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It is a Iron Ore Capacity: 2*4.

5MTPA
Palletizing Plant at 13636 T/Day
sohar – 568.16 T/Hr
Sultanate of Oman

Technology:
Grate Kiln {formerly
known as Allis-Chalmers
Raw Material:
Kiln} Iron ore,
Brief: Pellets are Limestone,
transforms of Mineral Anthracite &
resources of superior Bentonite.
quality feed as raw
materials to D.R.I & Blast Fuel: Natural Gas
Furnace process
For Steel making……
Vale’s Industrial Empire
Vale Oman

Palletizing Plant
Iron Ore Fines Utilization….. Via …..Pelletisation
Analyze Process
capability
Stimulate Process
Performance
Prepare Process
Plan
We
are
here
Vale Oman Palletizing Complex:-

Process
Control
Dept.
Vale Oman Process Flow Chart
Thickener
Iron Ore Bentonite
Feed Additives
Chips/Chunks

Fuel

Drying Grinding Mixing

Balling

P P T D D
H H P D D Roller
2 1 H 2 1 Feeder
Rotary Kiln
Traveling
Grate
Annular
Cooler
CONTENTS:-

Define : Process Control


Glossary of Terms & Methods of preparation: (Sampling)
Raw Material Handling: ( Sampling of Iron ore , Lime stone, Anthracite)
Grinding Area: ( Sampling of feed to mill & mill discharge feed)
Mixing & Blending Area: ( Sampling of Mixed material & Bentonite )
Thickener Area: (Sampling of slurry )
Balling Area: (Sampling of Green Ball )
Traveling Grate Area:( Sampling of Feed to T.G , Discharge material of T.G
Measurement of Temperature, Differential Pressures and Process Gas flow)
Rotary Kiln & Annular cooler Area: ( Measurement of Kiln Feed end,
Middle, Discharge Temperatures, Gas Flow ,
Stack sampling & Sampling of finished product)
Product Coating Area : ( Sampling of coating material )
Health & Safety Information: Vales Motto
Define : Process Control : The Fundamental philosophy associated with the economic production of
Pellets must be based on defect PREVENTION rather then defect DETECTION. This approach
requires a system of PROCESS CONTROL, which can only be effectively implemented through
STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES. Decisions to modify or adjust processes must be based on statistical
evidence, such as control chart data. Reliance on INSPECTION for quality control is both ineffective
and inefficient.

Process : Control :

The combination To guide with in


of machine and boundaries or to
equipment, people, make something
resources, behave the way
methods and mill you want it to.
environment that Hold on specifics
produce a given as well.
result.
Glossary of Terms & Methods of preparation:
(Sampling)

TERMINOLOGY USED IN SAMPLING AND SAMPLE PREPARATION

Lot: The quantity of Raw material/ Finished Products indicated to be of the same category and offered
for inspection at one time. A lot may consist of the whole or a part of the quantity ordered for.

Sub-lot: The quantity of ore/pellets in each of the parts into which a lot is divided for the purpose of
sampling.
Increment: The quantity of ore/pellets obtained by a sampling device at one time from a lot or sub-lot.
Unit Sample: The quantity of ore/pellets collected at one time from the conveyor (Unit sample is larger
than the increment).
Gross sample: The total quantity of ore/pellets consisting of all increments or unit samples taken from
a sub-lot.
Size sample: The sample taken for the determination of the size distribution of the lot or sub-lot.
Moisture sample: The sample taken for the determination of moisture content of the lot or sub-lot.
Laboratory sample: The quantity of ore/pellets obtained by reducing a gross sample following a
specified procedure for determining chemical composition of a lot or sub-lot.
Composite sample (For the lot): The quantity obtained by mixing together proportional quantities of
ore/pellets representing the mass of each sub-lot which a lot has been divided.
Sampler: Person responsible for performing the sampling operations.
Sampling method: That part of the sampling procedure dealing with the method prescribed for withdrawing
samples.
Random sample: Sample in which the different fractions of the material have
an equal probability of being represented.

Representative sample: Sample obtained according to a sampling procedure


designed to ensure that the different parts of a batch or the different properties
of a non-uniform material are proportionately represented.

