Jude | Wi Fi | Global Positioning System

Indoor Wireless Location Determination using the Trapeze LA200

George Jude McGlinchey (B00362061)

BSc. (Hons) Computer Science Supervisor: - Dr. Kevin Curran April 2009

1

Abstract
The ability to track and check the location of people or equipment in real time has a number of application areas such as child safety, prisoner tracking and supply chain to name but a few. Wi-Fi location determination is a technology that has been developed in recent years, that utilises existing Wi-Fi equipment such as those installed in personal computers, personal data assistant’s (PDA) and mobile phones. The technology uses modulated Wi-Fi transmission signals to detect the presence of a device, which does not necessarily have to be connected to the network in question, just visible to it, the system is then able to determine the position of the device based on the signals received from the various Access Points (AP). Increasingly in the current economic climate, industry is looking at ways of reducing waste, improving quality without a lot of additional capital expenditure. To do this various improvement methodologies are used these include the ‘Lean Methodology’ which uses experts known as ‘Lean Practitioners’ to increase the product flow through a facility by removing waste and activities that do not add value to the final product. Another methodology that is complimentary to Lean is known as the ‘Six Sigma Methodology’ which uses experts known as “Black Belts” who use data and statistical analysis to reduce variation and eliminate defects. Typically these methodologies are combined and referred to as Lean Six Sigma. This research examines whether Wi-Fi Location determination can be used by industry to gather movement data useful to methodologies that improve work practices?” The report will record the stages of a project which investigates the feasibility of using Wi-Fi location determination to answer the question, then presents a comprehensive investigation into Wi-Fi location determination; its present uses and proposes a system that could be used by the author to gather movement data. The report then presents the system requirements, a design proposal and a prototype implementation. Finally the system is evaluated and a conclusion drawn on the work of the project.

2

Acknowledgements
I would like to thank my project supervisor, Dr. Kevin Curran for highlighting the availability of the Trapeze LA200 equipment and the subsequent idea of utilising it in my work and in this project, his assistance and understanding of my situation that enabled me to complete the report. I would also give a special word of thanks to Eoghan Furey, a current PHD student who was a fellow part-time student, for his advice and guidance in the location awareness arena, not forgetting the other part time students namely Jason McDevitt, Gerald Galway and Francis Doherty for their help and encouragement over the last five years. I also wish to acknowledge Stelios Haji-Ioannou and Michael O’Leary for low cost airlines; these have enabled me to travel from my new home in Geneva to complete the last year of the course. I wish to thank my wife, family and friends for their support and prayers over the years. And finally you, who ever you are, for taking the time to read this report.

3

Declaration
“I hereby declare that for a period of two years following the date, on which the dissertation is deposited in the Library of the University of Ulster, the dissertation shall remain confidential with access or copying prohibited. Following the expiry of this period, I permit the Librarian of the University of Ulster to allow the dissertation to be copied in whole or in part without reference to me on the understanding that such authority applies to the provision of single copies made for study purposes or for inclusion within the stock of another library. This restriction does not apply to the copying or publication of the title and abstract of the dissertation. IT IS A CONDITION OF USE OF THIS DISSERTATION THAT ANYONE WHO CONSULTS IT MUST RECOGNISE THAT THE COPYRIGHT RESTS WITH THE AUTHOR AND THAT NO QUOTATION FROM THE DISSERTATION AND NO INFORMATION DERIVED FROM IT MAY BE PUBLISHED UNLESS THE SOURCE IS PROPERLY ACKNOWLEDGED.” George Jude McGlinchey

4

List of Acronyms AP API BBC DGPS EPE ESS FM GNSS GPS GSM GUI HCI IEEE IR MAC PDA PPS RADAR RF RFID RSSI RTLS SPS TDOA VoWi-Fi WLAN WPAN WYSIWYG XML Access Point Application Programming Interface British Broadcasting Corporation Differential Global Positioning System Ekahau Positioning Engine Ekahau Site Survey Frequency Modulation Global Navigation Satellite System Global positioning system Global System for Mobile Communications Graphical User Interface Human Computer Interaction Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Infrared Media Access Control Personal Digital Assistant Precise Positioning Service Radio Detection and Ranging Radio Frequency Radio Frequency Identification Received Signal Strength Indication Real Time Location System Standard Positioning Service Time Difference of Arrival Voice over Wi-Fi Wireless Local Area Network Wireless Personal Area Network What You See Is What You Get Extensible Mark-up Language 5 .

6 .

..............................7 Skyhook hybrid positioning system (XPS).............................................................................................................................................................15...................9 Infrared Location Determination...................................................................................................................................................................1 Aims & Objectives........................................................................................................25 2............21 2......11 Inertia tracking...........18 2.............1 Mapoint .......................................................................................................................24 2.......................25 2...12 RFID Location Determination...............................8 Ultrasonic Location Determination................................................................................3 Indoor gaming.....................................................................................................2 Dodgeball............25 7 .20 2..........................23 2...............15...................1 Prisoner Monitoring.......................................................15....16......................................................................................................................10 Bluetooth Location Determination..............23 2.................................................................................25 2...........................24 2......16 Potential applications of Wi-Fi Location Determination.......................................................................17 Optical Vision.................4 List of Acronyms............................21 2................................................Table of Contents Acknowledgements 3 Declaration................................................................................................................................13 Wi-Fi................15 Location Determination Applications ...................................................................20 2..............................................................25 2.................................5 Security...5 Table of Contents..............................22 2.....................24 2................................................6 Rosum..............11 List of Tables...........................17 2......13 1 Introduction....................2 Mobile Cellular Systems..........................24 2......14 Wi-Fi Fingerprinting.................................14 1.........................16................................................2 Child Safety..................4 Supply Chain........................................................................................16...................................................3 Friend finder .....16...............................................................24 2.......................22 2.........................................................................................7 List of Figures .......................................................................................................22 2......................................................................................................................................................16....15 2 Location Determination Technologies.

2.16.6 Healthcare...................................................................................................25 2.16.7 Location Based Access..............................................................................26 27 3.1 Microsoft Research Group RightSPOT...........................................................27 3.2 Microsoft Research Group RADAR system....................................................28 3.3 Trapeze LA200 ...............................................................................................28 3.4 Place Lab software ..........................................................................................28 3.5 AeroScout Wi-Fi RFID ...................................................................................29 3.6 Ekahau RTLS...................................................................................................30 4 Trapeze LA200 Wi-Fi Location Determination......................................................32 4.1 LA200 major components................................................................................33 4.1.1 The Trapeze Dashboard................................................................................33 4.1.2 The Trapeze Webpage Dashboard................................................................35 4.2 Limitations of the Trapeze LA200 ..................................................................39 4.3 Advantages of the Trapeze LA200 .................................................................39 5 Lean Six Sigma - Work Study .................................................................................40 5.1 Aeroscout and IMEC Technologies................................................................41 5.2 Ekahau and Polycom.......................................................................................41 5.3 Ekahau & Rautakesko .....................................................................................41 5.4 Aeroscout and Mine Site Technologies..........................................................42 5.5 Product flow analysis.......................................................................................42 6 Requirements Specification and Analysis................................................................45 6.1 Problem Specification .....................................................................................45 6.2 Objectives of System ......................................................................................45 6.3 Design Methodology........................................................................................46 6.3.1 Waterfall Methodology.................................................................................46 6.3.2 Evolutionary development............................................................................47 6.4 Requirements Specification.............................................................................48 6.4.1 Functional Requirements .............................................................................48 6.4.1.1 User ...........................................................................................................48 6.4.1.2 System........................................................................................................48 6.4.2 Non-Functional Requirements .....................................................................48 6.4.3 Hardware Requirements ...............................................................................49 6.4.4 Software Requirements.................................................................................49
8

6.4.5 Development Languages ..............................................................................50 7 Design Phase.........................................................................................................51 Stages of the System..............................................................................................54 7.6.1 User Use Case Diagram..............................................................................54 7.6.2 User Use-Case Diagram Descriptions........................................................54 7.6.3 System Use Case Diagram .......................................................................55 7.7 Class Diagram..................................................................................................55 7.8 Activity Diagram.............................................................................................56 7.9 Sequence Diagram...........................................................................................56 8 Implementation.....................................................................................................58 8.1 Equipment Connection.....................................................................................58 8.2 Program GUI....................................................................................................58 8.4 LA200 Database...............................................................................................63 9 Testing....................................................................................................................64 9.1 Unit Testing.....................................................................................................64 9.1.1 Splash Screen & Login ................................................................................64 9.1.1 LA200 System and network..........................................................................65 9.1.2 GUI to API component.................................................................................65 9.1.3 API to the LA200 & LA200 Database component.......................................66 9.1.4 GUI to local replica database component....................................................66 9.1.5 Reporting and Graphing Component............................................................67 9.2 Integration Testing...........................................................................................67 9.3 Performance Testing........................................................................................68 10 Evaluation...............................................................................................................69 10.1 Database Component.....................................................................................69 10.2 Graphics.........................................................................................................70 10.3 Calibration......................................................................................................70 10.4 Issues during development.............................................................................70 10.4.1 API issues....................................................................................................70 10.4.2 Setup effort..................................................................................................71 10.4.3 TAG testing.................................................................................................71 10.4.4 Stationary - Additional records...................................................................71 10.4.5 Reporting of wrong location ......................................................................71 10.4.6 WLAN coverage / Inactive result ..............................................................72
9

10.5 Future Work...................................................................................................72 11 Conclusion..............................................................................................................74 References....................................................................................................................75 Appendix A – LA200 database schema.......................................................................77

10

List of Figures
Figure 1: How location is determined from satellites .................................................19 Figure 2: ZigBee Mesh Structure Network..................................................................20 Figure 3: Rosum System Architecture ........................................................................20 Figure 4: Trolley Scan RFID-Radar System ...............................................................23 Figure 5: Wireless base systems and their location range resolution .........................27 Figure 6: Key components in the Place Lab architecture ...........................................29 Figure 7: AeroScout Active RFID tag.........................................................................30 Figure 8: Ekahau Tag...................................................................................................31 Figure 9: Trapeze LA200 Appliance ..........................................................................32 Figure 10: Trapeze Dashboard for the LA200 ............................................................33 Figure 11: Trapeze LA200 Connection Details Form.................................................34 Figure 12: Trapeze Dashboard Device List Screen Appliance....................................34 Figure 13: Trapeze Dashboard Layout Locales ..........................................................35 Figure 14: Trapeze Dashboard fingerprint locations ..................................................35 Figure 15: Trapeze Web Dashboard login screen........................................................36 Figure 16: Trapeze Web Dashboard Summary screen ...............................................36 Figure 17: Trapeze Web Dashboard Device List screen.............................................37 Figure 18: Trapeze Web Dashboard Monitor screen...................................................37 Figure 19: Trapeze Web Dashboard Monitor Screen..................................................38 Figure 20: Trapeze Web Dashboard Fingerprint screen..............................................38 Figure 21 A heat map from the Ekahau / Rautakesko system.....................................42 Figure 22: Lean Six Sigma Point to Point Diagram....................................................43 Figure 23: Point to Point after improvements..............................................................44 Figure 24: Traditional Waterfall Methodology ...........................................................46 Figure 25: Evolutionary Development Model.............................................................47 Figure 26: Trapeze System Concept............................................................................53 Figure 27: Overview of the System.............................................................................53 Figure 28: User Use Case Diagram............................................................................54 Figure 29: System Use Case Diagram.........................................................................55 Figure 30: Class Diagram............................................................................................56 Figure 31: Display report for selected user..................................................................56

