her destroyer. which is being put on her head. . taking aside the bride's father. when the bride's tresses have been unit were. all the doors of the house and the gates of the yard are closely shut. it may fairly be considered as probable that it is the form of capture in its last For an exhaustive account of " the state of disintegration. who come rushing In some parts of Russia." Edinburgh." see the erudite book from which this somewhat doubtful suggestion is origin of taken. J. at the cry of Boyars.

Ruinously did they drink away their possessions. bargaining. and villages with their surroundings. On that my parents did give way. Forty casks of mighty beer. But the beauteous maiden is beyond all price. But cunning was the evil one. Low before him did he bow down. For those small wine cups. Forty measures of green wine. Began to fix the price of her dear unfettered dom. Not on that account would my father give way. " Let her freedom be set at a hundred roubles. Promising him." Finding this of no avail. continues the fair cause of the young son. Nor would he barter away my dear unfettered freedom. . . in. and promises the father shall receive " towns with their suburbs. the chief manager of the marriage." hearing this the chief of the match-makers begins to brag. They began to inquire about the white swan.286 MARRIAGE SONGS. 1 Kuibnikof. And squandered my freedom on debauchery 1 . free- Then thus does the father fix the terms. 353 354. Close up to my father did he press. he tries" the effect of flattery. And her ruddy tresses at a thousand. And bartered away my freedom and liberty For that sweet green wine. once and again. praising the residence of the On stubborn father. and the gait and speech of his But.



In the olden days, to which these songs are supposed to refer, women were not thought worthy of

any great respect, and


the bride's parents were

unwilling to part with her it may have been because they did hot like the idea of losing a useful servant, " a or of transferring to other people living broom

or shovel"
finition of

make use of a popular Slavonian deIn those patriarchal times a a woman.

daughter was utterly at the mercy of her parents, and they might even sell her if it so pleased them.


in one sense


may be

said that


did please

them so
species of

to do, only the girl's purchaser

was her

future husband,

and the purchase-money formed a
for their benefit.


But although her parents have treated her cruelly in thus bartering away her liberty for money, yet the bride mourns bitterly at having to part from them. They may have betrothed her during her infancy, swinging her away from them in her cradle the
Russian cradle being suspended instead of being placed on rockers according to the expression used

by a young wife

in the following



my Father O my Mother When did ye ruin me ?


And having borne me, laid me And three times swung me.
The first time, alas To an unknown land.

Then did ye ruin me, When my mother bare me,

in the cradle,



The next time, alas To an unknown father. The third time, alas To an unknown mother


grieves her to have to leave her old home, to give up her maiden liberty for a wife's state of subjection, and to pass from among kindly and


familiar faces into a circle of unfriendly strangers. Such are the expressions used in one of the numerous

songs of which some account has already been given, those sung during the unplaiting of the bride's Jcosd,
or plait of hair

In the house of my own father, In the house of my own mother, I used to comb you, ruddy tresses

Amidst the oaks afield. used to wash you, ruddy


In fountain water cool. I used to dry you, ruddy tresses,
the steep red steps in front of the house, In the rosy light of the rising sun. But now in that unknown, far off land, In the house of my husband's father, In the house of my husband's mother,


have to comb you, ruddy tresses, Within a curtain'd recess. I shall have to wash you, O ruddy tresses, In the wave of my bitter tears. I shall have to dry you, ruddy tresses In the longing of my grief 3
I shall


Orest Miller, Chrestomathy,



Quoted from a Pskof




Orest Miller, Ckrest. I. 21. Quoted from a Perm collection. have taken the liberty of turning the kosd into " tresses.'





she thinks of the family into which she about to marry, the bride (in what are supposed

to be the older songs) shudders, looking upon its members as " bears," or as " piercing thorns and

stinging nettles."


the other hand, she



upon by them
so forth.
as follows


an unfavourable

being con-

" " " sidered a she-bear," a cannibal," a sloven," and

In one song, for instance, a



They are making me marry a lout With no small family.




With a

oh dear me father, and a mother,




And four brothers And sisters three. Oh oh oh oh dear me





my " Here comes a bear "

Says my mother-in-law, " Here comes a slut !"

My sisters-in-law "
Here comes



do-nothing !"

My brothers-in-law exclaim, " Here comes a mischief-maker !" Oh oh oh oh dear me 4




She complains bitterly of the conduct of her father and mother. In a Siberian song a daughter says
that her parents have " locked up their stony hearts in a coffer, and flung the keys into the blue sea ; and

song a young wife says that her wishes have been utterly set at nought by her relatives, for,

in a Galician







He whom

I love truly there outside. Stands

To one whom I have never seen Have they given my hand.
have been for her, she says, if her " her father had taken his sharp sword and struck off

Better would

head," than that he should have condemned her to captivity in an unknown land for whither

going she knows no more than a leaf driven In some of the Bohemian nuptial before the wind. songs a very sombre future is held up before the " Wait a little, dark-eyed maiden," eyes of the bride. " thou art destined to they say to her ; weep without


After the



of married life not a


will pass

without tears.

And when

a month has

gone by, thou wilt weep even more."

No wonder

that the bride, finding all her appeals to her parents fruitless, turns to her brother, and, as we have already
seen, entreats

In some

to help her. places, as has been


mentioned before,

during the betrothal ceremonies a present of money is made to the bride's brother. In Galicia, when he

the chorus sings,

Thou Tartar, brother, thou Tartar To sell thy sister for a thaler, Her ruddy hair for a piece of six, Her fair face for nothing at all.


Sometimes, however, the bride takes a more business-like view of the transaction, as, for instance, in
the song which (in the

Saratof Government) her



companions sing while the bargaining with the brother is going on

It is dark,

dark out of doors,

But darker still in the upper chamber. The Boyars have seized the gates, They bargain, bargain for Dunya.
Bargain, bargain, brother, Do not sell me cheaply Ask for me a hundred roubles, For my maiden tresses ask a thousand,

beauty is beyond appraising. Enter Boyars Enter Boyars 5 Long have we expected you






While the trading

in the


going on, the bridegroom, in stands outside the door, even if it be

depth of winter, and must not come into the


the bargain



Finding her appeals to her father and brother useless,

the bride indulges in imprecations against the Svatui, and SvaJchi, the male and female arrangers and
of the marriage.

In one song she entreats her father to take the Svat out of doors, " and comb


another she begs her attendant maidens to fasten a sharp knife in her hair,
;" in

head with a harrow

so that


the SvaJchi


to unplait




And in return for the service the cut their fingers. chief Svat has done her she hopes there may be
forty sons, And to him fifty daughters. That the sons may never get wives, And the daughters may find no husbands.

To him

Tereshchenko, n.


U 2



Sometimes these imprecations are uttered, not by the bride, but by the friends of her girlhood, who, on the eve of her wedding, assemble at her house for
the Dyevichnik, or girls' party, of which a description has been given. Among the numerous songs sung

on that occasion, bewailing the approaching loss of the bride's "maiden freedom," and the "beauty'
with which that freedom



one 6 in

which a being called the "White Kika" threatens to destroy the bride's maiden beauty, the KiJca being
here most likely a type of married

for that


means some

sort of head-covering in

many Slavonian

The songs about maiden freedom convey a favourable impression of the manner in which the Old Slavonians used to treat their daughters. Not only her mother is constantly spoken of by the bride
in terms of



but her father also.


hast thou grown up, Kalinushka," asks a Galician song [the Kalina being the guelder-rose], " that thou hast become so slim and and that


thy foliage has spread so widely?" "In the meadows beside the fountain, beside the cool waters, away from
the wild winds, and from the scorching sun." " Where hast thou maiden, that thou grown up, " In hast become so beautiful ?" my father's house,
in the pleasant shade."

" Whatever the father-in-law may be like," says " he never can be the one song, same to you as your


Vologda song.



born father;" or as another more poetically expresses " However warm the winter it, may be, yet for all

But the songs which most graphically depict the affection existing between parents and their daughters are those which have


not the summer."

In special reference to the case of an orphan bride. them she grieves bitterly at the thought that she has

no parent to bid her God-speed on' her new path in life, but she is not without some hope that her father or mother will stand beside her in ghostly shape
on the day of her wedding, if not to give her away, at least to bestow a blessing upon her.
brothers ye bright falcons Enter into the church of God Strike three times on the bell Split open, damp mother earth







Fly asunder ye cbffin-planks brocade of gold Unroll, And do thou rise up, father, batyushka Say farewell, and give me thy blessing
! !





borne away by my own, my brothers, Give me thy blessing, father, batyushka 7


In one of the Little-Russian songs a dead mother transforms herself into a rain-cloud, and pours a



shower over the village in which her daughabout to spend her married life. It seems

from the songs, says Orest Miller [Opuit. I. 114], as if the severity with which parents treated their
daughters in the old "patriarchal" days, and the


III. 363.

state of


dependence in which they held them, ha< become greatly altered as time passed by. In what some commentators suppose to be the oldest relics of
Slavonian nuptial poetry, the bride is purchased from her relatives by a stranger, whom she is compelled,
against her will, to follow to his home ; and there she is treated by his family in a manner which makes her look back with fond regret to the rela-


tives she has left behind.


in another

group of

wedding songs,

later in date

than the

posed, but still ancient, the bride is being allowed to choose a husband for herself, and

suprepresented as

first it is

she looks forward to being treated by his relatives as kindly as by her own.

In the songs which are now sung by the bride, or addressed to her, at the time of her wedding, the old
kept up, but they are for the most part conventional, and have but little or no real
complaints are

expected to weep and wail at the idea of leaving her father's house, and the bridegroom still, by deputy, goes through a form of


The bride



bargaining for her, but these customs are but symbols, survivals from a period of sterner domestic relations.

The following account of how her mother counselled Maryushka Efimovna [Mary, the daughter of Euthymus] may be taken as a specimen of the nuptial

songs which refer to the brides' s right of selection, and which are more in accordance with modern sentiment than most of the marriage poems

Her mother has counselled Maryushka, Has given counsel to her dear Efimovna.




Go not, my child, Go not, my darling,


Into thy father's garden for apples, Nor catch the mottled butterflies, Nor frighten the little birds, Nor interrupt the clear- voiced nightingale. For should'st thou pluck the apples The tree will wither away ; Or seize the mottled butterfly,


butterfly will die. should'st thou frighten a little bird, That bird will fly away; Or interrupt the clear-voiced nightingale,


The nightingale will be mute But catch, my child,
dear one, catch The falcon bright in the open The green, the open field."




Maryushka dear has caught, Caught has the dear Ef imovna, The falcon bright in the open field, The green, the open field. She has perched him on her hand, She has brought him to her mother. " Mother mine, Gosudaruinya,
I have caught the falcon bright 8 ."

In another song her mother leads Maryushka from the terem, or women's chamber, into the room in

which the guests are sitting, " the young men in bright array," and there makes her sit down by her
side, saying,

Choose, my child, My dear one, choose,






l Sakharof.296 MARRIAGE SONGS. her lover leaves her for a time he gives her a golden ring \_persten'. a signet-ring. Nor in the river drenched So that no evil men on him may fall. Through all the dark night shine. Nor wander in the forest lost. For with that youth thou hast to lead thy life. from perst. thy mother. On all the road. Nor have to turn again. a plain 9 Sakharof. ruddy sun But rise. Out of unknown guests a known one. will I lead my life. No savage dogs may drive him far away. iii. on every path ! So may'st thou To my yield thy light to dear love Ivan . my betrothed. Away from him my life is weary. Out of the youths a youth in bright array. my mother dear. I never will forget 9 Sometimes a sings thus : . I. I." Then the maiden chooses. iii. 1 . whom her choice has ending with the words. To lead thy life. But thee. Go down. Away from him my life is sad . and tells her mother on fallen. 125. dear mother. girl who is awaiting her lover's visit. to forget. or one set When with gems. With him. 123. thou gleaming moon ! ! And shine through all the night. That so he may not miss his way. and receives from her a gold ring in exchange \KoVtse. and me. a finger]. .

From the ring the diamond will fall 2 . my loved companion. it A diamond ring . It is not a falcon scattering blue feathers. The Lower-River track. And with her as a token left And from A costly And plighting ring of gold. or her purchaser. Forth from his bright eyes pouring bitter tears. 297 Kolo. but that she shall not envy them. circlet. her has he taken in exchange Pressing to my beating heart. my own. 303. And those 2 relatives. who showers gifts on her relatives. . Often. often will I kiss thy circlet. circlet will Sometimes she tells her companions that their turn will come. But a brave youth galloping along the road.LOVE SONGS. He has parted from his home. often gaze upon my ring . through which In all her beauty Mother Volga flows. Remembering The golden thee. instead of regard- " " to be sold into caping her as a mere living broom Shein. Often. and lovers even better than her own will be theirs. I. He has parted from the maiden fair. so contented will she be with her lot. He is her loved one. circle]. while exchanging gifts thus has he spoken. : If ever I think of another love. my dear one. She does not now look on her suitor as her enemy. from It is not a falcon flying across the sky. unclasp Should' st thou to another suitor yield. a like our own wedding-ring. Forget me not. Forget me not.

to drink water. she finds her lover far kinder than her parents. to drink mead. mother." Beyond the hill Khveklunka is weaving wreaths Samuska sends messengers after her. Then she appeals plies in the who immediately re- most prompt as well as sensible manner. not of " an evil bear. is beauty. " Come. But to weave wreaths. 561. . With thee to drink water. prize her. .298 tivity. MARRIAGE SONGS." My dear child. I dare not go into the river. Tereshchenko. and mourn at having to part with her. In a number of Little-Russian songs. " My dear girl ! 3 A White-Russian song. indeed. Beyond the hill Khveklunka is weaving wreaths Her mother sends messengers after her. for they refuse to help her when she is drowning. To me to drink mead." to her lover. . " Come. n. father dear ! She called to her father. Samuska. When she goes to her new home her father-in-law shows himself in the light. to drink water. Do not let me drown. to me is drought 3 ." " To thee will I come. As " " the maiden sank. to drink mead. So happy is she that she prefers drinking water with her husband to indulging in mead with her mother. Khveklunka. is drought. to me is beauty Without thee to weave wreaths. I cannot swim." but of a loving parent. Khveklunka." " I will not come.

makes itself felt also in the corresponding utterances of the other Slavonic nations. who is vexed at her daughter's readiness to get married. with reference to the choice of a husband." So much Bohemian songs does a girl love her betrothed. constantly remarking " It was you yourself who would have him. As soft and romantic a sentiment as breathes in some of the Great-Russian songs which have been quoted. has long been conceded to girls. I shall find a still better mother. We have seen from some of the songs that among the Russian peasantry considerable liberty of action.LOVE SONGS. I chose the rose blossom for mygirl replies. I dare go into the water. I am told. she is In another a mother longs so to be with her bridegroom. self. " Why " In should I grieve ?" she replies. In one of the Moravian songs a mother. that for his sake she willingly parts with her green wreath the type of many maidenhood being ready to place it in his hand "if only he will always love and cherish her till death itself." 299 And and then proceeds to save her." In one of the Servian songs a bride is asked if she does not grieve at leaving her mother. my loved one's house. but the daughter herself feels little sorrow.'* To which the " Yes. That betrothed of mine is dearer to in me than all the world beside. and of all his family." represented as bitterly grieving over the daughter who is about to leave her. I know how to swim. paints a very gloomy picture of the husband who is awaiting her. In this respect the despotism .

" a custom introduced by them from the East. cannot well be set up out of doors. at all events. For a long time.300 MARRIAGE SONGS. as a general rule. terminates in a marriage. the barriers between the sexes. which it would maintain at home. the youths and maidens have every opportunity of falling in love. as has already been remarked. And the seclusion of women which was practised by the Boyars during the " Moscow period. of fathers has greatly altered since the patriarcha times. and borrowed from them by the merchant class. The houses of the peasants are not. to the severe tone of which so many of the wedding songs bear witness. but the young people of the lower classes seem never to have had to submit to any such restrictions on their elective privileges. there has been full freedom of intercourse between the young men and maidens of the Russian villages. Among what may classes. and of commencing a courtship which. . and as it is cus- tomary for men and women to work together in the fields. it and middle be called the higher used to be customary for a his bride until bridegroom not to see the face of after the nuptial as well as the betrothal ceremonies had come to an end. as a general rule. seems scarcely to have been known to the peasantry. But the occasions on which the young people in Russia most easily form acquaint- be difficult to ance with each other are the summer Khorovods and the winter Posidyelkas which have been described in the introductory chapter. At these. large enough to allow their women much seclusion.

There has plucked up by the roots a blade of grass. Has plucked a poppy blossom And. be sung by a chorus of supposed to in honour of a brideIt is groom who rejoices in the name of Andrei Polikar- povich. Has come forth. From The the fair. Her warm little nest. the little bird has cropped. Then flung the blade of grass aside . Avdotyushka has chosen for herself. the bride's name being Avdotya NikoMevna. But afterwards has cropped. . A young bird has And down from fluttered forth. has fallen So from the terem. From under her mother's care. girls. the terem. And she has chosen herself a bridegroom. having plucked. All the new arrivals. Here is another of the same kind. has hastened out. the new arrivals. The green fields. strangers to her. the grassy meadows. Out into the wide courtyard Has gone the sweet Avdotyushka. fair. Avdotyushka. As from her nest. The sweet fair maiden. the apple-tree bough Has flown away to the open fields. The dear Nikolaevna has sat down At the new. 31.LOVE SONGS. Has come forth the fair maiden. the bright. in love with it. the lofty terem. Not a single one of those there was to her liking. the lofty. . Into the green garden and grove of cedars. Has looked round at the guests. the oaken table. Nikolaevna dear has chosen for herself. 301 Of the numerous songs referring to such lovematches one specimen has been given at p.

our master. " Oh how fond I am of him Oh how dear he is to my heart ! ! ! ! Oh how Oh how Oh how ! ! ! I can never be tired of looking at I can never gaze at him enough 5 I never want to part with him !" ! him ! The right of choosing their husbands. to the menial work a girl of is the household herself among them seldom called upon to marry an utter stranger. who are said still. As a general rule her hand is asked for by some young man who has made her acquaintance at the games in which both sexes take part. having chosen. the day after her marriage. Has chosen thee Andrei. grown proud of him. young do girls " brooms. Thee Andrei Polikarpovich. . " shovels J! and to call their as of old. iii. but also shows that the wife's position became improved at some later period. One of the marriage customs still kept up among the Slovenes serves to prove that women were anciently looked upon by them as the servants of their husbands. And now.302 MAREIAGE SONGS. Even among the Slovenes. Fallen in love with him." and among whom even a bride all is obliged. After a marriage the bride is obliged to take her husband's boots off a custom which prevails in Russia also but having done so she hits him over the head with one of his boots. 122. is claimed by their sisters in other Slavonic lands. I. which is at least partially enjoyed by Russian peasant girls. she has fallen in love. by way of a protest against the idea * Sakharof.

in the following song. Through the currant bushes There flowed a stream. here a Like the PrisJcazka. among people who took status of so low a view of the social women as appears to have prevailed among In every land a young wife is liable to the distaste for her new home. she hopes that she will enjoy a life-long supremacy over him an idea which is shared by brides in many lands. What time my mother Bare me. 303 of inferiority implied in the function which she has If a Slovene bride. or tale. after the marriage-service is over.A BBIDE'S COMPLAINT. Having chosen unwisely. is The first two technically called a Pripyevka what something which lines are accompanies the song. My father-in-law . generally a refrain. She gave me in marriage. contrives just fulfilled. one would suppose. the head of the $kazlca. the longing after that of her girlish days. the unhappy one. Unknown home. to reach the church porch before her husband. which often stands at prelude. nor connexion with what follows. indeed. But the idea of a wife's possible supremacy over her husband would be impossible. To go to a distant. which is expressed the heathen Slavonians. it usually has neither meaning of its own. In Russia the struggle between young married people is as to which of the two shall be the first to tread on the cloth laid down for the bride and bridegroom to stand on.

" Cries her second son. strange folk . From her far-off home. among. " I will go and look If it may not be Our sister sad. On the apple-tree My mother loves. ! My daughters dear bird is What that In our garden there? J: " I will shoot it dead." Cries her eldest son. I will sadly wail.304 Scolds MARRIAGE SONGS. From among strange folk. Through the passages My mother speeds Her daughters-in-law She rouses up. " I will drive it away. Says the youngest son. Till the garden is drowned In bitter tears. I will cuckoo cry. me for nothing trifle. In his garden green Will I take my place. : To my father's home. In a cuckoo's shape I will fly to my home. up ! in haste. Till my wailings sad Make all eyes weep. " Up. My mother-in-law. For every I will flee. dart away. . .

The bright young moon with the stars is Is Ivan with his sons. is one of happier tone. while her 6 6 "born sister" comes to her aid. 5 Ask us about ours It . her brothers who make such harsh observations.MARRIAGE SONGS. I. 339. The morning dawn with the white light. In another version of the same song it is not Shein. Dear Ivanovich with his falcons. direst. come. 27. 305 Come. Here. Tell us about " your sorrows. sister. for instance. The third pattern she embroidered The red sun with its rays. On the frame was stretched a piece of rose-coloured velvet. Quoted from a Perm collection by Orest Miller. i." must not be supposed that all the Russian mar- riage songs are of this mournful cast of thought. Into our chamber come. Three patterns has the Boyaruinya embroidered. its rays her daughters Dear Ivanovna with her swans The red sun with Is Anna with 6 . In her hands she held an embroidery frame. intended to be sung in honour of the husband's father (Ivan Ivanovich) and mother (Anna Ivanovna) : Our young Boyaruinya has strolled through the rooms. That love and agreement with one's wife. but her sistersin-law. Great love from all one's heart. The first pattern she embroidered The morning dawn with the white light. X . The second pattern she embroidered The bright young moon with the stars.