Sampling plan: Description of the location, number of units and/or quantity of material
that should be collected, and associated acceptance criteria.

Sampling procedure: The complete sampling operations to be performed on a defined


material for a specific purpose. A detailed written description of the sampling procedure
is provided in the sampling protocol.

Sampling record: Written record of the sampling operations carried out on a particular
material for a defined purpose. The sampling record should contain the batch number,
date and place of sampling, reference to the sampling protocol used, a description of the
containers and of the materials
sampled, notes on possible abnormalities, together with any other relevant observations,
and the name and signature of the inspector.
Need for Sampling:
Introduction : According to ISO/IEC 10725, “sampling” is defined as “a procedure whereby a part of
a substance, material or product is taken to provide for testing or calibration a representative sample of
the whole.
Sampling may also be required by the appropriate specification for which the substance, material or
product is to be tested.” In other words, the goal of sampling is to select and obtain a test portion of the
material in some manner, such that the sub-sample is representative of the larger amount of material.

Sampling is often a major source of error and if a truly representative sample of the batch is
not obtained, then the subsequent analysis will give a wrong figure. It is the aim therefore
to develop correct sampling protocols, considered to be an essential requirement for
obtaining valid results within Prospect.

100% Inspection of Process Output is an


unsatisfactory method to determine product
quality. It is costly ,has no relationship
to future quality, and is impossible in
many cases.

Sampling reduces the cost to measure


Product quality and can be used to predict
Future product quality when used in
Conjunction with control charts.

Samples must be taken so that their


results are representative of actual
process quality .In other words, they must be
taken So that the results are unbiased.
SAMPLING:
The methods of collecting increments or unit samples from a lot
may be classified into following types or a combination of below
mentioned.
Sampling from conveyors.

Shipment sampling.

Stockpile sampling.

Sampling during production.

Automatic samplers.

Sectional sampling.

Trench sampling.
Or n
Pellets
Iro
e

• Sampling from conveyors: When ore/pellets is moved on conveyors, one of the most reliable methods
of manual sampling is stopped belt method. Whenever it is practicable to stop the conveyor belt
periodically, a large quantity of iron ores known as unit sample may be drawn by stopping the belt. The
sample shall be collected from the full width and thickness of the ore/pellet stream over a suitable length
of the conveyor. In case it is not possible to stop the conveyor the sample shall be taken from a specified
place on a conveyor or at a specified transfer point of conveyor.

• Shipment sampling: In order to get gross sample, the ore/pellets shall be sampled as far as possible
when in motion. That is from the conveyor during loading or immediate discharge during unloading at
regular interval.

• Stockpile sampling: The ore/pellets from stockpiles shall be carried out as far as possible, when they
are in motion, that is, during the formation of the stock piles or during the shifting of the stockpiles to
the other places. Sampling from the stationary stockpile shall not be conducted, as this would introduce
significant bias in sampling.

• Sampling during production: The ore/pellets shall be collected as per stopped belt method from the
conveyor or at the convenient discharge point of the conveyor.
Trench sampling: Along a randomly chosen line on the ore surface of the sub-lot, a
trench shall be dug, right down to the ground level leaving about 0.3 meter
walking space at the ground level. From the trenches so dug, the required number
of increment shall be collected with the help of suitable sampling scoop, at
various points randomly spread over the two exposed sides of the trenches. In
case of large stockpiles, in addition to the trench, the sides of the piles may also
be opened to expose the ore down to the bottom, at places where the trench does
not expose the ore inside.

Automatic samplers: In Grinding Section & Product pellet area, the automatic
samplers have been provided. By simple button pressing at the required interval
the sample will be collected.

Sectional Sampling: 4 unit samples in the case of fines and calibrated ores and at least
8 unit samples in the case of sized ore and lumps are to be collected from each
sub-lot. For this purpose, the requisite number of points shall be chosen at
random on the entire surface of the stockpiles. At each of the selected points, a
circle of suitable diameter (minimum three times the largest particle size) shall
be marked. The material over the area of this circle and along entire height of the
stockpile from top to bottom shall be collected in stages. This can be done by
taking initially ores up to a depth of 50 cm and covering the hole so formed by a
plate for removing the ores lying on the sides of the hole. Then after removing
the plate further depth can be reached in the same manner and the ores can be
collected from the freshly formed hole.
SAMPLE PREPARATION
• Before analyzing any raw material for Physical/Chemical/Metallurgical properties it is very important to mention here about the sampling and
sample preparation. The sample should be collected which is a well representative of the total raw material ready for dispatch and well prepared
before analysis. In order to collect representative sample for correct analysis, sampling and sample preparation is a very important tool for
preparing a sample for analysis.