11

..................................................66 Figure 47: Unsuccessful connection to local replica..............................................................................66 Figure 46: Successful connection to local replica................64 Figure 44: LA200 API connection error...........................61 Figure 40: Graph of places visited.........65 Figure 45: Successful connection to LA200 database..................................59 Figure 35: The login screen.............64 Figure 43: Unsuccessful login.................................................................................62 Figure 41: Graph of routes taken....................................................................................................................................................................................................61 Figure 38: Connect to local replica..........................57 Figure 33: Trapeze Web Dashboard Summary screen...............................Figure 32: High-Level Sequence Diagram for the system......................................................................................................................58 Figure 34: The application splash screen.............................................................................66 12 ............................61 Figure 39: MAC address selection........................................................................62 Figure 42: Successful login confirmation............60 Figure 37: Connect LA200 online database.............................................................................................................................................................................................59 Figure 36: The main GUI screen..................................

51 Table 3: Summary of Main Screen Components Shown in Figure 36.............................................................List of Tables Table 1: LA200 Tracking performance ............................67 Table 5: Evaluation against User Functional Requirements..........................................................................................................60 Table 4: Integration Testing...................................................33 Table 2: Trapeze LA200 Dashboard hardware requirements.............69 13 ...69 Table 6: Evaluation against System Functional Requirements....................................

high speed Wi-Fi and mobile computing there has been a growth in the areas of location determination and supplying an individual and others with current location information relevant to the individual or a piece of equipment current location. and mobile phone positioning systems that have an accuracy of around one hundred meters. how often and for how long. when compared to other location determination technologies is quite good when you consider other technologies such as Global Positioning System (GPS) technology.uk/2/hi/in_depth/business/2008/the_box/default. which simply does not work indoors as it requires a direct line of sight to the satellites. This research will focus on the utilisation of the information available from a wireless local area network (WLAN) equipped with a Trapeze Networks LA200 location awareness module. Location determination and the current and historical movement of people and equipment is a useful tool for example when looking to develop more efficient work practices by removing wasted time or movements. Radio Frequency Identification 1 http://news. Location determination can also be used to track social patterns for example finding out who interacts with whom.bbc.1 Wi-Fi indoor location determination is a process of estimating physical location of a Wi-Fi enabled tag or piece of equipment in relation to a set of reference access points (AP) within a building or other predefined area.co. They are carrying out an experiment on tracking the movement of a shipping container by attaching a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver to a single shipping container and are following the containers movement around the world for a year.1 Introduction With the development of GPS. Trapeze Networks quote a ninety five percent accuracy rate to less than three meters for their LA200 system for indoor Wi-Fi location determination which.stm 14 . A current highly promoted example into equipment movements is being carried out by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC).

to provide analysis charts on the movements of people or equipment in an area from the present location and historical movement’s information provided by a Trapeze networks LA200 WLAN based system.1 Aims & Objectives This project aims to investigate the capabilities and demonstrate the use of Wi-Fi technology to track the location of Wi-Fi enabled equipment or any item or person equipped with a special Wi-Fi tag in an indoor locale. 15 . 1. software. Chapter three describes in detail the Wi-Fi based location determination systems that are available. Chapter six describes the requirements needed to implement the proposed system namely the problem specification. the functional and non-functional requirements. system objectives. its components. implementation and subsequent review of a prototype system that will create a graphical user interface. Chapter four specifically describes in detail the LA200 Wi-Fi location determination system supplied by Trapeze Networks.2 Thesis Overview Chapter two describes the various location determination technologies that are available. hardware and the benefits and drawbacks it brings to this project. the hardware and software requirements and the user interface. design methodology. development. 1. The objective of the project is the design.(RFID) can offer better accuracy as long as the item or person being tracked is very close to the sensor. Chapter five discusses the relationship between the Lean methodology and Six Sigma Methodologies to this project and gives some examples. (GUI).

Chapter seven describes the design phase of the project and in particular discusses the hardware and software components in detail. Chapter eight describes the implementation of the system and the different components within the system. HCI guidelines and system architecture. Chapter nine describes the testing methodologies and the testing phase of the project. the design constraints. 16 . Chapter ten is a critical evaluation of the project against the requirements laid out in chapter six and finally the opportunities for future work in this arena. Chapter eleven is the conclusion which gives a review of the project and information contained within this report.

A radar system operates by transmitting a radio wave and then listening for the echo of the wave reflected back from the surface of the distant object. for example to parents wishing to find the current location of their teenage children. 2 3 4 http://www.3 2. The distance of the object is calculated on the time it takes for the echo to return. how they determine their position internally or via a network connection. while the speed of the object is calculated by measuring the echo’s Doppler shift.RADAR An early example of using radio waves to detect the location of an object was the detection of aircraft using radio detection and ranging. They state that the average accuracy of the location determination using this technology is around fifty meters4 albeit highly dependant on the number of towers with in the cell at the location and other factors such as interference from large buildings and the terrain.1 Radio Detection And Ranging . if they are designed to operate inside or outside.com/topic/radar http://science.com offers this service commercially. (RADAR).htm http://www. They can calculate the location of the mobile phone by measuring the mobile phone signal strength and the signal travel time relative to the different towers with in a cell.howstuffworks. their cost.2 Mobile Cellular Systems Mobile phone companies are offering to their customers a form of location determination using a customer’s mobile phone.locatemobiles.com/radar.com 17 . LocateMobiles.2 Location Determination Technologies Every location determination technology has its advantages and disadvantages in a number of areas namely. their susceptibility to interference and their location determination accuracy.2 The acronym RADAR has since lost the capitalisation and become a word in the English language. 2.answers.

com/gps1. 2. The military version was known as Precise Positioning Service (PPS). 2005). Using a minimum of three satellite signals a GPS receiver triangulates its position by calculating its distance from each of the satellites using the information contained in each satellite signal. GPS 5 http://electronics.howstuffworks. emergency location finding. Each satellite transmits a signal containing the time and its location back to the earth synchronised by its internal atomic clock. A desktop augmented reality system using optical markers was reviewed by Kato et al (2000).Optical Vision Computer visual techniques can be used in location determination systems. This method of triangulation is referred to as trilateration. To improve the accuracy even further the use of ground stations in conjunction with the satellites improves the accuracy to three meters or less this is known as the Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS). The computer would then use the special markers to track the meeting attendees in a virtual manner.5 Prior to May 2000 the accuracy of GPS for civilian use was restricted by the United States Department of Defence to round one hundred meters known as Standard Positioning Service (SPS).htm 18 . The GPS is a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) that comprises of a network of twenty-four satellites and ground stations.4 Global Positioning System (GPS) Global Positioning System (GPS) is an outdoor location determination system originally developed for military use by the United States Department of Defence. Today GPS has many uses albeit outdoor only activities such as route navigation. In May 2000 President Clinton announced that the SPS would have the same capability as the military version which was accurate to ten meters or less. surveying and mapping to name but a few. Alternatively the optical markers could be used to track movement and ultimately location in a motion capture system (Benford. It used the desktop area as they envisaged it as system for virtual face to face meetings that would be held around a table.

Figure 1: How location is determined from satellites 6 2. Figure 1 shows how a location is determined from satellites orbiting the earth.15.html http://www.4 standard.com/what-is-zigbee. cellular mobile phones and headsets. a phenomenon known as ‘urban canyon effect’. (RSSI). Bluetooth. and is similar to the numerous connections between all the devices in a totally wireless network.com/encyclopedia_761579727_2/Global_Positioning_System.msn. to an accuracy of five meters from three or more adjacent static nodes (Cambridge Consultants.htm 19 . 6 7 http://encarta. The term is derived from the erratic flight patterns that bees make while they are collecting pollen from flowers. is aligned to the connectivity between large packet devices such laptops. as shown in Figure 2.5 ZigBee ZigBee is a name given to the IEEE 802. its ‘bigger brother’ in the Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN) arena. a mobile nodes location can be triangulated by using Received Signal Strength Indication.does have some limitations namely receivers must be in ‘line of sight’ with the satellites which means they cannot work indoors or near tall buildings which block or reflect the signal. 2006). ZigBee is aligned to connectivity between small packet devices.7 In a ZigBee mesh structure network.wisegeek.

7 Skyhook hybrid positioning system (XPS) XPS is a hybrid location determination system for such as dual-mode equipped devices such as a mobile phone.6 Rosum Rosum uses commercial digital.jpg 20 .com-images-architecture.rosum. When the GPS component cannot determine the location accurately typically in an urban area or inside a building the location can be derived from television transmitter signals which can penetrate a building. laptop or PDA.8 Figure 3 shows the Rosum system architecture.rosum.html http--www.Figure 2: ZigBee Mesh Structure Network 2. mobile cellular masts and nearby Wi-Fi 8 9 http://www. Figure 3: Rosum System Architecture 9 2.com/rosum_technology. analogue and mobile television signals for location determination. Its advantage over other systems is that it is a hybrid system that combines the benefits of GPS with television transmitter signals to determine location. The technology uses the location data from GPS.

use the time of flight of ultrasonic sound chirps to triangulate position. recorded and time stamped along with the vehicle’s location at the time of detection. 2.8 Ultrasonic Location Determination Ultrasonic systems similar to the Lighthouse Museum tour guide system (Brown et al.9 Infrared Location Determination Infrared (IR) systems operate by either the user taking some action to highlight their presence to a sensor or as in the case of the IntelliMotion system the light pulses worn by a user are detected by sensors and the location of the user is display on a computer11. The records are collected by a fleet of vehicles that drive around the roads detecting the signal from access points. Based on the required accuracy of the location determination and in an effort to reduce power usage the system disables or enables input from the various information sources. 2003). Europe and North America. Typically this can be expensive.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_/ai_18655803 21 11 .skyhookwireless. 2. 2001).com/howitworks/faq. With IR technology and due to the fact that light cannot pass through walls. From an access point the Media Access Control (MAC) address is read.access points to calculate the position of a mobile device. behind every blocking wall and in every corridor of a facility using this technology. GPS and mobile cellular system location determination are calculated using the methods discussed in earlier sections of this report. to calculate the position using Wi-Fi a Skyhook database is utilised that contains millions of access point records from across Asia. 10 http://www. however a low cost version was developed by the University of Bristol (Randell and Muller. Then later when required to calculate a location it is the fingerprint that is actually used not the actual access point location10.php http://findarticles. This means that the actual physical location of an access point is not recorded but a signal fingerprint from the access point. However the Wi-Fi method is section is more complex. a sensor would be required in every room.