. long enduring. children dear 5 ' who . And another sugar. the master. The cypress tree that is I who am thine. my soul. In the olden time the celestial divinities were supposed to be favourers and protectors of marriage. Golden boughs. . and to forge such a marriage as may be firm. and out songs one of which has been quoted [p. will explain to thee thy dream . strong. and boughs of silver. and a pin with which to fasten the bridal veil. slumber at night. The sugar-sweet tree that is thou who art mine . CJirest. And so in some of the the first a 198] prayer is offered up to a mysterious smith. 7 children. but much did I see in sleep. I.306 MARRIAGE SONGS. " I. beseeching him to construct a golden nuptial crown. 28." Then spake the head of the household. here is And another in which a very poetic view : is taken of the relative positions of husband and wife " Little did I. eternal one on which 7 O. Little did I slumber. In another song a divine being is asked to come to the wedding. . the young one. And on the tree were golden boughs. : And Our the boughs on the tree are the children are ours. Just as if in the middle of our courtyard There grew a cypress tree.sweet tree . from the Perm collection. of the fragments of it to make a wedding-ring. and nuptial crown was attributed to that heavenly framer of all manner of implements who forged the first plough for man. Miller.

of the solar who promises to be present at a marriage. Oi Lado From Khalimon's to Peter's court ! ! Lead three foot-paths. with a view towards reaping the benefit of their powers as metal-workers. sian Geographical Society. He takes her by the right hand. To the court of God . may blow without scattering beat without washing it sun may dry without turning it into dust. and But the mythic personages who are usually invited to a wedding.MYTHIC BEINGS. But along the third path Has gone Khvatei with Alinya. x 2 . Oi Lado. vi. to the wedding And 8 . Oi Lado Oi Lado Give us to drink to the wedding. Ukaz. Along the first path Goes Kuzma with Demian. just the funeral songs to which we are now about the " From Ethnographical Collection " published by the Rus13. Bibliog. along the second path The most Holy Redeemer Himself. as we have seen. Ft. perhaps. have usurped the place occupied in heathen is times by the Slavonic Vulcan. Thus do Christian and heathen names in the as. Here songs in which their names occur : ! one of the Kuzma and Demian. may and the rain away. And leads her to the court of God. and which the In one of the songs mention is made of a goldenhorned stag one of the forms. deity to light up the whole courtyard with his antlers. the wind 307 it. are the saints Cosmas and Demian the Christian heroes who. in 8 still clash wedding songs of the Russian peasantry.

for example. of the family. the origin . she is land not going to leave her native village. who were looked upon as all forming one family and therefore girls really had to go far from home when they married. Some of the marriage customs. a room. Kavelin remarks that in olden times marriages seem not to have been contracted between members of the same community. . originally com9 posed for and sung at the weddings of Princes and Nobles. when. are connected with ecclesiastical ceremonies. so the bride who married into a different clan might fairly consider that she was going among not only strangers but enemies. is the progress around a fire.308 MARRIAGE SONGS. for instance. And as each communtty looked upon all others as possible foes. probably come from Christian Greece. to direct our attention. or crowning. the Russian vyenclianie. Of such a nature. upper room set apart for the women are relics of ancient religious rites. outside the house. ideas founded on the Chris- tianity of the present wi]l be found strangely confused with those belonging to the heathenism of the 9 past. answering to the Greek stephanosis. Kavelin thinks that many of the wedding songs now preserved among the common people were. in all probability. As regards the complaints of the modern bride about the " far-off " into which she is about to be carried. he suggests. which is genename from the Greek word rally supposed to have derived its teremnon. . often performed when the bridal procession returns from church. it But those which should be stated. perhaps. Many of the allusions in the songs seem to him to point to such an among others the frequent mention of the terem.

a youth being chosen as the bridegroom who attends her to the grave. for instance. FUNERAL SONGS. is dressed in nuptial attire. before committing their bodies to the grave. rests on the authority of several witnesses. and a similar custom is observed on the death of a lad. a dead maiden day. In Podolia. FfiOM the gaiety of the epithalamium we now abMarruptly pass to the melancholy of the dirge. and friends come to her funeral as to a wedding. peoples. that. they so sincerely pitied the lot of the unmarried dead. if a man died a bachelor a wife was allotted to him after his death. riage and death were often brought into strange fellowship by at least some of the Old Slavonians. Strongly impressed with the idea that those whom the nuptial bond had united in this world were destined to live together also in the world to come. and in a modified form the practice has been retained in some places up to the present In Little-Russia. also. a young girl's funeral is conducted after the fashion of a wedding. among some Slavonian eternity. they were in the habit of finding them partners for The fact that. with the nuptial .CHAPTER V.

from the root = rddh to complete. probably meant the Zend word radanh . Kotlyarevsky. 790). But on this M. 231. offering. P. he says (as quoted by t Afanasief.) The author. one of these is thrown to the corpse. in his excellent work " On the Funeral Kites of the heathen Slavonians. Then a feast Kotlyarevsky. This seems doubtful 2 . dead wept and wailed 'for their 1 loss. but thus much is certain. = In olden days it seems to have commenced with heathen rites. V. In some parts of Servia when a lad dies. 2 58. the tenth day after Easter Sunday being generally devoted to it in North-east Russia. S. Lerch remarks that no such word as radanh exists in Sanskrit. carrying two crowns. and the rest of the community look upon him as a widower. (Perhaps rddhana may have been intended. after which the relatives of the nature.310 FUNERAL SONGS. nor are those of the Russians of 1 . At that time of year the dead " Fathers " are supposed to feel some relief from the cold of the " long winter. the present day. and the other she keeps at least for a time And so the ideas of the Old Slavonians about the grave were not always of a sombre nature. a girl dressed as a bride follows him to the tomb. A proof of this is afforded by the strange combination of grief and rejoicing which characterizes the festival of the Bddunitsa. This is held soon after Easter. kerchief twined around his arm. that the festival has always been one of a partly mirthful [radost* = joy. sacrifice. in." compares the name of Uddunitsa with a supposed Sanskrit word radanh sacrifice. and from the idea of their rejoicing J: most etymologists derive the name of Rddunitsa rddovat'sya to rejoice]. etc. From that time her family consider him their relative.

only Christian have been substituted for heathen rites at its the second Tuesday after Easter. does not have a PaniJcMda.EADUN1TSA. that both rddunitsa spring from the same root as rddanh and rddh-as. or requiem. crowds flock early in the morning to the commencement. and Among strewing crumbs of their viands over it. 311 was celebrated over the graves. which a Sanskrit rddh-as might correspond. But the guttural n before h in Zend has nothing in common with the sound n in the to syllable ni of Rddunitsa. along with those of the persons at whose request it is being performed. He thinks. carrying with them small bundles. and wail there. sung in honour of his departed " Fathers. who would have attended the service. happen to coincide with the performance of one of these requiems. the Rddunitsa may possibly have been linked with the Indian Srdddha. the souls to will whom the service refers go straight to Paradise. however. or spirits. After the service the mourners visit their ancestral graves." is held to com- He who mit a grievous sin. though not etymologically.~\ and rddovafsya may . uttering loud invocations to the dead. and there celebrate the commemoration of their dead. and revels commenced which lasted long. it is generally bethe end of the world shall at any time solace. moistening the earth with beer. All these features are to be distinctly traced in the festival celebrated by the modern Russians. On cemeteries. [Doctrinally. for the omission is the cause of great pain and distress to their sad ghosts. on which were scattered and poured some portions of the viands and the drinks. Then they eat and drink to their repose. and have received from it much lieved that if Moreover. meal.

and strong drinks." by W. "but it was after the Radunitsa that heads ached. . 171 a Look containing a great deal of useful information about the Russian peasantry.312 FUNERAL SONGS. Then the senior of the party calls on the secular minstrels who are in attendance to perform. semi-ecclesiastical nature. " Beer was drunk at the dances. in Little-Russia. Carnival. the joyous nature of the festival is most clearly seen. is called Kkristosat'sya*. all up a lively tune. " He is risen indeed !" and to perform this rite. All of a sudden the musicians strike In a moment its place. singers of a After this. Thereupon the mourners take to weeping. and the other replying. says Tereshchenko. 3 . seminarists and the like. one of each couple saying. on hearing which the grief of the mourners bursts forth anew. which is often attended with the presentation of Easter eggs. They begin with funeral songs. See " Russia in 1870. and visit the tombs of their respective parents." The memorial cakes. Barry. and wailing piteously. and on that account some of the peasants call the act of commemoration : their Khristoso- vanie with their departed relatives for when people meet at Easter they kiss each other joyfully three " Christ is risen !" times. in order to ask for the parental blessing upon their union. as well as in White-Russia." says a proverb. merriment takes and the rest of the day is devoted to songs. sorrow is forgotten. p. are invited to chant "spiritual songs" to funereal strains. other things thus offered to the dead are coloured Easter Eggs. where. Newly -married couples frequently take such eggs with them at this time.

v. Baltic 4 Tereshchenko. fives. to a certain extent. and to point out such traces of the influence of those rites as are to be found in the customs the still kept up at funerals among modern Slavonians. must be supplied in odd numbers. in threes. or White-Russia. . vil- vary. the various Slavonic subjects of Austria or of Turkey. him with what 4 memories of the Russian peasantry. 27 30. under the influence of modern ideas. it may not be amiss to say a few words with respect to the heathen rites celebrated at funerals by the Old Slavonians. too poor to provide them for himself. Little. his richer neighbours are expected If any one is is to furnish necessary Before speaking about the relics of old poetry relating to the dead which have been preserved in the . or such scattered fragments of the stock as the Kashoubes of the and the Wends of Lusatia. and must be eaten without sauce. but still a marked similarity is to be found They which have been written of them. of course. This subject has been so ex- haustively treated by Kotlyarevskyin the erudite work to which we have already referred. according to the nationality and the religion of the villagers. / 313 should be remarked. and so forth. We will begin with the customs which are still ob- served on the occasion of a death in a Slavonic lage. that little more is required than to give a summary of his conclusions. especially among the Russians.MODERN FUNERAL it RITES. whether the describer had in view the inhabitants of in the descriptions Great. It need hardly be observed that.

" and stretch him on the floor. so that his rest may not be disturbed. is placed by the side of the lies all Within the house in which the dead man labour ceases.314 FUNEKAL SONGS. For this purpose they often take the patient from his bed. when it is much-frequente< said in the fol- lowing sketch that such and such practices occur. This practice is common to nearly all the Slavonic peoples. Some Slavo- nians place bread there also. and all else that is attached to or hanging from the ceiling. and sometimes a cup of water is set on the sill for the use of the departing soul. those who are in attendance on the sufferer When do their best to mitigate his dying agony. or in its hand. rule a lighted candle corpse. sometimes on a couch of straw. under the impression that his soul will flyaway together with the smoke. Thus in some parts of Euthenia they make a hole in the roof over the sufferer's head. and others set apart a As a general chair as a resting-place for the spirit. as with something of a kindred nature. it is not always meant that they are of notorious and constant occurrence. the course of a Slavonic peasant is evidently all but run. and in Bulgaria they sweep off the dust and cobwebs. sometimes on the bare earth. Some of the Slovaks also fumigate the dying person with burning grass. on which they think he would " die hard. among several of whom there prevails also the custom of clearing the way for the departing spirit. . and that. all old customs are fast dying out in neighbourhoods. "When all is over. the window is immediately opened.

and its live-stock. and an- nounce the change of ownership to trees. or handkerchief. or engage themselves in completing any thing that The Western the defunct may have left unfinished. Some keep up an old custom which used to be general among the Baltic Wends. especially requires on his long a handkerchief or towel.MODEEN FUNERAL RITES.' a similar Lusatian Wends make The announcement to their bees also." others go round with the tidings of death. I am your new one now. is which round the neck or waist. it is customary for his heir to make the round of his homestead. if . the dead man with what he with tied is journey. The body is generally washed after death. In some places a is burial garment. put on at once. among the South Slavonians for instance. which coin. others. master is its buildings. and the coin for the purpose of buying a place in the other world. this dressing is deferred Great care is taken to provide till a later period. Among the Polish Mazovians. and with a placed in the hand of the corpse. but in a Sdvan. or shroud. but in some parts of Ruthenia and Carniola this must be done while the dying person is still alive. of announcing a death by passing a black wand from hand to hand Lusatians still through the village. saying. 315 of the family prepare the body "for its long journey. wrapped in the The Russian pea- sants say that the dead man will require the handkerchief to wipe his face with after his long jour- ney. its J "Your former dead. as soon as a peasant is dead. but the money.

a professional mourner being called in for the purpose. [See p. someThe times thrown into the grave at the burial. the corpse has always been universal among the Slavonians. and a sister for a brother. 110. But in some places the lamenting is done by deputy. This may be in accordance with the idea. At the present day. was undoubtedly intended for the ghostly ferryman. and afterwards breaks out afresh at certain intervals. continues until the body still has been laid in the grave.316 FUNERAL SONGS.] In all Slavonic countries great stress has from time immemorial been laid on loud expressions of spirit. however. a daughter for a parent. These was formerly attended by laceration of the faces of the mourners. The keening begins immediately after a death. that a man's relatives must not mourn for him. to be used by the climbing has already been mentioned. As If there is no relative to per- form the duty. which were sometimes used for the purpose of closing the eyes of the dead. preserved among some of the inhabitants of Dalmatia and Montenegro. the Charon of the Slavonic The custom of providing money for spirit world. that their tears would cause him discomfort or even pain. the Russian PlaJcal\shchitsa > or Public . a mother for a son. a general rule a wife laments for her husband. not the handkerchief. it devolves upon a stranger. but practice varied with regard to the disposal of the coins. practice of furnishing the corpse with the parings of human and other nails. a custom grief for the dead. prevalent among so many different nations.

The Slovenes used these trunk-coffins up to the begin- many . Among most the corpse is not universal. and all who are him and say farewell to him. grob.~\ did not originally bear that meaning. [Lithuanian yrabas. for bread Liquor is (or corn) plays a considerable rites. his body is set in present kiss this purpose. for instance. The old heathen Slavonians commonly placed their dead in hollowed-out trunks of trees. but they employ planks in their graves. peoples are rich in stores of the wailings used on such occasions. Such a trunk is called koloda. but the practice is Neither the Bulgarians nor the Mon- tenegrines use regular coffins. is EITES. Slavonian peoples at the present day put into a coffin. part in the funeral The Pinsk peasantry. and drink and with it is to his prosperous journey. but it is among the Little-Russians and the Servians that they flourish most luxuriantly. and by that name a coffin is known in of the provincial dialects of Russia. but signified something dug out. After the dead man has been properly dressed. some appointed place. provided for brought bread. strew corn on the place it has occupied. when they take the corpse from the bench on which it is usually laid. and set bread on the spot which its shoulders have pressed.MODEEN FUNERAL Waller. The Russian word for coffin. Gothic graban. 317 generally employed at a funeral merely because she is better acquainted with the conventional expressions of grief than the relatives of the All Slavonic dead person can be expected to be.

carried out of the house The corpse was often through a window. and afterwards strews oats over the ground traversed by the funeral procession. which is used only in winter. his widow takes a new pitcher. but a light sort of vehicle . In some places. Among some doors. whence comes an old " to sit in a " to Russian phrase. it is customary in some parts of Poland to let loose all his cattle. In former times the corpse is said to have been conveyed on sani. that they may take attributed." But by the term sani was probably meant. For under the threshold live the domestic deities. In some places the old custom is still observed of placing on the threshold an axe. the guardians of the family. not the modern sledge. or at the threshold of the parts. or sign a cross with it. ning of the present century. and to this day the Raskolniks of the Chernigof Government still inter their dead in them.318 FUNERAL SONGS. or some other implement. the axe corresponding to the hammer to which. in Scandinavian mythology. a consecrating influence was so often the corpse of a rustic proprietor is being carried out." meaning be at the point of death. sledge. When leave of their old master. and the Czekhs used to shake the bier above the threshold. the souls of ancestors. after a man's body has left the house. and the custom is still kept up in many of the Hungarian Slavonians it was customary to tap three times with the coffin at the corner of the izba. and breaks it to pieces on the earth. or through a hole made for the purpose. a sledge .

for the conveyance of the corpse. we will pass over them for the moment. burnt. beams may warm As regards the ceremonies performed at the grave itself. Bohemians. they take a live coal from the hearth. and the cottage itself.MODERN FUNERAL RITES. written evidence exists . who carries a vessel containing live coals. avoided . painfully seeking it is its way. for fear she might prove barren for the future. these they pour water. having washed their hands. and fling it over their heads. and will now proceed to those which follow the actual interment. Among some v of the Croatians it customary to open the coffin before descends into the tomb. Among the South Slavonians the mourners. or place their hands on it. when returning from a funeral. in order that the sunit. and in the Of these no place to the rites of purification. to recur to them when we are dealing with the old burial customs of heathen times. On In R-uthenia they look steadfastly at the In olden times the stove. on their return from the funeral. are met by an old woman. their nature can be gathered only from the customs of the people. or strewed with corn. the straw of which : use has been its made is is principal room. 319 employed at seldom used mare was seasons of the year. After dark the ghost would have been obliged to wander about. among which first The bed on which the dying perare the following son lay is carried out of the house. or else. all A funeral rites have always been performed beThe sun had to show the disembodied fore sunset. spirit The the way to its future abode.

In olden days a memorial banquet was held in his honour on the third. Among the Servians neither the spades which dug the grave. even make a breaking ice for the purpose if necessary. and the other accessories of the burial are left for of three days outside the gates. however. the collective family dead. and fortieth day after his death. Strava. ninth. the space otherwise they After the purification comes the funeral banquet.320 FUNERAL SONGS. whereas its modern representative generally takes place in the house in which the death occurred. still celebrate it near the grave. and on its anniversary. but the horses are turned loose into the pastures. and he was re- membered in also in the feasts celebrated at springtide memory of the To Fathers. but that meal was held either on the grave or near it. looking back. these feasts it was customary to invite the dead. The Lusatian Wends still point of placing water between themselves and the dead as they return from a burial. sixth. This will is the descendant of the ancient presently which be described. nor the cart and horses which conveyed the coffin. The Bulgarians. are brought into the farm-yard. the partakers of which eat and drink to the memory of the dead. and in the Pinsk Government some of the funeral party are in the habit of rising from table in order to finish the meal above the tomb. With close. might introduce death into the homestead. and were accustomed to throw sticks and stones behind them. . this feast the funeral rite may be said to But the departed one is not soon forgotten.

taking care to pour out for the dead the first three spoonfuls of each dish. and they threw portions for their spirit. one in the Then they go passage. and I . and their hosts turned their attennourish them. sat down to table. tion to drink and merriment. and one in the izba itself. They also throw listen to its crackling. party stand silent for a time. 321 Silently the living standing before the open door. out of doors as if to meet their unseen guests. in which the inhabitants of a village sometimes celebrate a joint festival in honour of their collective dead. and invites the On his return the rest of the ancestors to the feast. indeed. as if listening to spiritual accents. is set on fire. some of them. one outside the front door. and in the middle of it place a vessel in which vodka. In the Government of Pinsk the peasants at their memorials cover a table with a white cloth. of the food under the table the share of What fell by accident was orphan souls who had no friends to After a time the unseen banqueters were escorted out.guests. or whiskey. The customs of the present day are of an equally heathenish nature. Having chosen a house for the purpose. and then begin to eat.BANQUET TO THE DEAD. But even stranger than this custom is one kept up in some parts of the Government of Olonets. on burning coals. seem to be even older than those just described. and When the memorial cakes salt are ready the oldest of the party walks round the house. they ate without using knives. gazes at the family graves. they spread three tables.

perhaps. our own ones . take something^to eat. the host which the dead had been lowered into the grave. of the Olonets Government. " Ye are tired. our own ones. and then enter the izba." 6 Description . it was not warm." After sitting down to the first table they pass on to There the masthe second. they had been let down into the grave 5 . burial. we will now turn to the rites of which they are fragments. From these interesting specimens of survival. and ding) is served. saying. tired it is the softer along the linen]. and your way for is not a [i. and on the road. in.322 FUNERAL SONGS. And the dead are supposed to descend farewell!" by means of the linen. when the Idsel (a sort of pud" opens the window. in God's name. for the evidence which its Russian investigators have " Taken from Dashkof s Tereshchenko. on the day of their you e. selves." yourThereupon the Warm living guests take their seats at table. 123. at the stove. " Doubtter of the house says to the ghostly visitors. celebrated the burial of their dead. just as." and then the whole party begins to escort the unseen visitors from the lets down into the street the linen in stove into the outer air. Just before the end of the repast. Now. feet "Now it is time for : you to go home. little one to must be Here travel. Though the subject is one of great interest I Slavonians. less ye have grown cold in the moist earth. those with which while yet heathens. return escorting them into the house with the words. the Old do not purpose to enter at all deeply into it.

including some sen- sational descriptions of the sacrifices which attended that them.D.D.D. . therefore. more so had it been clearly stated that Mousokios was really a Slavonian that the statement of Theophylactus was copied by Theophanes and by Anastasius the Libraand would have been . who had been too many celebrating a brother's funeral with wine cups a piece of evidence which is still valuable.ANCIENT FUNERAL RITES. that among the Slavonic Winedi. merely to allude to what has been said about Slavonic funerals by Greek." one Mousokios. that Theophylactus. some of which accounts were afterwards incorporated into his own work by Leo Y 2 the Deacon . or Wends. and captured " the king of the Barbarians. gave accounts of Slavonic burials. speech of excluIt will be sufficient. 886] . Arabian. relates how the Roman General Pris- cus penetrated into the Slavonic territory. rian [about A. 602] in his Strategica explained why the wives of Slavonian warriors refused to survive husbands. 755] testified. 323 brought together with regard to it is almost entirely derived from foreign and well-known sources. a passage which has during the travellers. early in the seventh century. Teutonic. Masudi. and Ibn Fozlan. full given first rise to much discussion . that Saint Boniface [A. the marriage tie was so strong that wives killed themselves when their husbands died. that half of the tenth century the Arabian Ibn Dosta. and other writers to mention how the Emperor Maurice their [f A. and my main object in the present work is to render intelligible to the general public the sively Slavonic witnesses.

such as the follow- ing : that the old Slavonians sometimes buried and sometimes burnt their dead. rities on the subject. that Otto. human sacrifices were offered on the occasion of a burial. in 1551. we will pass to the consideration of a few of the most important facts which their evidence appears to substantiate. letter or Meletius. wrote on the subject.P. " De Diis Samogitarum" is too well known to require more than sacrificiis et ydolatria De a passing reference 6 Having thus alluded to some of the chief autho. and repeated by Lasicius in his work. in his veterum Borussorum. 1018]. 6 and that the burial and sometimes by Kotlyarevsky. . contains a graphic sketch of a funeral among its pictures of Ruthenian life in the sixteenth century. at his funeral. has left behind him some valuable pieces of evidence in his letters forbidding burials in woods and fields. was followed always by a feast. and that it was not an uncommon occurkill rence for a man's widow to herself. Dithmar. that. Bishop of Merseburg [A. or allow herself to be killed.324 FUNERAL SONGS. pp. published at Cracow in 1584.D. The testi- mony borne by Menetius. and other heathenish customs that from the writings of Cosmas of . Bishop of Bamberg be made . in some cases at least. and that the Latin poem by Klonowicz. Prague. called Roxolania. martial games. 42 153. who died in 1125. in honour of the dead. 1125]. and made one remark in particular to which reference will presently [A. copious information is to be gained .

moreover. exactly opposite opinion. Others have divided the heathen Slavonians into two reli- / gious sects. Christians so long as they were but gave up the practice . acting in accordance with old family traditions. again. and a great amount of writing has been bestowed upon the adverse theories of Dobner and Anton the first of . and then buried their ashes. spots in which they deposited either the bodies or the ashes of their departed rela- As regards the . used to burn their dead. but that some Slavonians buried without burning. whereas the Teutons burnt. while burnt their dead. while the second maintained an Some writers. it is not uncommon to find others first traces of both customs in the same tomb : near the remains of a corpse interred without cremation lie the ashes of one which has been calcined or at least partially burnt. but took to burying them when they accepted a settled form of life. while Nomads. Others. while poor ones could only get buried. have explained that the Slavonians. and a fourth set on becoming of scholars have sug- gested that rich Slavonians used to be burnt. After duly weighing all these arguments. have held that the Slavonians used to burn their dead heathens. each of which had its own ideas about burial.ANCIENT FUNERAL RITES. whom asserted that the Slavonians buried. In excavating. 325 The question as to whether the Old Slavonians disposed of their dead by interment or by cremation has given rise to much discussion. Kotlyarevsky arrives at the conclusion that there never was any general rule.

that they may have buried the remains of their dead within their dwellings. times hills. so far as the European period of their history person is connected with navigation. Someand especially caves in hills. . various FUNERAL SONGS. and the excavations which have been made in Slavonic lands bear out this idea. but these boats may merely have been intended to allude to the (atmospheric) sea which the soul had to cross after death. Whether the Slavonians ever sent their dead on an actual sea it is afloat impossible to say. under the threshold. p. or at least boat- The term nav' for a dead supposed by some writers to imply ideas is concerned. the spot still selected by many of their descendants for the burial of unchristened babes.326 tives. the accounts of the foreigners who have written on the subject it may be gathered that it 7 From Kotlyarevsky. were used for the reception of corpses at funerals. The Baltic Slavonians fields and the Czekhs are known to have chosen and forests for this purpose. but the geographical position of most of them renders such an idea improbable. customs seem to have prevailed. General cemeteries do not seem to have been among (except for strangers) the heathen Slavonians. shaped cases. 227. for no ancient word for 7 known such places occurs in any Slavonic dialect . and there seems to be reason for supposing that boats. were chosen In very remote times it is possible as burial-places. the tombs having almost always been found to stand either singly or in family groups.

one of the trees connected with the lightning. and many other things which were likely to conduce towards their comfort and happiness aids to the ladders. mention has already been But by far the most important among the companions of the dead were the human beings who either killed themselves. after the family had taken a last farewell of the dead. or were put to death. widows used to destroy themselves in order to accompany their dead husbands to the world of spirits. Of certain material aspiring soul. and nail-parings. namely.sacrifice " among many of the European nations. their dress. Together with the corpse various objects were The dead took with them to the burnt. perhaps. upon the occasion of a funeral." prevailed >: the heathen Slavonians. and at an earlier period there can be rite no doubt that ee a of suttee. other world. according to the popular belief. their arms. in the grave. and their ornaments. such as leather thongs. which. a thousand years ago. but it is not certain. on a pyre. that a particular kind of wood was always used on such occasions that. Tylor remarks of "widow. or buried. or other wooden case containing the corpse. It has was lighted by one of their number.ANCIENT FUNERAL RITES. been supposed. 327 was customary among the old Slavonians to place the boat. of an ancient among Aryan rite belonging originally to a period even . their favourite horses and other animals. as Mr. like that of modern India. seems to rest on incontestable evidence . of the thorn. made. The fact that. the descendant. in Slavonic lands.

them they girls would die with him. and among the former those Moravian songs in which the dead are described as rising from their graves. the latter may be reckoned the so-called " marriages between the living and the dead.328 earlier FUNERAL SONGS. body might be burnt with that of her lord in others she was expected to allow herself to be buried alive with his corpse." I. is dead Potok In addition to being accompanied by his widow. with whom he became acquainted " in asked his which of place. wrinkled witch. which have already been mentioned. One answered that she would. was solaced by the sacrifice of some of his slaves. 421 . in order that her . the Builina in which the buried together with his living wife. To this practice there are many- allu- sions in the Among " songs and the customs of the people. if a man of means and distinction." 8 favourite wife to hang herself. and some other poems of a similar nature." and who bore the 1 E. The fullest description of what occurred on such an occasion is that given by Ibn Fozlan. died. the heathen Slavonian. B. and carrying off their wives or their betrothed. i was customary for the dead man's . ." whereupon she was handed over to the care of the Bulgaria. who declares that he was an eyewitness of what took " KusAccording to him. two daughters of an old woman who had the appearance of a " yellow. than the Veda it some places According to Ibn Dosta. where the subject is discussed at length. when one of the " sian merchants. Tylor's " Primitive Culture.

and so gave them as a prey to worms and corruption . that of her lord. but unfortunately it is not quite " Russians " were. says Ibn Fozlan. By his side are all his He calls me : bring me to him !" men and boys. in a ship which had been taken from the river for the purpose. which she gave two men to pull. so that Her dead body was then placed beside she died. and a pair of fowls.- ! my my and again." and at the same time drove a knife in between her ribs. two horses. and so obtained admittance into Paradise. she cried out three times. " Look there do I see mother !" father and set on fire. and finally the ship was " wooden images of men and Just before the girl was killed. He sits in Paradise.ANCIENT FUNERAL KITES." human corpses were placed those of a dog. and Rasmussen repudiates them as Scandinavians on account of the want of modesty attributed to their scribes . ! " Look ! I see all my relations sitting ! together there !" and finally. saying. lord so beautiful ! " Look There is is my Paradise so green. whereas they themselves burnt their dead at once. for them without delay is The whole of the narrative remark- ably interesting. 329 name of " The Angel of Death. and which was propped up by four trees and surrounded by With the giants. And after all was over the "Russians" scoffed at their Arabian friend as belonging to a race who buried their dead. Ibn Fozlan declear who these them as the filthiest people he had ever seen." the final over her till moment in They kept watch which " the woman neck a twisted called Death's angel fixed about her rope.