• The primary object of sampling of any material is to draw an inference about the quality of the lot on the basis of information derived from the
sample. If the consignment is of uniform nature the inference so drawn is almost precise, which gives an accurate estimate of the quality, but
when the material is heterogeneous in nature as is often the case with any raw material, the method by which a sample obtained becomes critical
in inferring about the quality of the consignment.
• The efficiency of sampling largely depends on the degree of homogeneity of the material and size of the sample. In case of heterogeneous material,
the size of the sample should be more for accurate estimate of the quality.

• Preparation of a final sample for physical, chemical and metallurgical properties is an important aspect, because the sample prepared in
accordance with the below mentioned procedure will fetch accurate analysis otherwise erratic results.

• There are different methods of sample preparation.

• Riffle divider

• Coning and quartering.

• Reduction by Riffle divider: The final sample shall be well mixed and poured into the riffle. This process shall be repeated using different sizes of
riffles according to the size of the ore.

• RIFFLE SAMPLE DIVIDER : IS : 1607, IS : 2720.


• Efficient sampling out of bulk materials/deposits is the most important for getting the true idea about the bulk material. The volume of
material to be tested is usually quite huge and it requires reduction in volume in a methodical manner. The Riffler Sampler (sample divider) helps
to reduce the bulk while maintaining the character of the material and thus it is a helpful, light and handy device for sampling work. The
standard units are made of GI sheet and mounted on rigid steel frame and supplied with three pans and one scoop.
• Standard Chute sizes are 25mm, 18mm and 12 mm. However, the Chute sizes can be made according to the user's specifications etc.
• Coning and Quartering method: The ore shall be well mixed and then scooped into a cone shaped pile. Care
shall be taken to drop each scoopful exactly over the same spot as otherwise the central axis of the cone will be
slackened and an uneven distribution of lumps and fines will result.

• After the cone is formed, it shall be flattened by pressing the top of the cone with the smooth surface of the scoop.
Then it is cut into quarters by two lines which intersect at right angles at the center of the cone.

• The bulk of the sample is reduced by rejecting any two diagonally opposite quarters

Coning Quartering
Process Control - Raw Material Sampling Tools :
Process control: Instruments for Monitoring Temperatures ,
Differential Pressures , Gas Flows & Level Sensors

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Raw Material Handling systems:
( Sampling of Iron ore , Lime stone, Anthracite)

• In general, for any industry a right amount of input is necessary to produce an effective output as yield. In our pellet
plant we are getting the iron ore fines as the input from Brazil through shipment, we need an handling system for
transporting of the raw material from Port area to our plant, and hence we are making use of equipments like
Stackers, Reclaimers & Conveyors for serving the purpose.

• Raw material unloading from ship

VESSAL CAPACITY: 4 .0 LAKHS TONS

UN LOADER CAPACITY : 10,000 T/H


Unloaded Iron ore stocked near Jetty area
(Iron Ore Stockpile)
Stacker
&
Reclaimer
Capacity:10,000T/Hr

Iron ore Iron ore


Piles Stockpile
near capacity:
Jetty 766.000T
Of
Capacity:
946.000T
Limestone & Anthracite Stockpiles

Limestone
Stockpile
Capacity:6.000T

Anthracite
Stockpile
Capacity:15.000T
Process Control Sampling Plan:
• Vale Oman has Raw material’s Storage capacity of 1712.000T( Iron ore),where sampling is challenging task to meet the

Homogeneity of the sample. Process Control Dept. aims to execute such a difficult task where there is a higher

degree of confidence in the source then sample.