Digital compasses can be added to these devices in order to measure orientation.tadlys.11 Inertia tracking Inertia tracking can be used as a means of determining location. (Benford.12 RFID Location Determination Radio Frequency Identification tags can be easily added into most everyday objects. Accelerometers can be embedded into mobile devices and these can be used to calculate velocity. putting an access point in every room and the nearest AP to the tag indicates its location. Figure 4 shows these main components. The system can provide with ninety five percent reliability an accuracy of around two meters. The tags can be either special Topaz System Bluetooth tags or any Bluetooth equipped device such as a mobile phone.co. the access points and the tags. The reader measures the distance of the signals from the tags. 12 Movement can be detected by repeating this process continuously http://www. 2005). The system can track up to fifty tags and locate their location within a few seconds. It can detect a Bluetooth tag by several methods namely. They also offer for a highly compartmented area the use of a hybrid Bluetooth-IR system. Trolley Scan’s RFID-radar system is a an example of an indoor RFID based location determination system that has the accuracy capability of less than fifty centimetres in an area up to one hundred meters deep however this depends on the tags used and may be as little as ten meters. the antenna array and the tags.il/Pages/Product_content. The system has three main components.2. The system works by measuring the distance the signal travels to two of the antenna arrays then calculating the angle from each.asp 22 . the reader.10 Bluetooth Location Determination A Bluetooth system like Tadly’s Topaz System 12 is made up of three major components namely the positioning server. 2. using RSSI to triangulate the location. the antenna array for energising the tags and finally the tags themselves. 2.

high speed internet access and the ability to easily set up a network without the need for any cabling has led to the take off in popularity of WLAN’s 2.11 group of specifications for the wireless local area network (WLAN) interface developed by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). public access points. A finger print is done by taking a Wi-Fi device to a specific point where it senses the signals from all the fixed access points that are in its detection range. The actual location determination occurs at a later date when a Wi-Fi 23 . With the increasing number of hotspots. they are used to detect when a tag enters or leaves a particular area.14 Wi-Fi Fingerprinting A number of Wi-Fi location determination systems utilise a Wi-Fi fingerprint to determine location. To improve accuracy ‘chokepoints’ may be used.com. 2007). Antenna array Reader Tags Figure 4: Trolley Scan RFID-Radar System 2.13 Wi-Fi Wi-Fi is the generic name given to any of the 802.(rfid-radar. these are additional readers and antenna that are installed at entry and exit points. From these signals a unique fingerprint for that location is generated from the measurements of all the detected access points.

dodgeball. 2. Applications for users who do not want to disclose their position to anyone else 2.dodgeball.15 Location Determination Applications There are a number of location determination applications available however they fall into three general categories: 1. 2. 2. Applications for users who display their position to a selected group 3.com who their friends are.15.1 Mapoint Mappoint. These types of applications are typically more popular in big cities. it is used by mobile phone users and works by users telling www.16 Potential applications of Wi-Fi Location Determination 24 . it displays the user’s position on a map and nearby points of interest. 2.2 Dodgeball www.com is an example of an application for users who wish to display their position to a select group.15. Dodgeball then send a text message to all their friends and reports back if there are any of their friends in the vicinity.3 Friend finder mMode’s Friend Finder is another example of this type of application was it was developed by AT&T.15.device is taken to a location and the system determines the probable location based on the fingerprints. The greater number of fingerprints taken will improve the accuracy of the location determination.com is an example of an application for users who do not disclose their position to anyone else. Applications for users who want disclose their position to everyone 2. then when a user is out and about they sent a text message to Dodgeball with their location.

5 Security For example. carer or park staff about the issue with the child.3 Indoor gaming For example a large scale version of Pac-man could be played with people quipped with tags playing the roles of Pac-man and the Ghosts. The system could be configured to notify the nearest teacher. Some of the Ekahau tags have a call-button which a child could activate if they were distressed or in need of help.16.16. 2.1 Prisoner Monitoring For example a system using tamper-proof. 2.4 Supply Chain For example Wi-Fi tags could be attached to product in a warehouse to enable stock or inventory level tracking. if valuable equipment is no longer detected in its normal area this action could activate an alarm for the security staff and then allow them to track and find it while it is still within the range of the WLAN.16.16.16. Wi-Fi tags worn by prisoners. The child would wear an Ekahau tag.2 Child Safety For example a Wi-Fi based system could be used by those with the responsibility of supervising children in a school.The use of Wi-Fi location determination technology could be utilised in a number of applications namely: 2. This will help to prevent escape attempts and allow prison guards to monitor prisoner whereabouts at all times.6 Healthcare 25 . The system could be used to restrict prisoners to certain areas of the prison by notifying prison wardens if prisoners enter restricted areas. 2. 2.16. 2. crèche or theme park environment.

2. nurses are alerted to the situation and are able to get them and return them to their ward. This would be particularly useful for patients suffering from dementia or Alzheimer’s disease.7 Location Based Access For example only providing Wi-Fi access to users who are within a certain building or area. If a patient tries to leave without being discharged. therefore the system could prevent those who maybe engaged in war-driving activities. particularly in an emergency situation their location to be quickly identified. Additionally it could be advantageous if important staff may wear tags that would allow.For example in a hospital environment patients could wear wristband tags that allow them to be tracked throughout the hospital. The Trapeze Smart-Pass® application used in conjunction with their LA200 Location Appliance provides Wi-Fi access and dynamic authorization based on the physical location of a user. 26 .16.

1 Microsoft Research Group RightSPOT 13 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SYSTEMS. AND CYBERNETICS—PART C: APPLICATIONS AND REVIEWS. 6. Figure 5 depicts a rough outline of the current wireless-based location positioning systems and their accuracy resolutions. Figure 5: Wireless base systems and their location range resolution 13 3. Numerous other indoor location systems have been developed that make use of the sensory technologies discussed earlier but the major drawback with these is that they all require the installation of specialised hardware in the environment to be maintained. The high costs of these technologies are also prohibitive making them unsuitable for personal or social applications that are to be used in people’s daily lives. 37. NO. NOVEMBER 2007 Page 1073 27 . They do however offer very high accuracy levels and are therefore used by many commercial organisations. MAN.3 Wi-Fi Location Determination Technologies A number of different systems have previously used WLAN access points as beacons from which to estimate location. VOL.

2003). that can run on a number of varied devices such as mobile cellular phones. Pocket PC. Providing that the system can get signals from around five beacons then the 28 . 3.4 Place Lab software The Place Lab is an open source software toolkit. Mac OS X. from Intel Research in Seattle. The “spotter” software component ‘listens’ for the unique identifiers from various radio beacons in its range such as Wi-Fi access points. laptops. four of this report. and fixed location Bluetooth devices. (Bahl et al. that they called RightSPOT. 2000) 3. Windows CE and Symbian S60.Microsoft research group developed an algorithm.3 Trapeze LA200 Trapeze Networks offer a Wi-Fi hardware based solution to location determination that allows wireless equipped devices visible to the WLAN to be tracked and located to room level. The LA200 system is installed in the University of Ulster Magee Campus and is discussed in more detail in chapter 3. With eight radio stations they were able to get an accuracy rate of approximately eighty percent (Krumn et al. which used a ranking system of the available Frequency Modulation (FM) radio stations rather than their relative signal strengths to determine location. It uses two inputs to calculate the location namely RSSI from the access points and a simple signal propagation model. PDA’s and different operating systems such as Windows XP. The ‘mapper’ software component then looks up each of the beacons position in the “landmarks database” and finally the ‘tracker’ software component takes the ‘mapper’ output and estimates its own position and shows it on a locally cached map. The system for was able to locate and track users inside a building with a resolution of between two and three meters. Linux. mobile cellular phone towers.2 Microsoft Research Group RADAR system Microsoft research group developed a system called RADAR.

com) uses a standard Wi-Fi network to monitor its own brand active RFID tags.org/publications/pubs/pervasive-placelab-2005-final. The system also provides its own frontend software to monitor tags know as MobileView. 2005).accuracy for the system is around twenty meters.aeroscout. Figure 6: Key components in the Place Lab architecture 14 3. The AeroScout system locates the position of the tags by using a RSSI algorithm however if a network is equipped with its own brand location receivers. (LAMARCA et al.5 AeroScout Wi-Fi RFID The AeroScout System (www.aeroscout.pdf 29 .placelab. Figure 6 shows the main components.com/leadcapture/files/AeroScout+System+Data+Sheet_0. Figure 7 shows an example of an AeroScout active RFID tag.pdf http://www.. 15 14 15 http://www. location points and exciters then it allows for both indoor and outdoor capability using time difference of arrival (TDOA) functionality and also chokepoint detection as tags pass through doors or gateways.

17 16 17 http://www.6 Ekahau RTLS The Ekahau Real Time Location System is a software suite that uses an existing WLAN network without the need for additional special network hardware to determine the location of a Wi-Fi equipped device.com/?id=4510 30 . The suite has three main of components namely the Ekahau Site Survey (ESS). the Ekahau Positioning Engine (EPE) and the Ekahau Application Programming Interface (API) that utilises the EPE system to create custom applications.com/article/articleview/2050/1/1/ http://www. Japan.rfidjournal. The MobileView software was able to track each child based on the RSSI from the city’s Cisco WLAN AP’s. Each tag also has an additional feature of an a call-button that could be activated by the child if they needed help. Each child was given an AeroScout active RFID tag to wear. The active RFID tags could be read up to three hundred meters from the AP’s and the location determination had an accuracy of around ten meters. in 2005 using an AeroScout system tracked school children and monitored their safety as they went to and from school.16 3.ekahau. on activating the tag an email showing the childs location on a map was sent to the child’s parents.Figure 7: AeroScout Active RFID tag A trial in Yokohama City.