Friihn. the remains have been discovered of bodies which seem to have been interred. in others. Upon the mound." at St. and placed in a memorial urn. that the ashes of the dead were collected the day after the cremation. or small wooden house. M. but some Russian critics think they must have been Varangian traders 9 . on piled the other hand. which was set up on the mound. in which not only the soul might find rest and it is shelter when visiting the body in which it used to abide. Chwolson. custom are still to be found in Russia. but also the relatives of the dead when they Traces of this came to mourn over his remains.330 FUNERAL SONGS. states that the mound was above the funeral pyre. into Danish. In some of the tombs which have been explored. Above the spot on which the funeral rites were Ibn Dosta says celebrated. Ibn Dosta' s work was published for the first time in Petersburg. with a German translation by C. vases have been found containing bones which showed traces of fire. 9 Rasmussen had previously translated Magazine. In olden days every one who was present religious at a funeral deemed it a duty to assist in the erection of the mound. a mound was heaped. the editor. and then to have had mounds piled above them. with notes and a Russian translation by . just as now every bystander throws a handful of earth into the grave. of Blackwood's it 1869. Ibn Fozlan. king . and an English " rendering of his version appeared in the 4th vol. supposed. Prof. In the Ibn Fozlan's narrative was published in 1823 by the Russian Academy of Sciences. a memorial was set up in the shape of a tent.

sterner e\ [from straujan it as a Slavonic word. Postquam talibus lamentis est deflectus. we know that it took the form of a meal of some kind. followed by games and contests. the cross memorial it. Kleinere Schriften. But Kotlyarevsky claims Among some of the Slavonians was celebrated the solemn rite of parting with the dead. tione concelebrant. and means a funeral pyre feast. 239. a term sometimes applied to the roofed commonly set up over a grave. honouring the dead which could only have prevailed among a warlike people such as in a like manner honoured a dead Patroclus or Beowulf and therefore it does not seem to have been known to all Those of the south were partially the Slavonians. as regards the latter. the WhiteRussians still. laceration . horseIt was a form of races and personal combats. 49. called the Its name and its nature are both involved Trizna. cap. The words in which Jornandcs describes a part of the ceremonies performed at the burial of Attila " are well known. and. is held above the grave. 331 Government of Chernigof. in some uncertainty. but the former is supposed to be akin to terzanie. Among most of the Slavonic tribes." . ingenti conimessaDe Getarum Oriyine. quam appellant ipsi. stra1 vam super tumulum ejus.ANCIENT FUNEBAL RITES. erect over graves a kind of log-hut. 1 . Such a condistricts struction is known in some other as a Golubets. IT. directly after the funeral rites were over came the Strava. for instance. = . in spite of ecclesiastical prohibitions. or close beside According to Jacob Grimm the name Strava one of Gothic origin.

placect the "bundle on his mother's coffin. and of sometimes a corpse which has not lain long in the ground has to make way for a new comer. 252. had within the space of three years. That of the 2 rites celebrated every spring by the Slavonien. . . tied them up in a clean white towel. as quoted by Kotlyarevsky. and any stranger who happens to expire is buried in it a custom due to the lingering influence of the old idea. that the grave required a victim. p. it. their respect for it increasing with the number protecting "Fathers" whose abidingThis custom has been kept up in place it became. washed them with red wine. After the tomb had closed over the body or the ashes of the dead. and now lives in the memorial meal which follows a Russian funeral. certainty to With the course From time to time it was opened 'of new tenants. Csaplovics states that he was himself an eyewitness of the : following occurrence A Slovene. 184. and then buried the remains of his two parents together 2 A similar practice prevails in Bulgaria. if no relative dies died. whose mother dug up the corpse of his father. some Slavonic countries till the present day . the family tomb is opened. where. and it is known with have existed among the Russians. it is said. for the heathen for the reception Slavonians often buried in one such receptacle the remains of many generations. I.332 acquainted with EUNEKAL SONGS. of time it passed into the form of the Strava. it did not always remain intact. collected iis bones.

of the friendless dead. or keens. has been shown to their in the account given of the Rddunitsa. uttered at . says the names of those for whom Karamzin. and. They did not know they prayed. be added one more. 333 Old Slavonians in memory of their dead. the bodies of the unknown and uncared-for dead which winter in the had accumulated during the "poor-houses" set Ubogie domui apart for the reception of the bodies of friendless strangers.ANCIENT FUNERAL RITES. and would let their prayers be of good effect. and to have divine service performed for the souls. or of persons who had been murdered or who had of all died suddenly. in fact. and to that silver which was bought with the thirty pieces of " "to bury strangers in to which the chawere wont to resort on the seventh ritable citizens Thursday after Easter. many traces are still to be found in the customs of their descendants. at the commencement of every spring. there to dig graves for the bodies. and of such entertainments as the Olonets villagers offer descriptions may To these family ghosts. that of the old Russian practice of burying. took the dead bodies from their temporary buried them decently in conThere was a cemetery near secrated ground. During the winter these corpses lay in pits dug within the " poor-houses. funeral wailings. And now let us turn to the poetry itself to the complaints. " Potter's Field " in Moscow called the allusion resting-place. but they trusted that God would know. for the remains the waifs and strays of humanity." in the spring charitable people met together.

the fiery lightnings. dart of the thunder. at a later period. or. these zapldchJci are improvised on the spot. At times. four sides Split open. etc. Fly away to the blue sea. to complain]. and so were those in which mothers used to lament the departure of their sons to the army. All on my father's grave And A star has fallen. Into a bright. a swift-winged falcon . will serve as a specimen of this class The following : From the side of the East Have risen the wild winds. the death or the burial of a relative. and the spirits of the dead as manifesting themselves to mortal eyes in the form of birds.334 FUNERAL SONGS. sweet lips ! Turn thyself. white hands. to the Caspian. are those in which the lightning is represented as rending graves open. white shroud. over his grave pldchld. zapldehM. my own father. for instance. or Prichitan'ya = to \j)richitdt' read beside. The moist mother Earth! Do On thou all fall to pieces. Unfold. as has already been shown. coffin planks. but most of them have been handed down by tradition from a very remote age. has fallen from heaven . Split open. To the blue sea. Fall away. . Such. From over the bold heart. And do ye become parted. With the roaring thunders. The songs with which a bride bewails the loss of her girlish freedom are called Prichitan'ya. \_plaltat\ ~to cry]. ! mother Earth.

from a Perm collection. bear frequent witness. 3 Quoted by Orcst Miller. I. 11. also. or at least at the time when the bride and bridegroom are betrothed by the joining of hands. or stories. The spirit invoked in the za/pldchhi is usually that of a parent. 335 Wash. But to bless me. off. It was generally a wizard. Come flying. From thy white face the mould. and longed to do who sympathized it good service. but even the spirits of persons who had led blameless lives might be induced. or were- wolves. my father. or witch. in which the dead assumed a baleful shape. my own father. the young one. To thy own home. But there were cases. or some other disreputable character who behaved in this manner after death. there is none . and. for instance in the following lament There are who will give me to eat and to drink.SONGS ABOUT THE DEAD. thirsting for human blood. as vampires. and the parental blessing is is bestowed on her : such : the case. to the lofty terem Listen. . ran riot through the world. Neither the father dear who nourished me. my father. direst. to which the Skazki. to revenge themselves on their forgetful survivors. . Nor the mother dear who bare me. if proper respect was not paid to them. being usually the spirit of a parent with a child. To our songs It of sadness! 3 was generally a friendly ghost that thus revisited the earth beneath the pale glimpses of the moon. who is entreated to be present at the wedding of an orphan bride.

Many. To be at the striking fast of hands. Much has the fair maiden. in. The same complaint. is for the heard in the wailings of a girl who.336 FUNEEAL SONGS. . At the At the last farewell. Such as she now needs. life-long blessing *. the moment of swift death. Or in the summer fair. my father In his very last hour. Only the green oak Has no golden top. Much wealth of kin. There is no rain. Many a near neighbour. many on the green oak. my own brother. No gilded vane. my sunlight. the same longing parental blessing. Many a branch and spray is there. Many and many a relative. For At dear promised. and yet it shakes. to have Such as now -it ought At this very time. 4 Kuibnikof. 423. Or in the ample spring. There is no wind. Many a green branch . See. in rude and untutored language. Many a close friend. Only the fair maiden Has no mother dear. If from the Nikolsk oak-wood Comes not the father dear who nourished me. laments a mother's death : There stands a green oak on the hill. but it is wet.

The next zapldchka also a very unpolished one gives utterance to the grief of a the death of a young child. Now on this day The sun burns not as in summertide. 423. A " " Why hast thou deserted " Thy mother forlorn ? " Not a word can I gain. in. " My own. 5 One of Ruibnikof. To my own. But the most remarkable among the group of from which we have been quoting. In sorrow and tears. For the great marriage-blessing. With what a fall have I let fall. complaints that collected by Ruibnikof in the neighbourhood of Lake Onega. are the two which are intended to be sung at the funeral of the father of a family. 417. my loved one. my loved My own heart's love. unhappy 6 . . But to bless her there is none 5 . single " To my careworn heart " Oh listen. I will sadly mother who bewails go one. my darling child !" Now am I indeed a mother ill-fated cuckoo ill-starred in a green pine-wood. Z . Such am " I. To my " loved beloved. . ITT. 337 At this very time.AN OKPHAN'S LAMENT. my loved. There are who will give her to eat and drink. 6 Ruibnikof. ill-fated. . not as in the spring. " Not a secret word. ! ! Tell me. With what a loss have I lost ! Warms I will go this day. 418.

would have fed the wandering cripple. And I should have seen swift Death. I have rendered it. form is used it. least. it is placed upon a table. it in which is it is that of great antiquity. When the soul was divided from the white body ? And how did swift Death come to thee ? she as a beggar-woman. And she would have left me my wedded spouse. And would have shod her with goatskin boots. I 7 The lurldk is here a man who goes up to the city to work for wages. turning to the widow. at full. Had she come as a wandering cripple Had would have spread the hospitable table. would have clothed her in coloured vestments. Wert thou present at the parting of the spirit. it although it seems worthy of being translated in runs to some length. Then I should have been sitting by the painful bedside. And would have given her a silken girdle. brisk and burly ? 7 Or as a stout burlak from Petersburg ? Came The widow replies : I been living in a rich and ample state. The language written proves. Or as a brave youth. without attempting to trim After the body has been washed and dressed. : Wert thou sitting by the painful bedside.338 them. . brisk and I I burly. And if she had come as a brave youth. say Russian critics. and the relatives gather around Then. a wandering cripple. word for word. they address her In the case of poor people the following in song. If she had come as a stout Petersburg burlak. FUNERAL SONGS.

If I were to get rid of my great misery : : In a glorious wide lake. Nor goatskin boots for the feet. Nor uncounted wealth of gold. For their fertile corn-fields would be covered over. And she would have left me my wedded spouse. It would become an obstacle to the fishermen. my little ones Without my wedded spouse Shall I lose myself in the dark forest. the cause of many cares. the thoughts in my head are in mind confusion. How The untimely light fades I bring up shall from dear ? my eyes. In our house there is no hospitable table. Or drown in a swift brook. So as to get rid of my great misery ? If I become a wandering beggar.A WIDOW'S LAMENT. And rid myself of my great misery in the open field. When the soul was divided from the white body. But as I live in an accursed and unhappy condition. And on the meadows stones that never gave way So there would be no room for my misery . There would be never-moving rocks under the waters of the lake. : Were I to get rid of it in the whirling river Svir.woman's strength is toil. z 2 . I 339 would have given her uncounted wealth of gold. Or fling myself into some round lake. So I did not see my lawful spouse. Then from my great misery Would spring up thick forests No room would there be there for my misery The neighbours living around would forbid it. little With Too great her for the peasant. children dear. In our house are no sweet dainties. Too great Well nigh for her all are her accursed cares. Neither are there clothes for youth.

my wedded spouse . in dear children [and see].asking from the Lord God. Mother Earth. Angels and Archangels. moist And be thou open. If moist Mother Earth splits open. I have won-thee-by. speech in the wise head. But never didst thou speak to me about this swift death. white light in the clear eyes do thou arise. Bow low. For stagnant would become the spring waters the rivers. ! Make : . And come flying from heaven. is it Do thou forgive me. new coffin-planks. For now has this life become weariness.340 FUNEKAL SONGS. It is plain that my wedded spouse remains angry With me. Pay me greeting Not alone have I invited thee. hateful To to me. according to what is written. preserved my wedded spouse. spouse. remain in this home life. Whether moist Mother Earth will not split open. my wedded spouse Thou and I have taken counsel together. Split open. on whose head are many miseries. set the soul in the ! the sign of the cross. But with me I bring thy dear children And let us return to our home life. my wedded I would have given up so have And my dear children. Straightway will I and my children bury ourselves I will take my So in it. And And And And white breast. according to the fashion of the wise. the miserable one. Roaring cataracts would become fixed there There too would be no room for my misery. I would not have given thee up.

WAILINGS OVEE THE DEAD. but is intended to be employed in well -to-do households. in. but I fear to trespass on the patience of my readers. 410413. in which so much conveyed by daring diminutives which would be utterly void of meaning to our minds expression is were an attempt made to translate them. due to the In some jealous care of the professional mourners. says Ruibnikof. the to sob or Voplenitsa [yopit* " Crieress " is a personage wail]. parts of Russia their profession is unknown. so lengthy as are these for the most part. neighbourhood of Lake Onega. It is one which I would fain translate at equal length with its predecessor. and strengthens without impeding. I have remained in 341 husband's house. Bread and salt have I not set eyes on. Clearly this thing cannot be. Ruibnikof. the professional of no small importance. unaffected. to whom I can convey but little idea of the merit of the original. but archaic language. moulded in a form which holds together and sustains without cramping. and upon the measured verse in which it moves. or = who " watches over the genuineness of social rites 8 . in the PlaJcal' shchitsa. The companion song is of a similar nature. but in the remote districts in which Ruibnikof made his collections. depending as that does to a great extent upon the charm of its simple. That one dead shall return from the grave An orphan must I be without my husband 8 my : . The preservation of poems widows' wailings is. . She it is. And my misery have I not diminished but increased. and there the songs are dying out most quickly.

who and sings zapldchki expressive of the sorrow a young girl feels at leaving her family and going into " a strange and far-off land. and intones almost every song. of which we have already spoken. she guides the course of marriages. they first shake their heads over it for a few minutes. says Tereshchenko. and begin whimpering. It was from the lips of an excellent specimen of her class. in the arrangement of which also the PlakdU shcMtsa in some districts takes a leading part. all by seeing that the traditional ceremonies are observed. or com- memorations of the dead. At a funeral. On those occasions it is customary for to go out to the graves of their relatives. the PlaJcaV shcMtsa attends the bride. and by supplying the sad songs in which the relations of the dead are expected to express the grief they feel at their loss. that she was frequently invited into outlying districts and even into one. also. or lamentations for the dead. or.342 it is FUNERAL SONGS. and there to wail or keen. Throwing themselves on the grave. that the Prichitaniya. who was so celebrated for her zapl&chki. she settles every detail. are to be heard. It is chiefly at the time of the Pomniki. and their faculty of improvisation that Ruibnikof gathered some of the best of his nuptial and funereal laments. she renders invaluable aid. as the Russians express it. then . the natives of which were famous for their knowledge of such lore. a PlaJcal''shchitsa. funera and memorial feasts/' On the day of betrothal." and during the whole course of the ceremonies preceding that which takes place in church. golosit \_golos women voice].

wild wind do thou arise. " in what have ye. throwing both arms about the mound. wind. so that the departed may not in darkness consume their bold hearts. that on account of are steeped in sorrow 9 . we hear 110 words of kindness. arise at midnight. that you have no welcome for us. and at last.WAILINGS OVER THE DEAD. louder and louder still. 343 they take to wailing a little. that for them all their kinsmen are painfully all longing. our own. . intended to be recited over a grave on the twentieth of April. early in the morning. "0 thou moon. is ! 9 Quoted by Orest Miller from Sakharof. ! Rise. until they may be heard over the whole to it. n. do not assume a metrical form. on longed-for whom are we orphans to rest our hopes ? From no quarter do warm breezes breathe on us. 23. with sadness one To whom hast thou left us. they press their bosoms raising their voices all the time. nor in the darkness go sorrowing about the white world. nor languish in woe. These lamentations. so that our departed ones may not sit in darkness. though of a decidedly poetical nature." them their kinswomen a specimen of an orphan's wailings above her mother's grave: " mother dear that bare me. no joy. no parental charm? thou sun. make bright with joyous light all the graves. our own fathers and mothers we angered you. bring to our dear departed the welcome bright sun ! ! ! tidings. rise at midnight. it should be observed. Good folks turn away from us. rise at eventide. " And. here. of the cemetery. nor in the darkness pour forth burning tears to their dear children. vii. nor endure endless longing. make bright with joyous light all the graves. Here is a specimen of a Priehitame. And by way of conclusion. bright moon Rise.

he says. Several specimens are given in Passow's Carmina " popularia Qrcecice recentioris. dear. give us a word of kindness hast hardened thy heart harder than stone. 103. ye wild winds. " my white cygnet for what journey hast thou prepared and equipped thyself. The myrologion." p." Almost all Greek women possess the faculty of improvisation to some degree. from which side may : ! ! ! we expect " thee ? ! Be ye Arise." n. 247. An interesting description of a Russian cemetery on one of the "Parents' Days" is given by Madame Romanoff in her "Rites and Cere- monies of the Greco-Russian Church. us. and hast folded thy uncaressing hands over thy heart. thou mother. in the full sense of the term. Quoted from Dashkof by Tereshchenko. of which Fauriel gives so Tnler^sting an account in the introduction to his Chants populaires de la G-rece Moderne. from all sides borne. but us it heats not scarcely does it warm Have a care for us. See also Tozer's Researches i Myrologia are now sung by women the Highlands of Turkey. but excellence is of course rare.344 FUNERAL SONGS. In Asiatic Greece and in the Islands there are professional myrologists whose functions are very similar to those of the Russian " wailers. and a good " myrolo- " \ gist holds in her own village a distinguished position. but in olden times men also sang them. in. a poetic improvisation inspired by grief. on the Strike. 241. O green mother-grave No. There is a striking resemblance between the Russian zaplacJiTci and those myrologia of the modern Greeks. winds. into the Church of God Sweep the moist earth wild winds. open ! ! Will not words of kindness ? " great bell 1 ! 3 its sounds and mine awaken 102. " is. our kinsfolk renounce us rust eats into our orphaned hearts. ." The only. The red sun burns in the midst of the hot summer. .

THE ideas which were prevalent among the heathen Slavonians with respect to the life beyond the grave. villages.spread and deeply rooted belief in the supernatural powers of necromancers and other dealers in magic. the most addicted to conjuring we ought not to wonder at the fact that the Russians used to be no less remarkable for a steadfast faith in the east of powers of sorcery and witchcraft than were our own forefathers. But when. as obedient to the impulse of a morbid till soil . of all European peoples. as responsive to the influence of the imagination. in addition to these causes. and their belief in the close communion of mortals with the inhabitants of the spiritual world. are of themselves sufficient to account for the wide. the remains of which are to this day very plainly manifest in Russia. Nor is it unintelligible the isolation of and the dearth of education being taken into account why the their descendants. the peasants who now of Russia. should be as prone to superstition. we consider the great influence which the Finnish races have had upon the Slavonic in the North- Europe the Finns being. SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT.CHAPTER VI.

At present I propose to give merely the briefest possible sketch of the history of witchcraft in Russia. For in olden times the zagddka. or spells i high degree of importance was attached. the Christmas festivals. an oracular utterance. but full of enlightenment to those who rightly understood it. who still believe in spirit-rappings. 131 141. And therefore the zagddki which have come down to our time. as illustrative of some of the songs sung by the people. Tylor calls it \_gaddt* = to guess]. the propounding or guessing of riddles is looked upon merely as an amusement by the Russian peasantry. corrupt and mutilated as their present forms in many cases are. in which the people delight so much. and to some extent claims to be performed as a duty of an almost religious character.346 SOECERT AND WITCHCRAFT. preserve." i. the " sense thing of riddle. its it resumes some- old dignity. and of a branch of Russian folk-lore which is closely connected with the popular poetry. as in other lands. prefacing it with a few remarks upon the zagddki. and wizard-elongations time and space would be should undertake to describe the relics of the magical arts of their ancestors which the Russian peasants still Much needed by any one who 1 . in the Slavonic. i pri m itive Culture. as those benighted Orientals of whom Mr. Tylor tells us. and planchette-writings. was. but during the SvyatJci. clothed in dark language. an enigma fraught with mythical meaning. the zagovorui. fancy. . and to which in old days ." as Mr. or riddles. Except at one period of the year.

that the propounding of . V. 25. Afanasief. riddles was attributed by the Slavonians to such mythical beings as the Russian Rusalkas or the Servian Yilas. and by their means a number of cosmical myths have been preserved in compact forms." They originally were condensed myths. or at least mythical formulas. finding likenesses to them in various material shapes. In them peasantry have unconsciously preserved " the views about " God's world current among their illiterate an remote ancestors. I. and who treated the unfortunate mortals who could not read their riddles aright with as scant courtesy as was shown by the Sphinx to the travellers who preceded GEdipus. 347 frequently serve to throw light upon the mythological ideas of the old Slavonians. For to many of the zagddJd may be applied the expression used by Professor Max Miiller in speaking of certain proverbs. unnoticed by the casual observer. that they are " chips of mythology. as it were. P.ENIGMAS. but easily to be recognized by the experienced eye. the questions which daring speculators in far-off ages had asked and had tried to answer with reference to the great forces of nature 2 It was on account of this close connexion between the zagddka and the myth. 3 . often yield us fragments of their mythological language. S. S The oldest zagddlci seem to have referred to the elements and the heavenly bodies. In some of what appear to be the most ancient of their number. all of whom were supposed to be thoroughly versed in enigmatical lore. .

ing across the [heavenly] sea." or the stars to "peas In a Lithuanian zagddka " a sieve full of the sky is likened to nuts. instance. making the earth Afanasief. which the dogs bark at but cannot reach. interesting account of the riddle E." and the same idea is found in one of its Slovak cousins. [celestial] sea without wetting it I. the animals which figure in the zagddki. S. is An among savages I. and to read that writing is given neither to priests nor to deacons. Tylor. B. which neither princes nor priests can put together again." in which a golden ship [the moon]. for the moon." Equally poetic is that Slavonic version of "Humpty sail- Dumpty. P. is A somewhat similar idea conveyed by the tradition shared by the Russians with many other nations. or the crescent moon to " a crust of bread hanging in a larder." which there is is also mentioned one very big nut which Of a more poetic nature are those Russian zagddki. a There is inscribed a writing on blue velvet. in which the stars are likened to a fiery inscription on the surface of the sky. in scattered about a mat. compared to a dish of butter. whic suffices for the whole world. crumbles into fragments [the stars]. that God uses the old moons to make stars of. the horse and the cow occupy prominent places. 81 85. given by Mr.348 the sun is SOECEBY AND WITCHCRAFT. nor to wise moujiks 3 ." pp. V. 52. . " Primitive Culture. Among Sometimes [as the moon] the horse its traverses the . as. hoofs sometimes [as the thunder] 3 tears along.

. the thunder. which is called in Russian the vechernaya (or evening) zaryd. the night. and shut out light with a single feather. 349 tremble beneath black cow frequently represents the night." " A all Sometimes the stars move like "a bevy of swans. the dew. In some of them the dawn \_Zarya] is represented as a fair maiden who has lost her The moon takes no notice of them. But perhaps the most interesting of the mythical zagddki are those in which the sun and moon. which the moonlight does not affect." or the sun stands afar off in the heavens. as bird has waved her wing. as in the following instance " A black cow has overthrown the whole world it. and the storm. e. but the sunbeams dry up. fire " to set the red cock free. and a white one the day.ENIGMAS. the dawn." i. The keys are. as " Sits on an ancient oak a bird which neither king nor queen nor maiden fair can seize. of course. but the keys. In one variant they are lost by the Zarya when she shuts the [heavenly] gates." And sometimes cock" appears in the guise of "a red an idea expressed also in the popular saying. to light the fire." Sometimes Birds also are frequently mentioned. In this case she probably is the after-glow of sunset. are likened to human beings. : A but a white cow has set it up again. sun picks them up.

They saw is : The following about fire. and is never satisfied. the Dawn.350 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. The and never tired of playing. 510. But he idea closely akin with that of the dialogue in the Rig Yeda." is a shepherd and the stars are his sheep. moon saw them. which. Second Series. drinks. Max Miiller's p. earth. brother [the Day] to " make her his wife. " Lectures on the Science of Language. in its allusions at least. and dropped her keys. in which the Night implores her An refuses. and water. and lifted them up." The next " is a poetic. but said nothing. and never full. The sun saw them." the dawn. but it he sin that a we may quote an enigmatic description of is death. went wandering The through the forest." saying. The second third plays." sister A visit. . and plunged into the water. They have called 4 brother should marry his sister . a fair specimen of a large but common-place class " There are three brothers. though not a novel per: sonification of day and night goes to pay a brother a hides himself from his sister. Finally. thoroughly Slavonic 4 : See Prof. is Here " The one of the fair many forms of this zagddka : maiden. or they are goats which hide when they see the dawn : Sometimes the moon " There were goats crossing a bridge. is The is first eats.