• Two types of sampling errors are possible:

a) Segregation errors
This occurs when particles are exposed to gravitational, rotational, vibratory or
aeration operations (or other types of mechanical motion), usually resulting in fine
particles migrating to the bottom and larger particles being concentrated at the top.
This type of error is thus dependent upon the previous history of the powder and
usually occurs with free or easily flowing powders, having a significant range of
particle size. This type of error can be minimized by suitable mixing and building up
the sample from a large number of increments.

b) Statistical errors
This is type of error is caused by observing a sample instead of the
whole lot. Although this type of error cannot be prevented, it is
likely that the size of statistical errors can generally be controlled by taking a
large enough random sample from the entire lot.
Process Sampling at Stockpiles
We need to trench
the entire the pile , Dividing the
so as to have Entire Mass in to
Random uniformity &
Layers a
Composite sample
sampling homogenization in has to be drawn.
of entire sampling
area

10 Mtrs

Top Layer

Middle Layer

Bottom Layer
Stocked Raw materials are transported
through conveyors in to Plant Storage Bins:-

Continuous visual Monitoring

has to be followed

so, as to identify contaminations


Random Sampling of raw materials on conveyors:-
Sampled Raw materials are tested for moisture (M%) ; Size Distribution with the support of Quality control
Depts. If there are any abnormalities, we can control at initial stages…………Later raw materials are stored in
to Day Bins to meet the rated capacity of plant/day. Samples to be taken from Weigh feeders: AL: 2105.01-06
Grinding Area:
( Sampling of Feed to Mill & Mill discharge feed)
Hot Gas Ball Mill
Capacity:424TPH
Generator

The term H.G.G refers to Hot Gas Generator used to remove moisture from the mixed raw material (Iron ore, Lime
stone, Anthracite) before it enters grinding mill , Grinding refers to the size reduction of a material by tumbling it in a
revolving cylinder. There are two types of grinding processes (1) Vertical and (2) Horizontal. But we are using
Horizontal grinding process. This occurs when the ore and a grinding media are tumbled together. The grinding media
used are Hi-Chrome Steel balls. These balls are of different diameters distributed through out the Ball Mill.

The media method of size reduction depends primarily on impact or compression fracture of the ore caused by the
impact action of heavier steel balls. Such impacts caused by the impacts or point-to-point contacts occur between the
ore and the balls or between the balls and the mill shell liners. It is important that the balls are large enough so that as
many points of contacts as possible occur and sufficient impacting action is provided which will result in the proper
breaking of the ore particle.
Grinding
Media Mill
Diaphragm

Mill
Liners

• The grinding mill liners are provided with lifters. As the mill cylinder is rotated the lifters lift the balls to give
them a proper cascade pattern and the energy to do breaking. The cascade pattern is determined by the
rotating speed of the mill cylinder and the mill diameter. The energy consumed in grinding is therefore
proportional to the weight of media, the diameter and rotational speed of the mill.

• The size of the ball media is determined by the size of the incoming feed particles. Larger sized ore requires a
larger ball size for good impact efficiency. As the ore is gradually reduced size, the media itself wears out and
the balls are reduced in size. These smaller balls are also necessary, as these balls are still adequate in size to
cause fracture because many more points of contact occur and many more balls are present per unit volume.
It is imperative to add bigger size balls for two reasons.

• To keep up the number of bigger size balls to break the large ore particles.

• To maintain the required number of balls in the mill to provide the power required for grinding. The media
should be added as and when required as the balls are continuously being worn away.

• Another mechanism of size reduction that occurs in the mill together with impact grinding is abrasive
grinding or attrition grinding or grinding by rubbing as the ore particles and media slide and rub against each
other as the ball mill rotates.
Dimensions
D=6.6M
L=12M

• The patterns, which generally exist, are: -

• Cascade Pattern – Here the lifters lifts the balls giving them the proper cascading energy for
breaking up the ore initially.

• Impact Pattern - Once the balls lifted up and after attaining a definite height it falls down on
the ore creating fractures. More the intensity of the balls finer be the size reduction.

• Attrition Pattern – This takes place along with the impact grinding, here due to rubbing /
sliding of the ore particles and the media against each other, size reduction takes place on the
mill rotation.