However before the EPE can determine the location work it needs the site survey calibration information from the ESS. Figure 8: Ekahau Tag19 18 19 http://www.ekahau. The ESS collects the information on the coverage and RSSI of each AP in the network across the area to be covered.com/?id=4220 31 .ekahau. 18 Ekahau have also developed Wi-Fi tags an example of which is shown in Figure 8.com/?id=4130 http://www.The EPE uses software based algorithms to calculate the position of a tag. The ESS gathers the calibration information by a person carrying the system and walking around the area to be covered.

stm 32 . It also provides the capability to run custom or enterprise applications that require the ability to provide location sensitive content or security and track assets.com/company-about.com/Products/pointsyncRFID_Overview. were bought over By Trapeze Networks. Ekahau. To ensure compatibility the LA200 is fully Wi-Fi compliant this allows the system to use the active Wi-Fi tags from other companies such as. However prior to this Newbury Networks strategic business partners had rebranded the unit under several different names namely the Meru Networks Meru E(z)RF Location Manager. AeroScout. who in December 2008.mobiledataforce. The LA200 can offer location determination for up to two thousand Wi-Fi devices over a WLAN.20 The unit will only be referred to as the LA200 in this report.htm http://www. Figure 9: Trapeze LA200 Appliance 21 The Trapeze Networks Location Appliance LA200 provides the ability in real time to quickly and accurately locate and track assets. A summary of the tracking performance of the Trapeze Networks LA200 is shown in table 1: Test Performance 20 21 http://www. A picture of the actual unit is shown in Figure 9.newburynetworks. people or practically anything that has a or is attached to a Wi-Fi transmitter over an existing Wi-Fi network.4 Trapeze LA200 Wi-Fi Location Determination The LA200 unit was developed originally by Newbury Networks. Trapeze then in turn rebranded the unit as the Trapeze Networks Location Appliance LA200. Newbury Networks and Pango. the Nortel Networks Nortel WLE2340 and now the Trapeze Networks Trapeze LA200.

1 The Trapeze Dashboard The Trapeze Dashboard is a graphical console that uses the information from the LA200 to provide a real time view of the activity and location of each Wi-Fi device visible to the system to a room and floor level. the example shown in Figure 11 is from the University of Ulster System at the Magee Campus 22 Source la200 datasheet 33 . Figure 10: Trapeze Dashboard for the LA200 To use the Dashboard software a connection must be established from the LA200 Dashboard software to a LA200 Appliance by completing the ‘Enter Connection Details’ form with the appropriate details. It also provides layered views for multiple floors.Accuracy at 10 meters Accuracy at 5 meters Accuracy at 3 meters Average seek time Fastest seek time Number of devices tracked Table 1: LA200 Tracking performance 22 99% 97% 95% 30 sec 10 sec 2000 4.1. The example shown in Figure 10 is from the University of Ulster System at the Magee Campus. 4.1 LA200 major components This section provides an overview of the major components of the system.

which contains a number of smaller offices. Options are available to view devices by server.Figure 11: Trapeze LA200 Connection Details Form After the Dashboard connects to the LA200 Appliance a ‘Device List Screen’ appears. Figure 12: Trapeze Dashboard Device List Screen Appliance An image file containing a scaled plan of a building can be imported into the system and different locales added by the user. Figure 12 shows a typical device list view on the Dashboard. 34 . For example from the University of Ulster System the light blue area in Figure 13 represents the ‘MG Floor2 Staff2’ locale. it shows a summary of each device visible to the LA200. locale or network.

2 The Trapeze Webpage Dashboard The LA200 system also comes with a web based dashboard interface to access the system. however it does not have the capability to display the live maps only a data table of the information. Figure 15 shows the web based Dashboard login screen. 35 . The points where fingerprints have been taken are represented by a green flag as shown in Figure 14 the example is from the University of Ulster System at the Magee Campus. The next section will describe the main web interface screens from the University of Ulster LA200 system at the Magee Campus. it provides similar functionality to the dedicated Dashboard application.Figure 13: Trapeze Dashboard Layout Locales After the locales have been identified the actual physical of the fingerprints an AP’s are added.1. Figure 14: Trapeze Dashboard fingerprint locations 4.

36 . network and devices visible to the network. Figure 16: Trapeze Web Dashboard Summary screen The web based Dashboard device list screen that displays information on all the devices visible to the network is shown in Figure 17.Figure 15: Trapeze Web Dashboard login screen Figure 16 shows the web based Dashboard summary screen that displays summary information on the system.

The activity list is shown in Figure 18. 37 .Figure 17: Trapeze Web Dashboard Device List screen By clicking on a particular device from the device list screen as shown in Figure 17 the system will display the recent activity of the tag. Figure 18: Trapeze Web Dashboard Monitor screen Using the web based Dashboard monitor screen as shown in Figure 18 the user can then enter a particular MAC address and date range for any given time period in the last thirty days and the system will display the location of that tag for the given date range as shown in the example in Figure 19.

Figure 19: Trapeze Web Dashboard Monitor Screen The system will also display the fingerprint information it holds for a particular fingerprint point. For example in Figure 14 fingerprint ‘mp24’ is shown in the graphic. Figure 20: Trapeze Web Dashboard Fingerprint screen 38 . From the web based Dashboard fingerprint screen Figure 20 shows the detail of the ‘mp24’ fingerprint location in a graphical representation using green and purple bars.

• • It comes with an Application Programming Interface (API). • • The system has the ability to collect network access points RSSI data. • • • 4. issues and costs. PDA’s etc any piece of equipment or person to be tracked requires a Wi-Fi tag and these cost around fifty pounds each which if you wanted to give one to every student on a campus or employee in a business could end up quite expensive.trapezenetworks. There are range limitations due to the penetration of Wi-Fi signals. Fully Wi-Fi compliant and therefore does need not specialized hardware or software on the Wi-Fi devices The Dashboard allows the ability to view the real time movement and track up to two thousand Wi-Fi enabled devices simultaneously with a granularity of five minutes without additional network load and then store all this data for each device for a maximum of thirty days and at a ten meter precision level it can locate all devices to a room level in under thirty seconds with an accuracy level of ninety nine percent. through solid objects such as building walls. these include23: • Provision of user access control based on their location. While not purely a LA200 issue there are privacy issues. namely the ability to track individuals without their consent.2 Limitations of the Trapeze LA200 While the LA200 has many advantages it does have certain limitations.com/file. These include: • Requires the purchase of the LA200 system box for the network which at current prices. 23 http://www. this feature could also be used to prevent those with stolen Wi-Fi equipment such as laptop accessing the network.cfm?content=443&pageId=84&tagId=111 39 .3 Advantages of the Trapeze LA200 Trapeze Networks list a number of benefits of the LA200 system.4. While the system is fully compatible with Wi-Fi and can use the Wi-Fi signals from laptops. is around fifteen thousand US dollars.

Reasons of waste due to human 40 . It involves reviewing the activity and removing the waste in the process by removing unnecessary or non value adding work. The total time taken to do a task. raw materials and finished product in the manufacturing process. The term Lean is used to describe process of reviewing work methods to improve standards. Arranging or adding equipment to make the activity easier or take less time to complete. human intervention reasons and work practices. manufacturing processes.5 Lean Six Sigma . human intervention reasons and work practices.Work Study Lean Six Sigma is the collective term given to the parsing of the Lean Methodology and the Six Sigma methodology. is a function of the actual time to do the task plus additional time taken caused by poor design of the product. Waste could be caused by improper utilisation of the available space. materials. By analysing the movements and non-movements of people. it could be possible to discover the actual sources of waste. In a lot of cases improvements can be made to the time taken to conduct a task and waste removed without the additional cost of new equipment to the business by simply rearranging the process sequence steps. Non-movements in the process could highlight bottlenecks or broken down equipment. wasted movements of raw materials or finished product. It could be envisaged that Wi-Fi location technology will have little impact on the design of the product or the type of materials used however it could have a significant impact on improving the manufacturing processes. incorrect layout. The Six Sigma term is used to describe the process of applying statistical analysis on data to devise solutions that will reduce the causes of variation and defects. increase productivity and make better use of resources. incorrect sequences of work. equipment. cost of having excess inventory to cover waste in earlier or later steps. typically measured in ‘man hours’ or ‘machine hours’.

or spending the most 24 25 http://www.php/3707806 41 . 5. Some recent examples of the use of where Wi-Fi and Lean Six Sigma methodologies have been used together include.24 25 5.htm http://www. The system works by shoppers voluntarily taking a Wi-Fi tag when they enter the store which they carry with them as they go around the store.aeroscout.sixthsigma. due to their capability. known as Kanban.26 5. The system enabled the implementation of Lean Six Sigma Methodologies. this allows them to receive production information for their particular location.com/news/article.2 Ekahau and Polycom Developed a system where workers carry a Polycom voice over Wi-Fi (VoWiFi) telephone equipped with an Ekahau tag. Later the store can analyse the data to see in which areas the shoppers are going to. training or other issues. Another example where they use this hardware in industry is when a worker goes to a particular area in the facility that has special safety equipment requirements then they will get a text message to the telephone to remind them of the correct safety equipment to be worn for that particular area.action include those working at a slower pace.wi-fiplanet.com/2009/02/flexible-e-kanban-manufacturing.1 Aeroscout and IMEC Technologies Aeroscout and IMEC Technologies developed and implemented a parts replacement system using WiFi-enabled Active RFID technology for Thermo King Corporation. so that when components used in the process reach a predetermined level a worker just activates a button on a WiFi tag attached to the parts bin and more parts will be ordered to refill the bin.com/content/news-and-events/press-releases/thermoking-170209/thermo-king- improves-manufacturing-operatio 26 http://www.3 Ekahau & Rautakesko Ekahau developed a system in conjunction with the retailer Rautakesko to track shopper’s movements around their store.