." In this is often spoken of as instance a woman is holding it by the handle. 91. The same difficulty would be met with in compre: hending the following enigma 6 Sakharof. Has eaten much of all. 351 In the ocean-sea. it would be difficult to find the meaning of this dark saying." that the ulchvat. to have any many may is generally either because their readers are unaware of the similarity between certain objects mentioned in them which was apparent to their framers. The babe in his cradle. stance. while its did we not know horns support a pot taken from the oven. ii. For Buydn. Of the zagddki which do not seem claim to be considered mythological. some of their words have been For inunconsciously altered by their reciters. She has seen the Tsar in Moscow. sec infra. or oven-fork. nonsensical but that the course of time. 374. at first sight.ENIGMAS. in appear. or because. I. p. And she has not eaten that Which is wanting in the sea 5 . . She boasts and brags That she has seen all. Sits the bird Yustritsa. but his tail is out of doors in the woman's hands. The elder in his cell. The king in Lithuania. " the horned one. " The ox in the cattle-shed has a haycock on his horns. On the island Buyan.

too often has good reason for turning that instrument is alluded to in the " Tsar Kostyantin [Constantine] drives saying The metaphor is. " The bay mare went about the is come into our hands. meaning and so being an epithet thoroughly ap\_kost* mbone]. is supposed to be As specimens described in the words.352 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT." One of the uses of a comb one to which the Rus- sian peasant. thither swept." respects. kostyanoy. and a comb. unfortunately. dim. Mitka and so Mitya']. in other horses across a fence. field. only too intelligible. as for kostyan. or plicable to a comb." came t were we not aware that the sieve therein alluded to is made of horsehair. of verbal corruption may be quoted the following riddles about a besom. and went under the bench." There seems to be no sense in calling a besom Demetrius [Dimitry. and went under the bench. but the saying is made reasonable by reading " Hither swept [mete or metyo]. The vyenik y a whisk or besom. thither Mitya. " Hither Mitya. but why should a comb be named Constantine? The explanation is clear when the Little-Russian variants are coninstance the enigmatical statement " The toothed that kostyan drove pigs over a hill" " made of bone" sulted. and that a part has been taken by the enigmatist for the whole. In the Great-Russian riddle for the rational kostyan has been substituted the like-sound- .

many of them. which spread so widely during the middle ages.ENIGMAS. that to this day the Russian peasants retain among their own stories some of those which they borrowed. and has prefixed to it a valuable essay containing much information on the subject. taking the place of coin. tween the Druzhka. P. of which the bride is the subject. (dim. S. Among other things. on the occasion of a marriage. a bargain. Khudyakof has printed a collection of them. indeed. the bridegroom and his friends are not allowed to enter the bride's cottage until they have answered all the riddles her friends propound to them and in one of the villages in the Yaroslaf Government. were fully appreciated in Slavonic lands . 353 of Kostyantin. centuries ago. V. 1705 in number. or the Sultan whom a Croatian ver- sion of a familiar tale represents as ordering a supposed Abbot to solve three problems the last being * Afanasief. answered by gestures instead of in words. is concluded be. and the "seller of " the bride riddles. in the Government of Pskof. about such foreign personages as Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. or groomsman. on similar occasions. so impressed the popular mind. he mentions that. ing but quite meaningless 6 Kostya) Constantine . A a . name Among the Russian peasantry these riddles have always enjoyed great popularity. The Oriental tales about riddles. in the " sixth volume of the Ethnographical Collection [slornilc]" of the Russian Geographical Society. 23. I.

stories are those in which." : request being granted. let his head be cut off. " Thou hast introduced treason into orthodox Russia.354 " SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT." think I am the Abbot." to What am which the answei "You cook. the Tsar at once seen through by the sage. and thou wilt never be able to root Still it out 7 . my father. offering to pay him twelve barrels of gold he is he finds them out. viu. 7 Her Ivan the Foolish. to guess riddles if I guess any one's riddles. " Permit me. but I interest than such am really the Of more avowedly bor- rowed not Oriental potentates. the Slavonic 459. At last the inevitable Ivan-Durak. various suitors set conundrums. who says to the dishonest monarch. I thinking. one of these." interesting are the riddle. such as Ivan In the Terrible or Peter the Great. are introduced. and lose their heads. a princess says to her father. but he afterwards cheats his benefactor by filling two thirds of the barrel with sand. on the condition that if unable to solve them he is to lose his throne. to is whom he promises one enabled to give the requisite answers. for instance. In a Russian version of a wide-spread story. but Russian historical characters. if By the aid of an old man. Skazki.stories belonging to the class of old Slavonic skazkas. Afanasief. tales which have formed part of the heritage of the people more from time immemorial. 455 . a number of tribute-bearing kings and princes propound certain riddles to Ivan the Terrible. His device is of the barrels.

" 8 Whereupon the Princess accepts Ivan . I saw on the way what was bad." the youngest of the stereotyped On his way to Brothers. and I struck the bad with a bad thing. that a moment Thunder-god.tops are budding." enters the perilous lists. wearing the invisible-rendering cap which she had given him. n. is who is constantly annoyed sitting at table with by them one day. whom has returned. " As I came to you I saw by the roadside what was good . and Ivan favours dling till the next day. 20. and postpones the unridIt arrives. and of what was bad the bad died. Skazki. she sees that "in the garden all the tree. saying little A farther on he kills a snake with a lance. No. " the palace he sees a horse in a cornfield.ENIGMAS." and so. In a manifestly mythical story a Slavonic Penelope [the Earth?] suitors. or the winter has long kept away?] 8 Afanasief. 355 " Three Boots. A a 2 . and makes a similar observation. " As I came to you. so I set to her with his second enigma." The puzzled princess pleads a headache. when She guesses she sees the glasses every now and then dashed from their in lips by an unseen hand. and in the work and with what was good I drove the good from the good. and drives " Here's a riddle !" it out with a whip. good was good. Looking out of window. When he is confronted with the princess he says to her. feeling sure that her surmise is / her Ulysses [the Sun. The good fled from the good out of the good.

numerous songs. the theme of which A maiden strolling in a garden. what is thicker than the forest ? Also. Kings and Princes. lost the key and despaired of finding it. thyself. what is higher than the forest Also. . it out. merchant's son." u Well then. fair was By that way a merchant's son came driving." of conclusion I will give is So the suitors had to drive away home 9 By way one of the the zagddka. rosy flow'rets gathering!" " merchant's son Thanks many Many thanks " ! ! " ! Shall I ask thee riddles. but now that key has come back of its own accord. beauteous Six wise riddles shall I ask thee ?" maiden ? " Ask them. she immediately suitors. " ISTow may God be with thee." " The " Here is then cries the my riddle. Gathering rosy flow'rets was the maiden. : casket am I. God be with thee. maiden. ? what 9 is there that's rootless ? Afanasief. maiden. correct. " takes her by the white hands. Whosoever guesses this riddle. 147. Prithee ask the six wise riddles. and the golden key is my true husband. Skazki." " wise heads" over the zagddlca. maiden.356 SOECEEY AND WITCHCRAFT. him will I marry. long rack their but they cannot make " Show claims." The " Tsars and Tsareviches. beauteous maiden." Queen . and kisses her sweet lips. ask them. propounds a riddle to her " I had a I self-acting casket with a golden key. my Then the Queen exdear love !" and her hus- band doffs his cap. what is brighter than the light ? Also. vm.

maiden. guessed rightly. a stone. guessed. who watched heirlooms from which nothing was to be taken away. merchant's son. and no one had any special interest in maintaining their accuracy. ' Never merchant's son. what is there past finding out ? " I will answer." silent. Thicker than the forest are the stars. maiden. 357 Also. the The riddles Slavonic Spell. 33. Therefore. Istor . and delivered them to their successors as precious sorcerers. Bootless is. All the six wise riddles will I answer. but time has not dealt so hardly with the relic of heathenism to which we will next turn our attention. being degraded from the lofty realm of mythological philosophy to the humble field of popular amusement . belonged to the people in general." " Thou hast maiden fair. Therefore now to me shalt thou be wedded. or Incantation. Brighter than the light the ruddy sun. made 1 in its wording its any change was pronouncer became as powerIf as a Quoted by Prof. But the spells were the peculiar property of a small body of over them with jealous care. And God's will is past all finding out. All the six wise riddles hast thou answered. the sea. will answer. Rune. . for the whole virtue of the zagovor depended its upon absolute correctness. what is never silent ? Also. song heard in Moscow. Higher than the forest is the moon. 1 The zagddka has now completely ble character it lost the venera- once possessed.SPELLS. merchant's son. shaltthoube the merchant's wife . the Zagovor. Buslaef I. and handing them down to posterity intact. Ockerki.

as among other peoples. the Church and the State agreed in strongly objecting to sorcerers. Afanasief. 1197. can be referred to an earlier period than the eighteenth century. and acting directly upon. of which the key is the tongue. and when they burnt manuscripts all them they unfortunately burnt also 4 . but none of them. the object at which it is " A word is not a aimed by its utterer." " once let says a Russian proverb. Finnische Mytlwlogie. you will Deutsche M. in lier joy at recovering her husband. for. like an arrow from a bow. spoken words were supposed to possess certain magical powers. 4 45. she forgot the Runes which would have loosened the stone from Thor's head 2 .ythologie> 348. In their figurative language the lips and the teeth are often spoken of as locks. P. S. V. When that has once unloosened them. 2 3 it fly out. and so was obliged to bleed on with a stronger memory came to till an old wizard In order his aid. and it is capable of flying straight to. or as the Finnish deity in the Kalewala. p. their Among the old Slavonians. Some of these manuscripts still exist. sparrow. . 249. until the time of Peter the Great. when he was unable to remember the magic words that would have stanched his flowing blood 3 . not to be placed in so unpleasant a predicament the Russian sorcerers of whom more will be said farther on used frequently to commit their spells to writing. it is said. less to kill or to cure as was Groa when. I. Castren. "Waina- moinen. out shoots the word.358 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT.

" Many of these spells have come down tion is to our times for the sorcerer's occupa- not yet gone in Russia. though his class only exists now where of it formerly flourished and large collections them have been formed by various careful gleaners in the field of folk-lore. The name under which these spells are generally known is that of zagovorui. and sometimes rhyme. [Herabkunft des Feuers. schworen beschworen. At first sacred hymns bless and implore the gods . S. to utter a spell or zagovor a form of words in which. zaJdindniya or zagovorui spells These 5 7 were no doubt originally preceded by I. there is always rhythm. for good or for evil. In primeval times the zagovorui may have been mere prayers [molvif -= a prayer]. . at a later period they demand from them (zaJdinayut) what their utterers desire. and are known as spells. molitva which. 414. 7 . 147]. Afanasief. and Brahmanaspatis etc. I. as to the power of prayer takes Indra's place." In olden times countless magical formulas. S 404. as a personification in the p. etc. though now written as prose. "to speak. V. ^ jurare conjurare. As " sprechen. 6 " so 9 the . V. 1173. sing en. besingen. Russian govoritf. = to speak.SPELLS. who refers to Prof. 359 never catch it 5 again . 6 Deutsche Myihologie. Women. seem to have been known to those persons who were originally " Wise Men" and " Wise and afterstyled wards wizards and witches. as years went by. Kuhn's remarks. cantare incantare. Afanasief." becomes zagovorit one of the meanings of which is to conjure. become besprechen. P. degenerated into spells. P. how the personified worship destroys dragons.

i." Sometimes he strikes the stars. . or covers him- with the brazen heaven. to the rising sun. Miller. be enough to parts of Russia In Bohemia it used to be required of persons who were about to take an oath. " the open field . Opuit." and girdled with the countless stars.360 rites. and the wild winds to brace his courage. but eventually turns his face eastern side. in long ago stiffened into a verba The zagovor generally begins with a narrite which often occur highly poetic descriptions The utterer goes forth "in the early of nature. 75. And a similar idea lay at the root of the custom of pro- nouncing the zagovor. life asking the strong blue sea to strengthen him. say that it still prevails in many among the peasantry. dries himself in the sunlight. at the hour of Orest.who are also of the opinion that it is from the East that sick people must look for alleviation of their complaints. As regards the world-wide custom of turning it will towards the east before praying. rative. but the formula. in most cases." he washes himself in the morning to morn" dew. . himself to Then he addresses the elements." there he bows to all four " to the quarters. asking the earth Mother full Earth. SOECERY AND WITCHCRAFT. that they should do so looking eastward. and becomes " clothed with the " clouds. as it were. bright with flowers and to of vigorous . which are represented as self silver nails. appealing. and the stars the eyes his life make bright and vigorous of heaven to make his eyesight keen 8 .

or crept in may have gradually subject of conjuring assumed more and more the character of something secret and forbidden. and were meant to be. " when he Young moon health ' sees the ! new moon. clear voice." or return . as it were. for instance. were of old the prayers with which the heathen Slavonian worshipped his elementary gods. are frequently addressed in the zagovorui. The spells were originally uttered in a loud. which they contain. The addresses to the elements. also. will say. 361 Sometimes. influence may have been who have had the derived from so it great an on Russian superstition. God give thee strong horns and me good As ! the stars. speech of the rustic who desires to be freed from annoyance. peasant. a practice which the Finnish sorcerers. as the celestial luminaries. these spells were probably intended to be uttered at other hours. it is very likely that some of the spells were spoken at night. To this day the Russian sunrise. however. or watched the sinking of the western sun. and the various forces of nature.SPELLS. " spoken on the house-top." not whispered in the And so still in the muttered secrecy of the closet. or to be gratified by some small gain. and others may have been meant to accompany the sunset or the gloaming. Now-a-days manyof them are always whispered. at moonrise. or "blessed the kindly light" of " the " gleaming moon and the " many stars. may be heard the echo of the words with which his far-off pagan ancestor greeted the trivial some of day.

that it may grow up tall as a forest. [kind of store-room]. and in my cup let there be water from a mountain ! spring. and in all people of godly mouth and heart. perhaps. Sky ? dost thou see. from drink Moon. turn me ! Sun. and thou evening zaryd / fall upon my rye. -addressing the zaryd. so that they may not rise up. in the powers that be. draw me from drink !" " righteous Sun do thou in my foes. " ye bright Stars descend into the marriage-cup. thou morning zaryd. parch up evil thoughts and deeds. stout as an oak J: ! " " Mother zaryd [apparently twilight here] of morning and evening and midnight as ye quietly fade ! away and disappear. aid. and of the evening. and implored the future assistance of those heavenly beings whom he adored beings to whom. and of the midnight * ! . the Ouranos. the servant so and so. my rivals. and public from drink ! ! officials. " Dost thou hear. of God ye Stars deliver me. addressing the Svarog. his and our ancestors offered their simple worship somewhere far away in Central Asia. my opposers. acknowledged the past when what are now the many Aryan nations formed but one people. in immemorial times. the servant of Grod. thou free Sun ! dawn upon my homestead. thou fair Moon ! bow down ! to my klyef. Sky ? " cries the peasant of to-day. quietly fade and disappear those of the morning. the Varuna of old religion. may not utter words baleful for me !" Or.362 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. the dawn and gloaming. Ho. so may both sicknesses and sorrows in me.

these ancient adjurations were so far altered. he will quote a Latin one. the white stars place thee . and various saints and martyrs. " In the ocean sea. the second eastern. that for the names of the elementary deities were substituted those of the Saviour. the Apostles. but there are also instances in which. bring on the servant of God (such and such a maiden) sorrow and dreariness [suWiota dryness]. so that it has even found its way. may be ." When heathenism was dethroned by Christianity. 1190.SPELLS. . J. on the "island Buyan [i. in the cloud-island sailing over the heavenly sea?] there live three brothers. In the DeutscJie Zagov6rs about bees are very common. its tone has become to all ap- pearance thoroughly Christian . as seen from the following spell to 9 prevent swarming bees from wandering afar " I take a But it is not bee. Waft. winds. while the archaic form of the is zagovor preserved. and the third western. e. Sometimes the old and the new names occur together. under the heading Molitvui. the horned moon. three winds : the first northern. as we have seen is often the case in the mythical songs . 363 Here is an address spoken by a lover to the winds. so that without me she may not be able to spend a day nor pass an hour The force of the zagovor sometimes depends upon the assistance of the heavenly and other bodies ad! ' jured. I place it in the hive. Grimm says that as he has met with no 9 German Bienenseyen. or prayers. place thee there . the red sun. they place thee and 1 who keep thee still. the Virgin Mary. MytJiologie.

in which a spell intended to cure l .364 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. in some of those preserved by the wilder sects which discredit the Russian Raskol. as Baldr rode through a wood in company with other is horse met with a sprain . a lame horse preceded by an account of how. has preserved its heathen complexion intact. this account is condensed. into the church books called trebniki. pp. of the 15th 17th centuries This is a different case from that of the well-known poem of the MerseburgMS. but in many of the variants heathen character had probably been The mixed nature of these superstitious formulas best shown. the foal slade. 2 Deutsche Mythologie. both Russian and Servian. a poem which. his Norse Jesus reed sig or our til own The And The copyist lord rade. or general body of dissenters from is the Established Church. Afanasief. S. 2 in the case of the Merseburg MS. perhaps.. the Russian Nonconformists. P. 1180 . V. from whose pages the greater part of 1183. although it figures in a " Hrabani expositio super missam" but is copy of generally found in as Christian a tone as that of the Teutonic deities. etc. 420. in this instance. Here 1 a specimen of the strange adjurations in i. and are too often carelessly identified with the respectable though bigoted body of Old is Believers. its to stand well with the old powers as well as with the new. may have wished of the spell forgotten.

the most bability. forgive. 420. no longer depending on the aid of the divinities they invoked. generally " or My word will not pass away for ever My !" or. forgive. and all ye heavenly host For- Forgive me. sky. ye lakes. it may be worth remarking. salter than salt. be sticky and tough. that shall be fulfilled !" It has already been mentioned that the mouth is is defined in metaphorical language as 3 a lock tlie the Quoted by Afanasief from Nadezhdin's Report on SJcoptsui Heresy. stickier than glue or resin. 365 fanatical.earth . for good or for evil. V. After the old prayers had passed into spells. sun . all ye heavenly and earthly elements In this case it is !" easy to see that the alteration which has taken place is one of heterogeneous combination. their magical properties were often supposed to be automatic. forgive. " May my words What 4 meant. firmer than stone. . P. damp -mother. of the Raskolniks . Cherubim and Seraphim. ye stars . moon and 3 forgive. tougher than steel. forgive. forgive. Zagovorui of " this nature end with the word is firm " ! phrase. by the force of their own inherent attributes. in all pro: use " among the Skoptsui. one of the many valuable documents. ye rivers hills. Archangels. reprinted in London by the late Alexander Hertsen at the " Free Russian Press.SPELLS. forgive me. but acting. . sharper than a self-cutting sword. not of corruption or decay. who now exist in Russia holy Mother of God . i. Lord forgive me. ! give." 4 Afanasief. ye Angels. S.

. p. the servant of God." etc. the key. and from that sea will come out a golden-finned. of which Russians use padlocks to a great extent That idea is expressed in the the tongue is the key. cit. my tongue. And I will fling the key into the sea [but] remain thou lock in the "For mouth!" Here is one of a slightly different nature 5 : "I. and Runen used and the Russian spell was supposed to be fully capable of performing most of. I take out from the thrice nine locks the thrice nine keys. the heavens strong. formulary) the mountains high. following termination of a zagovor : these words of mine [my] lips and teeth [are] a lock . will make fast thrice nine locks. clear I fling those keys into the ocean-sea. or which In these spells God" are intended to be followed by the name of the utterer. and will seven-and-twenty keys. 171) shall be a fast brazen wall like as the earth is broad. if not all. or find out the seven-and-twenty keys. 7 it may keep the gate Deutsche Mythologie. 422. 6 LOG.366 SORCEEY AND WITCHCBAFT. that of hell fast in bonds. or open the locks. in speaking of its Teutonic equivalents. 6 Jacob Grimm has given so long the words " servant of a list 7 . or do hurt to me the servant of God 6 ! " is The range attributed to the force of the zagovor as wide as that with which the Lieder to be credited. the actions of which. p. or of some other person. swallow my copper-scaled pike. p. and will sink into the depth of the sea. 1176. And no one shall catch that pike. With these Zagov6r-terminations may be compared the ending of a Parsee Patet from the Khordah-Avesta " This heavenly Patet (or confession(Bleek's translation.

young moon ! test the is dead and the the teeth of one who dead. things into stone But all the hard-hitting thunderthis seems very doubtful. 8 P. but the figurative language of the spell has been interIn some of the preted literally at a later period. . the sufferer. The first is as follows " thou living : two : spells against toothache. so may my " ! teeth also be- come stony In the harder than stone says Afanasief. S. his appeal to the stone of the church portal is supposed to be a reference to that of which in older days the stone was a symbol. their mythical character is still plainly visible. apparently. mythical in their origin. I. in illustration. addresses first spell. which could turn bolt 8 all . 426.. that the teeth of me. the hammer of Thor or Perun. Grant. remembering the ancient character of a ruler in the land of the dead. Lord. 367 songs of Odin. used to be claimed as the effect of the Russian zagovors. V. which it. These were.. as the nightly luminary. however.. [whose] teeth are mute . the moon. do they ache ? Not at all ache the teeth of one dead. and he quotes. used to bear. " may become mute. [whose] bones are tanned. the servant of God. In the second. remarks Afanasief. who wishes his teeth to be mute as in death.SPELLS. may never The other spell its ache ! must be three times pronounced by utterer while he bites at the portal of the : church " As this stone is firm.

grief or longing. On that stone Alatuir there sits a fair maiden. ii. the " island Buyan. from cuts. and thou. of reddish-yellow hue. on Buyan. should be mentioned. etc is : " In the sea. a masterful sewer. in order that an next zagovor may be intelligible. threads it with a silken thread. two names about which some remarks must presently be made. She holds a steel needle. in the ocean. I will quote the following short spell. 27. but allusion in it on the mystic stone. and sews together I charm the servant So-and-so bloody wounds. This may at first sight appear to be a the strange dweller in what eternal light and life. stand aloof. on the island. represented as a land of But the longing here alluded is I. cease to flow ." and the "white stone Alatuir. in order to introduce. 9 Sakharof. that from the elysian isle of Buyan comes toslcd.368 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT.!" I will not dwell at present Alatuir. . stabs. 9 Steel. blood. it will be necessary to give But some specimens of those among their number which are of the greatest length. Before doing so. in connexion with each other." Here a specimen of the numerous zagovors used for the cure of cuts. in order to convey an idea of the peculiar nature of the zagovors. however. and which contain most mythical allusions those for which the Russians proudly claim a greater fulness and a more poetic colouring than is generally to be found in the Teutonic Runes. lies the white burning stone Alatuir.

neither every day. to the eastern side. and leads to marriage. get at the white light. cannot live. nor under the many stars. into his breast. in all his bones. Neither under the sun by day. without its mother's milk. the fair sun. nor by the evening glow. nor to be. uttering a blessing. neither by the morning dawn. ii. 369 to is that which springs from love. I go out into the open field. The Longing weeps. with pain and thirst for me l I 1 Sakharof. I. nor under the moon by night. and rejoices. as a babe without its mother. neither by the morning dawn. without me. On the eastern side stands an izba [cottage or room]. waiting to The white light. 34. and [having And done so] may he enjoy himself and rejoice Plunge thyself. . enjoys itself. stand still. crossing myself. into his heart . not be able to live. nor to eat. longing. I. So may He wait longing to get to me. nor by the evening glow . grow and increase in all his veins. nor to drink . p. from the courtyard to the gates. I. 02. nor to eat. nor to be. the servant of God . in the middle of the izba lies a plank.SPELLS. nor to drink. go from the room to the door. ! without me let it not be possible for him to live. nor together with the stormy winds. As a fish without water. waits. not at mid-day. the Longing sobs. O longing ! gnaw thy way. so may he. under the plank is the LONGING. Here- is A ZAGOVOR TO GIVE A GOOD YOUTH A LONGING FOE A FAIR MAIDEN. No. and therefore it is that it derives its origin from the same source as beings associated with all that is bright and joyous.