• The discharge of the ball mill passed through the SEPOL a Dynamic separator to

separate the fine particles from coarse particles, it acts as a classifier. The

separated coarse particles are recirculated to mill for regrinding.


Make -
Polysius

• CRITICAL SPEED OF BALL MILLS:-


MILLS:-
• ØCRITICAL SPEED: IT IS THE LOWEST RPM WHICH WILL CAUSE AN INFINITELY
INFINITELY SMALL
PARTICLE ON THE SHELL LINER TO CENTRIFUGE.

• ØBALL MILLS ARE NORMALLY OPERATED AT 70 – 75% CRITICAL SPEED.

• ØCRITICAL SPEED: [RPM] = 76.63 / √ D


Where D is the Internal Diameter of mill in feet, measured
measured inside shell liners
• Types of circuits used in the Mills: -
• Single Mill
• Primary as Single Mill
• Primary as Twin Circuit
• Single as Twin circuit
• Types of Grinding Media:
• Steel Balls
• Rods
• Pebbles
• Types of Grinding Mills :
• Rod Mills
• Ball Mills
• Pebble Mills
Process Sampling At Ball Mill Area
Fig:-001
Sampling of Feed
to Ball Mill for
Moisture% & Size
Distribution

Live load test to be


carried on
AL2111.01/2112.01/2113.
01
Sampling of Mill
discharge for
Moisture%, Blain
.No, Size fractions
Automatic Sampler: Apart from manual sampling as showed in fig:-001,
Automatic sampling units are also facilitated in Vale Pellet Plant for sampling
purpose in Grinding Area.

A sample is extracted when a hollow tube with a


Air Slide Sampler longitudinal slot rotates into position against the
material flow. The sample falls directly through the tube
and into a sample bottle.

This is specially designed to extract dry, non-sticky,


bulk solid powders on a continuous or intermittent
basis from air assisted conveyors

Dimensions:
W x H x D/mm = 340 x 660 x 240
Sample collecting container volume = 51
Mixing & Blending Area:
( Sampling of Mixed material & Bentonite ) Paddles

Intensive
Mixer
Make:Lodige
capacity: 650
T/Hr
Length:5 Mtr
Dia:1.85Mtr

• Mixer is provided for mixing of iron ore concentrate & bentonite on continuous basis.
• Ploughshare shovels rotate in special arrangement along the horizontal shaft inside a horizontal,
cylindrical mixing drum. The size, number, positioning, geometric shape and peripheral speed of the
mixing elements are coordinated for three-dimensional movement of the components inside the
mixing drum. The resultant turbulence, with constant, total product mobility caused by the mixing
elements, prevents the formation of dead or static zones and results in gentle, precision mixing
within the shortest possible time.
• Mixing elements lift product during radial movement from the wall of the drum thereby preventing
particles from becoming squashed between the wall and the shovel. The hurling and whirling
process is, therefore, highly suitable for mixing processes in which the components have widely
differing bulk densities, particle sizes, rheological features and – relevant to pharmaceutical
production – highly different mass fractions.
Process Sampling Mixing & Blending Area:
Feed Rate of
WF’s-
AL3112.01,02
Bentonite
Sampling for
Moisture%
Grind% &
Swelling Index

Sampling at Mixer Discharge


for Moisture% , LOI &
Chemical analysis.
Thickener Area: (Sampling of slurry )
Diameter:
30 m²area Thickener
Arms

• Thickening is a process of reducing the liquid content and thereby increasing the solid density within the slurry.
The mechanism is all based on the settling rate. The settling is even controlled by the rotation of the rake arms. The
rotation of the rake arms makes the denser particles to be dragged to the central portion and the light particles move
to the periphery. Almost clear water is taken as the overflow. Thickener is essentially a conical tank like structure.
It has a central shaft at the axis of the conical tank. The rake arms are attached to a sprocket that rotates about the
central shaft. There are four arms, two long and two short, all 90° apart. The longer arms are responsible for the
settling action. The shorter arms mainly deal with the central portion. But the central area is a denser portion
subjecting more torque on the arms. The shorter arms handle such denser matter reducing the torque on longer
arms.
Process sampling at Thickener area

Slurry Sampling
at Thickener
under flow for
Density & % of
solids checking as
per ISO:2591

