This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Plant Disease and Control
Department of Agriculture Azad Kashmir
PLANT DISEASE ?
Series of responses
The external & internal alterations of a plant as a result of a disease
Primary Symptoms Direct changes of tissues infected by pathogen leaf spot .
Secondary Symptoms Indirect & subsequent changes of a distance from the site of the pathogen Sclerotium wilt .
Localized symptoms (in a particular part of the plant) leaf spot (death of cells in restricted areas) leaf blight (death of cells: not restricted) bacterial canker .
Rots (Death of cells and tissues) anthracnose soft rot: bacteria dry rot: fungi .
Hypertrophy & Hyperplasia (overgrowth of tissue) root knot (gall) .
Systemic symptoms (spreading throughout the plant body) .
Transformation of tissues/organs phyllody .
Stunting/Dwarfing (Reduced Growth) Dwarf Leaf roll / leaf curl .
Changes in coloration white leaf of sugarcane mosaic phosphorus deficiency .
Symptoms with Signs rust .
Symptoms with Signs smut .
Symptoms with Signs powdery mildew downy mildew .
Naming of Disease 1. With symptom papaya ringspot Watermelon fruit rot 2. With sign rust smut powdery mildew .
Air & water pollutants.Causal agents 1) Noninfectious/abiotic agents .extreme temperature/moisture .imbalance of nutrients . 2) Infectious / biotic agents Fungi. chemicals. nematodes. viruses & viroids. protozoa . bacteria. mollicutes. etc.
Shapes & sizes of plant pathogens .
Fungi bacteria mollicutes Parasitic higher plants viruses nematodes protozoa viroids .
Disease Triangle Ti me Host .
Disease Cycle Reproduction Dissemination (1) Polycyclic Disease (5) (4) Symptom (2) inoculation development Infection (3) Monocyclic Disease .
Diagnostic Techniques 1. Biochemical & physiological methods 5. Nucleic acid-based methods (molecular methods) . Isolation for pure culture of pathogen and Identification of pure culture 4. Visual inspection of symptoms 2. Microscopic examination 3.
Visual Inspection of Symptoms Determine : disease VS insect disease insect insec t .
Visual Inspection of Symptoms Determine : biotic agent VS abiotic agent biotic abiotic .
Visual Inspection of Symptoms Determine : Nutrient Deficiency VS Virus nutrient deficiency virus .
Visual Inspection of Symptoms Fungal Diseases Use hand-lens/microscope .mycelium/fruiting body/ spores .
Bacterial Diseases cut stem from xylem bacterial ooze mass of bacterial cells from cut leafspot .
Virus and Phytoplasma virus insect vector phytoplama .
Virus and Phytoplasma • • • • • Transmission test Indicator plant Serology Electron microscope Nucleic Acid. DNA .
Nematode Damage Symptom. Population density in soil & root poor growth root knot (gall) Nematodes in stained root .
Reducing Initial Inoculum 2. Reducing Rate of Development .Principles of Plant Disease Control 1.
Exclusion .no introduction of pathogen inoculum Reducing Initial Inoculum Eradication .eliminate pathogen from living host .eliminate pathogen Therapy .
protect the host from infection • Avoidance .Reducing Rate of Development (To Slow Rate of Increase) • Host resistance .avoid contact of host and pathogen under conditions favorable for disease .horizontal resistance • Protection .
Environmental Management D. Geographic Selection B.Reducing Rate of Development Avoidance Avoid putting host & pathogen in contact with one another under a favorable environment A. plant spacing Irrigation management. Site Selection C. Cultural Practices – – – – Planting/Harvest dates Short season cultivars Cultivation practices. fertility management .
systemic pesticides – Fungicides. Chemical control – Protectant. Biological control – Antagonistic organisms (Streptomyces.Reducing Rate of Development Protection A. Bacillus. Trichoderma. Paecillomyces. Verticillium) – Cross protection (inoculate mild strain to induce resistance for virulent strain of pathogen) B. nematicides . bactericides. Eradicant – Contact.
Integrated Plant Disease Management 1. Manage the environment . Manage the host 3. Manage the pathogen 2.
Eradication of inoculum .Exclusion of inoculum .Integrated Plant Disease Management 1. Manage the pathogen .Reduction of inoculum .
Induced resistance .Integrated Plant Disease Management 2.Protection . Manage the host .Breeding for disease resistance .
Water management .Soil management . Manage the environment .Integrated Plant Disease Management 3.Crop management .