" The Seven " The Three Brothers. that with the at the beginning of every January end of the festival in honour of the return of the sun tothe Fiery Snake begins to fly. In some zagovors the longing is said to spring from underneath the stone Alatuir." charms a lover addresses to fire and storm the fol" Take from me my longing carry it lowing appeal away. whence it is borne on the wings of seventy. fructified by the rains poured forth during the first spring storms. turns into wards summer brave youth. In one of the Servian songs. but make it enter into such from all : . " In a Siberian zagovor a " Fiery Snake for the kindling of is invoked this idea amorous longing. who assist in " forging hooks." in others styled " to Brothers." to another. is explained by the fact that in mythical language the Fiery Snake is one of the forms of the lightning. a girl who has been carried " true love." who are implored gather together the white world the griefs of widows.370 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. is turned in the myth into ." his off by a fiery snake calls herself All this. enters "a into the izba through the chimney. of In some of the orphans.seven aerial beings called both In some cases its bearers are birds and winds. and do not drop it. by which one person can be attached" and such a female heart. and of little children. In one of the zagovors three mystic smiths are mentioned. that is. With may be compared the popular belief. says a bold mythologist. The blooming Earth." and steals by magic the hearts of fair maidens.

and was invoked by date. sound and unhurt. and while bearing me thus did she speak " Be thou. whether by guns. or to ensure safety during a campaign. however. whether lib 2 : The red sun has come . the moon. instead of as many winds. " I rise up without ut" the tering a blessing. the became Sometimes the powers of darkness are represented as having to do with the creation of amorous desire.SPELLS. Some of the charms meant to preserve men from drunkenness. pian Sea. there 9 evil conjurors in order to produce coldness between are man and wife. my child. the clouds have drawn together from afar. which the sun. and inducing of love-pangs naturally ascribed to the Fiery Snake. the darkblue birds have met in the stone-built city. or by arrows. class : Here is a specimen of the latter forth from beyond the Casthe moon has gone up into the blue sky. and the stars are called upon to keep away . Within that stone-built city did my mother bear me. But the wedder of nature became looked upon at a later period as the patron of weddings -among the children of so men ." and sometimes the " longing " is Some borne on the wings of seventy-seven demons. But all this is said to be of a later was opposed to the fiery snake and the vivifying winds a malignant " spirit of the whirlwind" [duJch-vikhor ^. or by arquebuses. others to gain the good will of a superior." and they go on to invoke demon Sanchak. Originally. which congealed instead of melting. of the zagovors begin. 371 the bride of the Fiery Snake.

in the outer world a source of pleasure. are those which are intended for the relief of sufferers from a longing that is of a different nature from that produced by amorous impulse.372 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT." May . looking out into the open field towards the setting of my red sun. by wrestlers. nor stabbing thee with a " knife. nor smite thee with weapons of war . my never-enough-to-be-gazed-on child. for the solace of friends and relatives who have been torn asunder. nor cleaving thee with halbert or hatchet. abroad a brisk youth. with thy children in harmony. " And mayst thou at home be a good father. the old delude thee not. thy breast than the stone Alatuir. or by boxers. But perhaps the most interesting. I his own mother. nor crushing thee with an axe. in the upper chamber of the maidens an ornament. and certainly the most poetic of the spells. And may thy body be firmer than stone. from the red morning dawn. in longing and in woe. may the young men do thee no harm . in war a brave soldier . but mayst thou be before them as a hawk. thy shirt than iron. May the champio'ns n challenge thee. at the nuptial and [mayst feast [a guest] without a trace of guile father and mother in peace. I remained sitting till the late evening glow. There till the damp dews. I have sobbed away the day the servant of God in the lofty parental terem [upper chamber]. and may they be as thrushes. But at length . As a specimen of these may be taken the following ZAGOVOR AGAINST THE GRIEF OF A MOTHER ON PARTING WITH A BELOVED CHILD. with thou live] with thy thy wife in concord. and especially of parents who have been deprived of children. neither piercing thee with lance or spear.

over the I bathe nuptial kerchief. all hours and at the half-hours. by night and at midnight. from the witch of Kief. I carried with me the marriage cup. softer than a spring day. his figured girdle. I drive away the fierce whirlwind. from the stranger Domovoy [i. bo thou concealed by my abiding words from hostile . his bright eyes. and from her evil sister of Murom. I took out the betrothal taper.spirit of another family]. from the blind soothsayer. his rapid gait. from the spell-weaving wizard. from thou. I fetched the wedding kerchief. and I began to cry with a piercing voice. over the betrothal taper. from the wily enchanter. 373 I grew weary of grieving. child. " I avert from thee the terrible devil. firmer than the fiery stone Alatuir. his sable cap. midst of the thick forest. his thoughtful brow. his ruddy curls. from the daring magician.SPELLS. I wipe his sweet lips. whiter than virgin wax. " And thou. over the marriage cup. his youthful face. my child. from the thrice-accursed Baba Yaga. from the evil Vodyany [or water -spirit]. my never-enough-to-be-gazed-on than the brilliant sun. from the house. clearer than fountain water. brighter " Be the hoary witch. With the betrothal taper I light his rosy cheeks. his stitched shoes. up his long kaftan. I went into the open field. I keep thee away from the oneeyed Lyeshy [or wood-spirit]. from the flying Fiery Snake. " I charm my never-enough-to-be-gazed-on child. my child's pure face with the nuptial kerchief. e. from the beckoning Rusalka. I wave away from thee the prophetic raven and the croaking crow. I traced an unseen line. on the highthrough way and the byway. I drew water from I stood in the the well beyond the mountains. funereal grief. over the fresh water. when sleeping and when waking. so I considered by what spells I could charm away that evil. I screen thee from Koshchei-Yadun.

of the Zeitschrift . higher than the mountains. " And should thy hour of death arrive. 2 of the sun. and kept from burning when amid the flames. bend thy brow to the ground before it child. In that eastern isle is the home evening after it the return of morning." and the White Stone Alatuir. of spells Every one who is interested in the subject should read Professor Kuhn's excellent article on Indische I." return for a time to the " Isle of " Buyan. which goes there every has set. of which mention has already been made. saved from drowning when on the water. unbroken "And may my words be stronger than water. and turn towards thy well-loved birth-place. ii. in boiling pitch. his deceit be no deceiving. to rise from it again with In Buyan are collected. preserved from untimely death and from misfortune and from woe. und germanische Segensspruche in the fur vergleickende Sprachforscliung. 19. according to We will now Buyan. " And he who tries to beguile or to cast a spell over my child. the Slavonian counSlavonic tradition." Far away amid the ocean waves. And may his spells be for him no spells. with seven times thy kith and kin. lies the isle called terpart of that happy land which figures in the mythology of all the Aryan nations. may he be shut up beyond the mountains of Ararat. 13th vol. powers and from unclean spirits. our unsparing bread-and-salt. or Paradise. firmer than the fiery stone Alatuir. says Sakharof. my remember our caressing love. and his guile lead to no beguiling 2 . seven salutations. take leave of fall into a sweet. heavier than gold. one of the many forms of the Uai. more powerful than heroes. do thou. and slumber. in the lowest gulfs of hell.374 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. in burning flame.

V. The verb The adjective buiny. ardent. and the prophetic Raven. or a Thunder-goddess?]. [P. an epithet only of the fabled isle. it stands for bold. and when to a hero's head. all 375 storms. continues Afanasief. to ' The word Buyan was originally. and buevo II. Snake older than all snakes. among to say. etc. to inspire him with martial courage. S. or the of Goruinich. and tempest. There are to be found " the wind. applied to fields. Afanasief. fruitful. and the grave viskche mean be suspected from the fact that bui and buithe fenced-in ground around a church. etc. and the Mother of Bees. . . it means stormy. Even now. the name usually borne by the snake of the Russian fable]. etc. Some connexion between Buyan daring.BUYAN. passionate. I3l]. says Afanasief. is equivalent to fruitful. under which lies the snake Garafena [perhaps a corruption Son of the Mountain. vernal.. when bui/at' means to grow luxuriantly. which includes ideas of what is burning. also. n. and swarm the Thunder Bees who bless the longing earth with the honey of rain 3 . but afterwards it became looked upon as its name. [P. Zarya [the Dawn. and broods the Tempest Bird. the with iron beak and copper claws. entreating the gods to preserve him from wounds and from diseases. stands a dripping oak. The root bui is synonymous with yary. and oldest of That is and the Bird. etc. S. V. turned the Old Slavonian with prayers. there lies the Lightning Snake. eldest bees. and there sits the divine maiden. On Buyan.] is a name for a cemetery. when to the wind." all birds. all the mighty forms of the spring-tide the mythical personifications of thunder. elder brother largest of all ravens. instead of Buydn-ostrofis written buevoi-ostrqf. Thither Spring. 140. in which the may dead used to be buried.tide Sun.

who have not. him with success in love. easily set on fire. wife. the meaning of whose name has not yet been discovered or some Bat under the influence of other mythical being." or a throne of gold occupied by Lord Himself." or by " the Holy Mother of God. however. Or near it stands a sacred grove composed perhaps of cypresses been the tree of which the the cypress having cross was made or a golden staircase up which the Archangel Michael is ascending to heaven. 4 The epithet goryuch means inflammable. fiery stone . and with it the character of its occupants. and over it rises " a golden " the church. for instance." or by one of the Apostles. always connected with the stone. the idea of." On it was wont to sit either a " fair originally maiden who sewed up bleeding wounds to be the " supposed Dawn. or the bird Stratim. i bless ing. and in household affairs. or by some member of the heavenly host. is in hunting and fish- found the white stone Alatuir. warm. lies the they merely say. we find a spell in which the stone has been transferred to the neighbourhood of the river Jordan. entirely dispelled the mystery which hangs about them.'6 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. blazing light is " Look. But whatever else has been changed. Christian ideas the locality of the stone was altered. on the ocean. The zagovors generally describe it as lying on the Buyan isle. the name and the nature of which have been discussed at On Buyan some length by various Slavonic scholars. Sometimes. but sometimes " On the sea. . 4 From under it flow rivers of healing.

800. The alabaster theory seems to have fallen to the ground. instead that he will never return. The Russian alatuir and the Greek r/Ae/erpov are derived from a root which in Sanskrit is found under the form " ark (^aAjc). but the identity of the words alatuir and yantar seems to be generally admitted. seethe. the shining one." the =. in the course of time. flash. come Some- designation Idp [kipyef is applied to the stone. which possibly was at first amber-like. 149. of the epithet " fiery white. foam. to tal. fiery when white leaving his wife for ever. should have been attributed by the Old Slavonians to amber 5 It may be that. : ^Ae'/c-Tcop = emit rays (ark-as light.V. to boil.S. and another with alabastros. ii. e. this passage (in. i. the Russian yantar [amber]. crysthe sun." meaning times. though it is difficult to see. One writer with the Greek elektron.ALATUIB. as Buyan seems to have . 377 a national " when the on the blue sea. magical properties.] Various suggestions have been made with regard to the etymology of the word Alatuir. r/Ae/crpov = = Alatuir and so shining metal (a mixture of gold and silver)" in its form latuir or lak-tuir. . as Afanasief remarks. have changed its " meaning. 148." And now it is time that we should turn from the spell to its wielder 5 that having gained In a note to some fami- P. etc." says a husband in song. stone grows cold. so Alatuir may. then will I home . SOl) Afanasief remarks. to etc. Dahl in his great dictionary looks = on yantar as a Tartar form of ulcJctron. why such been turned from an epithet into a proper name. the sun. each supporting his argument by the fact that the word he compares it suggests represents something specially bright.

Koldun and ILoldurfya. with the language of Sorcery. for if we perseveringly trace backwards up the stream of time the ancestral line of that poor creature. so. 6 Of the numerous names mean people who know.378 liarity SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. to magic power. the Sorcerer of to-day.we shall find ourselves at last in the presence of those ill-demajestic shapes of gods. rustics still have recourse in their troubles. and those of his predecessors. for the still * wizard and the witch. Ztnakhar* and ZnakharTca (znaf = like couple of synonyms. Such an investigation will lead us back to the region whence we started. Of another them. those claims were admitted. as revealed by the professors of the black art. the Vyedfma 6 still retains her power To him and to her the . the root has not . springing as they do from a root -vyed. In the vicinity of the great cities the supernatural. and to attempt to account for the readiness with which. But a little time ago every Russian village had its wizard. own century after century. we should the acquaintance of the Sorcerer himself. answering to the Sanskrit vid. it mak And having done may be worth to test his our while to trace his spiritual pedigree. almost as a matter of course. having ex- actly the same primary signification as two other terms applied to to know). under which the fanciful reverence of the heathen Slavonians fined but still seems to have personified the powers of nature. may have lost its attractive hold upon the popular mind . claims. and to this day it is said there is not a hamlet in the Ukraine that is not reported to keep its witch. but out in the open country the Koldun still holds his own. those of Vyedun and Vyed'ma.

P. and a Kaldovants is a priest.). spells or magic . trustfully turn for 379 such advice and aid as may enable them to obtain blessings and ward off evils. of the Kudesnik (chudesa = . of bestowing the gift of fertilizing rain. Charovnitsa. In Russia. (fern. and so the Professor Sreznievsky thinks yet been satisfactorily made out. and even to be capable of controlling the elements. Kudesnitsci). pp. and which Professor Buslaef considers as having had the same meaning as zhrets. I. deriving VolkJiv from a root akin to the Sanskrit valg = to shine. and to decipher the hidden meaning of omens and auguries . the common people look upon diseases as evil spirits. kudesa) . a heathen priest. is still held in Eussia. and Buslaef. vala. to possess charms which will cure the diseases of the body and calm the troubles of the mind . wonders. to be driven away by purification with fire and water. which was once professed in every European land. Vliyanii XLhristianstva. and comparing TlkTiva with the like-meaning See Afanasief. 405 409. etc. S. or of ruining by the curse of drought or storm. for in Croatian Kaldovati means to offer a sacrifice. V. They are supposed to be able to look into the future. the worker of and finally of the Volkhv (fern. and which was the cause in them of so many thousands of terrible deaths. where. in. vola. Scandinavian name of volva. . Volkhvitka) a term which was used by Nestor as a synonym of Kudesnik. The faith. the dealer in chdrui. Besides these names there are those of the Charovmk or Charod- yeets (fern. it has seldom assumed the virulent aspect which it used to wear farther west. that the JLoldun was anciently the sacrificer to the gods. in short. however. 423 426. Vlkhva. and zhrets from zhryeti.WIZARDS AND WITCHES. as in many other lands. 21 24. to burn.

" who . and sprinklings.380 SOECEEY AND WITCHCEAFT. the small-pox. whispering to himself the while. who goes in front of the bridal procession. are said to have been wont in former days to lay equal stress on the presence of a general. is founded on a theory of fumigations. and anxiously pries around. and so. and by performing certain magical rites in the fields they prevent insects and other vermin from hurting the crops. in the Government of Perm. the Wise Men and Women contend in various ways. the presence of the wizard is in many 7 His duty is to places considered indispensable preserve the young couple and their friends from the . of course. The people imagine that he is contending with the evil spirit which pursues newly-married persons. Against the an angry house-spirit. washings. attended by exorcisms of various kinds. and the bridegroom by a zndkhar'. attacks of hostile magicians. Some of the strangest popular practice of physic of the magical practices to which the peasants have recourse are those which they employ as a defence against the attacks of the malignant beings whom they identify with the cholera. Satirists declared that the confectioner 7 By contracted for the wedding-breakfast always asked his customers whether they supplied " their own generals. and the cattle-plague. the bride is always attended by a zndkharka. or of nightmares and other baleful demons. and attempts to Their superiors in social rank the peasantry. For the success of a wedding. Of some of these rites an account will evil influence of presently be given. keep away highly prized by the peasants they fevers from a house by washing the all : lintels of its doorways.

according to the opinion of the peasants. a storm-cloud was seen moving towards the fields where he and his fellow. They hurried homewards. In some being celebrated. etc. aus Bohmen. I won't. so in Russia. and even the chimney is stopped up. please do !" . cretion. all fully shut. and doing the bride or bridegroom an injury. sently there gallops up to him a black rider on a " Let black horse. The clouds take a " all lighter hue. white and on a white steed. 34. 381 ensnare them. As in other countries.villagers were at work. when Thus. who refuses to do so. . p. These they either hoard or pour forth at their dis- a wedding is the doors and windows are caredistricts. Once. At last the wizard sends him on to the other side of little the corn-field. to prevent malicious witches from flying in." replies the wizard. there is a story in South Russia of a wizard who could control the elements. Aberglauben . 8 also. but he stopped where he was. saying there would be no Prerain. Up rides a second horseman. in harvest-time. and the peasants this time look for a hail storm. where in a time a hail-storm comes pelting down 8 . go there's no holding out!" exclaims the white rider. wizards and witches are greatly addicted to stealing the dew and the rain. cries.WIZARDS AND WITCHES. though all the sky was black with clouds. . this story is given by Grohmann. With whirlwinds. " Do let No. go !" he cries imploringly to the wizard. for instance. the wizards have a great A Bohemian version of ." and " "Let go..

it will fall to the ground streaming with blood. In Little-Russia the witches are reported to steal from the sky its rain and dew. Having to go out one day. Some little time afterwards the peasant. while making a journey. it is said. said his family. which they carry off in pitchers and bags. The Russian peasant generally attributes such winds to the wild dances in which the devil celebrating his marriage with a witch . in which Little-Russian it it stuck. 448. Immediately he knew life that he had wounded a wizard. SOECEEY AND WITCHCRAFT. of course. As the guest lay down to sleep. V. and recognized it as the hatchet he had lost. in. he caught sight of something gleaming under a bench. the owner of which lay ill in bed. There is a story of a peasant who flung his hatchet at one of these revolving columns. he thinks. so in fear of his darkness 9 . did this to such an extent that not a single rain-drop fell in a whole summer. P. And so if a sharp knife be thrown with good aim at one of them. but sometimes. . a wizard is being whirled " about in the " dust-spouts which may be seen in indulges when summer in the open plains. happened to spend a night in a cottage. and hide in their cottages. she 9 Afanasief." and by which was carried off into space. do so for purely philosophical reasons. with a hatchet. When from the cottage into the our sailors fire cannon at waterhe fled spouts they.382 deal to do. S. having cut himself. A long time ago one of their number. "just as if it were in a tree.

and other vermin.WIZARDS AND WITCHES. toads. only a voice was heard coming from it. when the rain stopped in a moment. sure enough. and closed the pitcher. but even the moon and stars. the rain was coming down "just as if it were rushing out of a tub. and especially in Little-Russia. 1 In some vervillage would have been drowned . S. at the times of the winter and the summer solstice] . 450. and a terrible storm arises. 383 left in gave strict orders to the girl whom she charge of the house not to meddle with the pitcher which stood in the corner." she said to the girl. and the restoration of the toads and their companions to their prison-tubs. V. and. With particular eagerness they attempt to do so during the festivals of Kolydda and of Kupdla. than the girl opened the pitcher and peeped in. which set up a strange croaking and crawl away in different sitive directions. Immediately the blue sky turns black. . water-snakes. the witches are supposed to steal and hide away. m." sions of the to same story the witch forbids certain tubs be touched. "If the pitcher had stood open a little " the whole of the longer. [i. In some places." The witch came running home. When they are opened by an inquivisitor they are found to be full of frogs. when the principal gatherings of unclean spirits and 1 Afanasief. e. But no sooner had she dis- appeared. Nothing was to be seen inside. P. not only the rain and dew. " Now there will be rain !" The frightened girl ran to the door. only to be quelled by the return of the witch.

sank into the earth." Then God Andrew [one of of Perun]. When she wants to fly she sprinkles herself with this. A embers of a kupala pyre. in which there lived as many as a thousand witches. S. or Midsummer bonfire. the objects by means of which a sorceress flies through the air are those which are connected with the domestic hearth the brooms and besoms used for sweeping up ashes. 455. and poker. . 456. hag Aroynt her. in. Aroynt her. Evil she muttered. village the Christian successors his mace. in. Russian witch always keeps by her a supply of water which has been boiled together with the the equivalents for our tongs. as elsewhere. S. P. Roots she extracted. and shovel. The moon she stole. There was once a village. 3 Afanasief. The sun she ate. Herbs she collected. who struck with sent St. and they went on clearing the sky of stars until there were none left " to light up our sinful world. or she rubs herself under the armpits and the 2 Afanasief.384 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. . and that wicked the place it had occupied : 2 Akin to these witches must becoming a swamp have been the heroine of the following spell The maiden fair Through the forest went. P. witch ! 3 ! In Russia. they say in the Chernigof Government. V. V. their families take place.

and on the " Kupala night" [June 24 both days originally consecrated to Perun] wizards and witches collect on a bare hill. witches cleave the air in the cauldrons wherein they prepare their magic broths. and there hold diabolical orgies. In the Ukraine they tell how a certain soldier happened to see a witch. or. in whose house he lodged. According to Sakharof the witches begin to seek their try sting-place on the 26th of December. preparing herself for flight. her example. George's day [April 23]. and at and winter solstice. they skim along in mortars. or gentian. like the Baba Yagas. 385 knees with an ointment. Sometimes they may be followed thither. At last his landof him. through the chimney. returning from their wanderings. After she had gone he followed. And their chief gatherings . witches and vampires are born. and in? mediately told him for c c . the chief ingredient of which is the Sometimes magical herb tirlich. take place three times a year the periods of the summer at springtide. The witches generally hold "bald hills.WIZARDS AND WITCHES. In Ruthenia it is believed that on the Feast of the Annunciation [March 25. On the 1st of January they wander about with unclean spirits." meetings on though in Servia they haunt threshingtheir floors for this purpose. and on the 3rd. they take to milking cows." Thero he watched the revels lady caught sight some time. On St. the day on which spring subdues winter]. and was immediately caught up. sweeping away their traces with a broom. into the sky and on to the "bare hill.

and when a wizard him. go into the details of these meetings of witches and wizards. The earth shudders. if lie is valued his life. some of the most important are the dif- Among ferent objects connected with the domestic hearth. will prevent any wizard who have gained admittance from getting out again. with wild cries. and flocks of crows his life and ravens. " Here off. on the may be seen chalked on every door and window. the winds howl. With him all nature seems to suffer." without a moment's " mount she cried. or stove-rake. Russia." a good steed. . SOECERY AND WITCHCRAFT. Thus a kochergd. The next morning he saw that the tether was attached Away to a log. the defensive weapons employed against witchraft. or rather of evil spirits in their forms.386 to be gone. evil spirits enter into out with terrible agonies. delay. the connexion between sorcerers is and devils is very close. in may As nights in May. and be he was borne home by the good steed. throng the roof and chimney of the house. for they differ but little from those of such assemblies as the wellIt is unnecessary to known Walpurgisnacht and other Teutonic gather- In ings of demons and their earthly associates. which he tethered at the end of his journey. and tear about to die. seize the soul of the dying wizard or witch. bear it away to the other world. crosses first Germany. or supposed to refer in some way to the lightning. so in Russia. if suspended at the door of a cottage. the wild beasts roar. says Afanasief. on the eve of the Epiphany. and. as in other lands.

as. say the peasants in the Poltava Government. ties . 4 Afanasief. and carries it about with him during the whole of Lent. such as herbs. and the fern. or amulets. which were tied and hung round the neck. the If any one sallow. times a spell was written on a piece of paper which was attached to the pectoral cross worn by Russians. especially among those who have to undertake long it In olden days and hazardous journeys. incense [Iddon] entered so largely into the composition of these up Some- amulets that they received from it the general designation of IddonJci. uzit to tighten]. salt. in.AMULETS. takes a willow or aspen-twig with him to matins on Easter day. 497. who fear every symbol of the Thunder-god's hammer. and ask 9 for cheese. roots. a knot. was [uzui =. is believed that on the last day of the Mdslyanitsa any one takes a piece of cheese. heads and skins of snakes. wraps it up. seems to have been customary to V. and looks at the congregation through it. the aspen-stake. In the Chernigof Goif. embers. After the introduction of Christianity. he will see all the wizards and witches among them turned upside down 4 vernment it . S. etc. = These amulets generally consisted of various materials.. bats' wings. uzel given in old times the names of Nduwik or Uzol'nik. These amulets are still in great request among the peasants. c c2 . To a wizard who dealt in nduzui. P. then on Easter eve the witches of his village will appear to him. for instance. in small packets. 387 These are to keep off witches.