Random Snap-cuts of slurry


samples has to collected
diff.intervals to have uniformity in
sample
Automatic Sampling System –ISO-3082(2000)

CBBS extracts a representative sample from the falling flow of material off a belt conveyor. It’s
carriage-mounted cutter traverses through the material flow, collecting the product sample as
it goes, before discharging it into a hopper positioned outside the material flow

CBBS – Cross Belt Bucket Sampler


Mounting may be in chutes, hoppers, at belt-end or head chutes. When activated, a slotted sample tube enters
the product stream with the slot facing down. While full y extended, the sample tube rotates 270 degrees,
taking a representative sample through the product stream. The sample tube then retracts out of the product
stream, into the sampler housing and deposits the sample into the discharge. The sample tube can be driven
pneumatically or hydraulically.
In our process Cross Belt Samplers are provided at conveyor TR.3113.01 & TR.3123.01-Mixing &

Blending Area to Balling Feed. Sample will be collected at - CT.3113.01. Capacity : 2.5kgs & feed rate

of conveyor: 900Tph.Samples are collected in a box later carried to Quality Lab manually.
Palletizing Disc Area: (Sampling of Green Ball )

Agglomeration:
As the Mixed Material is fed to the
Balling disc, it gets lifted upwards due to the rotation of
the disc. The material gets lifted up as long as the friction
between the ore particles and the disc bed is more than
the gravitational force. Once the gravitation force on the
ore particles is more than the frictional force, the particles
roll down. As the particles roll down, they agglomerate.
The agglomeration of the particles continues as long as
the rolling movement is sustained, resulting in formation
of the balls.

Technical details of Balling Discs :

The palletizing discs consist of a flat circular base with a wall


perpendicular to the plane of the base along the circumferences.
Scrapers are provided on the base and side wall for deflecting
the material. The disc is inclined at angle greater than the angle
of response of the feed material and is rotated in this plane with
a variable speed drive. The scrapers are fixed 1 position and do
not rotate with the disc.

• Inside Diameter: 7500 mm


• Rotation Speed: 5 - 10 rpm
• Feeding Capacity: 150 – 180 TPH
Mechanism of Ball Formation:

Factors effecting Balling:-


spraying
Inclination of Balling Disc rolling up
drying/solidifying Green pellet
Disc Speed

Feed Rate

Moisture content
powder seed binder droplet liquid bridges solid bridges
Sidewall height
Powder layering
Surface Area of the Particle

Spheronizing
Granule Green pellet

snowball“-structure

Spheronizing of Wet Granules


Principle of Agglomeration
Process Sampling at Palletizing Discs Area
Checking of Ball
formation
in discs BL-3131.01-07 Green Ball Sampling for Moisture % , Size fraction , Drop. No , G.C.S

G.C.S – Green compression strength

Green Ball Drop test


Traveling Grate Area:( Sampling of Feed to T.G ,
Discharge material of T.G, Measurement of Temperature, Differential
Pressures and Process Gas flow)

Brief: The traveling grate is used primarily to dry and preheat green balls for feeding into the rotary kiln,
where they are indurated. The traveling grate provides the means for efficient heat transfer with high,
medium and low temperature gases. These gases transfer heat by convection so intimate gas solids contact
is required for effective heat transfer.
Dried green balls do not have the physical properties necessary to survive direct feeding to the rotary kiln
and must be semi-indurated. For acceptable semi-induration, it is necessary for green balls to be
substantially heated and fluxstone carbonates (if used) to be substantially calcined. Good gas-solids contact
is required to cause bonding to occur and to remove CO2 so that calcination of the fluxstone can proceed at
reasonable rates. This semi-induration or preheating is accomplished by flowing the gases exiting the
annular cooler and rotary kiln through the bed of dried balls in the tempered preheat and preheat zones
respectively of the traveling grate.
Process Sampling at Traveling Grate
Checking Gapping of Roller
Classifiers CS3131.01-07 &
Roller Feeder AL3131.01

Checking the Bed Height,


Sampling of feed to T.G for
Moisture% & Size fraction
Process Measurement of Temperatures , Differential Pressures & Gas Flows