27 Figure 21 A heat map from the Ekahau / Rautakesko system 5.com/news/article.28 5.wi-fiplanet.minesite.4 Aeroscout and Mine Site Technologies Aeroscout and Mine Site Technologies have developed various systems for the mining industry to track people and equipment in a mining environment to improve productivity and safety by the better management of equipment and people through Wi-Fi tracking to know exactly where they are. and analytical type tools to make it easier to understand the product flow and potential improvements.au/wi_fi_rfid_tracking_solutionsc 42 . This involves reducing and eliminating non value adding steps and optimising the value adding steps through the use of practical. graphical. The tags can be incorporated into the miners helmet light.php/3788656 http://www. Figure 21 shows a heatmap produced by the system.and adjust their product arrangements accordingly. 27 28 http://www.com.5 Product flow analysis Product flow analysis is a tool used in the Lean methodology to provide a thorough understanding of the waste associated with a product as it traverses a facility.

and. draw a point to point diagram of the complete product flow PREPARED BY: DATE: 40 O E VN 35 33 31 B ench 21 P ress 23 39 19 T ool Bx o 13 26 14 42 22 8 30 18 32 24 2 4 9 12 16 20 34 44 38 6 T rash 10 V ice 28 36 41 P art B ox 15 17 29 37 27 25 3 1 11 5 43 7 P R arts ack Figure 22: Lean Six Sigma Point to Point Diagram Figure 23 shows the same process as Figure 22 after the product flow analysis component of the Lean methodology has been applied. In this instance some steps have been consolidated. twenty eight. In Figure 22 it is quite apparent that there is a lot of wasted time for the person moving between the bench area and the oven area because these two pieces of equipment are far apart and the waste comes from the fact they are used quite a lot.Ball Bearings SUPERVISOR: NOTE: Depict rough scale of equipment layout.In the real work a person or product is followed by an auditor who literally will attach them selves to that person or object and follow and record their every movement or lack of movement and record all the information on a various data collection sheets. reduced from forty two to Broach Oven 26 27 Press 1 4 2 5 7 3 6 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 17 20 21 22 23 24 25 1543 18 16 19 Press 28 .Carrier Assembly . One such sheet is the point to point diagram shown in Figure 22. It would be better if the equipment was rearranged so that these two pieces of equipment were much closer together and some of the steps consolidated. The circles represent doing a task and the lines represent movement from one area to another. AREA NAME: BEFORE .

44 .Figure 23: Point to Point after improvements It is areas such as this that the proposed application could be used to generate the data automatically without the need for a person to watch and record the person or item being followed through the and record all the data manually.

The software for the new application will create a graphical user interface. non-functional. Today this work would typically have to be done manually by the expert observing and recording all the necessary information by hand.2 Objectives of System The objective of this project is to develop a system that demonstrates the use of a WLAN to determine the location of Wi-Fi tagged people. reduce costs and remove defects. 45 . prototype system will be developed within the University of Ulster at Magee to test the feasibility of using it in a real life industrial or other scenario by these experts so that they can track the movements of people. list the system objectives. the chosen design methodology.6 Requirements Specification and Analysis This chapter will specify the problem.1 Problem Specification In industry today companies are under a lot of pressure to be more efficient. equipment or product. equipment or product through a process to see where the inefficiencies or sources of waste are. (GUI). errors and waste from their work practices. Implementing a location determination and tracking system using Wi-Fi in this scenario is well suited any where there is a Wi-Fi signal so indoors or outdoors and utilise the existing company WLAN network and requiring the installation of the Trapeze LA200 device. Some of the methodologies that they can use to be more efficient are known ‘Six Sigma’ and ‘Lean Manufacturing’. The system will use the Trapeze Networks LA200 system to monitor the Wi-Fi tags in a room or area in a building on a floor by floor basis as required. Six Sigma black belts’ and ‘lean A practitioners’ are people who are specially trained experts in these methodologies and who will lead teams to improve the work practices. software and hardware requirements. 6. specification of the functional. The LA200 system can store location data for each tag in its monitored area in an internal database for the previous thirty days. 6.

linear and sequential schedule is followed and the goals for each phase are clearly defined and must be completed before moving onto the next one. 6. Ruby or Python. with service pack two or later installed.maxwideman.3 Design Methodology Two design methodologies were considered for this application namely waterfall. While the Waterfall methodology has a number of advantages around project discipline it also some disadvantages and for this project they are that 29 http://www. The user interface will contain number of selectable options that will access the data from the LA200 database and present the data in a graphical form to the black belt or a lean practitioner.3. after having moved on there is no turning back.com/papers/plc-models/1990s.to provide analysis charts on the movements this will be done by extracting the data from the LA200 database using the LA200 Application Programming Interface (API) using code written in Perl.1 Waterfall Methodology Figure 24: Traditional Waterfall Methodology 29 With Waterfall methodology a rigid. and evolutionary development.htm 46 . The data will then be imported into Microsoft Excel for analysis and charting and then imported into the GUI for use by the user. The application will run on any Windows XP operating system. 6.

While this may be an advantage for the end-user in that they get what they want however the disadvantage for the developer is that this methodology tends to result in additional cost and poorly structured systems. 47 . Figure 25: Evolutionary Development Model 6. However an awareness of the disadvantages of this methodology. 6. cited earlier.2 Evolutionary development The evolutionary development model is geared towards small to medium sized projects and uses a concept of developing an initial system showing it to the end-user and upgrading it with their feedback. by those involved in the project will help to ensure that the project is not totally susceptible them.3.3.3 Design Methodology Selection The chosen methodology for this project will be the evolutionary development model because this suits this new technology so that as prototypes are developed they can be either further improved on or if aspects of the new technology is prove to be unworkable then they can be rejected.the waterfall methodology is typically intended for large projects which this project is clearly not and more importantly the methodology does not have the ability to easily handle major change or upgrades late in the process which are envisaged in this system.

Select the data that they require from the database. • • • • • 6.1.6. 6. Have fully working GUI for the user. 6.4.1.2 System The LA200 provides and stores all the location data. The software and hardware requirements are also listed in order that the full functionality can be successfully implemented. Access the location data provided by the LA200 system. Graph the data on the GUI.4.4.2 Non-Functional Requirements 48 . the user should be able to: • • Quit the program. Have access to the LA200 and Dashboard.1 User After starting the program.4 Requirements Specification The requirements for this project are split into two distinct areas: functional requirements and non-functional requirements. Export the data to Microsoft Excel – if desired.1 Functional Requirements The functional requirements are further broken down into two groups namely user requirements and system requirements. 6. View the software help at any time.4. Access the menu screen. Report the data in a format that they desire. The system should: • • • • • Have a permanent network and intranet connection. Run on any recent computer using Windows XP SP2 operating system.

The data provided by the system should be validated and verified were possible.11a/b/g with installed Trapeze Networks Location Appliance LA200.3 Hardware Requirements • Wi-Fi network with 802. 6. Computer running Windows XP SP2 and with a network connection to access the LA200 appliance. • • • Performance – The system should be able to carry out each task requested by the user as quickly as possible. • • • Scalability – The system should be able to provide data for the current maximum number of tags presently two thousand for a period of thirty days in what ever format the user decides. Current specification Wi-Fi equipped Laptop with Windows XP SP2 will be required to do fingerprinting. Maintainability – The program coding should be well documented and laid out particularly to facilitate future upgrades and additional functionality being added at a later date.4 Software Requirements 49 . Wi-Fi tags or supported Wi-Fi enabled devices such as laptops. PDA’s and mobile phones. IP addressing for all tracked devices. • • • • 6.4.4. Time Constraint – See project Gantt chart attachment A and the required project completion date is 28th April 2009. • Efficiency – The system should operate with the minimum adequate resource levels to that ensure it performs at a level acceptable to the user. • HCI standards must be adhered to. Extensibility – The system should be developed with future upgrades and additional functionality being added at a later date.• Accessibility – The software should be easy to use with little training or experience. Reliability – The system work all the time and provide a means to handle errors with little or no input from the user.

After selecting the data the user will be offered the second interface which is to export the data to a third party application such as Microsoft Excel or finally a third interface to display the data on the screen in the form of charts and reports showing the desired data in a presentable format.5 User Interface There will be three main user interfaces that will need to be designed the first will give the user the option to query the LA200 database and retrieve the information based on the selection or combination of selections they have made from a series of drop down lists or pop-ups. 6. Python or Soap programming systems (as required) Visual Studio 2005 Microsoft Excel 2003 Custom made application • • • 6. 50 .4. Ruby.• • • • Latest version of the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) Trapeze Networks Dashboard Trapeze Networks webpage Perl. For the main user GUI it was decided to use Visual Basic 2005.5 Development Languages While the LA200 Dashboard supplied by Trapeze is written in Java. the company provide and API that can utilise various programming languages to communicate with the LA200 and its database.

7 Design Phase This chapter will discuss the detail of each component in the design phase of the project. Visual C# or Visual Basic.Net and the Trapeze supplied API. Processor Processor Speed Memory Hard-drive Operating System Pentium III (or later) 1GHz (or greater) 512MB RAM (or more) 200MB free Windows XP with Service Pack 2 Table 2: Trapeze LA200 Dashboard hardware requirements 7. 7. meeting the requirements listed in table 2. laptops or mobile phones. Visual C++.2 Software Components The major software component.Net framework. This can be used to create applications using Visual J#. 7.3 Design Considerations As the position of a tag at a particular time is known and recorded in the Trapeze LA200 database and can be displayed in real-time using the supplied Trapeze Dashboard application then there is no need to apply any design consideration for the proposed system to re-create this functionality namely the creation of a graphical representation of the various tags on a map.Net. a Trapeze Wi-Fi network equipped with a LA200 location appliance and Wi-Fi capable transmitters such as tags.1 Hardware Components The hardware utilised in the implementation of the system include a laptop/desktop computer. This system will be created with Visual Basic. used to create the custom software application was the “What You See Is What You Get” (WYSIWYG) Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 developer tool using the . The Trapeze Dashboard needs to be configured in advance so that it knows where all the wireless access points are in the area and as it can determine a Wi-Fi 51 .

tags position to a room or locale level each of which should have the recommended number of fingerprints carried out. The LA200 System calculates the position of the Wi-Fi tag using the fingerprints that it has stored and records the position or locale and the details of the access point that has detected the tag in the LA200 database. form layouts and colour schemes should be consistent across all screens. Each individual person or piece of equipment that is to be tracked needs to have a Wi-Fi device.4 HCI Considerations o HCI standards must be adhered to. system output. otherwise they. o o Minimise user input Feedback  Provide user feedback for all actions performed o Error Prevention  Validate user inputs and disable inactive form controls.5 System Architecture Figures 26 and 27 give an overview of the system architecture and system concept. Consistency  User input. o Aesthetics & User Expectation  Clear and uncluttered design with clear functionality for each form. The Custom made application which will be developed in this project will utilise the Application Programming Interface (API) to communicate with the LA200 and the database within the unit to obtain the appropriate information on each of the tags or Wi-Fi devices that the LA200 had detected and monitored on the WLAN network. 52 . 7. need to be given a Wi-Fi tag. 7.

11a/b/g Wi-Fi network Positioning Server & Database Trapeze API Clients Trapeze Web Dashboard To LA200 Figure 26: Trapeze System Concept WI-Fi Access Point Network Person with Tag or Wi-Fi source API LA200 LA200 On-Screen Display of new application Figure 27: Overview of the System Database 53 .Trapeze Dashboard App. Maintenance and analysis Custom Made Application Trapeze LA200 802. Positioning model Creation.