S. involve all warlike weapons. V. In the Tver Government a bag keep called vydzlo is fastened round the neck of the cow which walks off before the rest of a herd." With such a spell as this it lies was supposed that the insurgent chief. and all manner of warlike weapons. nor may their arrows attain to me. knots. and nine skeins. Here its is one. wolves. A skein of red wool wound round the arms and legs is supposed to war doff agues and fevers. take young children to a witch. Do ye. for instance. in. in order to Its force binds the . Sometimes the amulet is merely a knotted thread. 434. bows. who provided them The efficacy of these tied or knotted amulets de- pended to a great extent upon the magical force of their knots. fastened round a child's neck are deemed a preservative against scarlatina. infidel shooter. To these knots frequent reference is made in the spells. maw of the wild v beast [vyazdf = to bind] * In accordance with a simi- Afanasief. Stenka Razin.388 SOECEEY AND WITCHCEAFT. bar the shooter from every road and way. P. with suitable amulets. so that the shooters may not reach me with their arquebuses. hid the mighty strength of snakes from the twelve-headed snake 5 . . had rendered himself proof against shot and steel. entangle every bow. inall tended to guarantee being shot: " I attach five employer against to risk of knots each hostile. over arquebuses. nor In my knots their warlike weapons do me hurt. lock fast every arquebuse.

woman takes a needle and thread after dark. and A sews together the skirt of her dress. " I lock from my herd the mouths of the grey wolves with this steel lock. when the horses hidden away somewhere till late ' in the autumn. before they are allowed to go afield in the spring. he who carries it locking and unlocking it as he goes. and In the Smolensk Government. eyes. so that they may not hear. lowing spell is used " Deaf man. George's day. S. a padlock is carried three times 389 round a herd of horses. In this case the firm word' of the spell is supposed to lock up the mouths of when the wolves. goats. see. . it is and then. lar idea. or bite the sheep." After the third round the padlock is have gone finally locked. III. deaf man. The Bulgarians have a similar method of protecting their cattle against wild beasts. and she tells him she is sewing and jaws of the wolves." " God grant that the wolf may not catch our " " Blind man." : ? " 66 God grant cattle!" that the wolf may not hear our " Cripple. the fol- up the ears. dost thou hear us " I hear not. when cattle calves. V. P. off. 437. canst thou catch us ?" " I cannot catch. dost thou see us ? " I see not. pigs. A child asks her what she is doing." " 6 " God grant that the wolf may not see our cattle ! cattle !" Afanasief. are being driven afield on St. while these magical words are being uttered. cripple. blind man. the time comes for the herd to " return to winter quarters.CATTLE-SPELLS.

was always considered very efficacious against and therefore. and therefore the peasants in some parts believe. The knotted surface of a harrow (made of interwoven branches) gives witchcraft. and are to be debarred from the cow. Russian cows have always been as liable as those of other countries to be drained of their milk by witches. has highway. in some places. to keep her out of harm's With a similar intention the bridegroom and at companions are often girt with pieces of net. and angle for her with a bridle. when a sorcerers .sheds only by means of a church taper 1 A similar belief is said to be still prevalent in .390 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. Sometimes the amulet locks away hurtful things from a man's body. a fishingflung over her. that if a sick man's girdle be taken off. his being dressed in her wedding attire. or take off the girdles. bride is net is way. On the 3rd of January the witches return from their Sabbath in a state of ravenous hunger. During the Christmas SvyatJci the peasants object to letting their cattle leave the cow-sheds. The best way great power against to catch a witch is to hide it under a harrow. The girdle. whoever picks it up and puts it on will have its former wearer's diseases transferred to himself 7 . from its affluence of knots. with which the idea of a snake is frequently con- some mystic sympathy with its wearer. for fear of attacks from the powers of darkness. for before a wizard can begin to injure them he must undo all the knots in the net. or least with tight-drawn girdles. and thrown on the nected. A net.

On made of nettles. and slaughter their male com- George's day in April. the danger is no less to be dreaded. and ewes. a post. for at that time. 11] it is necessary to sprinkle the flocks and herds with holy water. dying themselves afterwards of a surfeit. suck the cows. in order to keep off wizards and On the witches. and again during Whitsun and Trinity weeks. 391 attached to the doors. which milk-stealers. WhitSunday. On These they boil in a milk-pail.. mares. gates of farmyards. in Little-Russia at least. in the shape of dogs and black cats. werewolves. At Midsummer bonfires are panions. and of smearing any new gashes they find them with mud. or lay their hands on stray wooden wedges. 30th of July witches frequently milk cows to death. Careful housewives are in the habit of examining their in doors. and continues to do so till the cow's udder is the eves of St. and -Midsummer day. These they stick into a post in the cattle-sheds. George's day. Vlas's [Blasius's] day [Feb. a cow from a great distance. and the horned cattle are driven through the flame. Crosses chalked upon the eve of the Epiphany are also very useful. etc. On St.WIZAEDS AND WITCHES. In order to do so she sticks a knife into a plough. or a tree A witch can milk : the milk trickles along the edge of the knife. who are then ravenous after milk. St. and so charm away the milk from those farms. witches go out at night without clothing. frustrates the plans of the In such cases the witches climb the by the wayside and cut chips from them. and cut chips from the doors and emptied. and wooden crosses .

it was against the zakrut. who cuts an aspen-stake.] The wizard's proceeding is called making a zakrut. which done only with malicious intent. witches often bear milk-pails on their heads. the quarter with which is connected the idea of death. as 1 from a cow's udder. them with their fingers till milk flows from them Germany. 251. splits it asunder. contain prayers intended to be employed After they had been said. who sometimes takes a handful of ears of corn. so are his crops to those of the wizard. Now-a-days Afterwards the zakrut is set on fire with a holy taper. S. 'Afanasief. or he twists them round toward the west. and so to deprive it is it of its power to do harm. and ties them together with a string. In Lusatian Wendish a witch is called KJwdojta freely." [See p. customary to hire the services of a friendly wizard. from her nefarious dealings with her neighbours' cows. . = to twist] The old church books called [zakrutit* . 516. formerly the custom to pull it out with a church trebniki cross.392 press SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. This ceremony. the latter proceeding giving rise to terrible 8 pains inside the hostile wizard . V. and fastens them in that position. in. is of course entirely different from the somewhat similar rite styled is " the plaiting of the beard of Volos. P. As a farmer's cows are exposed to the attacks of the witch. and pulls out the enchanted ears with it. bends them down to the ground. As in [doit =to milk]. it and the aspen-stake is driven into the spot had oc- cupied. so in Russia.

ravings. to the grave. The Kashoubes along the Baltic still attribute most illnesses to sorcery. letting loose on their enemies evil spirits. and in former days such an explanation of plagues. a general rule. a supposed to change him by night into a horse. wizards and witches are supposed to destroy their victims by means of poison distilled As from herbs and roots.WIZARDS AND WITCHES. The victim who accepts a beverage from the hands of a witch. The girl who poisoned her brother by mistake. amid prolonged agonies. and other evils of a like nature. when she merely intended to . though he knows nothing sleeps. and fits. about what has been done to him. geance upon them by means or wreaking their venof poison. and murrains. the dealers in magic were supposed to be able to bring disease and death upon mankind. however. while his made body In that case he finds himself utterly exhausted the next day. and will suck dry his veins. At other times she is believed to ride on his spirit. seems to have been generally accepted. and bring him. instead of sending evil spirits to torment a man internally. lieve that wizards The Russian peasants be- and witches can bring destruction on men as well as beasts. which manifest themselves in hiccoughs. who will become trans- formed within him into snakes. Sometimes. and ride him over hill and dale until he is all but dead with fatigue an idea of which Gogol has witch is excellent use in his story of the Vy. 393 Besides destroying crops and cattle. or mice. toads. " Fever-Sisters" will perhaps swallow with it the or other demons of torment.

Drew from its sheath his sabre keen. fair maiden gathered the chips. iii. Filled a cup betimes. Sometimes the poisoning is supposed to be effected on a large scale. The sister thought her brother to kill." Faggots he piled in the midst of the court. p. Into the midst of the court she went. " Sister. as described in a the lover who had offended her song already quoted probably belonged to the same class as the wilfully murderous sister of the following weird story : A A brave youth splintered chips. The horse's mane began to burn. " No sister true of mine art thou. the Russian peasants in order to ward off an attack ' Sakharof." A drop fell on the horse's mane. Offered it to her brother dear. See also supra. Gathered and set them on the fire. be thou the first to drink. But a snake from under a log. 202. No voice would he suffer to mourn 9 . Down from his good steed leaped the youth. to counteract the designs of the maliThe rites which are performed by cious sorcerer. Her dust he scattered across the plain . . And her body white he burnt. I. 23. Baked snakes and distilled poison. Till nought but ashes remained. In that case recourse is had to magic. I drank when pouring forth. Struck off his sister's head. Wishing good health to thee. as when an epidemic is introduced by means of unholy science." " Brother.394 kill SOKCEftY AND WITCHCEAFT.

the disease would lose its power. seize own in some old woman who was suspected of dealing magic. cat. or one that acts of whether they against an evil its In olden days. Sometimes. 395 are intended to prove efficacious spirit invoked by a human will. an opinion was expressed by appear. and looked upon is immediately burnt Sometimes the popular fancy personifies the Cow Death under the form of a haggard old alive. with a live The Comdog. when a murrain is dreaded. being scattered about the village. the assembled peasants drive their herds overnight into some farmThen yard. having previously fastened her up in a sack along with a cock. . of the cattle-plague are very striking. After that was expected that the epidemic would disNot long ago. calcined for the purpose. at crossways.CATTLE-PLAGUE SPELLS. or to fling her into a river. and cock fastened to its tail. and a black cat. In some villages a hole is dug in the earth at the precise it victim to cattle-plague has fallen. it is said. that if the first cholera patient were to be buried alive. first spot on which the mune recompenses the loss of its the owner of the dead beast for In the Nijegorod Government the Siberian Plague is supposed to be kept at a distance by ashen stakes being driven into the ground hide. and to bury her alive. the peasants. and in it they bury its remains. and keep watch over them till morn. and the remains of a dog. it Death in person. a dog. and if a beast which no is one claims as the is Cow found among them. the cattle are counted. when such a disease broke out in E/uthenia. it was customary to accord.

such as brooms. the men in their cottages. and singing the The oldest woman among them a ploiigh. Here is one of their songs. . . many of which are quite unpresentable : From the ocean from the deep sea . Make hot the boiling cauldrons. . whom they during the ceremony. that the malignant spirit It is supposed recognize in the cattle-plague will be unable to cross the lines thus traced by the plough. and other instruments used in their daily avocations. . ordered to shut themselves up Then the women meet together. by no short road. the high mountains. woman. . Up to the steep. . which. against whose alarmed lest attacks various precautions o a heathenish kind are taken. they carry pokers and tongs. scythes and sickles. . shovels. also. having their hair hanging in striking resemblance loose about their shoulders to the Prophetesses of heathen times and provided with the various utensils connected with the hearth. They have gone on their way. "When a village is such a murrain should are all fall upon its herds.396 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. . and the equivalents for In some places. To the three . or to get at the cattle. There have come out twelve maidens. the rest of the party following after her. but this seems to be an inno- vation of later date. is then yoked to three times round the whole of the village. old Elders " Get ready the white oak tables Sharpen the knives of steel. have been kept shut up within the village. clad only in white shifts. and she must draw it songs set apart for such occasions.

fire Around the boiling cauldrons Stand the old Elders . 10. In the exorcisms is preserved in writing. In those boiling cauldrons.CATTLE-PLAGUE SPELLS. Cleave. most of which show evident signs of having been submitted to Christian influences. these weird sisters are called the Daughters I. Opuit. Burns with an inextinguishable Every life beneath the heavens. Every life under the heavens 397 ): ! The Elders comply with the request of the Twelve Maidens. The old Elders give To the whole world long lives. many of which are intended to be used as a protection against the attacks of these "Evil Shakers." as they are called. Then. says Orest Miller. 1 Orest Miller. but it is not clear who the Twelve Sisters are. shakers of mankind. and all living things are put to death. old Elders promise 1 . The old Elders fix A great The curse. on evil Death. They are often mentioned in exorcisms. cut unto death. are evidently divinities. Sometimes each one has her own name. The old Elders sing About life. about death. that of some special disease. But on the other. Eternal life To all the human race The Three beneficent Elders. that to say. About the whole human race. of Herod. .

Tereschenko. ing : around her are several women and is girls with composed of women who shout. p. dance. amid the din of beaten " Ai. Ai cut. and. those in the front row carrying besoms and handfuls of hay and straw. who wears a horse-collar round her neck and nothing else. exclaim Death There she goes Ai. Blasius representative of the old the patron-god of cattle 2 . being taken for the cattle-plague If in person. hew the Cow pots and pans. gives a few additional details. bearing lighted firpans. The female inhabitants of a village heap up two piles of 2 See supra. a single shift her only coverold woman. . headed by a young girl who carVlas. Next comes an riding on a broomstick. splinters. Behind her walk the rest of the female villagers. gesticulate. and stove-irons. in his description of the Opakkuvatiie. while its members knock at the gates. is considered efficacious against various epidemics. of an equally heathenish nature.398 SOKCERY AND WITCHCEAFT. hew Ai. to plough] used as a preservative against the cattle-plague. Ai cut. the ploughing rite \_pakhdtf =. her locks dishevelled. The third row the old woman yoked to the plough. form a circle around a widow. the Christian deity of St. Another rite. the procession ries the image is In the villages of which he speaks. 251. Slavonic Volos. and beat fryingA number of old women. ! ! ! ! ! Ai!" a dog or a cat happens to rush out it is killed on the spot. In front of each farmyard the procession halts.

With incense. take hands and dance round it. Depart from our village. perish. drag a plough. one at each end of the street. go round the village they sing. other bonfire a black cock is taken by the older women who wear black petticoats and dirty shifts and carried three times round the flames. or a censer containing live After them walk three widows.with loosely flowing hair. . and set them on fire at midnight.CATTLE-PLAGUE SPELLS. " The women then drag the plough black disease it. Then one of the women seizes it. With burning embers. thou Cow Death Death. with taper. she flings the bird into While it is ! three times round the village 3 Near Mtsensk. To one of these bonfires the girls. 4t. after heaping dry leaves on the fire. From the stable. and runs away with it to the other end of the " village. Orel. in white shifts. . coals and incense. disappear. the rest following and screeching j: ! Ah When ! disappear. repeating " Perish. black disease she reaches the glowing heap at the other end. refuse at 399 midday. in the Government of . from the court Through our village Goes holy Ylasy. the Cow Death procession carry a picture of St. the girls. vr. ! ! Ai Atu burning. one of their number follow- To the ing the rest and carrying a holy picture. with a taper burning in is and some places three soldiers' wives. a lanthorn before him. in ! ! As they 3 Tereshchenko. headed by three girls who Vlas.

rake thee with the stove-rake. to the village you're going to " yourself. and a third riding on a broomstick. while the others carry. chestnut. they set upon him It has often occurred that the man thus furiously. 8 Etnograf. of their proceedings resemble those which have already been described." " " And who A are you. my own .400 SOECEEY AND WITCHCRAFT. Crumpled-horned. Come not to our village Meddle not 4 with our cows. various utensils. or a word meaning a border or boundary. I doctor cows. chiefly of iron. And we will stuff thee with ashes. but was once the name of a friendly deity resembling the Roman Terminus. and strike The rest together. will sweep thee up with the broom. ! Nut-brown. star -browed. . White-teated." One of the stories about the Cow Death relates 5 that A peasant was driving from a mill. We We We will will consume thee with fire. grandmother ? doctoress. Mezhof's article. Towards him comes crawling an old woman and says. my own. white uddered. pp. met has not at a cheap rate made good his escape from them . me a lift. one dragging a plough which another directs. at a late hour." " here translated " meddle not is 4 CJiur now an excla- mation. Sbornik. "Where to?' : " Give " ' grandfather ! There. 63 65. but their narrator adds that " if a man falls in their way. vi. one-horned ! After them follow the other women.

401 " And where have you been I've "Why they're all didn't call doctoring?" been doctoring at Istomina's. as we have seen. she appears to a tradition that when 6 Tereshchcnko. but dead there. and drove off. In the the Slovenes. or the smallpox. withered and starved in aspect. " the men and women have been known to cast lots. was no old woman to be seen ! Turning into a black dog. is Government the Siberian murrain the cattle-plague.PLAGUE SPELLS." In the month of February. 42. according to the Russian peasants. she ran into the village. she takes the form of a black dog or cow. Under such circumstances. who The Bulgarians have usually lives among the hills. along with a cock and a black cat. according to Teresh- chenko. the Cow Death wanders through the villages in the guise of a hideous old woman. wishes to depart from a village. Uttering a prayer. the peasant took In a moment there off his hat and crossed himself. shaggy man. of a mottled calf. What was to be done ? They me in till a little time ago. Next day three cows died in the outside farm the 6 peasant had brought the Cow Death there . rd . and. and I couldn't manage to stop the thing. VI. and the person on whom the lot fell has been buried alive in a pit. Sometimes. In a village attacked by an epidemic. . among Tomsk represented as a tall. instances of voluntary immolation have been known. bearing a rake in her hands. however." The peasant gave the woman a seat on his cart.CATTLE. with hoofs instead of feet. Coming to a cross road he could not remember the way. and by this time it had begun to grow dark.

nated takes bread smeared with honey. salt. and the other in Kief . A number art. some one in his sleep. In Little-Russia it is affirmed that " she wears red boots. In Ruthenia that disease is personified as an rites The old woman. After this the epidemic disappears. and leaves them. leaves not one soul alive." that she can walk on water. and a flask of wine. before sunrise. Deutsche Mythologie. V. on which they sat." in and that she is one of three sisters. In the Vladimir Government she bears the name of the Dog Death. at the appointed spot. having accompanied the bearer of the food out of the village. 1133 stitions are given in the 1141. One of them was going to slay in Kharkof. 7 One of the strangest superstitions about disease is is that which connected with small-pox. and that at night she haunts villages. there she is .402 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. gave a lift to two of the sisters in his cart. pp. " Woe was Evil will be. exclaiming. . In some places the Russian peasants hold that it is sinful to T Afanasief. with a hideous face disfigured by suffering. P. of similar superPest. S HE." white shrouds. all clad Once a peasant. " holding on their knees bundles of bones. that she perpetually sighing." In whatever house she passes the night. 114 116. In some villages they think that the Cholera comes " from beyond the sea. which serve to keep away the cattleplague are supposed to be efficacious against the Cholera also. going into a town. and orders him to convey her The person thus desigto such and such a place.

or bugbear with which " nurses frightened children Liddell and Scott). and the Servians call her bogine. V. S. a the ancient Greeks name supposed Elbe. he says. when changed into a wolf. after death. or goddess. Professor Buslaef thinks that German The kindred word the small-pox was originally represented as a female being with whom was connected the idea of whiteness or light. od2 ." For this belief even the professional wizards can give it is no reason. Dahl sug- This is Afanasief's explanation (P. in. personify small-pox in the guise of a supernatural female being. bright or golden robes. 403 vaccinate children. gests volk and Mrtta. Alphas (aX<os) also meant a skin disease." impressing upon them Moreover believed that whoever dies of small" will walk in the other world in pox golden robes. grounding their faith entirely on Professor Buslaef accounts for it tradition. and so a hide 8 ]. and that from that idea arose the notion of her victims being clad. apparently a form of leprosy. in the following manner : The modern Greeks. spectre. or. 527).SMALL-POX. to be akin to that of the or the English Elves. and plays an important part widely in the popular mythology of the country. And knew of a spectral creature called " a Alphito (aX^LTO). the latter word signifying something shaggy. such a deed being equivalent to " the seal of Antichrist. of volkodldk A = [volk ' = wolf. in The power of dealers in magic to transform themis selves or their victims into various shapes spread in Russia. person thus to changed bears the name of oboroten [oborotif turn]. dlaka = a tuft of hair.

Tylor in his tive Culture. . who used to participate in the religious games of the Old Slavonians. that and all wizards have horns. are is so well known among all unnecessary to give a detailed account of the proceedings of the Russian volkodlaJci. those of the animals known as symbols of the cloud and the storm. etc. and who forgotten. In the Ukraine witches a hide. etc.404 SOECEEY AND WITCHCEAFT. heathenism still hangs about them." olcrutniJci^ir Afanasief connects them with the maskers disguised as various animals. called the in these Kormchaya Kniga no transformed beings the people used to see mere mortals. Connected with the idea of transformation belief. says Afanasief. all the common among tails. though their original signification is play a part in the rustic festivals at So strong an odour of springtide and Christmas. in Lett wilkats. but generally. The Great-Russian volTcodldlc becomes. that it But it may be as well to mention that the collection states that of laws. after the benediction of the waters. in Servian vukodlak in Dalmatian vakudluk. of references is " Primigiven by Mr. in Bulgarian vrkodlak. one which can be expiated only by bathing is in an icehole." 279284. but " chasers of the clouds. stories Werewolf nations 9 . Such dealers in sorcery take various shapes. still. in Little -Russian vovkulak. witches have the Russian peasantry. 9 A long list i. says Afanasief. that the peasants think the wearing of a mask at the Christmas Svyatld is a sin. in Bohemian wlkodlak. and that a werewolf may be known by the bristles which grow under his tongue.

on account of the bad behaviour of the witches At the plumage. or balls of thread that is to say." whereupon God created the cat. often who assumed its Besides changing into the birds and beasts. was a well-known Cats are mythological synonym for a rain. magpies are those whose of the shapes witches like best to take. Russian witches often assume the forms of stones. 405 on the assume a canine form . escaped As a general no such bird to be seen in that city. udder. its race having been solemnly cursed by the Metropolitan Alexis. their long teats trail ground. while the dove is so pure and holy that no witch form.WEREWOLVES. generally thought uncanny in Slavonic countries. the Russian peasants believing that evil spirits enter into them during storms. is popular poetry. remarking that the bosom.cloud. of various objects mythologically connected with clouds. just as our gamekeepers do. observes Afanasief. but it is in order to scare away witches from stables and cow-sheds. of which mention has been made. that the devil invented mice in order to destroy " God's corn. to be of a demoniacal nature. according to The wife from Moscow rule. is able to assume its Of all living creatures. a fact on which Afanasief lay s stress. There is a Bohemian tradition. false Demetrius. however. or teat. and the Bohemians holding that a black cat at the end of seven years becomes either a witch or a devil The owl is considered 1 . in the guise of a magpie. present day the peasants often gibbet a dead magpie. . hay-cocks.

a shaggy of course." 3 the aspen stump is says Buslaef mentioned because a buried werewolf or vampire In this spell. so that they may not seize the grey wolf. 3 Istor. applied to St. and reptile. moon golden horns Melt the bullet. is a specimen of a zagovor to be employee by a wizard who desires to turn into a werewolf " In the ocean sea. shines the moon upon an aspen stump. beast. a great difference between the voluntary and the involuntary undergoers of transformation. the spreading vale. I. rot the cudgel.406 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. Dealers in the black art who have There is. And fell. under his teeth are all the horned cattle but into the wood . in his teeth. on the island Buyan. Around the stump goes a shaggy wolf. 3G. nor tear from him his warm hide. the wolf goes not. is in keeping with his designation from dlaka. . Ocherki. I. ii. the warm hide of the werewolf VolJcodlaJc. has to be pierced with an aspen stake. ! ! blunt the knife. the Old Slavonic Volos. Moon. strike fear into man. firmer than sleep or the strength of heroes 2 . 28. "What " the wolf has St. My word is firm. The expression that the wolf has all the horned cattle in or under his teeth resembles the proverb George. that now Yegory gave George. in the vale the wolf does not roam. in the Here : open into plain. or Yegory the Brave. . having taken the place which was once filled by the heathen god of flocks. 2 Sakharof. into the green wood.

the bride into a cuckoo. There once was a youth. He whole body ran to his cattle. but that he never forgot that he was really a man. but In another had become a mere howl. and often went out hunting with him. driven beyond endurance by hunger. and by tears and deprecatory pawings attempt to Unless apologize for their brutal appearance. into the forest to cut firewood. Such gentle werewolves as these attach themselves to will men. after he had regained his former shape. The White-Eussians have a tradition that once. and who was loved by a witch. and the rest of the women into magpies. instance a witch turned one of her neighbours into a wolf. that during the period of his trans- formation he made friends with a real wolf. and when they must kill a sheep. One day he drove says a Polish tradition. for the most part. but he scorned her affection. but call they fled in terror his voice he tried to them back. and he stated. when a wedding party were thoroughly enjoying themselves. . but people who have been made wolves against their seldom disgrace their human nature. hair. but no sooner had he swung his axe in the into wolf's paws. 407 turned themselves into wolves are. though he had lost the faculty of articulate speech. ravenous destroyers of all that falls in their way. they seek one belonging to some other village than that in which they used to live. they never slay eat. they were all transformed by some hostile magician the bride- groom and the other men into wolves.WEREWOLVES. bristled with air than his hands turned and in a short time his shaggy .

549 553." which " Cuckoo's spittle. In one of the Russian in stories a black dog behaves so reasonable a manner. bewitched 4 . Witches 4 Afiinasief." " Ever we less poetically style In order to produce such an effect as this on a wedding party. whom an old sorceress had and wizards constantly metamorphose people by the touch of a magic wand. necessary either to strip off his hide. or whip. According to a Ruthenian story. . over which unholy spells have been whispered. than the dog turns into a young man belonging to a neighbouring village. they heat a bath as hot as possible. V. P. S. and hiding it beneath the threshold of the cottage in which the wedding festivities Every one who stepped In order to across it immediately became a wolf. that the people to whom it has attached itself take it to a wizard for relief. must girdle each member of it with a leather strap or piece of bast. and No sooner is this done scald the dog's skin off. Acting upon his advice. however. a witch once gained her end by simply rolling up her girdle. in.408 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. effect the cure of an involuntary werewolf. it is generally believed. stick. or to remove the magic girdle or other amulet which has reduced him into his brute state. and moistening the hedges with the Cuckoo's tears. the hostile wizard. since that time the metamorphosed bride ha flown about seeking for and lamenting her lost bridegroom. it is were being held.

Sometimes. if he only knows a man's baptismal name. effort of will. 409 not essential. It is in the Ukraine and in White-Russia so far as the Russian is Empire is about this most rife There ghastly creation of morbid fancy. The Littletates. on the other hand. P. woman and her husband. however." even than the werewolf. Russians. attribute the birth of a 5 by and aposor heretics Afaiiasief.VAMPIRES. witches. ran at them." who had agreed to frighten the holy travellers. or victims of a parental curse. or people its rites. as well as with the wizard and terrible More the witch. and roaring from this time forward and for ever sheepskins { ' ! at that very instant the mockers were turned into bears 5 . and had dressed themselves up in turned inside out. Go on roaring like bears. 552. S. who became outcasts from the Church and suicide. and werewolves . . V. the dreaded Yampire. concerned that traditions are vampires are supposed to be such dead persons as in their lifetime were wizards. at least. " Then the Apostles said. and answer to a Such a power as this is supposed by the Russian peasantry to have been employed upon one occasion by the Apostles Peter and Paul. As " a bad they were passing over a bridge one day. his real and therefore a man name. in. but closely connected with him. for instance. or by committing drinking themselves to death . can transform him by a mere should conceal fictitious one. it is believed that a wizard. even this is In Ruthenia.