Process Control Monitoring


of Profile Deviation…… External view of
Traveling Grate

Internal view of
Traveling Grate

L =68.80 Mtr 298.90M² Area W = 4.716 Mtr

Bed Level checking

AIR HEATER
Analyzing of Process Parameters

Temperatures
&
Differential Pressures
&
Gas Flows, at Indurations Duct,

Wind Boxes, Heating zones ,Stack sampling


etc……….
Rotary Kiln & Annular cooler Area:
( Measurement of Kiln Feed end, Middle, Discharge
Temperatures, Gas Flow & Sampling of finished product )
Dia: 6.9 Mtr
Length:45Mtr

Kiln Burner flame & Red Hot


Pellets Discharge from
Rotary Kiln Kiln

The rotary kiln is a downwards-sloping cylinder from the traveling grate to the annular cooler. The speed of rotation
controls the rate of solids flow through the rotary kiln and imparts a mixing action to the pellet burden. The mixing action
is important because it creates a homogeneous pellet product. All of the pellets are exposed to the burner flame for an equal
amount of time.

This residence time is sufficient to uniformly indurate all pellets, thereby minimizing the ball-to-ball quality differences
inherent in pellets discharging from the static bed processing typical of a SG.

At the discharge end of the rotary kiln is a single burner, which utilizes the hot recuperated (secondary) air from the
annular cooler for combustion. The burner can be designed to fire a single fuel or a combination of fuels. Oil, Natural gas
(LBG/Coke oven gas/ BF gas/ Corex gas) or coal can be used singly or in varying mixtures. Because of the single burner,
controlling the induration process is a simple temperature loop. Grate-Kiln plant processing Hematite ore may have few
additional burners in pre heating zone. This is very different from a SG system that may require up to 50 burners.
Process control Monitoring Kiln

Temperatures & Pressures &

Burner Flame & Stack sampling


81 M² Area
Annular Cooler

The annular cooler is functionally the same as the


traveling grate except for its annular configuration. Hot
pellets discharging from the rotary kiln are distributed in
the annular cooler as a level bed. Ambient air is forced
upwards through the conveying elements (pallets) and
the bed. Thus machine parts are not exposed to high
temperatures.

The pellets are leveled in the annular cooler to a bed


depth of 700 mm and conveyed over up to 4 cooling
Sectional view of Annular cooler zones. In each cooling zone, sufficient cooling air is
provided to produce the mass of air at a temperature
Inspection & Sampling of Product required by the rotary kiln and traveling grate and . The
Pellet at TR3154.1-02 &TR3154.03-04 various cooling zones are designed in such a way that
they will recover the maximum heat from the hot pellets
and various ducts carry this hot air to rotary kiln/
traveling grate zones and Ball Mill .

Cooled pellets discharge through the cooler’s discharge


hopper at a controlled rate to a product load-out system.
Automatic Sampling System –ISO-3082(2000)

The HEAD sampling equipment samples pellet from the end of a belt conveyor. This product collects accurate
representative samples when mounted on the end of a belt conveyor carrying the product. Sampler installations are designed
per application.

When activated an electric motor drives the slotted sample cutter through the product flow to collect a sample of the material.
The sample is discharged via gravity to a sample collection point. Sample collection is initiated in response to either an
operator’s manual command or a signal automatically generated by controller logic, usually time-based but which could also
be volume or quantity based.

In our process Head Samplers are provided at conveyor TR.1010.12 & TR.1010.13- Product Pellet Carrying Conveyor at

Transfer tower CT-1010.10&CT-1010.11.Capacity : 6.5kgs & feed rate of conveyor : 750Tph.Samples are collected in a

Sampling box later carried to Quality Lab manually.


Product Coating Area :
(Sampling of coating material )

Depending on customers requirements the finished product is coated to avoid

Sticking of pellets in the further reduction process. To avoid such conditions

Pellets are coated with external additives like Limestone or Dolomite with

Bentonite acts as binder, together called as oxide coating of pellets.

Pellets are coated with a additives ratio 5:1 of Limestone to Bentonite.

Role of Process control is to monitor the Process variables like:

Checking additives blend ration

Flow rate ~ Tonnage

Checking Pulp Density & % of Solids ( approx: 1.15gm/cc & 22 %


solids)

Maintaining the Product Pellet Moisture to 1.5 % max.