The Trapeze System starts tracking the Wi-Fi.Stages of the System This section will show the use case diagrams showing different user activities and the system functionality. 54 . Display reports User Location history records The user requests the reports to be displayed The LA200 equipment is switched on. Use Case Name Primary Actor Data Description Preconditions Post Conditions Use Case Name Primary Actor Data Description Preconditions Select tag to track User None The user selects the tag to review in the system The LA200 equipment is switched on. Preconditions None Post Conditions The application loads. 7.2 User Use-Case Diagram Descriptions Use Case Name Application Location awareness Application Start Exit Primary Actor User Data None Description The user starts the application.6.1 User Use Case Diagram Start Location Awareness Application Start Graphing User «extends» «uses» Select User To Graph «extends» User Display / Print Reports / Graphs Add Person / to List Remove Person tag from List Figure 28: User Use Case Diagram View Help 7.6.

6. 55 . 7.Post Conditions There is at least one record for the appropriate tag.3 System Use Case Diagram «uses» S tart Location A wareness A pplication Interface with LA -200 A I S P oftware «uses» Connect to LA -200 Database S tart G raphing User «extends» «uses» S elect User To G raph S ystem «extends» Rem ove P er tag from L A P dd erso to L S how Reports / G raphs «uses» P G rint raphs E A xit pplication Figure 29: System Use Case Diagram «uses» «uses» G graphs et from E xcel S how Help S creen P ass values to E xcel 7. their properties and associations used in the application.7 Class Diagram Figure 30 shows the classes. The appropriate report is displayed.

Select user Mac address [ MAC Exists ] [ No Wi-Fi records ] [ Wi-Fi Records ] Display Report [ error message ] Figure 31: Display report for selected user 7. 56 .9 Sequence Diagram Figure 32 is a high level sequence diagram showing the messaging between different components in the system.MainForm -port : SerialPort -TotalRange : double +MainForm() +MainForm_Load() +connectLA200() +disconnectLA 200() +sendUserToExcel(in message : string) +selectUser () +RemoveUser() +refreshData() +displayGraph() Figure 30: Class Diagram +printGraph() +mainForm_Quit () +helpScreen() LA200 Database 1 1 7.8 Activity Diagram Figure 31 showing and activity diagram to show the process of selecting the user MAC address to display.

Location Awareness Application API Interface LA200 Database All_ta btn_selectUserClick () getSelectedUserData() Figure 32: High-Level Sequence Diagram for the system queryResult queryResult 57 .

Figure 33: Trapeze Web Dashboard Summary screen 8. After the user has logged in to the system the main GUI screen of the system is displayed. the user is presented with a splash screen followed three seconds later by the login screen. 58 . the LA200 API and the GUI software.2 Program GUI The GUI software that processes data from the Trapeze LA200 database was created using Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 and utilises the functions within the Trapeze API.8 Implementation This chapter describes the functionality of the system and the implementation stage of the project.25/admin and entering the appropriate username and password. (Not given in this report as they are a security item).1 Equipment Connection The first step of the implementation is to ensure that the LA200 is installed and working on the network. These displays are shown in figures 34 to 36.189. The next step was to establish this two-way communication between the various components. To log into the web interface at the following webpage https://193.61. this can be done quickly in two ways using either the GUI application or using the Trapeze web interface. namely the LA200 database. When the GUI software is loaded. for the University of Ulster system at Magee. 8.

iterative and incremental approach allows this unlike the waterfall methodology. Figure 35: The login screen 59 .Figure 34: The application splash screen As the prototype has the ability to track people this creates a “big brother” issue and therefore would benefit from some sort of security system that would have a username and password to gain access and restrict report to a few “test” or special tags and the users own MAC address Therefore so it was decided to add this feature to the scope.

4 3 Figure 36: The main GUI screen The components of the main GUI screen are shown in Table 3. No. 1 2 3 4 1 2 Component Function Connect to the LA”00 through the API Connect to a local replica of the database Select the MAC address to be reviewed Menu item used to access the File and Help screens. Table 3: Summary of Main Screen Components Shown in Figure 36 60 .

Figure 39: MAC address selection After selecting the desired MAC address the user can then select from the options to export the information to Excel or to display the graphs and reports on the screen. this has all the MAC addresses that are available to provide a report for the user. Figure 37: Connect LA200 online database Figure 38: Connect to local replica To begin the user selects a MAC address from the dropdown list. The dropdown list. Examples of the graphs are shown in Figures 40 and 41 61 . as shown in Figure 39.From the main GUI the use then can elect to connect to the online database in the LA200 as shown in Figure 37 or use a local replica copy of the database stored on the machine as shown in Figure 38.

Figure 40: Graph of places visited Figure 41: Graph of routes taken 62 .

4 LA200 Database The GUI utilises the database within the Trapeze LA200 device to access the data a Trapeze supplied API is available as a data access layer to enable simple read only data retrieval from the LA200 database.8. a full list tables. their showing configuration and fields has been provided. The LA200 database is quite complex and outside the remit of this project. 63 . however in the Appendix A.

1 Unit Testing By breaking the overall system down into units and testing each unit thoroughly to ensure that it works correctly then if an error or problem arises because it is a smaller component that is being tested it is theoretically easier to find the problem and correct it. This is important part of the process as it ensures that the system performs satisfactorily and meets all the users’ requirements as laid down in the requirements specification in chapter six. the API connection to the LA200 database and the GUI reporting and graphing component. The Program was started up and the login screen was displayed.1.1 Splash Screen & Login When the GUI is started up the user should see a splash screen followed three seconds later by a login screen. Figure 42: Successful login confirmation Figure 43: Unsuccessful login 64 . see Figure 42 and Figure 43.9 Testing This chapter describes the testing section of the project. A correct and incorrect user name and password were entered and the appropriate messages were displayed. There are three main components in the system which have been subjected to unit testing – The GUI connection through the API. 9. 9.

After the system has been set up to the manufactures recommendations. Figure 44: LA200 API connection error 30 Trapeze LA200 Deployment Guide Version 6. Testing of the setup can actually be done with one person using a Wi-Fi enabled laptop connected to the network and running the Trapeze Dashboard software. Unfortunately even requesting help from the Trapeze support staff we were unable to get this component to work correctly.1. so if the user tried this option they will get an error message as shown in Figure 44.0 65 .2 GUI to API component This test will pass a value namely the MAC address to the API and ensure that the API receives the value. if errors are found then addition calibrations will have to be carried out in the area. This is not an issue for the user as a backup can be taken just before use and this will give almost live data. one inside and one outside Create four additional RF fingerprints outside the building. Therefore in this report all work will be done on a local replica.9.000 square feet Create two additional RF fingerprints per entrance. then as they walk around they can see themselves on the Dashboard display and verify that all is correct with the configuration.1 LA200 System and network The Trapeze LA200 equipment is central to the whole project and the information it gives is only as good as the configuration and setup work done when the system is installed. this is an enormous task outside the remit of this report. Trapeze recommends the minimum number of fingerprints for any building: ● ● ● ● Create one RF fingerprint for every 3.1.. Create four additional RF fingerprints outside the building at each compass point30 9.

4 GUI to local replica database component This test will test the ability to connect to local replica of database. If the file is not present then the user will get the message as shown in Figure 47. and then pass these rows back to the GUI.1.9. Unfortunately this is also failed as per section 9. However if the system had worked correctly then the user would get a confirmation message as shown in figure 45. a successful connection displays a confirmation message as shown in Figure 46.1.1.2. Figure 45: Successful connection to LA200 database 9. Figure 46: Successful connection to local replica Figure 47: Unsuccessful connection to local replica 66 .3 API to the LA200 & LA200 Database component Having received the MAC address the API must now select all the rows of data history relevant to that MAC address.

When all the individual components listed earlier have been tested successfully. Pass 2 3 4 The three test MAC addresses from the Ekahau tags are available in the dropdown list to select. then it is time to move on and test if they all integrate seamlessly with each other. these are listed in Table 4. then login then main screen is displayed. and passed back to the GUI for reporting. Predicted Result N Test Case Actual Result The GUI starts up. The GUI displays the report and graph The 3 tags are there The data is available for graphing and reporting The correct data and graph is shown Pass Partial Pass Pass Table 4: Integration Testing 67 .5 Reporting and Graphing Component Having received the rows of data the system need to pass them into Microsoft Excel where they can be manipulated into graphs and displayed for the user. the splash screen is displayed then the login in screen is displayed after correct login details entered the main GUI is displayed The 3 tags are there API component failed only able to use local replica Graphs are displayed P/F 1 The GUI starts up The splash.1. A number of tests were conducted to ensure that the various components in the system operate correctly together.2 Integration Testing This section describes the integration testing. The selected tag is passed to the API and the appropriate data is selected from the LA200 database. Figures 40 and 41 shown earlier in the report display typical results.9. 9.

Time Constraint – Project completed in time for required closing date of 28th April 2009. Extensibility – The system was developed using the evolutionary model and is well suited for adding upgrades and additional functionality at a later date. 6. are checked.9. • • Efficiency – The system does not use an exorbitant amount of memory or CPU. • 68 .2. structured and with comments and documentation. Reliability – Coding has been completed to handle errors and the data provided by the system should be validated and verified were possible.3 Performance Testing In this section the systems performance against the non-functional requirements listed in the requirements analysis subsection. Only a few mouse clicks are required. HCI guidelines have been followed. Performance – The system can quickly carry out each task requested by the user.4. Scalability – The system can provide data for the current LA200 limit of a maximum number of two thousand tags for a period of thirty days in what ever format the user decides. • • • • Maintainability – The program coding is clear. • • Accessibility – The software is easy to use even with little or no training or experience.

and whether each requirement was satisfied.1 Database Component The LA200 database is quite complex and a list of tables and field is included in Appendix C. Requirement Run on any desktop / laptop computer with Windows XP SP2 Satisfied? Yes operating system. Requirement Access the menu screen Select the data that they require from the Satisfied? Yes Yes by doing backup from database server Report the data in a format that they desire Yes Export the data to Microsoft Excel – if required File available in local replica Plot the data on the GUI Yes Quit the program at any time Yes View the software help at any time Yes Table 5: Evaluation against User Functional Requirements Table 6 lists the system function requirements. This chapter checks the prototype system developed in this project against the functional requirements from Chapter 6 and determines if the required functionality is present and acceptable. and whether each requirement was satisfied. the access through the API was very difficult and even with promises from the Trapeze engineer’s to supply program code not in the API manual on how to manipulate the database easily was never forthcoming so 69 . Table 5 lists the user’s functional requirements. Have a fully working GUI for the user Partial Have access to the LA200 Fail Have a permanent network and intranet connection Yes Access the location data provided by the LA200 system Fail Table 6: Evaluation against System Functional Requirements 10.10 Evaluation The evaluation stage is a very important phase in a project as it reviews the success of the final product against the desired outcomes that were specified in the requirements section.