" There is a whole literature of hideous vampire stories. who thinks that " vampires are not mere creations of groundless fancy. a name akin to that borne by the witch in our own language as well as in Russian. and it has been derived from a root pi [to drink] with the prefix u If av. . itself its has never been satisfactorily exof vampir it In form upuir. however. The Slovenes and Kashubes call the vampire vieszcy. that he is " blood- red as a vampire." Afanasief is one. and wempti. The Poles name him upior or upir the y latfcer being his designation among the Czekhs also. wampiti = to growl. The name plained. [South-Russian has been compared with the Lithuanian wempti = to drink. explain the vampire stories mythoOf their explanations some account will logically." and both the Servians and the Slovaks term a hard drinker a vlJcodlaJc. vampire to an unholy union between a witch and a werewolf or a devil. anciently upir].410 SOECEEY AND WITCHCRAFT.. In the opinion of the Russian peasant vampires. VOL. of whom wasting disease. Tylor [" Primitive Culture II. but causes conceived in spiritual form to account for the specific facts of Some writers. the characteristic of the vampire is a kind of blood-drunkenness. which the student will find elaborately dis- cussed in Calmet. In accordance with this idea the Croatians call the vampire pijawica." says Mr. 175]. the Servians say of a man whose face is coloured by constant drinking. this derivation is correct. presently be given. to mutter.

yet the stranger " Shut tight !" for on those gates crosses have says. after After him came running a it had grown dark. Though the gates are wide open. They go into the house . famines. They drive on to the very last house the gates are barred. As a specimen of the Russian vamtheir attacks pire stories. slakes his brutal thirst. but there is no cross there. and the gates open of their own accord. the following. holy beings wander. A who 66 cried. : heard in the Tambof Government. are their terrible dealings with mankind. are the weather. immediately the back opens. The stranger takes a pail. and drinks it dry. may be taken peasant was driving past a grave-yard. " It begins to grow light let us go back to my " Stop ! : ! dwelling. take me as your companion." Pray take a seat. stranger. But worse than their evil effect upon the weather one which they produce in common with the spirits of worse than all persons who have died by violence upon cattle. and says to the peasant. attributed the presence of storms. droughts. with blood from the old man. and similar evils. and strikes him on the back . Where such uncattle-plagues. drive up to this and that house. Then he fills another pail full. and to werewolves. and from them hangs a padlock weighing a score of pounds ." They enter a village." .VAMPIRES. and The stranger fills the pail forth flows rosy blood. been branded. one woe succeeds another. places it near the youth. exert a very baneful influence on To them. dressed in a red shirt and a new jacket. there on the bench lie two sleepers an old man and a lad. 411 as well as witches.

who cursed her body remained free from " At corruption for the space of a hundred years. for moist mother. may also be attended by the same 7 . and so may in the Ukraine the mere breath of the wind from the Steppe The bodies of vampires. for which reason a corpse In some is always carefully watched at that time. .412 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. S. last he was dug up. his may vampires. 565. old man and the lad were both dead According to the Servians and Bulgarians. and his old mother. who was still alive. unclean spirits enter into the corpses of malefactors and other evilly-disposed persons. become a vampire. moreover. in. V. In a twinkling they found themselves at the graveThe vampire would have clasped the peasant yard. Afanasief. P. if a cat jumps across dead body while it lies in the cottage before the funeral. P. 8 Afanasief. as well as those of outcasts from the Church. P. of wizards. 558. in. and of people cursed by their parents. V. There is a story in the Saratof Government of a mother son. pronounced his pardon . in. when folks came and looked. S. and the corpse disappeared. The next morning. but luckily for him the cocks began to crow." Afanasief. places the jumping of a boy over the corpse is conThe flight of a bird sidered as fatal as that of a cat. V.earth" will not take them to herself. who then become Any one. and of witches. in its arms. S. 7 559568. and at that very after his death his and moment 6 the cprpse crumbled into dust 8 . the 6 . are supposed not to " decay in the grave. above the body terrible result .

and committed to the flames.VAMPIRES. and out of it as he lay asleep . she took his heart. and drive it through the church- may not be so well known. instead of blood-sucking vampires. P. A Mazovian story relates how a certain hero was long renowned for courage. * worthy of remark that the stake with which the vampire's corpse is pierced must be driven into It is it by a single stroke. its has been sucking will pour forth The Servian method of discovering According to Vuk Karadjic 9 it is customary to take an immaculately black colt. A enemy the snake. in. is dug up. A second blow would reanimate it. This idea is frequently referred to in the Eussian sJcazJci and other Slavonic stories. Sometimes. heart-devouring witches trouble the peasant's repose. it. pierced with a white-thorn stake. yard. the vampire pass. when the blood grave it from the wound. 576. and inserted a hare's heart in its Quoted by Afanasief. But at last one night a witch struck him on the breast with an aspen twig his breast opened. S. its cheek being rosy and its skin soft and that the best way to destroy the monster is to drive a stake through . Over the vampire's grave it will refuse to The whole village then turns out. repetition of the blow would be cer- tain to prove fatal to himself. . 413 Every one knows that when a vampire's grave is opened no trace of death is found upon its body. in which it is customary for the hero to be warned that he must strike his once only. or other monster. V.

nothing remains but bare bones. singular. and desiring to eat the person who The body has generally is watching beside the bier. of As and with a screech rushes at the doomed whom. the coffin-lid falls off. 571. so there is nothing remarkable in the depraved appetites of the superlike beings all natural man-eaters of the Slavonic tales. a dead wizard or witch been enclosed in a secured with iron bands. in." fondness for human flesh is attributed to ogre- A over the world. V. man was always crowing Sometimes the witches did not eat the hearts they stole. SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. next morning escape 1 as a general rule. an till remained one the day of his death. S. watcher. as Jacob Grimm remarks. His only chance of is to trace a magic circle around him on the Afanasief. From that time forward the unfortunate 1 . . and the corpse long. is one Somewhat which group of is stories in described as coming to life at midnight. The idea still survives. 2 DeutscJie Mythologie. P. however. the clock strikes twelve a mighty wind suddenly arises.414 place. The hero awoke a trembling coward. 1035. in our ex2 pressions of "giving" or "stealing one's heart . and conveyed to the church in which the watcher has to read aloud from Holy Writ above it all night coffin. leaps forth. Another Polish story of a similar nature tells how a witch substituted a cock's heart for that of a peasant. but merely exposed them to a magic fire so as to create love-longings in the breasts from which they had been taken. the iron bands give way with a terrible crash.

for Slavonic folk-lore abounds in them. The cock uttered his usual crow. when his the dead man leaped from his coffin. the Slavoother peoples. These charms were then known only to s Afanasief. there died a terrible sinner. and the summer follow the winter. 584. floor. preferring to devote such space as reIt mains to to a brief sketch of the history of Russian witchcraft. and rushed at his victim. like many according as either might be requisite . it is supposed. but I will not do so now. the sacristan gave the bird a pinch. and to provide sunlight or rain nians. The sacristan took the precaution to catch a cock. P. in the days of old.VAMPIEES. . motionless corpse 3 . the ancient weapon of the thunder-god. they even deemed such utterances necessary in order that the day might succeed to the night. placed great faith in the power of certain spells to rule the elements. and carry it with him. to turn away storms. V. and the sacristan was told to read psalms over him. S. 415 holding in his hand a hammer. In very distant times. and that very moment the dead man fell backwards to the ground a numb. " Once." would be easy to quote many stories of this kind. What has been said will pro- me bably give some idea of the wizards and witches of modern times . m. the following remarks may serve to convey a similar idea of those of a remoter period. At midnight. into the church. Here is one of the stories of this class from the Kharkof Government. His body was taken and to remain within it. opened jaws wide.

all declared fell illicit. Christianity drove out the Slavonic the old dealings with the spirit.416 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. and especially to young maidens.world were exercise a But when deities. in old times. especially at three fixed times in the after. for private gain milking their neighbours' cows . The hoarders of this mystical lore were generally old men. the Divining Woman or Prophetess. and those who were versed into dishonour. At first the persons who wer acquainted with them were looked upon merely as professed seers. sacrifices As in pagan days year. koldtin afterwards a exceptionally wise people. as time passed by. who by his spells realized unholy gains. there arose a special class of men and women who preserved the secret of composing such charms and incantations as were held to sway the seen and the unseen world. Their nature and their occupation became equally degraded : the witches. a kind of priest. and the Vyeshchaya Zhend. A as we have seen. or witch. the volition of whose fresh.days it was supposed that often on mountain . For even if the Old Slavonians recognized no separate caste of priests.e. them The Koldun became a mere in conjuror or wizard. wizard in the bad sense of the word was originally. they drew down rain from the for the general good. at all events. but the gift of divination was usually ascribed to women. for instance. turned into the feared and hated Vyed'ma. whereas. so in many were offered up on high places. pure minds was supposed to magic influence over the forces of nature. they milked the heavenly cows clouds i.

so witches came to be associated with the various implements connected with the hearth. and a cock. who sometimes even carried their disrespect so far as to bury them alive in sacks. As a general rule they stood high in the opinion of the masses. each attended by a dog. and sacrifices were supposed to ride on the broom or the ovenfork. the Christian " devilish as unwelcome resistance. characterized by just such music. V. that although the wizard and the wise woman were generally respected ." by hierarchy set them down the aid of which Satan was enabled to prolong his the other hand. * * Afanasief.HISTORY OF RUSSIAN WITCHCRAFT. On vessels. S. a cat. and to soar into the air through the stove5 pipe or the chimney It has been mentioned already. Opuif. etc. in heathen times. it seems to have been only at times when the popular judgment was unhinged by some great calamity. T. dancing. Orest Miller. such as a drought or a pestilence. and did all that they could to impede it. scarcely to be watched the progress of the so that it is wondered at that they new religion with par- ticularly unfavourable eyes. But if they were liable to such treatment. 483. P. and feasting as used to accom4 pany the heathen festivals . the wizards and witches held unholy revels. 417 and especially at those very times. e . 07 09. and their exaltation was attended by material advantages. yet there were occasions when they sank in the estimation of the people. tops. as the smoke of other formerly rose to heaven from the domestic hearth.

an insurrection was stirred up by a wizard. but that Many courageous prelate put on his robes. for instance. of the townspeople took his side. put St. following . The introduction of Christianity by St. So the people were divided into two bodies. several risings against Christianity were Thus in 1071 a instigated by dealers in magic. Leontius to death. or military companions. who appeared force. but " the " " the devil faithful plays laughed at him. saying. seized a cross. broke into revolt. soon perished. during the Glyeb." says the chronicler. and at Byeloozero two warlocks were seized by an armed forest. and wanted to kill their bishop . Yladimii was not allowed to take place without a struggle. during the eleventh century. and called upon the faithful to follow him. gave heed to his words. The inhabitants of Novgorod. and that the Russian and the Grecian lands would Certain "ignorant persons. about the year 1070. left no trace behind. and those of Rostof. wizard appeared in Kief. with thee for thy ruin.418 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. disappeared one night and also. and prophesied that at the end of five years the Dnieper would flow backwards. and put to death." and in truth the wizard change places. and forced the Bishops Theodore and Hilarion to fly for their lives. who gave out that he would publicly wa]k across the river Volkhof. rule of Prince their corpses being left a prey to the beasts of the At Novgorod. Still more closely connected with the subject of the is present chapter the fact that. the Prince and his drujina. at Rostof in Another wizard. 1091.

" objects of his allegiance. and went quietly home dead. S. as in other countries. At the same time. and struck the wizard with such force that he fell immediately up all faith in Whereupon the people gave 6 him.HISTORY OF RUSSIAN WITCHCRAFT. P. Even after the adherents of heathenism had given up what they saw was a hopeless struggle. even the " faithful proselytes of the new religion could not at once forget the teaching of the old. 5% 599. privately worshipped the ancient earlier period in many pagan rites being long kept up in sequestered nooks within dense forests." answered the wizard. " Knowest thou what in the evening ? " I know all things. so they retained in a mass of familiar traditions. or by the side of lonely streams. - 419 the bishop. E e 2 . and Christianity had become the recognized religion of the Russian people. What had occurred at an affections. V. and drew near and to the wizard. at least " other European lands was now repeated in Russia. if not upon the " upon the fears of those who formed the great mass of ignorant persons the rural population. but they substituted in them for the names of Afanasiof. the old gods retained a hold. " Knowest thou what is going to take place now ? " " I shall perform great wonders. the old Russia." At this point of the argument the Prince drew out his axe. chiefly of a mythical nature. will " and asked him happen in the morning. UT. while the common herd sided with the wizard. . Then the Prince hid an axe under his dress. Many a peasant who went publicly to church.

their elementary gods and demigods. just as of the remonstrances of their their dance and song. and frequenting wicked women. The consequence was a confusion of ideas which justified " two-faithed " which an old ecclesiastical the epithet writer bestowed upon the Russian people. and wizards. levelling from time to time severe denunciations against the " believers in conjurors." such as dealings in witchcraft and the like. spiriit tualism by a series of ecclesiastical ordinances. But Cyril rebuked his flock for " having recourse in illness to accursed women. witches. which had come down to them from their heathen ancestors. the Metropolitan loann ordered that no magic should be allowed to participate in the sacraments of the church." attended by own. The book of laws called practiser of the Kormchaya Kniga. and similar restrictions were laid on the indulgence of a leaning towards St. mostly of . according to a copy dated 1 282. continued the games." was in vain that The wizards and witches held the people. in 1410. others which they took from the calendar of the Church.420 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT." In the twelfth century." and the performers of " demoniacal rites." and that the Metropolitan Photius. The clergy were more successful in their attacks on the books of a superstitious nature. inflicted a six years' exile from church on persons addicted to " pagan practices. in spite " satanic pastors. The superior clergy did all they could to remedy what they naturally considered a serious evil. besought his " clergy to induce their congregations to abstain from " listening to fables.

Ivan the Terrible greatly harassed the dealers in magic. On the morning of that day he felt himself stronger than usual. buried alive in a sack with various animals. or. which they placed upon their Index. as we have already seen. Sometimes. and their behaviour was justified by the fact that the Tsar was soon afterwards seized by a fit in the middle of a game of chess. but. . divining four wizards were burnt to death at NovIn 1411 the people of Pskoff burnt " twelve women. they had their re- In the winter of 1584 a comet appeared which the Tsar. probably remembering the celebrated Ides of March. of which Afanasief gives a full account. relates how gorod. Many of these. so he sent to tell the wizards that he intended to put them to death as false prophets. whose health was fast failing. But they. for instance. There every attention was paid them. however. took venge. 421 Byzantine origin. received his message with con- tempt ." probably because a deadly epidemic was then ravaging the country. sixty wizards of this they prophesied that he would die on the 18th of March. were destroyed by orthodox fire. to be a sign of his approaching death. a chronicler perty they were.HISTORY OF RUSSIAN WITCHCRAFT. if tradition is to be believed. he appealed to the sorcery which he had tried to extermi- from the north of Russia being brought together for his convenience in Moscow. but in spite nate. and died before he had time to carry out his intention. extending over six pages. and with them not a few of the persons whose proIn 1227. In order to obtain more certain information on this point. witches were only beheaded.

" In vain did the unfortunate sufferer protest his inno- The Tsar listened to his agonized expressions. a woman named Fedosia who was put to death in 1674. but the sufferings of persons accused of witchcraft in Russia are proved by incontestable evidence. The annals of the law courts contain numerous cases others afflicted into of persons accused of having thrown convulsions. declared her whom innocence on the scaffold. fictitious. Prince Mikhail Vorotuinsky. and then raked the coals nearer to his victim with his curved staff. in order to extort from him a confession of having attacked the royal health " through the agency of whispering women. but the story of their martyrdom is sufficiently sad. At one time we find Ivan the Terrible slowly roasting one of his generals. saying that she had accused herself only because she could not endure her torments. or at least of having them with hiccoughs. At another time we read of cence.422 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. These convulsions were sometimes being assumed for the . This story is an evident fable. At various times we meet cruel sufferings undergone with accounts of the executions of men and women from confessions of dealing in magic had been wrung by torture. One of these. religious authorities The number of such victims to the superstitious terror of the civil and seems to have been small. com- pared with that of the multitudes who perished in other lands. by persons charged with having bewitched members of the royal family by means of magic practices brought to bear upon the traces of their footsteps.

S. 423 purpose of ruining an enemy by a charge of witchcraft. A peasant named Mikhail Chukharef was accused of " an afflicting his cousin. whispered a certain The formula he used was as follows "Lodge in such and such a person. Ofimiya Lobanova." should be subjected to an examination. with evil spirit " in the shape of a hiccough. ye hiccough-pains tear and torture him to the end of time As this salt '" shall dry up. as well as " a public church 7 } .HISTORY OF RUSSIAN WITCHCRAFT." by III. so as to find out whether " possessed." or were only feignthey were really " as did a certain (JdikusJiestvo) possession ing J: Varvara Loginova. . P. PetersAfanasief. stating that he had. and persons afflicted with epilepsy and St. a carpenter's wife r in St. Quoted from MaksimoPs "Year in Siberia. the hiccough is supposed to be a demon inflicted on the sufferer by means of sorcery. 66. Vitus's dance are regarded as the victims of hostile enchantments. The accused pleaded guilty. after removing the cross he wore round his neck. As late as the year 1815 a charge of this kind was brought before a legal tribunal in the Pinejsk district. so may that man also dry up and the salt thus enchanted was to be scattered on the road along which the intended victim had to pass. V. The court sentenced Chukharef to undergo thirtyspell over salt. says Afanasief. : ! ! ! five blows of the knout. Even at the present day in the north of Russia. penance In 1715 Peter the Great gave orders that in " future UikusJii. or possessed people. and are called MiJcusM.

after accusing a number of persons o having bewitched her. and her judges forwarded them to the Senate. and were flogged till they confessed their guilt. several persons were accused of having bewitched certain girls and women. in the Yarensk district of the Government of Vo- logda. and gave orders that in future similar complaints were not to be listened to 8 . it is said. in remote localities. also. * Afanasief. The belief in vampires. retains its hold upon the popular mind. whereupon the Senate >! ordered the " possessed woman to be flogged. On examination these diabolical worms turned out to be simple maggots. to having been an impostor throughout. S. burg.424 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. and the old custom of digging up those among the dead who are suspected of unfavourably affecting the weather is to this day observed. turned the provincial judges out of their seats. by means of worms which the devil had given her. who. and even after they had accepted Christianity they retained their original theories with respect to the influence of the dead upon the elements. Some of these worms she on her victims produced. in 1714. In 1770. P. One of the women of their number stated in her confession how she had acted namely. 637. While the Slavonians were heathens they all seem to have been in the habit of resorting to this practice. . in. But though the law has long ceased such charges. V. ultimately confessed. they still to examine command attention among the peasantry.

About three years ago the prospect of a bad harvest." the winter receptacles of the bodies of the unknown and friendless dead. 425 In the thirteenth century Serapion. and shot them from guns into the air. hurtful to cornfields. and of sinking in the nearest it swamp or lake. with the full belief that this proceeding would ensure the fall of rain. and having consumed them with fire. they attributed it to his demoniacal influence. a strong frost set in. caused by continual drought. Bishop of Vladimir. metrius was suspected by the people of dealing in witchcraft. gardens and orchards. and a bagpipe.HISTORY OF RUSSIAN WITCHCRAFT. time ago. and in the sixteenth century a similar reprimand was considered The false Denecessary by Maxim the Greek. but exhumed them on the ground that they caused drought and scarcity . objects generally associated with jugglers >! and it had afterwards been and " transformers . that the peasants of any district in which a drought had long prevailed were It is but a little in the habit of digging up the corpse of some person who had died from excess of drink. if common report may be believed. was obliged to utter sharp reproofs of those superstitious men who would not allow the bodies of drowned or suffocated persons to rest in their graves. 1606. Thence the populace tore his remains. stretched on a table along with a reed-pipe. " buried in one of the poor-houses. His dead body had been exposed for three days to public view. mingled his ashes with gunpowder. a mask. after his burial in the early part of May. induced the peasants . and when.

572574. exclaiming. " Give us rain " while others poured water upon ! it through a sieve. or who had died in the previous December. up the practice. but neither among the populace nor on the bench does there ever seem to have been found so persistent a murderer as our 9 own Hopkins Afanasief. . to its resting-place All that can be said in excuse of such a practice as this is. They dug up the body of a Easkolnik. condemned to torture and to death. as well as in other lands. as has already been remarked. coffin and restored Then they put it it back into the 9 . and had been buried Some of the party then beat it about the head. in lands tenanted by Teutonic and Latin races. the legal tribunals of his country too often behaved with dull cruelty. of testing a woman suspected of witchcraft by flinging her into in The Servians are said still to keep a pond or river. sad as are the records of the sufferings inflicted among Slavonic nations in this drowned manner upon the victims of a far less tragic fear of witchcraft. The Eussian peasant sometimes murdered in his blind wrath. that it is not as bad as that which so long prevailed England. and it is asserted that among the Euthenians bordering on Hungary a witch was as late as 1827. P. But. in. they are tell than those which of the thousands upon thousands of innocent persons whom a similar fear.426 SOECERY AND WITCHCRAFT.V. in the village graveyard. Dissenter. of a village in the Tarashchansk district to have recourse to the following means of procuring better weather. S.

theories as that supported by Mr. whether they took place in Russia or in any other land it is a relief to turn to the speculations in which some comparative mythologists have indulged. a similar one to that which has restored to order and meaning so many of the apparently wild and irrational myths of old religion." 1 ancient mythological culture preferring to trace back such stories as those of witches who felo- niously milk their neighbours' cows to the poetic ideas of the primeval Aryans about storms and clouds." I. 427 the Witchfinder. . while endeavouring to account for the belief which gave rise to those trials." the dreary picture of fanaticism and superstition offered by the records of trials for witchcraft From always so monstrously terrible.MYTHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS. nor can any Russian laws on the subject of witchcraft be fairly charged with the cold-blooded malignity which characterizes the pages of the " Malleus Maleficarum. rather than to explain in the superstitions them by a partnership of the most degraded of African these writers have applied to and American savages witchcraft traditions another system of explanation. " 1 Primitive Culture. who considers that " witchcraft is part and parcel of and apparently looks upon the belief in it rather as the rank growth of an untilled soil than as the decayed form of one of the results of savage life . 125. a belief of world-wide extent and of the most Disinclined to accept such venerable antiquity. Tylor.

or in their old capacities of priest and prophetess as types of certain atmospheric forces or phenomena. to dispense the rain and hail. is devoted to an attempt to prove that the wizards and witches of modern days a general rule.428 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. and to change at will from one form to another dealers in . in which were expressed. the strife of the elements. in figurative language.the forces of nature. The Koldun and Vyed'ma he considers whether in their modern forms of wizard and witch. considerable part of the twenty. to whirl to and fro in a wild dance. therefore it is that magic are mentioned in old as Slavonic documents " cloud-compellers" ollcikoprogon- . in his opinion. more competent It will be sufficient here to mention a few of their most striking points. critics to decide. to guide the whirlwind. and as the human inheritors of a reverence originally paid to the demons of cloud-land. the representatives of the priests and the priestesses. that they are supposed to direct the stormcloud. or the " wise are. to love to glide above the surface of the earth. to be able to steal the dew or to hide the lights of heaven. I Whether leave to his arguments are or are not conclusive. to gather on the bare hill-side. Therefore it is." of pagan times. as men" and "wise women.sixth chapter of that work of Afanasief s which has been so fre- A quently quoted in these pages. the views of the ancient Slavonians about. and also that the greater part of the superstitious ideas now connected with them are remnants or survivals of a mythical system.

a word closely associated with the epithet of Zeus. gonydt to legeretes . and in the Domosfroi. or metal instruments. pomelo. So closely are some of these implements still associated in parts of Russia with the storm. fast. 3 The word occurs 1282 in the Kormchaya Kniga in a copy dated A.D. or rake them together in masses which at times are rent by the fiery dart of the lightning. the shovel and the rake flies (grabli). either as burn- ing on the domestic hearth or as flashing across the vault of heaven. according to Russian traditions closely akin in this respect to those of Teu- tonic or Lettic extraction the broom (in its different forms of metld.MYTHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS. are supposed to have been meant. for types of the cloud and the storm. . nephecloud. in mythical lanThe guage. that the peasants often try to frighten away an ominous cloud by flinging a frying-pan out of doors. together with a broom. Such are. not only on wooden horses. niki \_6blalco 2 429 chase]. vyeniti). as well as all the other animals with which the popular fancy associated dealers in magic. but also on actual These. = the poker (Jcooven-fork). or a poker. and chergd). Sometimes Russian traditions represent witches as riding to the Midsummer festival. = 9 = The steeds on which wizards and witches make some their aerial journeys are of a nature to suggest connexion with the element of fire. a shovel. On these the wizard or witch resembling in rapid course the swift winds which sweep the clouds from the sky. the tongs (ukhvdt (lopdta).