Pellet Stockpile of
Capacity: 3,80000 T

Stockpile sampling of pellets


Process control
Quality Control C.C.R Monitoring
Health & Safety Information:
Vales Motto

Health and Safety Information


The following list of safety precautions should be considered as a guideline:
Personal safety:
Use all PPEs applicable while working in the area (Safety helmets, Safety boots, hearing protection, Goggles, masks, gloves etc).
Use protective clothing appropriate to the work being performed.

Work area safety:


Maintain and practice good house keeping, which can prevent lots of imminent accidents
Allow only authorized personnel inside.
Operate the equipment controls with clean hands.
Make daily check of starting alarms and warning devices and ensure the equipment is working properly.
Examination of interior atmosphere for toxic etching, asphyxias or flammable components.
Stairs, passageways, aisles, hallways, walkways, working areas and all emergency exit routes provided with electrical lights.

Equipment safety:
Follow caution signs and warnings
Follow manufacture recommended work practices
Check all equipments before starting and give it a change incase it asks for.
Skilled supervision is required.
Use all the rotating machinery provided with appropriate protection devices such as coupling guard as well as emergency stop buttons.
Equipment must be locked out prior to removal of equipment guards.

Electrical safety:
Never assume a electrical line to be dead unless it is tested and declared so.
Lockout and tag electrical /mechanical controls before performing any inspection, maintenance, lubrication.
Any work on electrical installations to be carried out in accordance with safety instructions.
Installation, maintenance and repair of electrical equipment to be done when permitted by authorized persons.
Sparks from electrical equipment (cable, wire, motor, hose etc) if observed to be reported to shift supervisor and maintenance
department to be notified immediately.
• Conveyor safety:
• Ensure the conveyor horns function properly.
• Ensure conveyor zero speed switch function properly.
• Stop the conveyor when there is a need to pass anything over it or under it.
• Personnel must never ride on the conveyor belts.
• All walkways along the conveyed must be free of material, tools, oil or grease.
• Ensure all pull chords function properly.
• Loose clothes should not be worn near conveyors.
• Do not lean over the conveyor while taking samples
• If the conveyor maintenance is to be taken, make certain the equipment is
locked out according to the electrical lock out system and a work permit has to
be obtained prior to work commencing.
• To ensure safety, have the equipment controlled by the local field control
panel.

• Safety training:
• All should be aware of plant design philosophy and potential hazards.
• All grades of personnel must be involved in elaborating emergency
procedures.
• Reporting all unsafe conditions to their supervisors.
• Identification of dangerous material and areas.
• Identification of hazardous substances.
• Identification of prohibitive and restricted areas.
• First training and emergency preparedness.
• Issuing of Safety work permits.
Gas safety:
Carbon monoxide is highly toxic when inhaled, it acts by combining with hemoglobin of
red blood cells to form carboxyhaemoglobin. This results in oxy-hemoglobin
dissociation and oxygen transport in blood.
An individual can work safely for 8 hrs in a 500-ppm exposure of CO gas.
At high concentration of 0.4% i.e. 4000 ppm CO can prove fatal in less than an hour.
Respiratory Protective equipments (RPPE) should be used in personal emergencies for
evacuation purposes and during clean up of the area.

For exposure protection against CO hazard use,


Oxy-Breathing apparatus.
Compressed air breathing apparatus.
Trolley mounted SCBA set.
Air supplied blower facemask.
Incase of a gas exposure,

Remove the person immediately from the contaminated area to fresh air location and
keep him comfortably warm. Tight fitting clothes, shoes and the belt of victim should be
loosened. Inform OHC, Safety, Transport, and Utility for necessary action at their end.
Incase of gas leaks, All sources of ignition should be kept away.SCBA to be used while
sampling and attending leaks. Incase of fire, Dry chemical Powder and CO2
extinguisher are suitable to fight small fire of CO.In case of large fire brigade
should be called to attend the fire call.
Presentation By:
A.Srik@nthKaundiny@
Process Control Dept.
V@le Om@n Pellet Plant –
Sohar-Sultanate of Om@n

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