due to the time constraints of the project. 10. 10.an XML extract was used as an interim measure. To improve the accuracy you could give the floor plans for all the buildings in the campus to the Trapeze engineers and let the choose the locations for all the access points which could potentially mean moving every access point as historically they were located in the centre of a room.4. 10.3 Calibration Calibration was performed during the implementation of the LA200 system and again by the Trapeze engineers in February 2009. however moving access points is not really a cost effective option. namely a single floor in a building in comparison to the total area under Wi-Fi coverage at the University of Ulster at Magee Campus.2 Graphics It was decided not to add graphics to the system showing the location of Wi-Fi devices as this functionality is already available on the LA200 dashboard also this project is working on developing a just prototype system and due to the time constraints. however they concentrated on a relatively small area.4 Issues during development This section records the issues during the development and that may impact future work in this arena. and limitations in the graphics capability of the Visual Basic . 10.1 API issues 70 .NET Framework it was decided that this level of functionality was too complex and outside this projects scope. it would be easier to add more fingerprints this would give additional clarity especially if it was done at both sides of every entrance and exit point.

a demonstrated example was during the test of the three users.4. while this is true it doe not allow for the accuracy of results.To connect to the LA200 with out being an expert in the designated API languages of Soap and Perl proved to be very difficult and time consuming task for the author with no success at the end.2 Setup effort One of the selling points of the LA200 by the manufacture is the minimal additional hardware and setup required to get it up and running.Additional records When in a stationary location the system had a propensity to switch between access points.4. this creates an added level of complexity when analysing the data namely a record but with no movement as such. Upon review for this project and doing the data analysis live data directly from the LA200 database is functionality that was more a nice to have than a necessity especially when an almost live database could be extracted from database. This creates another issue for measurement error 10. 10. 10. Emails were sent to vendor for help with getting data using the API with little success. even though previously tit was 71 .4.5 Reporting of wrong location Errors on the location reporting.4 Stationary . the system was reporting the tag in locale MS129 when they were actually inside locale MS130. 10.3 TAG testing A test was done with two tags from different manufactures carried on the same route around the MS building. So to achieve high levels of data accuracy would require a lot of extra effort to increase the number of fingerprints per locale and maybe even total redesign and implementation of access points. This test was done for comparability of results however the results from the system were totally different.4. so that when reviewing the data there were many nonmovement outside the locale records just an access point change.

4. 10. as a lot of the typically functionality required in allocation awareness application is already available in the LA200 dashboard or other software from Trapeze such as Smart-Pass®.reporting correctly. product or inventory such as Lean Practitioners or Six Sigma Black belts then there is a lot of scope to improve the system and utilise the full capabilities of the information that the LA200 can prove.6 WLAN coverage / Inactive result The system gives an inactive fault when it cannot detect the tag or device typically this occurred on the gap between buildings not under Wi-Fi coverage for example between buildings MS & MG. equipment. 10. to use the data to carry out significant statistical analysis.5 Future Work The system was envisaged as a prototype from which to build upon in its niche market. Any work to improve or rearrange & improve the configuration of the wireless network would be a big advantage to the calibration of the LA200 which would provide greater accuracy 72 . This would not be acceptable or sustainable as generally through out the test required a lot of manual effort to “clean up the data”. However while this was envisaged as a niche market for use by those looking to analyse movement of people. As this was the test case and was being monitored it resulted in the manual correction of records namely having to rename the records from MS129 to MS130. Investigation showed that the user had moved to a slight different location at their desk. especially if the system could provide heat maps Figure 21 and point to point diagrams Figure 22. While this is a minor point it still needs to be either resolved or kept in mind. If this had not been done then there would have been a lot of false interpretations made.

To utilise the information in the LA200 database fully is quite a complex task and requires an in depth knowledge of Perl. 73 . Ruby and Soap scripting language so to allow the system to be modified to extract live data into an algorithm that would plot “point to point” diagrams on a map showing the historical movements of people and equipment.

11 Conclusion While a number of the more familiar location determination technologies have limitations when it comes to working inside buildings. it has also shown that accuracy is not perfect and to achieve a high level may require additional capital expenditure to purchase additional access points not forgetting the setup time required to accurately verify the calibrations. these included diagrams showing the functionality of components. equipment. The GUI program would then take the information and produce charts and a report on the movements. The design information was then taken implemented into an application created to meet these requirements. To conclude. along with software. this project has been successful in delivering a prototype that can use the information from the Trapeze LA200 system to monitor. The specifics of the programs were defined in the design section. This project aimed to investigate the use of the LA200 to provide information for an application for use by Lean Practitioners or Six Sigma Black Belts to monitor the movements of people. hardware and HCI requirements. fairly high accuracy rate without the need for substantial capital investment the recent advancements with the Trapeze LA200 WLAN location awareness system have allowed Wi-Fi technology to provide accurate live and historical positional information. at a small area level of resolution. Before being released for general use and to validate and verify that everything was as it should be testing was carried out in various forms namely unit tests. However. functional tests. chart and report the movements of Wi-Fi tags around an area. 74 . Initial requirements set out during analysis phase called for a GUI program. integration tests and performance tests. created with Visual Studio 2005 that would interface with the LA200 database and API and provide location data for the user’s selected MAC address. products or inventory in an area that was covered by a WLAN and produce reports and graphs for them to use.

ac. Bristol: ‘Future Location-Based [Available Experiences’. pp. NY: ACM Press. Korhonen. (2000) ‘RADAR: An In-Building RF-Based User Location and Tracking System’ Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM.. New York. http://www.. (2003).zigbee. [Available Online at: http://research.pdf] 75 . (Eds). A. STEED.ac.. IEEE Computer Society. IMAMOTO.. A. Israel).equator. K.microsoft.pdf] BROWN. M. online JISC at: JISC.References BAHL. V.washington. S. R. 2002.. B. ‘Lessons from the Lighthouse: Collaboration in a shared mixed reality system’. PADMANABHAN. [Available Online at: http://www.pdf] Cambridge Consultants (2006). P....uk/uploaded_documents/jisctsw_05_01. ‘Virtual Object Manipulation on a Table-Top AR Environment’. TACHIBANA. 775-784 (Tel-Aviv. P. BEHRINGER. In: KLINKER. [Available Online at: http://www. RANDELL.com/enus/um/people/padmanab/papers/infocom2000. H. K. 2003. Proceedings of the IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Augmented Reality.asp?contentID=9567 ] KATO. G. CHI '03: Proceedings of the conference on human factors in computing systems.edu/artoolkit/Papers/isar2000.jisc.org/imwp/idms/popups/pop_download. I. pp.. 111–119. (2000)... (2005).. Zonal Location and Asset Tracking with ZigBee Technology (using RSSI) – [Available Online at: http://www. 577-584. pp. C. M. BILLINGHURST. MacCOLL. TechWatch. GALANI.hitl. CHALMERS. In: Cockton. G.pdf BENFORD.uk/var/uploads/Brown&MacColl2003. I. POUPYREV.

C. G. Paper presented at the UbiComp 2003.cs. ISBN 0849330181 Pellerin.html Myerson.pdf] McMullan C. pp. [Available Online at: http://www. 42-48.KRUMM. In Proceedings of Pervasive 2005. [Available Online at: http://research.. In: ABOWD. (2006). J. (Ed). RFID In the Supply Chain.tcd.microsoft. & HORVITZ.cs. E.state.com/~jckrumm/Publications%202003/rightSPOT %20publish.rfid-radar.gov/xarchives/display. et al.. Fry D. MULLER. (2007) Place Lab Geo-positioning System [Available online at: http://ntrg. 2001. (2006).ie/undergrad/4ba2. ‘Low Cost Indoor Positioning System’.pdf] LAMARCA.05/group1/index.bris. UbiComp '01: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on Ubiquitous Computing. CRC Press. Cahill D. 116-133. C.org/publications/pubs/pervasivePlaceLab-2005-final. (2001).com ] RANDELL.. CERMAK. J.Available online at: http://usinfo. pp.pdf] 76 . [Available Online at: http://PlaceLab. A. H..5061609 RFID-Radar. (2003) ‘RightSPOT: A Novel Sense of Location for a Smart Personal Object’. United States Updates Global Positioning System Technology .uk/Publications/Papers/1000573. G. (2005) ‘PlaceLab: Device Positioning Using Radio Beacons in the Wild’. Springer-Verlag.html?p=washfileenglish&y=2006&m=February&x=20060203125928lcnirellep0.ac.com (2007) – [Available Online at: http://www.

6 77 .Appendix A – LA200 database schema name2 ACL ACL ACL ACL ACLENTRIES ACLENTRIES ACLENTRIES ACLENTRIES ADJACENCIES ADJACENCIES ALERTCONFIGS ALERTCONFIGS ALERTCONFIGS ALERTCONFIGS ALERTCONFIGS ALERTCONFIGS ALERTCONFIGS ALERTCONFIGS ALERTCONFIGS ALERTCONFIGS ALERTCONFIGS ALERTCONFIGS AREAS AREAS AREAS AREAS AREAS AREAS AREAS CLUSTER_NODES CLUSTER_NODES CLUSTER_NODES CLUSTER_NODES CLUSTER_NODES CLUSTER_NODES CLUSTER_NODES CLUSTER_NODES CLUSTER_NODES CONDITIONS CONDITIONS name3 ACL_ID ENTITYID ACLMODE ACLTYPE ACLENTRY_ID NAME PERMISSION ACL_ID SIGNATURE ADJACENTSIGNATURE UUID ALERTTYPEID VARIANTID ALERTTYPENAME LOCUUID NAME PRIORITY DESCRIPTION KEYWORDS SEVERITY ISACTIVE PARAMETERS UNIQUEID ELEMENTNAME ELEMENTTYPE X Y HEIGHT WIDTH NODEID NAME DESCRIPTION PROFILEID ADDRESS FAILOVER_ID CAPACITY NODE_ENABLED LOADBALANCE_ENABLED UUID STARTTIME primaryKey TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE required TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE type VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR SMALLINT LONGVARCHAR BIGINT VARCHAR INTEGER DOUBLE DOUBLE DOUBLE DOUBLE VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR INTEGER SMALLINT SMALLINT VARCHAR TIMESTAMP size 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 5 32700 19 255 10 52 52 52 52 256 256 256 256 256 256 10 5 5 256 26.