V. Rusalkas. 466469. as bearded demons. Ac- cording to Russian tradition. or performs any other unholy deed. and the witches as hideous old hags. is always clothed in a long white shift. or as young and fair damsels . but also by other womanly employments. and now melt away before the sun- As not only by spinning and by weaving.430 wolf. In this array she strongly resembles the Vilas. S. and has her hair loosely flowing over her shoulders. or as female forms. in the language of poetry. and the cock. so at last associate women rather than of it became usual it to men with the idea commanding the elements . a witch. were the actions of the elementary forces of nature represented in ancient mythical language. P. . when she gathers dew. and other fairy beings of aqueous nature. washing. and the snake constantly figure in Russian stories as the associates of the witch or the Yaga Baba. in. just as in ancient times the clouds were depicted. pro- ducing filmy textures which seem not unlike the clouds which now veil. or milks cows. The wizards of Russian storyland are usually represented as old men with long beards and flashing like the German Hexen either eyes. and thus was more usually a witch than a wizard who was supposed to be on terms of familiarity with the inhabitants of the invisible world 3 ' . milking. the cat. the well-known symbol of fire. Afanasief. such as light. plays in them an important part. and the like. SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. whose occupation it so often is to spin and weave. whether nymph -like or haggard.

and that she is then turned into a cow. P. together with milk. " In the Government of Kief. go out of doors. according to some commentators. it is by night. wearing long shifts and with dishevelled hair. and. The vulgar witch of to-day steals the milk from the earthly cows of her neighbour . when good folks sleep. and also about vampires. they betake themselves to milking the cloud-cows themselves. and the Bulgarians have a tradition that sorceresses can take the to the effect moon (luna) out of the sky. trace a line with their hands affirmed that witches round the starry sky. As the clouds shift " backed like a weasel. the witches are said to chase the moon into a cow-shed. 488. and milk them so violently that from their teats. S. now and now resembling a III. which accounts for lunar eclipses. which they milk.MYTHOLOGICAL EXPLANATIONS. her prototype was wont to milk the heavenly cows. there begins to flow blood (another metaphor for rain) 4 . 431 Of all is these womanly employments that of milking the most prominent. . also." In some villages. to draw the rain from the clouds. the stories about werewolves and other transformed creatures. thus eventually obtaining such butter as heals otherwise incurable wounds. then. V." 4 may be accounted their plastic shapes. for. In a similar manner. and there to milk cows by her light. according to Afanasief. and eclipse the moon with clouds (or steal it). the most evidently mythical. that is to say. on the approach of a storm.

556. S. in mythical language. there lingers a tradition that a werewolf who is touched with a pitchfork or a is flail immediately resumes his human form : this explained as meaning that the thunder-god strikes a blow with his mace [the lightning]. various portions of her dress. When winter condemns all nature to a temporary death. under whose forms the philosophy of our ancestors personified the forces were originally supposed to undergo rapid metamorphoses. as she runs. the thundergod and the spirits of the storm sleep a sleep like But with the return of spring they assume renewed life. P. V. who. ' Afanasief. and draw rain from the clouds.V. or. . their sucking of blood is explained by Afanasief in the same manner as the . which tears the wolf's hide from his opponent [or disperses the 5 cloud] In the case of vampires. P. blood from sleepers 6 interpretation. of literally. so the mythical beings. replaced them in popular belief. each of which her too fond parent has to tear up and then restore to ' its Afanasief. Thus. whale. seems a needlessly improbable story the vampire father who eats all his some glimmering may be obtained. the original meaning of what. . suck that of death in their cloud-coffins. According to this sytem of he thinks. in the Ukraine. in. in many respects. her escape being effected by her throwing off. if taken that of daughters but one. S. in. and the power of similar transformation was eventually attributed to the human beings of nature.432 SORCERY AND WITCHCRAFT. 5f>4. draining of milk by witches.

into not only harmless. dulging in the pleasure of a belief in such desirable transformations. Great caution is requisite on the part of every one who undertakes it more dangerous would to evolve a mythological system 7 from a mass of 73. none of the dwarfs and magicians and such like creatures. still be to decide hastily in the case of foreign demigods and demons. it would be a relief to our feelings if we could succeed in resolving the werewolves. Moreover. Fergusson altogether agree that none of the serpents and we do not dragons. Whether these explanations have at least the merit of ingenuity." yet we may find. vampires. reason enough to make us pause before considering conclusively made out. they pursuit. who have so long made night hideous. belongs to the Turanian races. Tree and Serpent Worship.CONCLUSION. but even beneficent elements recognizing in their laidly lineaments the shapely features of the mythical beings under whose forms our Aryan ancestors But before inpersonified the powers of nature. original form. as well at least to re- member the existence of very different hypotheses on the subject. before 433 he can recommence his furious are sound or not. are of Aryan extraction. and other demoniacal creatures. it may be if 7 . Even with Mr. p . in his and in similar arguments. the opposite theory And if it would be hazardous to form rapid con- clusions with respect to our own familiar fairies. of the East and West. that " all the fairy mythology. in fact.

incapable of active life. CONCLUSION. end of that time. In one of the most popular of the Russian stories a Slavonic variant of a world-wide tale the hero sits for thirty years beside his father's hearth. a But. to dwell at length upon not by such weaknesses as these. he is not only cured by two mystic personages. even under the pressure of that system of slavery which has but recently been overthrown. that we ought to judge of a peatheir superstitions. it is But signally remarkable for family affection. I trust I have not conveyed an unThe nature of my work has led me to speak frequently of their foibles. disguised as beggars.434 popular traditions. for reverence towards age. In no case is such caution mo] urgently demanded than in that of a student who has to deal with materials of so mixed a nature. and of so doubtful an extraction. when he has risen from his lowly couch. as are the songs and stories of the Russian people. he goes forth into the world. Of that people favourable idea. to whom he has given a draught of water. so warm a love for their native land. at the helpless cripple. So. but he is endowed by them with gigantic strength. so keen a sense of loyalty. for with misfortune who have retained for santry who have always been sympathy centuries. which are to some extent common to all mankind. a noble .

In the career of Ivan Muromets this Slavonic counterpart of the the Russian people are said to have long recognized. thanks to the unwearied efforts of what like of statesmen. proceeded to say (if reliance can be placed upon a somewhat improbable report). to mighty struggles terminating in decisive victories. inactive and despised.CONCLUSION. when they would shake off their lethargy. But the struggles may rf 2 . the story ran. and put on irresistit might. They may be destined. conquering and to conquer. but one of a peaceful nature. overcoming infidels. a symbol of their own national life. and slaying monsters. times the thirty years of the tale the population was " fastened to the For nearly ten the great mass of soil." debarred by law from anything Now. in accordance with a vague tradiFor cention. 435 conqueror. like the long crippled Ivan Muromets. turies. and freeing Christian prisoners. and in all ways suc- couring the needy and the oppressed. thanks. continuous progress. at last. and enter upon a warlike progress through the world. It may be that the prophecy is destined to receive ible a fulfilment. and the courage of the present Emperor. AsJcepot Norse they were doomed to remain But the time would come. was once but a small body above all. the land has been freed from the plague of slavery. The common people of Russia may figuratively be said to have lain long among the ashes. and the millions whom its deadto the forethought ening influence had benumbed have the prospect opened out before them of a wider and a higher existence.

.436 CONCLUSION. having overcome their own besetting sins. the victories prove of that priceless order by which men. emancipate themselves from a moral thraldom may which is by no means less degrading than a physical servitude. perhaps be of the nature of those by which the labourer and the artisan work out their honest liveli- hood.

Vliyanii KJiristianstva na Slavyansky Yazuik. village Narodnuiya Skazki. AFANASIEF. Poeticheskiya Vozzryeniya Slavyan na Prirodu. -fol. Moscow. 1860*62. 3 pts. In alluding to them in the foot-notes to the present volume I have frequently given only the initials of their titles. 1860-62. Slavonic Mythology. Poslovitsui Eusskago Naroda. 1859. St. KAVELIN. 1865-69. Petersburg. just as I have often represented the words Deutsche MytJiologie by the letters D. Tales. [Outline of 8vo. 2 vols. 1848. [Popular Russian 8 Pts. BEZSCXNOF. 8vo. Tales. 1841.] NacJiertanie collected by- KASTOBSET. 8vo.APPENDIX The following A. are the Russian books to which I am principally indebted. [Poetic Moscow.] Slovanskoi MitJiologii.] 4 vols.] Moscow.] etc.] Velikorusskiya Skazki. [Wandering Psalm-singers. Moscow. Narodnuiya Russkiya Skazki. Schoolmasters. Istoricheskie Ocherki. [Proverbs of the Russian People. [Popular Tales Moscow. BTJSLAEF. [On the Influence of Christianity on Slavonic Language. 8vo. 1863. works. 8vo. [Historical Sketches of St. M. Moscow. 1861. Moscow.] Moscow.] A collection of their songs. DAHL. 8vo. 1862. KHUDYAKOF. Petersburg. [Great-Russian Popular . Third edition.] 6pts. Views of the Slavonians about Nature. National Literature and Art. Kalyeki PerekJiozMe. 1863.] 3 vols. [Collected SocUneniya. fol.

Moscow. PetersLiterature Part 1. 1859-61. N. [Great-Russian Spells. KOTLYAREVPKY. Builinalcli Vladimirova Tsikla. 1868. have never even so much as The second I I possess. of Slavonic Heathendom. 1863. 8vo. Petersburg. Velikorussklya Zaklinaniya. 8vo. and etc. [Songs Edited by P. and the Heroes of Ilya Muromets. Second edition.] Pyesni solrannuiya P. 8vo. [Utterances of the Skazaniya RussTcago Naroda. Eussian People. others. Opuit Slovesnosti. etc. 8vo. (or Shepping). [Chrestomathy. O PogrebaVnuikh OluicJiayalcJi the heathen Slavonians. Ob IstocliniJcaTcJi i [On the Sources and Moscow."] etc.] Slavyan. Vladimir Cycle. SHCHEPETN". 1841. [Songs of the Eussian Pyesni Russlcago Naroda. 1861-67. A. 1869. ~Kiryeevskim. N. etc.438 APFENDIX A. KIRYEEVSET. Parti.] Moscow. Petersburg. 12mo. burg. A. 1868.] 2 pts. [On the Builiuas of 8vo. so rare has the book become. 1838-39. Eoyal 8vo.] 2 vols. etc. only the first volume. Pyesni solrannuiya P. 8vo. etc. 1849. collected by P. Euibnikof. of Eussian Mythology. Kief. seen. Petersburg. 5 vols. Khristomatiya. . "Attempt. Ruibnilcovuim. 8vo. Eites. Moscow. St. MAIKOF. 4 vols. Russlcaya Narodnost\ [Eussian Nationality in its Superstitions. Petersburg. Eoyal 8vo. and Popular Stories. Petersburg. collected by P. [Hya of Murom 1869. V.] St. MILLER. [Songs Edited by P. appended to the Second edition. 1866. 8vo. People]. 1 St. [On the Funeral Customs of Moscow. 1 Forms formaJch RussTcago Basnosloviya. St.] SAKHAROP. Kiryeevsky. Third edition. the . 8vo. SCHOEPPING [Myths Mitliui SlavyansJcago YazuicJiestva. V.] OREST ---- Istoricheskago Obozryeniya EussJcoi at an Historical Survey of Kussian [Attempt St. Bezsonof. Section 1.] Moscow. unfortunately. 1862.] 1866. Petersburg. St. Bezsonof Parts 1 8. Section 1.] Second edition. -- St.

Proverbs. 8vo. 8 Students who wish to compare the folk-songs of the Russians with those of the other Slavonic peoples will find the following books of great service. 8vo. [Kussian Popular Festivals and Superstitious Rites. [The Russians 12mo. " . Folk-Songs of the Wends in Upper Grimma. " Moravian Popular Songs. EussTcie v svoikh Poslomtsakh.] Vol." Vienna. SNEGIEEF. " Servian Popular Songs. 1856. etc. 1841-65. Fourth in their SOLOVIEF. 8vo. " and Lower Lusatia 1841-43. 4to.] 4 vols. Masures. A. 1836. 8vo. 1832. edition. only about twenty-one volumes have as yet been published. 1837-39. TEEESHCHENKO." KAEAJIC. the Russian People. " Songs of the White-Croatians.APPENDIX SHEIN. [History of Russia. 8vo. Shein. 1870. HATTPT AND SCHMALEE.] 7 vols. of Suit Russlcago Naroda. V. Petersburg. [Manners and Customs St. Moscow. 2 Istoriya Eossii. SKEGIEEF. etc. 1857. I.] 2 vols. Songs of the Ruthenians in Galicia. ] Moscow. 12mo. Moscow." Warsaw. Royal 8vo. 1848. 1839-40. etc. Moscow. [in Wendish and German. 8 8vo. translated their titles : 2 To avoid typographical difficulties I have KOLBEEG. SUSIL. 1860." " Brunn. [Russian Popular Songs. 439 collected Russlciya Narodnuiya Pyesni." Lwow.] 4 vols. ZEGOTA PAULI. Warsaw. 8vo. " Songs of the Polish People. WOJCICKI. 2 vols. and arranged by P. EussJcie Prostonarodnuie PrazdniM. 5 vols. In progress .

by Sakharof Pyesni Russlcago Naroda The Khorovod Songs are (1) as follows : A Mbl . specimens are given *. few words about the measures of the songs following may be considered in his useful.APPENDIX A The B.

the gardenling. Kak u nas vo in sadochku. the Danube. utushka duckie lugovaya. Akh. sung at Christmas. yTymita Jiyrosaa. Sakharof gives the 1 9 following specimens in his Skazaniya RussTcago Naroda work to which such frequent reference has already been made the : (1) lI^yKa uiaa . Ah.APPENDIX B. I will go. 441 no (2) Poydu mlada po Dunayu. BO (4) KaK-B y naci. meadowy. How with us Of the Svyatki songs. the young one by (3) Ax%.

y. Ayrt B-L ro CTH nena amihie : Te6t 6y tui J ^yTL aanxaxt J KO MH* Bt canorax-L. HHCTO cepe6po I ya zoloto Chisto serebro And Pure I gold silver (5) /^o nero Te6t Zhemchuzhina Do chego tebye Pearl O Whither to thee . tsu. neKH | imperil . dough (3) AX-L TW Te6t ctii Kt Kt 6y | | MaTH. on the donuishka. (4) H a 30. (2) KBaiiiOH Ky na Kastvoryu I knead ya kvashon the ku na donuishkye. peki Akh cyey mati. muchi go | | pirogi : K K Ah To To tebye bu --dut sti | necha j yannuie : tebye bu [do] thou | dut v laptyakh mother.442 PacTBOpro APPENDIX a B. | pies : thee will be guests not | | expected to : thee will be | in lapti me in boots./IOTO XOpOHH). MyHH | u. bake | sift | flour. | | ko mnye v sapogakh.

Burial of the Gold. Eve of the. 227229. the White God.INDEX. Alatuir. story of the. or 267271. 291. 55. Foundations. ogress or Christmas songs. 37. traditions about the. 255. game and Easter. story of Svyato63 . banquet to 260. rings. . or House-spirit. the Day-god. commemoration of the. the Happy Isle of. 387. 120 Domovoy.. the. 395402. 37. Kirsha. superstitions concerning. 349. Ancestral Worship. Besyeda. 161164. 317. Builinas. Bear King. Dmitry Saturday. Christening of Cuckoos. : Corn. Buy an. 188. witch. 207. gor. 325 330. Epiphany. 260. 247. Betrothal customs. 85. etc. 215217. 36. Elijah's Capture of Bride. 200. 321. 182. Cuckoos. Beauty song. 144. 58 Dodola. 260. Christening of Eusalkas. 190. 98. Bread. 275. Dawn. superstitions concerning ? 310313. 42 44. or Girls' party. 57. cycles of. 63 : Ruibnikof 's journey in quest of. 283286. 6476. 290. Amulets. Fern. Expulsion of Tarakans. 103. Baba Yaga. or metrical romances. Bride. 214 . funeral 313320. 297. christening gathering. Fire-worship. 215 217. Coffins. 247 leading ears of. mer. rites. 127. 186. Bab'e Lyeto. 258. Dyevichnik. Day. 219. the White Stone. 271. purchase of. traditions about. Cattle-plague. 257. sacrifices at. 254. Byelbog. Dead. 247. or women's sumCossack songs. of. song of. Burning of Corpses. Danilof. 248. or social description of. collections of. brotherly feast. commemoration of souls on. Bratchina. 139. spells against. Dazhbog.

by. Krasnaya Gorka. Harvest. 271275. 255. 198. Hya Muromets. 263 the proIbn Fozlan. or circling dances to songs. funeral banquets. 332. see Domovoy. 160. her her bride. Lado and Lada. Kirsha Danilof. 195. 2. 186201. Kolyada Songs. Kulikovo. harvest-home Lyeshy. 153 Ilouse. Kupalo. or Red Hill. 283 sorrow at leaving of home. 223226. the deities o: the Spring and of Love. feelings towards her parents. account of a burial personce posal and striking of hands. 405. House-spirit. Slavonic ideas about. 222. 259. his collection of Eussian historical poems. ancient funeral rites. . the wedding day. or purchase Kasha. happy marriage. 328. her 613 . 137. 165 167. 295301 tion. . 321. . Leading ears of corn. Historical songs. 369. 55. or Wood-demon. or guessings. of. Laume. or stewed grain. . . 181. 292295 freedom of choice. ceremonies attendant a change of. 247. Kostrubonko. 272275. : Palchik. Midsummer feast 239246. 59 Insect burial. or maiden braid of hair. 331. Kostroma. Yarilo. 313 320. Hell. 288. the girls' party. 265 the betrothal. 249 feast. . songs about a . 305 mythical wedding guests. Kikimora. 245 wedding-funerals. 286. Guessings. 55. 304. . or Nightmare. 323 222. . Koshchei the Immortal. on Malchik - s Thumb. battle of. Love-spells. 63. 195. . burial of strangers. Richard. James. 306308. opening of the. 205. 328. 105. 54. 101. 333 songs about the dead. story of a. 241. Hya's.444 Funerals : INDEX. - or Tom Magpies. of Kostroma. . feast to ghosts. 329 the Strava and Trizna. 327. 303. 302 . 334344. Khorovods. . . funeral of. 244 of Kosa. 244. 183. Gadaniya. expenses of a peasant wedding. 133. 282 capture . 248. . 223. 276280. 267271 or Elijah's Day. 251. 287292. . human sacrifices at. 113. 281 ancient Slavonic ideas about marriage. rite of. 250. 309 modern funeral customs. list of the dramatis Marriage at a. Glory song. 320. wife's family posia bride's lament.

" Maslyanitsa. 161 the Immortal. the VodPoludnitsa. . or Nightmare. ral Kostroma. : 251. Vyed'ma. Slavonic ideas about. riddles. 88 91 214218. 105 ideas about spirit-world. 111 the Rakhmane. Maidens. . werewolves and vam- the Vila and 403415. 254 expulsion of Tarakans. 86 Lettic songs about. or Wood-demon. 244 246 traditions about 32. songs and customs. 148 the yany. respect paid the Water-king. . 211 Perun the Thunder-god. pared with Parjanya. the death of Winter. . 86 Perun. 85 Dazhbog and Ogon'. . plaiting Volos's . . 239243 fune. or Water-sprite. . 220227 Dodola. Easter and his statues. 160 . Lyeshy. 103 Lado and Lada. 445 corn. . 202204. 168. 202204. . 183 Kolyada rites. or Yarilo. or corn-kiln. 106 the soul. 257 Dmitry Saand ancestral worturday mythological ship. 293. the Eusalka. . 219. Plakal'shchitsa. the Snake. 248. Volos's name. Svarog. the Isle of . 85. . 172. Midsummer Customs. Slavonic 8084. 37 . . 120139. 255 the Ovin. etc. 147. Naiad. Ovsen songs. 228. or Witch. . 37 Alatuir. 147. or corn-kiln. Paradise. 101. 111113. . 260 250. 257.Pigeons. . 139146 House-spirit. or Fire. 153 the Baba Yaga. 37 the White Stone witchcraft. 247 ears of Potters' Field. 179. George songs. Poludnitsa. 205207 the " Butter Week. New Year 203207. St. Posidyelka. the harvest. 107 118 Paradise." Ovsen. . 249. .Orphans. Koshchei 167 the Ogon'. or 209. . New Year. Mavkas.worship. 233239 Kupalo and Midsummer. Buyan. 165 . 253 men's Summer. Ovin. Parjanya and Perun. Butter-week. or . 74102. personification of cattle-plague. 85. : 164 Ogress. " Mythology Deities. 112 the . Gorka. 208. . 93 the Krasnaya myths about. Domovoy. 229 Perkunas. songs about. . tide. 142. or small-pox. 8891. near Moscow. 342. 86102 Byelbog. 395 403 pires.INDEX. 178 Swan to. 428433. Tom Thumb. -233 Semik and Whitsun. 251 the Wo252 St. .. 209. 259. . traditions about. or social gathering. com213 Cuckoo christening. 333. of . . leading : . 186201 . 210 reception of Spring. 239 246. 86. corn. . beard. or Wailer. Tree. cholera. Vlas. 334. . . 173177. 133. . 143. 181. 348350 . or Little-Bussian fairies or water-nymphs. : Old 102 .

Eain. 253 256. George. 283286. prelude or refrain. . 343. Purification. 242. Philip's Day. 249 251 Autumn songs. happymarriage songs. bargaining for a bride . 45 Soldiers' of. Slavonic ideas about the. 356 . historical songs. Songs: general sketch of Bus. or 256. 303 . or Maiden-tresses 272275. 51 54. 187201 Gorka . Soldier songs. Lament of of wiorphans. 236 238 Midsummer songs. of the dead. Peter's St. 346356. sian songs. 230 Semik and Whitsuntide songs. 77 79. bride's lament. Bakhmane. 113.Sun. or funeral St. 291. stories St. Soul. Krasnaya Khoro. 394. . Marriage songs. metres of. or striking of hands before marriage. vods. 239 246 Harvest songs. INDEX. St. craft song. or laments. 344 a a witchriddle-song. Ovsen Strava. 202 207. traditions about. Vlas. 273. Stenka Bazin. 233. 173 176. Bussian ideas about. 334 337 dows. 287. songs about. 288. Spring songs.303. Snakes. 383. Sowing of the Millet. Fast. 186 Christmas or Kolyadki. about the. . Songs. rite of. 1 their influence Spells. 403. commemoration Badunitsa. 14 classes Stars. cattle-plague 107118. 42 Bobber songs. Pripyevka. nediction songs. Purchase of a bride. 266 271 Kosa. 246. feast. 343. 286.446 Prichitaniya. 51. . song of the. 253. 223 226.' Semik. 265. Simeon. . . see Zagovors. legend of the. 319. Spring songs. John's Day. 253. 240242. 259. . Mythic and Bitual songs. 295 302 . 39 . 344. 305 songs about Cosmas and Demian. 291 love songs. 307. songs. . : songs. effect of witchcraft on. Biddies. songs. 212. 45. 262 Betrothal songs. . song to the. . . 399. a Busalkas. . 45 Bukobitie. their themes. ral. Cossack songs. 5 . Bridal-be. 4 their age. St. 331. George. 290. and New Year songs. 274. 310313. songs. 207. songs. after a fune- St. 229 233. 220. 396. 47. 213. 216. feast of. songs about . or Brahmans. stories about. 255. 139 146. 338 340 wailings above graves. on the people. 278 the of the Millet. Small-pox. . Bobber songs. 212." 283 "Sowing . 54 St. . . or Water-nymphs. Funeral September customs. 222.

traditions about. 85. dealers in amulets. against toothache. 251. -153. Water. and witches. 382. 177. 447 Whirlwinds. . Zagovors. Swan-maidens. 415 Vampires. 346 356. Volos. milking of cows by destruction of witches. 338. Sun's Sister. 342. 357. Toothache. Water-nymph. . Vii. soning. Tree. . : Threshold. Vodyany. 245. Whitsuntide customs. or 207. Voplenitsa. history of witchcraft in 409415. 409 .Year's Day. or Eiddles. Slavonic counterpart of.Worship. Tsar Morskoi. 97. 403 408. mytholo428 433. 432. 390 poicrops by wizards. death of. Tur. . Widow-sacrifice. or Wailer. Svarog. vampires. . Yegory. 367 against cuts. the Cattle-god. Eussia. 327330. Vilas. 331. 85. 252. 380. or St. Trizna. or Ouranos. 148. 169. 168170. or twisting of ears of corn by a wizard. funeral of. Witchcraft witches. 183. Water of Life produce love. 178 168 170 . 236238. George 229. 369 a mother's grief. to . Zagadkas. Yarilo. Lyeshy. 387. or Witch. Widow's lament. 100. . or Water-sprite. a Servian mythical being. 392. Zakrut. Yyed'ma. 403409. 372 against 368 . or the Sun.sprite. 233235. for wizards -180. about Eussian names . see Eusalka. 238. or funeral feast. etc. insects Winter. spells against. see Vodyany. songs. Svarozhich.. 417427. see Vasily's. 136.INDEX. or Sea-king. 388. 255. 147181. and Death. 392 393 werewolves. 367. Tom Thumb. Servian mythical beings. New. 203 148 gical explanation. Wood-demon. story of the. 179. Werewolves. 86. 378 their power and functions. expulsion of called. against wild beasts. 211. stories Tarakans. or spells. 432. connexion of witchcraft with. 219.






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