6 256 256 256 256 256 5 10 32700 32700 32700 32700 256 256 256 256 256 256 5 5 256 256 256 256 256 10 10 250 256 19 256 10 256 256 256 256 256 256 19 256 19 255 52 255 19 78 .CONDITIONS CONDITIONS CONDITIONS CONDITIONS CONDITIONS CONDITIONS CONDITIONS CONDITIONS CONDITIONS CONDITIONS CONDITIONS CONDITIONS CONDITIONS DATATAPS DATATAPS DATATAPS DATATAPS DATATAPS DATATAPS DATATAPS DATATAPS DATATAPS DATATAPS DATATAPS DEVICES DEVICES DEVICES DEVICES DEVICES DEVICES DEVICES DEVICES DEVICES DEVICES DEVICES DEVICES DEVICES DEVICES DEVICES DEVICES DEVICES GEOMETRY GEOMETRY GEOMETRY GEOMETRY GEOMETRY ENDTIME ACKTIME ALERTID VARIANTID CONFIGID ALERTNAME PRIORITY HIGHLOW CONDITIONCODE PRIMARIES SECONDARIES TERTIARIES KEYWORDS DATATAPID NAME OBSERVERNAME DESCRIPTION PROFILEID ADDRESS ENABLED DEFAULTUSED PASSWORD SERVICE CHANNELS DEVICE_ID LOCATION TYPE ACTIVITY DEVICEADDRESS INETADDRESS LASTSEEN DEVICELABEL CHANNEL SSID ENCRYPTION RXADDRESS DEVICEUSER ACCESSSTATUS SPOOFSTATUS LASTMOVE SIGNATURE UNIQUEID NAME SCALE BACKGROUND ORIGIN_UNIQUEID FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TIMESTAMP TIMESTAMP VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR SMALLINT INTEGER LONGVARCHAR LONGVARCHAR LONGVARCHAR LONGVARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR SMALLINT SMALLINT VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR INTEGER INTEGER VARCHAR VARCHAR BIGINT VARCHAR INTEGER VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR BIGINT VARCHAR BIGINT VARCHAR DOUBLE VARCHAR BIGINT 26.6 26.

GEOMETRY_AREAS GEOMETRY_AREAS GEOMETRY_AREAS GEOMETRY_POSITIONS GEOMETRY_POSITIONS GEOMETRY_POSITIONS GROUPS GROUPS GROUPS HIBERNATE_UNIQUE_KEY HISTORYCONDITIONMAPPING HISTORYCONDITIONMAPPING JMS_MESSAGES JMS_MESSAGES JMS_MESSAGES JMS_MESSAGES JMS_MESSAGES JMS_ROLES JMS_ROLES JMS_SUBSCRIPTIONS JMS_SUBSCRIPTIONS JMS_SUBSCRIPTIONS JMS_SUBSCRIPTIONS JMS_TRANSACTIONS JMS_USERS JMS_USERS JMS_USERS LAYOUTS LAYOUTS LAYOUTS LAYOUTS LAYOUTS LAYOUTS LAYOUTS LICENSE LICENSE LICENSE LINKAGES LINKAGES LINKAGES LINKAGES LOCALES LOCALES LOCALES LOCALES LOCALES GEOMETRY_UNIQUEID AREAS_UNIQUEID AREA_IDX GEOMETRY_UNIQUEID POSITIONS_UNIQUEID POS_IDX GROUP_ID NAME TYPE NEXT_HI HISTORYID CONDITIONID MESSAGEID DESTINATION TXID TXOP MESSAGEBLOB ROLEID USERID CLIENTID SUBNAME TOPIC SELECTOR TXID USERID PASSWD CLIENTID LAYOUTID PROFILEID USERID GROUPID PERMISSIONS LAYOUTNAME LAYOUTDATA ID LICENSEKEY ACTIVATIONDATE LINKID SOURCESTRING LINKVALUE LINKTYPE LOCATIONID LOCATIONNAME LOCATIONDESCRIPTION PROFILEID ZONEID TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE BIGINT BIGINT INTEGER BIGINT BIGINT INTEGER VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR INTEGER VARCHAR VARCHAR INTEGER VARCHAR INTEGER CHAR BLOB VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR INTEGER VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR INTEGER VARCHAR BLOB BIGINT VARCHAR DATE VARCHAR VARCHAR DOUBLE VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR 19 19 10 19 19 10 256 256 256 10 256 256 10 255 10 1 1073741824 32 32 128 128 255 255 10 32 32 128 256 256 256 256 10 256 2147483647 19 255 10 256 256 52 256 256 256 256 256 256 79 .

6 26.6 26.6 26.6 256 256 256 26.6 26.6 256 256 256 256 26.6 80 .LOGACTIVITIES LOGACTIVITIES LOGACTIVITIES LOGACTIVITIES LOGACTIVITIES LOGASSOCIATIONS LOGASSOCIATIONS LOGASSOCIATIONS LOGASSOCIATIONS LOGASSOCIATIONS LOGHISTORIES LOGHISTORIES LOGHISTORIES LOGHISTORIES LOGIPADDRESSES LOGIPADDRESSES LOGIPADDRESSES LOGIPADDRESSES LOGIPADDRESSES LOGLABELS LOGLABELS LOGLABELS LOGLABELS LOGLABELS LOGLOCATIONS LOGLOCATIONS LOGLOCATIONS LOGLOCATIONS LOGLOCATIONS LOGLOCATIONS LOGPOPULATIONS LOGPOPULATIONS LOGPOPULATIONS LOGPOPULATIONS LOGPOPULATIONS LOGPOPULATIONS LOGPOPULATIONS LOGPOPULATIONS LOGSSIDS LOGSSIDS LOGSSIDS LOGSSIDS LOGSSIDS LOGTYPES LOGTYPES LOGTYPES UUID HISTORYID STARTTIME ENDTIME ACTIVITY UUID STARTTIME ENDTIME APHISTORYID CLIENTHISTORYID UUID ENTITYID TYPE MACADDRESS UUID STARTTIME ENDTIME IPADDRESS HISTORYID UUID STARTTIME ENDTIME LABEL HISTORYID UUID HISTORYID STARTTIME ENDTIME LOCATIONID LOCATIONNAME UUID HISTORYID STARTTIME ENDTIME ACTIVITY ACTIVE_APS ACTIVE_STATIONS ACTIVE_ADHOCS UUID STARTTIME ENDTIME SSID HISTORYID UUID STARTTIME ENDTIME TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE VARCHAR VARCHAR TIMESTAMP TIMESTAMP VARCHAR VARCHAR TIMESTAMP TIMESTAMP VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR TIMESTAMP TIMESTAMP VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR TIMESTAMP TIMESTAMP VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR TIMESTAMP TIMESTAMP VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR TIMESTAMP TIMESTAMP INTEGER INTEGER INTEGER INTEGER VARCHAR TIMESTAMP TIMESTAMP VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR TIMESTAMP TIMESTAMP 256 256 26.6 26.6 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 26.6 256 256 256 256 26.6 10 10 10 10 256 26.6 256 256 26.6 26.6 26.6 26.6 256 256 256 26.

LOGTYPES LOGTYPES POSITIONS POSITIONS POSITIONS POSITIONS POSITIONS PRINCIPAL_GROUP_MAPPING PRINCIPAL_GROUP_MAPPING PRINCIPALS PRINCIPALS PRINCIPALS PROFILES PROFILES PROFILES PROFILES PROPERTIES PROPERTIES PROPERTYSET PROPERTYSET PROPERTYSET PROPERTYSET PROPERTYSET PROPERTYSET RELATIONS RELATIONS SAMPLEDATA SAMPLEDATA SAMPLEDATA SAMPLEDATA SAMPLES SAMPLES SAMPLES SCHEDULETASKS SCHEDULETASKS SCHEDULETASKS SCHEDULETASKS SCHEDULETASKS SIGNATURES SIGNATURES SIGNATURES SIGNATURES SIGNATURES SIGTRANSLATION SIGTRANSLATION SNIPERS DEVICETYPE HISTORYID UNIQUEID ELEMENTNAME ELEMENTTYPE X Y PRINCIPAL_ID_FK GROUP_ID_FK PRINCIPAL_ID NAME TYPE PROFILEID PROFILENAME PROFILEDESCRIPTION PROFILEACTIVE ENTITY RELATEDENTITY PROPERTY_SET_ID ENTITYID TYPE PROPERTYKEY DATASTRING DATABOOL RELATEDENTITY ENTITY SOURCESTRING SAMPLEVALUE SAMPLEDATAID SAMPLEID SAMPLENUMBER SAMPLEID SIGNATUREID UUID IDENTIFIER PROPERTIES CALLBACKVALUE TIMESPEC SIGNATUREID SIGNATURENAME SIGNATUREDESCRIPTION SIGNATURETYPE PROFILEID LOCATION SIGNATURE SNIPERID FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE VARCHAR VARCHAR BIGINT VARCHAR INTEGER DOUBLE DOUBLE VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR SMALLINT VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR SMALLINT VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR DOUBLE VARCHAR VARCHAR INTEGER VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR BLOB VARCHAR BIGINT VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR 256 256 19 255 10 52 52 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 5 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 5 256 256 256 52 256 256 10 256 256 256 256 2147483647 256 19 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 81 .

SNIPERS SNIPERS SNIPERS SNIPERS SNIPERS SNIPERS SNIPERS SNIPERS TIMERS TIMERS TIMERS TIMERS TIMERS TIMERS VERSION61 VERSION61 VIEWS VIEWS VIEWS VIEWS VIEWS VIEWS VIEWS VIEWS WORKSPACE_APS WORKSPACE_APS WORKSPACE_APS WORKSPACE_APS WORKSPACE_APS WORKSPACE_APS WORKSPACE_APS WORKSPACE_APS WORKSPACE_POLICIES WORKSPACE_POLICIES WORKSPACE_POLICIES ZONES ZONES ZONES ZONES NAME DESCRIPTION PROFILEID ADDRESS ENABLED DEFAULTUSED PASSWORD SERVICE TIMERID TARGETID INITIALDATE TIMERINTERVAL INSTANCEPK INFO UNIQUEID INFO VIEWID PROFILEID USERID GROUPID PERMISSIONS VIEWNAME LAYOUTNAME VIEWDATA AP_ID DEVICEADDRESS INETADDRESS APNAME APMODEL APTYPE APCOMMUNITY POLICY_ID POLICY_ID POLICYNAME SECRET ZONEID ZONENAME DESCRIPTION PROFILEID FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR SMALLINT SMALLINT VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR TIMESTAMP BIGINT BLOB BLOB BIGINT VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR INTEGER VARCHAR VARCHAR BLOB VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR VARCHAR 256 256 256 256 5 5 256 256 80 250 26.6 19 2147483647 2147483647 19 256 256 256 256 256 10 256 256 2147483647 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 256 82 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful