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**Lee Kian Keong & L
**

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akeong@gmail.com

http://www.facebook.com/akeong

Last Edited by December 24, 2011

Abstract

This is a document which shows all the STPM questions from year 2002 to year 2011 using L

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Students should use this document as reference and try all the questions if possible. Students are

encourage to contact me via email

1

or facebook

2

. Students also encourage to send me your collection

of papers or questions by email because i am collecting various type of papers. All papers are welcomed.

Special thanks to Zhu Ming for helping me to check the questions.

Contents

1 PAPER 1 QUESTIONS 2

STPM 2001 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

STPM 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

STPM 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

STPM 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

STPM 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

STPM 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

STPM 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

STPM 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

STPM 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

STPM 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

STPM 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

2 PAPER 2 QUESTIONS 25

STPM 2002 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

STPM 2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

STPM 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

STPM 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

STPM 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

STPM 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

STPM 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

STPM 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

STPM 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

STPM 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

1

akeong@gmail.com

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http://www.facebook.com/akeong

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS

1 PAPER 1 QUESTIONS

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2001

STPM 2001

1. Solve the equation

cosh 2x + 2 cosh x = 5.

Give your answer correct to two decimal places. [4 marks]

2. Sketch the curve with polar equation

r = 3 + 2 cos θ.

Find the area of the region bound by the curve. [6 marks]

3. Using Maclaurin expansion, ﬁnd

lim

x→0

1 −cos

2

x

x(1 −e

−x

)

.

[4 marks]

4. Use the Newton Raphson method with initial estimate, x

0

= 0.5, ﬁnd the root for equation 10x −

2 sin x = 5 correct to three decimal places. [5 marks]

5. Using mathematical induction, prove that, for n ≥ 2, x

n

−nx +(n −1) divisible by (x −1)

2

.[6 marks]

6. Shade the region in Argand diagram which satisﬁes the inequality |z −(2 +2i)| ≤ 1. Hence, ﬁnd the

greatest and least value of |z −(1 +i)| for z in this region. [4 marks]

7. If M =

cos θ sin θ

−sin θ cos θ

, show that (M

T

)

3

=

cos 3θ −sin 3θ

sin 3θ cos 3θ

**. Hence, write down (M
**

T

)

n

in

terms of n and θ. Justify your answer. [5 marks]

8. The position vector of points A and B respect to O are a = 2i − 2j − 9k and b = −2i + 4j +

15k respectively. Find the vector equation for the line passes through the midpoint of AB and

perpendicular to the plane OAB. [3 marks]

Hence, determine the position vector, respect to O, of the points which are 7 units from the midpoint

of AB. [3 marks]

9. Given a curve with parametric equation

x = a(t −3t

3

), y = 3at

2

,

with a > 0 and t ∈ R.

Determine the values of t when the curve cuts the y-axis and sketch the curve. [4 marks]

Show that

dx

dt

2

+

dy

dt

2

= a

2

(1 + 9t

2

)

2

. [3 marks]

Calculate the length of the loop in the curve. [4 marks].

Calculate the surface area generated when the loop is rotated through π radians about the y-axis.

[4 marks]

10. Find the general solution for the diﬀerential equation

d

2

y

dx

2

+ 5

dy

dx

+ 4y = e

−2x

+ sin x.

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2001

[9 marks]

Find the particular solution which satisﬁes the condition y =

6

17

and

dy

dx

=

3

34

when x = 0. Show

that y =

3

34

sin x −

5

34

cos x when x is positive and large. [6 marks]

11. (a) Find the expansion for e

x

cos x and e

x

sin x in ascending powers of x up to the term x

3

. Hence,

show that, if x

4

and higher power of x can be ignored, sinh xcos x ≈ x −

1

3

x

3

and cosh xsin x ≈

x +

1

3

x

3

. [6 marks]

(b) Using Maclaurin theorem, ﬁnd the expansion for sec x in ascending powers of x up to the term

x

4

. [5 marks]

Deduce the ﬁrst three non zero terms in the expansion sec

2

x and tan x in ascending powers of

x. [4 marks]

12. (a) Describe the locus of the points represented by the complex numbers z if z satisﬁes

i.

z −1 −2i

z + 1 + 4i

= 1, [3 marks]

ii.

1

z

+

1

z

∗

= 3. [4 marks]

(b) Show that, for z = −1,

z −z

2

+z

3

−z

4

+z

5

=

z

3

z

2

+

1

z

2

+z

3

+

1

z

3

2 +z +

1

z

.

Using the substitution z = e

iθ

, show that

5

¸

k=1

(−1)

k+1

cos kθ =

cos 3θ cos

5

2

θ

cos

1

2

θ

,

where θ is odd multiple of π. [8 marks]

13. The transformation T on the x −y plane is given by

T :

x

y

→A

2

x

y

,

where A =

6 k

1 2

, k ∈ R.

If the line y = mx+c is the invariant line under transformation T, show that c = 0 and km

2

+4m−1 =

0. [9 marks]

Deduce the possible value of k such that there is only one invariant line, and determine equation of

the line. [6 marks]

14. Given that origin, O and position vectors of P, Q, R, and R are 4i +3j +4k, 6i +j −6k and −i +j +k

respectively. Find the equation of the plane OPQ. [2 marks]

Show that the point S lies on the plane OPQ. [4 marks]

Show that the line RS are perpendicular to the plane OPQ. [4 marks]

Find the acute angle between the line PR and the plane OPQ. [5 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2002

STPM 2002

1. Simplify the statement p ∨ (∼ p ∨ q) ∨ (∼ p∧ ∼ q). [4 marks]

2. Find the exact value of x that satisﬁes the equation 5 sech x −12 tanh x = 13. [4 marks]

3. Solve the recurrence relation x

n+1

= x

n+1

+x

n

with x

0

= 0, x

1

= 1. [5 marks]

4. Point P is represented by the complex number z = cos θ + i sin θ, where 0 ≤ θ ≤ 2π, in Argand

diagram. Show that the locus of the point Q that is represented by ω = 3z

2

is a circle, and ﬁnd its

centre and radius. Find the minimum and maximum distance between the point P and Q, and state

the corresponding value of θ. [6 marks]

5. If I

n

=

π

2

0

x

n

cos x dx, show that, for n ≥ 2,

I

n

=

π

2

n

−n(n −1)I

n−2

.

[4 marks]

Hence, evaluate

π

2

0

x

4

cos x dx. [2 marks]

6. The function f is deﬁned by

f(x) =

a +bx +x

2

, x > 1,

1 −x, x ≤ 1,

with a and b are constants. Determine the values of a and b such that f is diﬀerentiable at x = 1.

[7 marks]

7. Find the particular solution for the diﬀerential equation

dy

dx

+

x −2

x(x −1)

y = −

1

x

2

(x −1)

.

that satisﬁes the boundary condition y =

3

4

when x = 2. [8 marks]

8. Using mathematical induction, prove that

n

¸

r=1

cos 2rθ =

sin(2n + 1)θ

2 sin θ

−

1

2

.

[7 marks]

If sin θ =

1

2

2 −

√

3, ﬁnd sin 5θ. [3 marks]

9. Show that cos nθ =

1

2

(e

inθ

+e

−inθ

). [3 marks]

Hence, show that, for x ∈ R and |x| < 1,

∞

¸

n=0

x

n

cos(2n + 1)θ =

(1 −x) cos θ

1 −2xcos 2θ +x

2

.

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2002

Deduce that

∞

¸

n=0

cos

n

2θ cos(2n + 1)θ =

1

2

sec θ

for θ =

1

2

kπ, where k is integer. [7 marks]

10. If x

n

= x

n−1

+ h and y

n

= y(x

n

), with h

3

and higher powers of h can be neglected, show that the

recurrence relation for diﬀerential equation y

n

−2y

n

+ 2y

n

= 0 is

(1 −h)y

n+1

−2(1 −h

2

)y

n

+ (1 +h)y

n−1

= 0.

[7 marks]

If y

0

= 0, y

1

= 0.5, and h = 0.1, calculate y

4

correct to three decimal places. [3 marks]

11. Matrix A is given by

A =

¸

−2 1 3

−3 2 3

−1 1 2

¸

.

Find the eigenvalue λ

1

, λ

2

, and λ

3

, where λ

1

< λ

2

< λ

3

of matrix A. Find also the eigenvectors e

1

,

e

2

, and e

3

where e

i

corresponding to λ

i

for i = 1, 2, 3. [8 marks]

Matrix P is a 3 ×3 matrix where its columns are e

1

, e

2

and e

3

in sequence. Show that

P

−1

AP =

¸

λ

1

0 0

0 λ

2

0

0 0 λ

3

¸

.

[5 marks]

Deduce the relationship between determinant of A and its eigen values. [2 marks]

12. If y = sin

−1

x, show that

d

2

y

dx

2

= x

dy

dx

3

and

d

3

y

dx

3

=

dy

dx

3

+ 3x

2

dy

dx

5

. [4 marks]

Using Maclaurin theorem, express sin

−1

x as a series of ascending powers of x up to the term in x

5

.

State the range of values of x for the expansion valid. [7 marks]

Hence,

(a) taking x = 0.5, ﬁnd the approximation of π correct to two decimal places, [2 marks]

(b) ﬁnd lim

x→0

x −sin

−1

x

x −sin x

. [2 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2003

STPM 2003

1. Determine whether each of the following propositions is true or false.

(a) If |2x −3| > 9, where x is an integer, then |x| > 2. [2 marks]

(b) If A ∩ B = φ, where A and B are non-empty sets, then x / ∈ B, ∀x ∈ A, or x / ∈ A, ∀x ∈ B.

[2 marks]

2. Find the integral

dx

√

4x

2

−4x + 3

.

[4 marks]

3. Using Cramer’s rule, determine the set of values of k such that the following system of linear equations

has integer solutions.

2x − y + 3z = k,

2x + y − z = 1,

6x − 3y + z = 3k,

[6 marks]

4. Complex numbers z and w are such that |z|

2

+ 2Re wz = c, where c > −|w|

2

. Show that the locus

of the point P which represents z in the Argand diagram is a circle, and state the centre and radius

of the circle in terms of w and c. [6 marks]

5. Use the expansion of

1

1 +x

2

to express tan

−1

x as a series of ascending powers of x up to the term

in x

7

. [4 marks]

Hence ﬁnd, in terms of π, the sum of the inﬁnite series

1

3 ×3

−

1

5 ×3

2

+

1

7 ×3

3

−. . .

[2 marks]

6. Let I

n

=

π

0

sin

n

x dx, where n ≥ 2. Show that

I

n

=

n −1

n

I

n−2

.

[4 marks] Express I

n

in terms of I

1

, for odd integers n ≥ 3. Hence ﬁnd the value of

π

0

sin

7

xcos

2

x dx.

[3 marks]

7. A loan of P ringgit is to be paid oﬀ over a period of N years. The loan carries a compound interest

of 100k% a year. The yearly repayment is B ringgit. The balance after r years is a

r

ringgit, where

a

0

= P. The interest is charged on the balance at the beginning of the year. Write down a recurrence

relation that involves a

r+1

and a

r

and show that

a

r

=

P −

B

k

(1 +k)

r

+

B

k

.

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2003

[6 marks]

Calculate the yearly repayment if a loan of RM100 000 that carries a compound interest of 8% a year

is to be paid oﬀ over a period of 10 years. [3 marks]

8. Matrix M is given by

M =

3 −1

4 −1

.

Use mathematical induction to prove that

M

n

=

2n + 1 −n

4n 1 −2n

, n = 1, 2, . . .

[5 marks]

Show that M and M

n

have the same eigenvalues. [4 marks]

9. If y = (sin

−1

x)

2

, show that, for −1 < x < 1,

(1 −x

2

)

d

2

y

dx

2

−x

dy

dx

−2 = 0.

[3 marks]

Find the Maclaurin series for (sin

−1

x)

2

up to the term in x

6

. [6 marks]

10. Find the general solution of the diﬀerential equation

d

2

y

dx

2

+ 2

dy

dx

+y = cos 2x −7 sin 2x.

[7 marks]

Find the solution of the diﬀerential equation for which y =

dy

dx

= 2 when x = 0. Determine whether

this solution is ﬁnite as x →∞. [5 marks]

11. Let a cosh x +b sinh x = r sinh(x +k), where a, b, and r are positive real numbers. Express k and r

in terms of a and b, and determine the condition in order that k and r exist. [7 marks]

Find the coordinates of the point on the curve y = cosh x + 3 sinh x which has a gradient of

√

8 at

that point. [6 marks]

12. Obtain all the roots of the equation z

5

= 1 in the form e

iθ

, where 0 < θ ≤ 2π. Hence show that the

roots of the equation

(ω −1)

5

= ω

5

are

1

2

+

1

2

i cot

k

5

π, where k = 1, 2, 3, 4. [8 marks]

Deduce the roots of the equation

(ω −i)

5

= ω

5

.

[2 marks]

Write down the roots of the equations (ω − 1)

5

= ω

5

and (ω − i)

5

= ω

5

in the form a + bi, with a

and b in one decimal place. Describe and compare the positions of the roots of these two equations

in the Argand diagram. [5 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2004

STPM 2004

1. Show that the following pair of propositions are equivalent.

(p ↔q); [∼ (p∧ ∼ q)] ∧ [∼ (∼ p ∧ q)].

[3 marks]

2. Show that

x + sin

−1

(cos x) =

1

2

π,

for 0 ≤ x ≤ π. [3 marks]

3. Using mathematical induction, prove that

n

¸

p=1

p(p!) = (n + 1)! −1.

[5 marks]

4. Solve the recurrence relation x

n+1

= kx

n

+ 4, where x

0

= 7, x

1

= 25 and k is a constant. [7 marks]

5. Show that tanh

−1

x =

1

2

ln

1 +x

1 −x

**for −1 < x < 1 and ﬁnd
**

d

dx

(tanh

−1

x). [7 marks]

6. Find the exact value of

2

1

x

x

4

−1 dx.

[7 marks]

7. Show that the general solution of the recurrence relation a

n+2

= 6a

n+1

−25a

n

is

a

n

= 5

n

(αcos nθ +iβ sin nθ),

where α and β are arbitrary complex constants and θ = tan

−1

4

3

. [6 marks]

If a

0

= a

1

= 1, ﬁnd the particular solution of the above recurrence relation. [2 marks]

8. If I

n

=

x

n

√

x

2

+a

2

dx, where n > 1 and a is a non-zero constant, show that

nI

n

+ (n −1)a

2

I

n−2

= x

n−1

x

2

+a

2

.

[4 marks]

Hence, ﬁnd the exact value of

1

0

x

3

+x

2

√

x

2

+ 1

dx. [6 marks]

9. Using Taylor’s theorem, ﬁnd the series expansion of sin

1

6

π +h

in ascending powers of h up to

the term in h

3

. [3 marks]

If 0 < h <

1

6

π, show that the remainder term R is given by

1

48

h

4

< R <

√

3

48

h

4

.

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2004

[4 marks]

Hence, ﬁnd the bounds for sin

1

5

π correct to seven decimal places. [3 marks]

10. For each of the following cases, ﬁnd the equation of the locus of the complex number z and show the

locus in an Argand diagram.

(a)

z −(1 +i)

z −(1 −i)

= 2 [5 marks]

(b) arg

z −(1 +i)

z −(1 −i)

=

1

2

π [6 marks]

11. The matrix A is given by

A =

¸

2 −3 2

−3 3 3

2 3 2

¸

.

Show that the eigenvalues of A are -3, 4 and 6. Find the corresponding eigenvectors. [8 marks]

Write down a matrix P such that P

T

AP is a diagonal matrix. Find this diagonal matrix and its

inverse. [6 marks]

12. Find the general solution of the diﬀerential equation

d

2

y

dt

2

+ 4

dy

dt

+ 12y = 8 cos 2t.

[8 marks]

(a) Find the approximate values of y when t = nπ and when t =

n +

1

2

π, where n is a large

positive integer. [3 marks]

(b) Show that, whatever the initial conditions, the limiting solution as t →∞ may be expressed in

the form

y = k sin(2t +α),

where k is a positive integer and α an acute angle which are to be determined. [4 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2005

STPM 2005

1. Write down the negation, the converse and the contrapositive of the following implication

If a = 0 and b = 0, then ab = 0

Which of your answers is equivalent to the given implication? [4 marks]

2. The function f is deﬁned by

f =

x

2

−1, x ≤ 1,

k(x + 1), x > 1.

(a) If f is continuous, ﬁnd the value of k. [2 marks]

(b) Determine, for this value of k, whether f is diﬀerentiable at x = 1. [3 marks]

3. Find the general solution of each of the following recurrence relations.

(a) u

r+1

= αu

r

+β2

r

, where α and β are arbitrary constants and α = 2. [3 marks]

(b) u

r+1

= 2u

r

+γ2

r

, where γ is an arbitrary constant. [3 marks]

4. A diﬀerential equation has y = e

3x

and y = xe

3x

as solutions.

(a) Find the diﬀerential equation. [2 marks]

(b) Write down the general solution of the diﬀerential equation and determine the particular solution

satisfying the initial conditions y = 1 and

dy

dx

= 0 when x = 0. [4 marks]

5. A circular disc is partitioned into n equal sectors. Each sector is to be coloured with one of the four

diﬀerent colours provided and no two adjacent sectors are to be of the same colour. If a

n

is the

number of ways to colour the disc with n sectors, ﬁnd a

2

, a

3

and a

4

. [3 marks]

Given that a

n

= 2a

n−1

+ 3a

n−2

, where n ≥ 4, ﬁnd an explicit formula for a

n

. [4 marks]

6. Find the Maclaurin expansion of x

√

cos x up to the term in x

3

. State the range of values of x for

which the expansion is valid. [7 marks]

7. If P is the point on an Argand diagram representing the complex number z and |z −2| +|z +2| = 5,

ﬁnd the cartesian equation of the locus of P and sketch this locus. [4 marks]

Find the points on this locus which satisfy the equation

|z| =

z −

3

10

+

3

10

i

.

[4 marks]

8. Show that, for |x| > 1,

coth

−1

x =

1

2

ln

x + 1

x −1

.

[4 marks]

If coth 2y =

5

4

, ﬁnd the value of coth y. [4 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2005

9. The matrix A is given by

A =

¸

k 1 5

2 k 8

8 −3 2

¸

.

Determine all values of k for which the equation AX = B, where B is a 3 ×1 matrix, does not have

a unique solution. [3 marks]

For each of these values of k, ﬁnd the solution, if any, of the equation

AX =

¸

1

−2

4

¸

.

[7 marks]

10. Find the general solution of the diﬀerential equation

x

dy

dx

−3y = x

3

.

[4 marks]

Find the particular solution given that y has a minimum value when x = 1. [3 marks]

Sketch the graph of this particular solution. [3 marks]

11. A curve has equation y = 1 −ln tanh

1

2

x, where x > 0.

(a) Show that, for this curve, y > 1. [2 marks]

(b) Show that

dy

dx

= −cosech x. [3 marks]

(c) Sketch the curve. [2 marks]

(d) Show that the length of the curve between the points where x = 1 and x = 4 is ln(e

6

+e

4

+e

2

+

1) −3. [6 marks]

12. Prove de Moivre’s theorem for positive integer exponents. [5 marks]

Using de Moivre theorem, show that

sin 5θ = a sin

5

θ +b cos

2

sin

3

θ +c cos

4

θ sin θ

where a, b and c are integers to be determined. Express

sin 5θ

sin θ

in terms of cos θ, where θ is not a

multiple of π. [5 marks]

Hence, ﬁnd the roots of the equation 16x

4

− 12x

2

+ 1 = 0 in trigonometric form. Deduce the value

of cos

2

π

5

+ cos

2

2π

5

. [6 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2006

STPM 2006

1. The matrix M is given by

M =

¸

−3 1 2

−6 2 3

0 2 1

¸

.

By using Cayley Hamilton theorem, show that

M

−1

=

1

6

(7I −M

2

),

where I is the 3 ×3 identity matrix. [4 marks]

2. Prove that

tanh

−1

x + tanh

−1

y = tanh

−1

x +y

1 +xy

.

[2 marks]

Hence, solve the equation

tanh

−1

3x + tanh

−1

x = tanh

−1

8

13

.

[3 marks]

3. Let A = {a, a + d, a + 2d} and B = {a, ar, ar

2

}, with a = 0, d = 0 and r = 1. Show that A = B if

and only if r = −

1

2

and d = −

3

4

a. [7 marks]

4. Consider the system of equations

x + y + pz = q,

3x − y − 2z = 1,

6x + 2y + z = 4,

for the two cases: p = 2, q = 1 and p = 1, q = 2.

For each case, ﬁnd the unique solution if it exists or determine the consistency of the system if there

is no unique solution. [7 marks]

5. Find the domain and the range of the function f deﬁned by

f(x) = sin

−1

2(x −1)

x + 1

.

[4 marks]

Sketch the graph of f. [3 marks]

6. Show that

1

0

x −1

√

x

2

+ 2x + 3

dx =

√

6 −

√

3 −2 ln

2 +

√

6

1 +

√

3

.

[7 marks]

7. If y = e

x

cos x, prove by mathematical induction that

d

n

y

dx

n

= 2

1

2

n

e

x

x +

1

4

nπ

,

for every positive integer n. [8 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2006

8. Determine the number of root(s) of the equation x −tanh ax = 0 for each of the following cases.

(a) a < 1

(b) a = 1

(c) a > 1

[8 marks]

9. Let a

n

be the number of ways (where the order is signiﬁcant) the natural number n can be written

as a sum of l’s, 2’s or both. Find a

1

, a

2

, a

3

and a

4

. [2 marks]

Explain why the recurrence relation for a

n

, in terms of a

n−1

and a

n−2

is

a

n

= a

n−1

+a

n−2

, n > 2.

[2 marks]

Find an explicit formula for a

n

. [6 marks]

10. Using the substitution x = z

1

2

, transform the diﬀerential equation

d

2

y

dx

2

+

4x −

1

x

dy

dx

+ 4x

2

y = 0

into one relating y and z. [5 marks]

Hence, ﬁnd y in terms of x given that y = 2 and

dy

dx

= −2 when x = 1. [5 marks]

State the limiting value of y as x →∞. [1 marks]

11. Let z

l

= 1, z

2

= x + iy, z

3

= y + ix, where x, y ∈ R, x > 0 and i =

√

−1. If z

1

, z

2

, . . ., z

n

is a

geometric progression,

(a) ﬁnd x and y, [3 marks]

(b) express z

2

and z

3

in the polar form, [2 marks]

(c) ﬁnd the smallest positive integer n such that z

1

+z

2

+. . . +z

n

= 0, [5 marks]

(d) ﬁnd the product z

1

z

2

z

3

. . . z

n

, for the value of n in (c). [3 marks]

12. Derive the Taylor series for e

x

expanded at x = 0 and show that 2 < e < 3. [6 marks]

Write the above series up to the term in x

n

together with the remainder term. Hence, determine the

smallest integer n to ensure that the estimated value of e is correct to four decimal places and ﬁnd

the estimated value. [7 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2007

STPM 2007

1. If z = cos θ +i sin θ, show that

1

1 +z

2

=

1

2

(1 −i tan θ) and express

1

1 −z

2

in a similar form.[4 marks]

2. Show that

π

4

0

sec x(sec x + tan x)

2

dx = 1 +

√

2. [4 marks]

3. Using the substitution x = e

2

, show that the diﬀerential equation

x

2

d

2

y

dx

2

+px

dy

dx

+qy = 0,

where p and q are constants, can be transformed into the diﬀerential equation

d

2

y

dz

2

+r

dy

dz

+sy = 0,

where r and s are constants to be determined in terms of p and q. [5 marks]

4. The matrices A and B are given by

A =

¸

¸

¸

1 2 3 4

5 1 1 3

2 0 8 0

−1 −1 3 9

¸

, B =

¸

¸

¸

4 2 3 4

5 4 1 3

2 0 11 0

−1 −1 3 12

¸

.

Given that

¸

¸

¸

1

1

1

1

¸

**is an eigenvector of the matrix A, ﬁnd its corresponding eigenvalue. [3 marks]
**

Hence, ﬁnd the eigenvalue of the matrix B corresponding to the eigenvector

¸

¸

¸

1

1

1

1

¸

. [3 marks]

5. Show that

sec

−1

x + cosec

−1

x =

1

2

π,

where 0 ≤ sec

−1

x ≤ π, sec

−1

x =

1

2

π, −

1

2

π ≤ cosec

−1

x ≤

1

2

π and cosec

−1

x = 0. [3 marks]

Hence, ﬁnd the value of x such that

sec

−1

xcosec

−1

x = −

3

2

.

[3 marks]

6. A sequence a

0

, a

1

, a

2

, . . . is deﬁned by a

0

= 1 and a

r+1

= 2a

r

+b for r ≥ 0, where b ∈ R.

Express a

r

in terms of r and b, and verify your result by using mathematical induction. [7 marks]

7. Solve the recurrence relation

a

r

−a

r−1

−6a

r−2

= (−2)

r

,

where a

0

= 0 and a

1

= 2. [8 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2007

8. Consider the system of equations

λx + y + z = 1,

x + λy + z = λ,

x + y + λz = λ

2

,

where λ is a constant.

(a) Determine the values of λ for which this system has a unique solution, inﬁnitely many solutions

and no solution. [5 marks]

(b) Find the unique solution in terms of λ. [5 marks]

9. Solve the diﬀerential equation

dy

dx

+y sinh x = sinh x,

given that y = 0 when x = 0. [5 marks]

Show that 0 ≤ y < 1 for all real values of x, and sketch the graph of the solution of the diﬀerential

equation. [5 marks]

10. Find the constants A, B, C and D such that

e

2x

+e

−2x

−2e

x

−2e

−x

−1 = Acosh

2

x +Bcosh x +C sinh

2

x +Dsinh x.

[5 marks]

Hence, solve the equation

e

2x

+e

−2x

−2e

x

−2e

−x

−1 = 0.

[5 marks]

11. Show that the Maclaurin series for (1 +x)

r

is

1 +

∞

¸

k=1

r(r −1) . . . (r −k + 1)

k!

x

k

,

where r is a rational number. Write down the Maclaurin series for (1+x

2

)

−1

and (1+x

2

)

−

1

2

.[8 marks]

Hence, ﬁnd the Maclaurin series for tan

−1

x and sinh

−1

x. [5 marks]

Show that lim

x→0

x −tan

−1

x

x

2

sinh

−1

x

=

1

3

. [2 marks]

12. Find the roots of the equation (z −iα)

3

= i

3

, where α is a real constant. [3 marks]

(a) Show that the points representing the roots of the above equation form an equilateral triangle.

[2 marks]

(b) Solve the equation [z −(1 +i)]

3

= (2i)

3

. [5 marks]

(c) If ω is a root of the equation ax

2

+ bx + c = 0, where a, b, c ∈ R and a = 0, show that its

conjugate ω

∗

is also a root of this equation. Hence, obtain a polynomial equation of degree six

with three of its roots also the roots of the equation (z −i)

3

= i

3

. [5 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2008

STPM 2008

1. If p ⇒q, r ⇒∼ q and ∼ s ⇒r, show that p ⇒s. [3 marks]

2. Using the result that tan

−1

x =

x

0

1

1 +t

2

dt, show that

tan

−1

x = x −

x

3

3

+

x

5

5

−

x

7

7

+. . .

where |x| < 1. [2 marks]

Hence, ﬁnd lim

x→0

tan

−1

x

sin x

. [2 marks]

3. If −

π

2

< tan

−1

(sinh x) <

π

2

, show that

cos(tan

−1

(sinh x)) = sech x.

[5 marks]

4. Use Taylor series to ﬁnd the ﬁrst four terms in the expansion of

1

(2x + 1)

3

at x = 1. [5 marks]

5. Let x

1

= a and x

r+1

= x

r

+d, where a and d are positive constants and r is a positive integer. Prove,

by mathematical induction, that

k

¸

i=1

1

x

i

x

i+1

=

k

x

1

x

k+1

,

for k ≥ 2. [6 marks]

6. Sketch, on an Argand diagram, the region in which 1 ≤ |z +2−2i| ≤ 3, where z is a complex number.

[3 marks]

Determine the range of values of |z|. [4 marks]

7. The equation z

4

− 2z

3

+ kz

2

− 18z + 45 = 0 has an imaginary root. Obtain all the roots of the

equation and the value of the real constant k. [8 marks]

8. Let I

m,n

=

0

−1

x

m

(1 +x)

n

dx, where m, n ≥ 0. Show that, for m ≥ 0, n ≥ 1,

I

m,n

= −

n

m+ 1

I

m+1,n−1

.

[3 marks]

Hence, show that I

m,n

=

(−1)

m

m!n!

(m+n + 1)!

. [6 marks]

9. The cooling system of an engine has a capacity of 10 litres. It leaks at a rate of 100 ml per week. At

time 0. it is full and contains water only. Every week (at times 1, 2, 3. ...). the cooling system is

topped up with 100 ml of a coolant mixture of concentration 20% (a mixture of 80 ml of water and

20 ml of coolant).

Let v

n

, be the volume in millilitres and c

n

the concentration of the coolant in the cooling system

immediately after the top up at time n.

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2008

(a) Express v

n+1

in terms of v

n

, [3 marks]

(b) Show that c

n+1

= 0.99c

n

+ 0.002, and solve this recurrence relation. [8 marks]

(c) What is the concentration of the coolant as n becomes very large? [1 marks]

10. Find the solution of the diﬀerential equation

3

d

2

y

dx

2

−2

dy

dx

−y = 4e

−

1

3

x

−x

2

+ 24

for which y = 0 and

dy

dx

= 1 at x = 0. [12 marks]

11. A curve is deﬁned by x = cos θ(1 + cos θ) , y = sin θ(1 + cos θ).

(a) Show that

dx

dθ

2

+

dy

dθ

2

= 2(1 + cos θ).

[4 marks]

(b) Calculate the length of the arc of the curve between the points where θ = 0 and θ = π.[5 marks]

(c) Calculate the surface area generated when the arc is rotated completely about the x-axis.[4 marks]

12. Find the eigenvalues of the matrix A given by

A =

¸

4 4 3

−1 −1 −1

−4 −4 −3

¸

**and an eigenvector corresponding to each eigenvalue. [8 marks]
**

Write down a matrix P and a diagonal matrix D such that A = PDP

−1

. [2 marks]

Hence, show that A

n

= A when n is an odd positive integer, and ﬁnd A

n

when n is an even positive

integer. [6 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2009

STPM 2009

1. Prove that, if x > k, then x

3

−kx

2

+ax −ak > 0 for every real number a > 0. [2 marks]

Write down the converse and contrapositive of the above statement. [2 marks]

2. The real matrix A is given by

A =

¸

a 0 −a

0 b 0

−c 0 c

¸

.

where 0 < a < b < c. Show that all the eigenvalues of matrix A are distinct. [4 marks]

3. Solve the recurrence relation u

n+1

= 3u

n

+ 1, where n ≥ 1 and u

1

= 3. [5 marks]

4. Let a = a(2t + sinh 2t) and y = b tanh t, where a, b > 0 are constants and t ∈ R. Show that

0 <

dy

dx

≤

b

4a

. [5 marks]

5. Show that tanh

−1

x =

1

2

ln

1 +x

1 −x

for |x| < 1. [4 marks]

Hence, solve the equation

2 tanh

−1

3

x

= ln x.

where x > 0. [3 marks]

6. If tan y =

x

1 +x

, where −

π

4

< y <

π

4

, expand y in ascending powers of (x − 1) up to the term in

(x −1)

2

. [5 marks]

Hence, ﬁnd the approximate value of tan

−1

1

2

−tan

−1

1

3

. [2 marks]

7. The matrix A is given by

A =

¸

1 1 c

1 2 3

1 c 1

¸

and B is a 3 ×1 matrix.

(a) Find the values of c for which the equation AX = B does not have a unique solution. [3 marks]

(b) For each value of c, ﬁnd the solutions, if any, of the equation

AX =

¸

1

−3

−11

¸

.

[5 marks]

8. (a) Show that sin(x +iy) = sin xcosh y +i cos xsinh y, nnd hence, ﬁnd the values of x and y if the

imaginary part of sin(x +iy) is zero, where x ≥ 0 and y ≤

π

2

. [4 marks]

(b) Find the roots of ω

4

= −16i, and sketch the roots on an Argand diagram. [5 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2009

9. A curve has parametric equations

x = t + ln | sinh t| and y = cosech t,

where t = 0.

(a) Find

dy

dx

. [3 marks]

(b) Show that

d

2

y

dx

2

= −e

−2t

(cosh t + cosech t). [2 marks]

(c) Show that the curve has a point of inﬂexion where t =

1

2

ln(

√

5 −2). [5 marks]

10. Using the substitution z =

1

y

, show that the diﬀerential equation

dy

dx

−

2y

x

= y

2

may be reduced to

dz

dx

+

2z

x

= −1.

[2 marks]

Hence, ﬁnd the particular solution y in terms of x for the diﬀerential equation given that y = 3 when

x = 1. [6 marks]

Sketch the graph y. [3 marks]

11. Find the values of p and q so that −1, −1 and 2 are the characteristic roots of the recurrence relation

a

n

+pa

n−2

+qa

n−3

= 0. [3 marks]

Using the values of p and q, solve the recurrence relation

a

n

+pa

n−2

+qa

n−3

= −1 +

b

n+1

,

where n ≥ 3, a

0

=

1

4

, a

1

=

3

2

, a

2

=

15

4

, and b

m

satisﬁes the relation

b

m+1

=

m+ 1

m

2

b

m

,

where m ≥ 1 and b

1

= 9. [11 marks]

12. If x(t) and y(t) are variables satisfying the diﬀerential equations

dy

dt

+ 2

dx

dt

= 2x + 5 and

dy

dt

−

dx

dt

= 2y +t.

(a) show that 3

d

2

y

dt

2

−6

dy

dt

+ 4y = 2 −2t. [4 marks]

(b) ﬁnd the solution x in terms of t for the second order of diﬀerential equation given that y(0) =

y

(0) = π. [12 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2010

STPM 2010

1. Find the contrapositive, converse, inverse and negation of the quantiﬁer proposition

∀x ∈ R, if x(x + 1) > 0, then x > 0 or x < −1.

[4 marks]

2. Using mathematical induction, show that 2

2n

−1 is a multiple of 3 for all positive integers n.[4 marks]

3. Solve the recurrence relations

(a) a

n

= 2

2n

a

n−1

, where a

0

= 1, [3 marks]

(b) a

n

= a

n−1

+ 3

n−1

+ 2, where a

0

= 0. [3 marks]

4. Show that

tan

−1

1

x −1

−tan

−1

1

x

= cot

−1

(x

2

−x + 1), x > 1.

[3 marks]

Hence, ﬁnd the value of x such that

tan

−1

1

x −1

= tan

−1

1

x

+ tan

−1

1

x + 1

.

[3 marks]

[The principal values of each angle are to be considered.]

5. Given that y = x −cos

−1

x, where −1 < x < 1.

(a) Show that

d

2

y

dx

2

= x

dy

dx

−1

3

. [2 marks]

(b) Find the Maclaurin series for y in ascending powers of x up to the term in x

5

. [5 marks]

6. The diﬀerential equation

R

dQ

dt

+

Q

C

= V

describes the charge Q on a capacitor of capacitance C during a charging process involving a resistance

R and electromotive force V .

(a) Given that Q = 0 when t = 0, express Q as a function of t. [5 marks]

(b) What happens to Q over a long period of time when R = 10Ω, V = 5 V and C= 2 F? [2 marks]

7. Find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix

¸

1 0 4

0 2 0

3 1 −3

¸

. [8 marks]

8. A curve is deﬁned parametrically by

x = 2 cosech

3

t, y = 3 coth

2

t.

(a) Show that

dx

dt

2

+

dy

dt

2

= 36 cosech

4

t coth

4

t. [5 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2010

(b) The points A and B in the curve are deﬁned by t = ln 2 and t = ln 3 respectively. Show that

the length of the arc AB is

4625

864

. [3 marks]

9. Show that

coth

−1

x =

1

2

ln

x + 1

x −1

,

where |x| > 1. [3 marks]

Hence, solve the equation coth

−1

1 +y

y

+ coth

−1

y

1 −y

=

1

2

ln 2y. [6 marks]

10. A particle moves in a horizontal straight line. The displacement a

r

of the particle from a ﬁxed point

at the r-th second (r ≥ 2) satisﬁes the recurrence relation

a

r

= 9a

r−2

+b

r

,

where

b

r

= b

r−1

+ 6b

r−2

,

with a

0

= 0, a

1

= 4, b

0

= 0, and b

1

= 10.

(a) Show that b

r

= 2(3

r

) + (−2)

r+1

. [4 marks]

(b) Find a

r

in terms of r. [8 marks]

11. Find the general solution of the ﬁrst order diﬀerential equation

dy

dx

+ 5y = sinh 2x + 2x.

[6 marks]

Hence, solve the second order diﬀerential equation

d

2

y

dx

2

+ 5

dy

dx

= 4 cosh

2

x,

given that x = 0, y = 1 and

dy

dx

= 3. [7 marks]

12. (a) Find the ﬁfth roots of unity in the form cos θ +i sin θ, where −π < θ ≤ π. [4 marks]

(b) By writing the equation (z − 2i)

5

= (z + 2i)

5

in the form

z −2i

z + 2i

5

= 1, show that its roots

are ±2 cot

π

5

and ±2 cot

2π

5

. [7 marks]

Hence, ﬁnd the values of cot

2

π

5

+ cot

2

2π

5

and cot

2

π

5

cot

2

2π

5

. [5 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2011

STPM 2011

1. Prove by contradiction that the sum of a rational number and an irrational number is an irrational

number. [3 marks]

2. Let p

n

be the pressure within an enclosed container on day n. The pressure on day n +1 is

3

n + 3

p

n

less than that on day n. Show that p

n

=

6

n(n + 1)(n + 2)

p

1

. [4 marks]

3. Show that cos(sin

−1

x) =

1 −x

2

, for |x| ≤ 1, and hence, ﬁnd the exact value of

tan

sin

−1

2

√

2

3

.

[4 marks]

4. Given that I

n

=

e

1

(ln x)

n

dx. Show that I

n

+nI

n−1

= e for n ≥ 1, and hence, evaluate

e

1

(ln x)

4

dx.

[6 marks]

5. A complex number z satisﬁes the inequality |z −

√

3 −i| ≤ 1.

(a) Sketch, on an Argand diagram, to show the region deﬁned by the inequality. [3 marks]

(b) Determine the range of the values of |z|. [2 marks]

(c) Determine the range of the values of arg z. [2 marks]

6. Find a second order Taylor polynomial for

√

1 +x about x = 24. [4 marks]

Hence, ﬁnd an approximate value of

√

26, and estimate the size of the error. [3 marks]

7. The complementary function of the diﬀerential equation

d

2

y

dx

2

+p

dy

dx

+ 13y = e

x

cos x

is y = e

3x

(Acos rx +Bsin rx).

(a) Determine the values of p and r. [3 marks]

(b) Find the general solution of the diﬀerential equation. [5 marks]

8. Construct a truth table to show that ∼ (p →q) ≡ p ∧ (∼ q). [4 marks]

Write an equivalent form for ∼ (∀x, p(x) →q(x)). Hence, show the logical step for a statement to be

equivalent to

“It is not true that for every hot day, it rains.”

[5 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 1 QUESTIONS STPM 2011

9. The arc of a curve y = ln x from x = 1 to x = 8 is revolved about the y-axis through 2π radian.

(a) Show that the surface area of revolution is given by

S = 2π

8

1

1 +p

2

dp,

where p = e

y

. [3 marks]

(b) Using the substitution p = sinh θ, show that

S = π

¸

8

√

65 −

√

2 + ln

8 +

√

65

1 +

√

2

¸

.

[7 marks]

10. Show that

1 + cos 2θ +i sin 2θ

1 −cos 2θ −i sin 2θ

= i cot θ. [2 marks]

Hence, show that the roots of the equation (z +i)

5

= (z −i)

5

are ±cot

π

5

and ±cot

2π

5

.[6 marks]

Deduce the values of cot

2

π

5

+ cot

2

2π

5

and cot

2

π

5

cot

2

2π

5

. [4 marks]

11. A square matrix A has an eigenvalue λ with corresponding eigenvector v. Show that λ + c is an

eigenvalue of A + cI, where c ∈ R and I is identity matrix. Show that v is also an eigenvector of

A+cI corresponding to λ +c. [3 marks]

Determine the values of k so that the eigenvalues of the matrix

P =

¸

−1 0 2

0 k 0

−5 0 6

¸

,

where k ∈ R are all distinct. Find the eigenvalues and the eigenvectors of P for k = 1. [8 marks]

Hence, ﬁnd the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix Q =

¸

2 0 2

0 4 0

−5 0 9

¸

. [4 marks]

12. Using the deﬁnitions of sinh x and cosh x,

(a) show that

i. sinh(x −y) = sinh xcosh y −cosh xsinh y, [3 marks]

ii. tanh(n + 1)x −tanh nx = sinh xsech(n + 1)xsech nx. [3 marks]

(b) Given that S

r

=

r

¸

n=1

sech(n + 1)xsechnx. Show that

i. if x = 0, then S

r

= 2 cosech 2xsinh rxsech(r + 1)x, [5 marks]

ii. if x > 0 and r is very large, then S

r

≈ 2e

−x

cosech 2x. [4 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 2 QUESTIONS

2 PAPER 2 QUESTIONS

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 2 QUESTIONS STPM 2002

STPM 2002

1. State the relationship between the sum of degree of vertices and the number of edges in a simple

graph. Deduce that a simple graph with ﬁve vertices of degree 1, 1, 2, 3, 4 is impossible. [4 marks]

2. Given that points O, P , and Q non-colinear, R lies on the line PQ. Position vector of P, Q, and R

respect to O are p, q, and r respectively. Show that r = µp + (1 − µ)q, where µ is a real number.

[2 marks]

If R is the perpendicular foot form O to PQ, show that

r =

|q|

2

−p · q

|p −q|

2

p +

|p|

2

−p · q

|p −q|

2

q.

[4 marks]

3. Prove that the planes ax+by +cz = d and a

x+b

y +c

z = d

are parallel if and only if a : b : c = a

:

b

: c

**. Find the equation of the plane π that is parallel to the plane 3x + 2y − 5z = 2 and contains
**

the point (-1, 1, 3). [5 marks]

Find the perpendicular distance between the plan π and the plane 3x + 2y −5z = 2. [2 marks]

4. Draw a connected graph with eight vertices, with no degree 1, if the graph is

(a) Eulerian and Hamiltonian, [2 marks]

(b) not Eulerian but Hamiltonian, [2 marks]

(c) Eulerian but not Hamiltonian, [2 marks]

(d) not Eulerian and not Hamiltonian. [2 marks]

5. Transformation P is deﬁned by

P :

x

y

→

1 1

0 −1

x

y

**(a) Find the invariant line that passes through origin under transformation P. [6 marks]
**

(b) Find the area of the image of triangle ABC with points A(0, −2), B(3, 0), and C(1, 4) under

the transformation P. [3 marks]

6. Let n ∈ N and n ≥ 2.

(a) If n = 6k + 1 or n = 6k + 5, with k integer, prove that 2

n

+n

2

≡ 0(mod 3). [9 marks]

(b) If 2

n

+n

2

is a prime number, prove that n ≡ 3(mod 6). [4 marks]

7. Continuous random variable Z is standard normal random variable. State the exact name of the

distribution Z

2

, and state the mean and variance. [3 marks]

8. A survey carried out in an area to estimate the proportion of people who have more than one house.

This proportion is estimated using 95% conﬁdence interval. If the estimated proportion is 0.35,

determine the smallest sample size required so that estimation error did not exceed 0.03 and deduce

the smallest sample size required so that the estimation error did not exceed 0.01. [7 marks]

9. A random sample of 12 randomly selected apples from a box of apples. The mass of apples, in g, is

summarized by

¸

x = 956.2 and

¸

x

2

= 81175.82. Find a 95% conﬁdence interval for the mean

mass of apples in the box. State any assumptions you make. [7 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 2 QUESTIONS STPM 2002

10. Random variable X is normally distributed with mean µ and variance 36. The signiﬁcance tests

performed on the null hypothesis H

0

: µ = 70 versus the alternative hypothesis H

1

: µ = 70 with a

probability of type I error equal to 0.01. A random sample of 30 observations of X are taken and

sample mean barX taken as the test statistic. Find the range of the test statistic lies in the critical

region. [8 marks]

11. State common conditions apply to the distribution of test statistics in the test of goodness of ﬁt, χ

2

is

approximated to χ

2

distribution. [2 marks]

A study was conducted in a factory on the number of accidents that happen on 100 factory workers

in a period of time. The following data were obtained.

Number of accident 0 1 2 3 4 5

Number of workers 25 31 23 13 5 3

Test, at 1% signiﬁcant level, whether the data above is a sample from the Poisson distribution with

parameter 1.5. [10 marks]

12. Explain the least squares method to obtain equation of regression line, using diagram. [3 marks]

Five pairs of value of variable x and y are given by

x 30 40 50 60 70

y 90 84 82 77 68

(a) Obtain the equation of the least squares regression line of y on x in the form y = a + bx, by

giving the values of a and b correct to one decimal places. [7 marks]

(b) When the sixth pair (x

6

, y

6

) is combined with the ﬁve pairs of values above, the equation of the

least squares regression line of y on x from the six pairs of values is y = 105 −

1

2

x. Find x

6

and

y

6

. [6 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 2 QUESTIONS STPM 2003

STPM 2003

1. Let T : R

2

→R

2

be a linear transformation such that

T :

1

1

→

2

−3

, T :

0

1

→

1

2

.

Show that

T :

a

b

→

a +b

−5a + 2b

.

[4 marks]

2. Solve the pair of congruences

x ≡ 1 (mod 6),

x ≡ 5 (mod 11).

[5 marks]

3. The vector equations of two intersecting lines are given by r = 2i + j + λ(i + j + 2k) and r =

2i + 2j −k +µ(i + 2j +k).

(a) Determine the coordinates of the point of intersection of the two lines. [3 marks]

(b) Find the acute angle between the two lines. [4 marks]

4. Find the greatest common divisor of 2501 and 2173 and express it in the form 2501m + 2173n, where

m and n are integers which are to be determined. [6 marks]

Find the smallest positive integer p such that 9977 +p = 2501x +2173y, where x and y are integers.

[3 marks]

5. Let G be a simple graph with n vertices and m edges. Prove that m ≤

1

2

n(n −1). [4 marks]

If n = 11 and m = 46, show that G is connected. [7 marks]

6. Describe the transformation in the xy-plane represented by the matrix

¸

¸

√

5

3

2

3

2

3

−

√

5

3

¸

.

[3 marks]

(a) Show that the equation of the invariant line which contains the invariant points is y =

3 −

√

5

2

x,

and ﬁnd the equation of the other invariant line which passes through the origin. [7 marks]

(b) The points P and Q are (2, −1) and (3, 0) respectively. Find the coordinates of the point T

which lies on the invariant line y =

3 −

√

5

2

**x such that the sum of the distance between P
**

and T and the distance between Q and T is minimum. [4 marks]

7. A random sample X

1

, X

2

, . . . , X

n

is taken from a normal population with mean µ and variance 1.

Determine the smallest sample size which is required so that the probability that

¯

X lies within 0.2

of µ is at least 0.90. [5 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 2 QUESTIONS STPM 2003

8. In a chi-square test, the test statistic is given by χ

2

=

k

¸

i=1

(O

i

−E

i

)

2

E

i

, where O

i

is the observed

frequency, E

i

the expected frequency, and k > 2. Show that

k

¸

i=1

(O

i

−E

i

)

2

E

i

=

k

¸

i=1

O

2

i

E

i

−N,

where N =

k

¸

i=1

O

i

=

k

¸

i=1

E

i

. [2 marks]

A car model has four colours: white, red, blue, and green. From a random sample of 60 cars of that

model in Kuala Lumpur, 13 are white, 14 are red, 16 are blue, and 17 are green. Test, at the 5%

signiﬁcance level, whether the number of cars of each colour of that model in Kuala Lumpur is the

same. [5 marks]

9. Explain what a least square regression line means. [3 marks]

The life (x thousand hours) and charge (y amperes) of a type of battery may be related by the least

square regression line y = 7.80 −1.72x.

(a) Determine, on the average, the reduction in the charge of the batteries after they have been

used for 1000 hours. [2 marks]

(b) Find the mean charge of the batteries after they have been used for 3000 hours. [2 marks]

10. The mean and standard deviation of the yield of a type of rice in Malaysia are 960 kg per hectare and

192 kg per hectare respectively. From a random sample of 30 farmers in Kedah who plant this rice,

the mean yield of rice is 996 kg per hectare. Test, at the 5% signiﬁcance level, the hypothesis that the

mean yield of rice in Kedah is more than the mean yield of rice in Malaysia. Give any assumptions

that need to be made in the test of this hypothesis. [8 marks]

11. Let Pearson’s correlation coeﬃcient between variables x and y for a random sample be r.

(a) If all the points on the scatter diagram lie on the line y = c, where c is a constant, comment on

the values of r. [2 marks]

(b) If all the points on the scatter diagram lie on the line y = a + bx, where a and b are constants

and b = 0, show that r =

b

√

b

2

and deduce the possible values of r. [6 marks]

12. Out of 100 corn seeds of type A which are planted in a certain area, 24 seeds fail to germinate. Out

of 50 corn seeds of type B which are planted in that area, 4 seeds fail to germinate.

(a) Find a 90% conﬁdence interval for the proportion of corn seeds of type A which fail to germinate

in that area. [5 marks]

(b) By considering an appropriate 2 × 2 contingency table, test, at the 5% signiﬁcance level, the

hypothesis that the proportions of corn seeds of type A and of type B which fail to germinate

in that area arc the same. [10 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 2 QUESTIONS STPM 2004

STPM 2004

1. Write down an incidence matrix for the graph given below. What can be said about the sum of the

entries in any row and the sum of the entries in any column of this incidence matrix? [4 marks]

v

1

v

2

e

1

v

3

v

4

v

5

e

2

e

3

e

4

e

5

e

6

2. The straight line joining the points (0, 0, 1) and (1, 0, 0) intersects the plane x +y +2z +2 = 0. Find

the coordinates of the point of intersection. [5 marks]

3. Deﬁne a simple graph. [1 marks]

State whether there exists a simple graph with

(a) eight vertices of degrees 7, 7, 7, 5, 4, 4, 4, 4;

(b) ﬁve vertices of degrees 2, 3, 4, 4, 5.

For each case, construct a simple graph if it exists, or give a reason if there does not exist a simple

graph. [5 marks]

4. The point P lies on the line r =

¸

1

3

3

¸

+t

¸

3

4

8

¸

**and the point Q lies on the plane whose equation is
**

r · (3i + 6j + 2k) = −22 such that PQ is perpendicular to the plane.

(a) Find the coordinates of P and Q in terms of t. [6 marks]

(b) Find the vector equation of the locus of the midpoint of PQ. [3 marks]

5. T : R

2

→ R

2

is a linear transformation such that the images of the points (1, 2) and (−1, 0) are the

points (3, −2) and (−1, 0) respectively.

(a) Find the matrix which represents T. [4 marks]

(b) Find the equation of the line which is the image of the line y = mx +c under T. [6 marks]

6. Deﬁne the congruence a ≡ b(mod m). [1 marks]

Solve each of the congruences x

3

≡ 2(mod 3) and x

3

≡ 2(mod 5). Deduce the set of positive integers

which satisfy both the congruences. [9 marks]

Hence, ﬁnd the positive integers x and y which satisfy the equation x

3

+ 15xy = 12152. [5 marks]

7. The Pearson correlation coeﬃcient between two variables X and Y for a random sample is 0.

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 2 QUESTIONS STPM 2004

(a) State whether this means that there is no linear relation between X and Y . Sketch a scatter

diagram for X and Y . [2 marks]

(b) State whether this means that X and Y are independent. Give a reason for your answer.[2 marks]

8. A normal population has mean µ and variance σ

2

.

(a) Explain brieﬂy what a 95% conﬁdence interval for µ means. [2 marks]

(b) From a random sample, it is found that the 95% conﬁdence interval for µ is (−1.5, 3.8). State

whether it is true that the probability that µ lies in the interval is 0.95. Give a reason. [2 marks]

(c) A total of 120 random samples of size 50 are taken from the population and for each sample a

95% conﬁdence interval for µ is calculated. Find the number of 95% conﬁdence intervals which

are expected to contain µ. [1 marks]

9. The equation of the regression line of the variable X on variable Y is x = −2y + 11. The Pearson

correlation coeﬃcient between X and Y is −

2

√

5

. The means of X and Y are 5 and 3 respectively.

Find the equation of the regression line of Y on X. [6 marks]

10. In order to investigate whether the level of education and the opinion on a social issue are independent,

1300 adults are interviewed. The following table shows the results of the interviews.

Level of education

Opinion on the social issue

Total

Agree Disagree

University 450 18 468

College 547 30 577

High school 230 25 255

Total 1227 73 1300

Determine, at the 1% signiﬁcance level, whether the level of education and the opinion on the social

issue are independent. [9 marks]

11. A petroleum company claims that its petrol has a RON rating of at least 97. From a random sample

of 15 petrol stations selling the petrol, the mean RON rating is found to be 96.30.

Assuming that the RON rating of the petrol of the petroleum company has a normal distribution

with standard deviation 3.21,

(a) test the claim of the petroleum company at the 2.5% signiﬁcance level, [6 marks]

(b) determine the smallest sample size required so that the null hypothesis in the test of the

petroleum company’s claim is rejected at the 5% signiﬁcance level. [6 marks]

12. In a survey on the quality of service provided by a bank, 12 out of 150 customers think that the

service is unsatisfactory while the other 138 customers think otherwise.

Test the hypothesis that the proportion of customers who think that the service is unsatisfactory is

0.10

(a) by using a 99% conﬁdence interval, [7 marks]

(b) by carrying out a signiﬁcance test at the 1% signiﬁcance level. [6 marks]

Comment on methods (a) and (b) used in the test of the hypothesis. [2 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 2 QUESTIONS STPM 2005

STPM 2005

1. What is a graph and what does the degree of a vertex of a graph mean? [3 marks]

2. Show that (x, 12) = 1 and (x, 15) = 1 if and only if (x, 30) = 1, where (a, b) denotes the greatest

common divisor of a and b. Hence, ﬁnd all integers x such that (x, 12) = 1 and (x, 15) = 1. [6 marks]

3. Four schools P, Q, R and S each has team A and team B in a tournament. The teams from the

same school do not play against each other. At a certain stage of the tournament, the numbers of

games played by the teams, except team A of school P, are distinct. Determine the number of games

played by team B of school P. [7 marks]

4. Using the deﬁnition of congruence, prove that if x, r and q are integers and x ≡ r(mod q), then

x

n

≡ r

n

(mod q) where n is a positive integer. [4 marks]

Hence, show that 19

n

+ 39

n

≡ 2(mod 8) for every integer n ≥ 1. [6 marks]

5. T : R

2

→R

2

is a linear transformation such that

T :

1

1

→

3

4

, and T :

2

1

→

6

4

.

(a) By expressing

1

0

as a linear combination of

1

1

and

2

1

, show that T

1

0

=

3

0

. Find

also T

0

1

**. Hence, write down the matrix representing T. [6 marks]
**

(b) Find the image of the circle x

2

+y

2

= 1 under T. [4 marks]

6. The line l has equation r = 2i +j +λ(2i +k) and the plane π has equation r = i + 3j −k +µ(2i +

k) +v(−i + 4j).

(a) The points P and Q lie on l and π respectively. The point R lies on the line PQ, where

PR = 2RQ. If P and Q move on l and π respectively, ﬁnd the equation of the locus of R.

[6 marks]

(b) The points L and M have coordinates (0, 1, −1) and (1, −5, −2) respectively. Show that L lies

on l and M lies on π. [3 marks]

Determine the sine of the acute angle between the line LM and the plane π and the shortest distance

from L to π. [6 marks]

7. In a study on the petrol consumption of cars, it is found that the mean mileage per litre of petrol for

24 cars of the same engine capacity is 15.2 km with a standard deviation of 4.2 km. Calculate the

standard error of the mean mileage and interpret this standard error. [3 marks]

8. The mass of a particular type of steel sheet produced by a factory has a normal distribution. The

mean mass of a random sample of 14 sheets is 72.5 kg and the standard deviation is 3.2 kg. Calculate

a 95% conﬁdence interval for the mean mass of the steel sheets produced by the factory. [4 marks]

9. Explain what is meant by signiﬁcance level in the context of hypothesis testing. [2 marks]

In a goodness-of-ﬁt test for the null hypothesis that the binomial distribution is an adequate model

for the data, the test statistic is found to have the value 19.38 with 7 degrees of freedom. Find the

smallest signiﬁcance level at which the null hypothesis is rejected. [2 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 2 QUESTIONS STPM 2005

10. The lifespan of a type of bulb is known to be normally distributed with standard deviation 150 hours.

The supplier of the bulbs claims that the mean lifespan is more than 5500 hours. The lifespans, in

hours, of a random sample of 15 bulbs are as follows.

5260 5400 5820 5530 5380 5460 5510 5520

5600 5780 5520 5500 5360 5620 5430

(a) State the appropriate hypotheses to test the supplier’s claim and carry out the hypothesis test

at the 5% signiﬁcance level. [8 marks]

(b) If the true mean lifespan is 5550 hours, ﬁnd the probability that the test gives a correct decision.

[4 marks]

11. The following table shows the frequency distribution of passengers (excluding the driver) per car in

a town for a particular period. The data could be a sample from a Poisson distribution.

Number of passengers 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

Frequency 241 211 104 35 7 0 2

(a) Find all the expected frequencies for the distribution correct to two decimal places. [3 marks]

(b) Calculate the values of the χ

2

goodness-of-ﬁt statistic

i. without combining any frequency classes,

ii. with the last three frequency classes being combined.

Comment on the values obtained and explain any diﬀerences. [6 marks]

(c) Using the value of the statistic in (b)(ii), test for goodness of ﬁt at the 5% signiﬁcance level.

[3 marks]

12. The following table shows the values of the variable y corresponding to seven accurately speciﬁed

values of the variable x.

y 800 920 1280 1500 4020 6200 6800

x 2 3 5 5 8 10 12

(a) Plot a scatter diagram of log

e

y against log

e

x. [3 marks]

(b) Find the equation of the least squares regression line of the form log

e

y = β

0

+ β

1

log

e

x, with

β

0

and β

1

correct to two decimal places. [5 marks]

(c) Calculate the Pearson correlation coeﬃcient r between log

e

y and log

e

x. Interpret your value

of r and comment on this value with respect to the scatter diagram in (a). [6 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 2 QUESTIONS STPM 2006

STPM 2006

1. The points A, B and C are three collinear points on a cartesian plane and T(A) = A

1

, T(B) = B

1

and

T(C) = C

1

, where T : R

2

→ R

2

is a linear transformation. If AB : BC = m : n, ﬁnd A

1

B

1

: B

1

C

1

.

[3 marks]

2. Using congruence properties, prove that 2

mn

− 1 is divisible by 2

m

− 1 for all integers m, n ≥ l.

[3 marks]

Deduce that, if 2

p

−1 is a prime number, then p is a prime number. [3 marks]

3. The matrix M represents an anticlockwise rotation in the xy-plane about the origin through an angle

θ. The matrix N =

**cos θ 2 cos θ −sin θ
**

sin θ 2 sin θ + cos θ

**represents the combined eﬀect of the transformation
**

represented by a matrix K followed by the transformation represented by M. Find K and describe

the transformation represented by K. [7 marks]

4. Graphs G

1

, G

2

and G

3

are given as follows.

(a) Draw an eulerian circuit for the graph which is eulerian. [3 marks]

(b) Draw a hamiltonian cycle for each of the graphs which is hamiltonian. [3 marks]

(c) For the graph which is not hamiltonian, determine how it could be made into a hamiltonian

graph by adding an edge. [1 marks]

(d) For each of the graphs which is not eulerian, determine how it could be made into an eulerian

graph by deleting or adding an edge. [2 marks]

5. Using Euclid’s algorithm, ﬁnd g.c.d.(6893, 11 639). [3 marks]

If n is an integer between 20 000 and 700 000 such that the remainder is 6893 when n is divided by

11 639, ﬁnd g.c.d.(6893, n). [7 marks]

6. The planes π

1

and π

2

with equations x −y +2z = 1 and 2x +y −z = 0 respectively intersect in the

line l. The point A has coordinates (1,0, 1).

(a) Calculate the acute angle between π

1

and π

2

. [2 marks]

(b) Explain why the vector

¸

1

−1

2

¸

×

¸

2

1

−1

¸

**is in the direction of l. Hence, show that the equation
**

of l is

r =

¸

0

1

1

¸

+t

¸

−1

5

3

¸

.

where t is a parameter. [5 marks]

(c) Find the equation of the plane passing through A and containing l. [3 marks]

(d) Find the equation of the plane passing through A and perpendicular to l. [2 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 2 QUESTIONS STPM 2006

(e) Determine the distance from A to l. [3 marks]

7. The length of a species of ﬁsh is normally distributed with mean µ and standard deviation 10 cm.

If the sample mean of 50 ﬁsh is greater than 35 cm, the null hypothesis µ = 32.5 cm is rejected in

favour of the alternative hypothesis µ > 32.5 cm. Find the probability of making a type I error. Find

also the probability of making a type II error when µ = 34 cm. [5 marks]

8. A property agent believes that the price of a house in a certain district depends principally on its

built-up area. The prices (p thousand ringgit) of eight houses in diﬀerent parts of the district and

their built-up areas (a square metres) are summarised as follows:

¸

a = 2855,

¸

p = 1689,

¸

ap = 827550,

¸

a

2

= 1400925,

¸

p

2

= 489181.

(a) Find the equation of the regression line in the form p = β

0

+ β

1

a, with p as the dependent

variable and a the independent variable. [5 marks]

(b) Give a reason why it is not suitable to use your regression equation to make predictions when

a = 0. [1 marks]

9. The average duration of an electronic device to retain information after the power is switched oﬀ is

normally distributed with a mean of µ

0

and an unknown variance.

It is of interest to determine whether there is an improvement in the performance of this device when

a component is added. A random sample of n such duration yields mean ¯ x and variance s

2

.

(a) State the appropriate null and alternative hypotheses. Explain brieﬂy your choice of the alter-

native hypothesis. [2 marks]

(b) Write down the test statistic and the critical region at the 5% signiﬁcant level for each of the

following cases.

i. n = 100

ii. n = 16

[5 marks]

10. A survey is to be carried out to estimate the proportion p of households having personal computers.

This estimate must be within 0.02 of the population proportion at a conﬁdence level of 95%.

(a) If p is estimated to be 0.12, ﬁnd the smallest sample size required. [4 marks]

(b) If the value of p is unknown, determine whether a sample size of 2500 is suﬃcient. [4 marks]

11. The following table shows the annual salary and experience of nine randomly selected engineers.

Salary (thousand of riggit) 88 48 60 70 62 78 100 52 110

Experience (year) 12 4 6 7 5 10 18 5 19

(a) Plot a scatter diagram. What do you expect of the relationship between the salary and experi-

ence based on the scatter diagram? [4 marks]

(b) Calculate the Pearson correlation coeﬃcient between the salary and experience. Explain whether

the value of the correlation coeﬃcient is consistent with what you expect in part (a). [7 marks]

12. What is meant by a contingency table? [1 marks]

A survey is carried out on a random sample of 820 persons who are asked whether students who

break school rules should be caned. The results of the survey are as follows.

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h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

hh

Education level

Opinion

Yes No Not sure

High school 125 65 100

College 98 68 64

University 100 80 120

Carry out chi-squared tests to determine whether educational level is related to the opinion on caning

at the signiﬁcance levels of 1% and 2%. [10 marks]

Comment on the conclusions of these tests. [2 marks]

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STPM 2007

1. Two graphs G

1

and G

2

are shown below.

(a) State, with reasons, which is an eulerian graph and which is not. [3 marks]

(b) Find an eulerian circuit for the eulerian graph. [2 marks]

2. If a simple graph has n vertices where n ≥ 2, show that at least two vertices are of the same degree.

[4 marks]

Give a counter example to show that the result is not true for a graph which is not a simple graph.

[2 marks]

3. The line which passes through the points A(−6, −1, −7) and B(6, 3, 1) cuts the plane 3x−y +2z = 5

at the point P. Show that the points A and B are on the opposite sides of the plane, and ﬁnd the

ratio AP : BP. [6 marks]

4. (a) Find all integers x that satisfy the congruence

2x ≡ 0 (mod 6).

[3 marks]

(b) Find all integers x and y that satisfy the pair of congruences

2x +y ≡ 1 (mod 6),

x + 3y ≡ 3 (mod 6).

[6 marks]

5. A linear transformation f : R

2

→R

2

is deﬁned by f(u) = v, where u =

x

y

and v =

x +y

x −y

.

(a) If f(u) = Au, where A is a 2 ×2 matrix, ﬁnd A. [2 marks]

(b) If f

2

(u) = Bu, where f

2

(u) = (f ◦ f)(u) and B is a 2 ×2 matrix, ﬁnd B and verify that B = A

2

.

[3 marks]

(c) By using mathematical induction, show that f

n

(u) = A

n

u, where f

n

(u) = (f ◦ f

n−1

)(u), for all

integers n ≥ 1. [4 marks]

(d) The points P

, Q

and R

**are the images of the vertices P, Q and R respectively of a triangle
**

under the transformation f

n

. If the area of the triangle PQR is 8 units

2

, ﬁnd the area of the

triangle P

Q

R

. [3 marks]

6. Two straight lines l

1

and l

2

have equations −2x + 4 = 2y − 4 = z − 4 and 2x = y + 1 = −z + 3

respectively. Determine whether l

1

and l

2

intersect. [7 marks]

The points P and Q lie on l

1

and l

2

respectively, and the point R divides PQ in the ratio 2:3. Find

the equation of the locus of R. [6 marks]

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7. (a) Explain brieﬂy why it is advisable to plot a scatter diagram before interpreting a Pearson

correlation coeﬃcient for a sample of bivariate distribution. [2 marks]

(b) Sketch a scatter diagram with ﬁve data-points for each of the following cases.

i. The Pearson correlation coeﬃcient of two variables is close to 0 but there is an obvious

relation between them. [1 marks]

ii. The Pearson correlation coeﬃcient of two variables is close to 1 but there is no linear relation

between them. [1 marks]

8. The lengths of petals taken from a particular species of ﬂowers have mean 80 cm and variance 30

cm

2

. Determine the sampling distribution of the sample mean if 100 petals are chosen at random.

[3 marks]

Hence, ﬁnd the probability that the sample mean is at least two standard deviations from the mean.

[3 marks]

9. It is found that 5% of doctors in a particular country play golf. Find, to three decimal places, the

probability that, in a random sample of 50 doctors, two play golf. [2 marks]

Hence, state the sampling distribution of the proportion of the doctors who play golf, and construct

a 98% conﬁdence interval for the proportion. [5 marks]

10. A farmer wishes to ﬁnd out the eﬀect of a new feed on his calves. The average weight gain of a calf

on the original feed in a month is normally distributed with mean 10 kg. In a particular month, the

farmer gives the new feed to 16 calves. It is found that the average weight gain of a calf on the new

feed is 11.5 kg with a standard deviation of 2.5 kg.

(a) State appropriate hypotheses for a signiﬁcant test. [2 marks]

(b) Carry out the test at the 5% signiﬁcance level. [7 marks]

11. In a psychological study, 50 persons are asked to answer four multiple-choice questions. The an-

swers obtained are compared with the predetermined answers. The data is recorded as a frequency

distribution as follows:

Number of matched answers 0 1 2 3 4

Frequency 10 15 8 5 12

A psychologist suggests that the data ﬁts the following probability distribution.

Number of matched answers 0 1 2 3 4

Probability 0.08 0.10 0.15 0.25 0.42

(a) Calculate the expected frequencies based on the probability distribution. [2 marks]

(b) Determine whether there is signiﬁcant evidence, at the 5% signiﬁcant level, to reject the sugges-

tion. [8 marks]

12. A study is carried out to determine the eﬀect of exercise frequency on lung capacity. The exercise

frequency in weeks is denoted by X and the percentage increase in lung capacity by Y . The data

obtained from 10 volunteers are summarised as follows:

¸

x = 319,

¸

x

2

= 11053,

¸

y = 530,

¸

y

2

= 30600,

¸

xy = 18055.

(a) Calculate the Pearson correlation coeﬃcient and describe the relationship between X and Y .

[5 marks]

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(b) Calculate the coeﬃcient of determination and interpret its value. [2 marks]

(c) Find the equation of the regression line in the form y = a+bx, where a and b are correct to two

decimal places. [4 marks]

(d) Predict the mean value of the percentage increase in lung capacity if the exercise frequency is

25 weeks. State your assumption in obtaining the predicted value. [2 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 2 QUESTIONS STPM 2008

STPM 2008

1. If n is an odd integer, prove that x

2

−y

2

= 2n has no solution in the set of integers. [4 marks]

2. The adjacency matrix of a graph G is

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

0 1 0 1 1

1 0 1 0 0

0 1 0 1 1

1 0 1 0 0

1 0 1 0 0

¸

.

(a) Draw the graph G. [2 marks]

(b) Distinguish the vertices of the graph G using minimum number ofc olours such that vertices of

the same colour are not adjacent. [2 marks]

(c) State the type of the graph G. [1 marks]

3. Find the equation of the plane which is parallel to the plane 3x+2y −6z −24 = 0 and passes through

the point (1, 0, 0). Hence, determine the distance between these two planes. [6 marks]

4. A graph is given as follows:

a

b

(a) Find the total number of paths with the end vertices a and b. [3 marks]

(b) Write down the degree sequence of the graph, (d

1

, d

2

, . . . , d

9

), in ascending order. [2 marks]

(c) Show that the total number of paths consisting of three vertices is

9

¸

i=2

d

i

2

**and determine its
**

value. [4 marks]

5. The points A and B lie on the line r =

¸

0

3

6

¸

+λ

¸

1

−1

−4

¸

**, and the distance of each point is three units
**

from the origin O.

(a) Determine the coordinates of A and B. [6 marks]

(b) Find the area of the triangle OAB. [3 marks]

6. A linear transformation T : R

2

→R

2

maps

0

−1

into

2

2

,

1

1

into

3

6

and

1

0

into

3

5

.

(a) Find the matrices A and C such that

T

x

y

= A

x

y

+C.

[6 marks]

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(b) The transformation T is equivalent to a transformation U followed by a transformation V.

Determine the images of the points P

1

(0, 0), P

2

(0, 2), P

3

(1, 2) and P

4

(1, 0) under T, and hence

describe U and V. [6 marks]

(c) Determine the image of the straight line y = 2x under T. [3 marks]

7. A set of sample data for two random variables X and Y gives the results

¸

(x − ¯ x)

2

= 72,

¸

(y − ¯ y)

2

= 57,

¸

(x − ¯ x)(x − ¯ y) = −36.

(a) Calculate the Pearson correlation coeﬃcient r between X and Y , and interpret the value of r

obtained. [3 marks]

(b) What is the value of r if each value of x is increased by 0.3 whereas the value of y remain

unchanged? Give a reason. [2 marks]

8. A machine is regulated to dispense a chocolate drink into cups. From a random sample of 100 cups

of the chocolate drink dispensed, it is found that the cocoa content in one cup of the chocolate drink

has mean 5 g and standard deviation 0.5 g. The owner of the machine uses the conﬁdence interval

(4.900 g, 5.100 g) to estimate the mean cocoa content in one cup of the chocolate drink.

(a) Identify the population parameter under study. [1 marks]

(b) Determine the conﬁdence level for the conﬁdence interval used. [5 marks]

9. The masses of watermelon produced by a farmer are normally distributed with mean 3 kg. The

farmer decides to use a new organic fertiliser for his crop if the mean mass of a random sample of 10

watermelons using the new organic fertiliser exceeds k kg. For this random sample of 10 watermelons,

the standard deviation is 0.65 kg. The farmer uses a probability of Type I error equal to 0.01 in

making his decision.

(a) State what is meant by a Type I error. [1 marks]

(b) Determine the value of k. [5 marks]

10. For a set of data, the least-squares regression line of y on x is

y = 100.15 + 0.25x.

(a) Explain the method used to estimate the coeﬃcient of x and the constant in the equation of the

regression line. State an appropriate assumption. [4 marks]

(b) What is the percentage error in the estimation of value of y when x = 2500 using the regression

line, given that the actual value of y is 850? [4 marks]

11. Two hundred patients with a certain skin disorder are treated for ﬁve days either with cream A or

cream B. The following table shows the number of patients recorded as no recovery, partial recovery

or complete recovery.

Type of cream

Number of patients

No recovery Partial recovery Complete recovery

A 25 30 45

B 10 25 65

(a) Calculate the percentage of patients with improvement for each type of cream used and comment

on your answers. [2 marks]

(b) Determine, at the 5% signiﬁcance level, whether the condition of a patient is independent of the

type of cream used. [9 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 2 QUESTIONS STPM 2008

(c) What conclusion can be made based on the results in (a) and (b)? [1 marks]

12. A manufacturer produces a new type of paint. He claims that the paint has 0.04% lead content by

weight. A random sample of 25 tins (1 kg per tin) of the paint is analysed to determine the lead

content. Sample mean and standard deviation of the lead content in a kilogramme of paint are 0.38

g and 0.1 g respectively.

(a) Construct a 99% conﬁdence interval for the mean lead content in a kilogramme of paint. State

your assumption. [5 marks]

(b) What is the eﬀect on the conﬁdence interval obtained in (a) if the sample size is increased to

100? [2 marks]

(c) Carry out a test, at the 1% signiﬁcance level, to test the manufacturers claim. [6 marks]

(d) Relate the conﬁdence interval obtained in (a) with the result of the test in (c). [2 marks]

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STPM 2009

1. Let K

rs

be a complete bipartite graph, where r ≤ s. Each of the r vertices in a partite set is connected

to each of the s vertices in another partite set. If K

rs

has 36 edges and 15 vertices. ﬁnd r and s.

[4 marks]

2. T : R

2

→R

2

is a linear transformation represented by a matrix

a b

−3 a

**. If the images of the points
**

(a, −1) and (−2, a) are (a +2, 2b) and (2b, 7) respectively under T, ﬁnd the values of a and b.[6 marks]

3. For any integers a and b, prove that if a divides b then a

3

divides b

3

. [3 marks]

Hence, determine whether 64 divides [(5n + 1)

2

−(3n + 5)

2

]

3

, where n is an integer. [4 marks]

4. (a) Deﬁne a walk of a graph. [2 marks]

(b) Graph G is given as follows:

V

1

V

2

V

3

V

4 V

5

i. Find all walks of length two from vertex V

2

to vertex V

i

where i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and represent

them by a row matrix. [2 marks]

ii. Find all walks of length two from vertex V

r

. where r = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, to vertex V

4

, and

represent them by a column matrix. [1 marks]

iii. Find the total number of possible walks of length four from vertex V

2

to vertex V

4

.[3 marks]

5. (a) If g.c.d.(a, m)=1, show that there exists a solution for ax ≡ b (mod m). [3 marks]

(b) Deduce that, if g.c.d.(ad −bc, n)=1, then a solution exists for the system of linear congruences

ax +by ≡ k (mod n),

cx +dy ≡ l (mod n).

Hence, solve the system of linear congruences

7x + 3y ≡ 10 (mod 16),

2x + 5y ≡ 9 (mod 16).

[7 marks]

6. (a) Find the equation of line l

1

, passing through points A and B, where the position vectors of

points A and B are a and b respectively. [1 marks]

(b) R is a point on the line l

1

in (a). If point C has position vector c,

i. ﬁnd

−→

CR in terms of vectors a, b and c. [1 marks]

ii. prove that

−→

CR ×

−−→

AB = a ×b +b ×c +c ×a, [3 marks]

iii. deduce the shortest distance of the point C from the line l

1

. [3 marks]

(c) i. Find the distance of point T(1+3k, −2+k, 5−2k) to line l

2

passing through points P(4, 4, 4)

and Q(3, 2, 1) in terms of k. [3 marks]

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ii. Deduce the distance between skew lines l

2

and l

3

, where the equation of line l

3

, is given by

t =

¸

1

−2

5

¸

+k

¸

3

1

−2

¸

.

[4 marks]

7. A local automobile manufacturing company studies the relationship between the age (x years) and

the price (y thousand RM) of one of its car models. The data obtained from a random sample of ten

cars of this model are as follows:

(1, 70), (2, 65), (3, 60), (4, 55), (5, 50), (6, 45), (7, 40), (8, 35), (9, 30) and (10, 20)

Calculate the Pearson correlation coeﬃcient between the age and the price of this car model, and

interpret the value obtained. [5 marks]

8. A medical researcher wishes to study whether the severity of a certain lung ailment is related to the

smoking habit of a patient. A patient who smokes more than 20 cigarettes a day on the average is

classiﬁed as a heavy smoker. A random sample of 96 patients was taken. It is found that from 43

patients with mild lung ailment, 23 are light smokers while the rest are heavy smokers. The remaining

53 patients with severe lung ailment, 39 patients are heavy smokers.

(a) Tabulate the data in an appropriate contingency table. [1 marks]

(b) Determine, at 5% signiﬁcance level, whether the severity of the lung ailment and the smoking

habit are independent. [5 marks]

9. Tte monthly salary of engineers working in a town has a normal distribution. The mean monthly

salary of a random sample of 16 engineers is RM5280 and the standard deviation is RM480.

(a) Construct a 95% conﬁdence interval for the mean monthly salary of an engineer in the town.

Interpret your answer. [4 marks]

(b) A statistician ﬁnds that the conﬁdence interval obtained in (a) is too wide. Suggest, with reasons

a method for reducing the width of the conﬁdence interval but maintaining the conﬁdence level.

[3 marks]

10. An electronic component produced by a factory is found to have at most ﬁve defects. A supervisor

at the factory conducts a study on the number of defects found in the electronic components. One

thousand electronic components have been selected at random and inspected. The number of defects

found and their respective frequency arc given as follows:

Number of defects 0 1 2 3 4 5

Frequency 33 145 337 286 174 25

(a) Test, at 5% and 20% signiﬁcance levels, whether the binomial distribution with probability of

defect p = 0.5 ﬁts the data. [7 marks]

(b) Recommend, with a reason, an appropriate conclusion for part (a). [2 marks]

11. The lifespan (in kilometres) of a tyre is deﬁned as the distance travelled before wearing out. A tyre

manufacturer claims that the mean lifespan µ of its tyre is at least 50 000 km. In order to test this

claim, a consumer association takes a random sample of 121 tyres. The mean and standard deviation

of the lifespan for the sample are 49 200 km and 2500 km respectively.

(a) Determine the distribution of the sample mean lifespan of the tyres if the lifespan of the tyres

is assumed to have

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 2 QUESTIONS STPM 2009

i. a normal distribution, [1 marks]

ii. an unknown distribution. [1 marks]

(b) Assuming that the lifespan of the tyres has a normal distribution, state the appropriate hypothe-

ses to test the manufacturer’s claim, and carry out the hypothesis test at the 1% signiﬁcance

level. [5 marks]

(c) If the true mean lifespan of a tyre is 49 400 km. determine the probability of type II error in

(b). [3 marks]

12. A study on the relationship between amount of time spent on revision X (in hours) and performance

in a ﬁnal examination Y (scores of 0 to 100) for 10 female undergraduates are summarised as follows:

¸

x = 725,

¸

x

2

= 54625,

¸

y = 696,

¸

y

2

= 49376,

¸

xy = 51705

(a) Find the equation of the regression line in the form y = β

0

+ β

1

x, where y is the dependent

variable and x the independent variable. Interpret the value of β

1

obtained. [7 marks]

(b) Using the regression line obtained, predict the mean value of y when x = 70, and state your

assumption. [2 marks]

(c) Find the coeﬃcient of determination D between the amount of time spent on revision and the

performance in a ﬁnal examination of the undergraduates. Hence, interpret the value of D.

[4 marks]

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 2 QUESTIONS STPM 2010

STPM 2010

1. Show that 9

n

−1 is divisible by 8 for every positive integer n. [3 marks]

2. Find the coordinates of the point P on the line

x

5

=

y −1

1

=

z −3

−2

which is closest to the point

Q(9, 4, −3). [6 marks]

3. T : R

2

→ R

2

is a linear transformation such that the matrix which represents T is

4 2

−1 2

. Find

and describe the image of the circle x

2

+y

2

= 1 under the transformation T. [5 marks]

Hence, determine the area of the image. [2 marks]

4. The transformation M is a rotation 45

◦

anticlockwise about the origin. The transformation N is an

enlargement with the origin as the centre of enlargement and scale factor k. The transformation NM

maps the points (0, 1) and (3, −1) into the points (−1, 1) and (4, 2) respectively.

(a) Find the matrix representing the transformation M. [2 marks]

(b) Find the matrix representing the transformation NM. [4 marks]

(c) Determine the value of k. [2 marks]

5. The line l has the equation

x + 7

1

=

y −4

−3

=

z −5

2

and the plane π has the equation 4x−2y−5z = 8.

(a) Determine whether the line l is parallel to the plane π. [5 marks]

(b) Find the equation of the plane that is perpendicular to the plane π and contains the points

Q(−2, 0, 3) and R(2, 1, 7). [6 marks]

6. The simple graph G with its vertex set V (G) = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j} is shown below.

(a) State, with a reason, whether G is an Eulerian graph. [2 marks]

(b) Find the largest cycle in G, and determine whether G is a Hamiltonian graph. [4 marks]

(c) The subgraph S of G is obtained by removing the vertex g together with all the edges adjacent

to it.

i. Draw the subgraph S. [2 marks]

ii. Determine whether S is a connected graph. [2 marks]

iii. Determine whether S is a bipartite graph. [3 marks]

7. The mean mark of an English test for a random sample of 50 form ﬁve students in a particular state

is 47.7. A hypothesis test is to be carried out to determine whether the mean mark for all the form

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 2 QUESTIONS STPM 2010

ﬁve students in the state is greater than 45.0. Using a population standard deviation of 13 marks,

carry out the hypothesis test at the 10% signiﬁcance level. [6 marks]

8. The relationships between two variables x and y are shown in the graphs below.

Suggest a value for Pearson correlation coeﬃcient r if the outlier is not taken into account, and

comment on the eﬀect of the outlier on the value of r in each of the above graphs. [6 marks]

9. A doctor claims that doctors in government hospitals work at least 12 extra hours in a week. A

random sample of 25 doctors is taken and it is found that the mean and standard deviation are 10.9

hours and 2.3 hours respectively.

State the appropriate hypotheses to test the doctor’s claim, and carry out the test at the 5% signiﬁ-

cance level. [7 marks]

10. A food company carries out a market survey in a state on its new ﬂavoured yoghurt. Three hundred

randomly chosen consumers taste the yoghurt. Their responses are shown in the table below.

Response Like Dislike Neutral

Number of consumers 195 70 35

(a) Estimate the proportion of consumers in the state who like the yoghurt. Hence, calculate the

probability that the proportion of consumers who like the yoghurt is at least 0.70. [5 marks]

(b) Construct a 95% conﬁdence interval for the proportion of consumers in the state who like the

yoghurt. [4 marks]

11. In developing a new drug for an allergy, an experiment is carried out to study how diﬀerent dosages of

the drug aﬀect the duration of relief from the allergic symptoms. A random sample of eight patients

is taken and each patient is given a speciﬁed dosage of the drug. The duration of relief for the patients

is shown in the table below.

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FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 2 QUESTIONS STPM 2010

Dosage (mg) Duration of relief (hours)

3 9

4 10

5 12

6 14

6 16

7 18

8 22

9 24

(a) State the independent and dependent variables. [1 marks]

(b) Find the equation of the least-squares regression line in the form y = a +bx, where x and y are

the independent and dependent variables respectively. Write down your answers correct to two

decimal places. [6 marks]

(c) Calculate the coeﬃcient of determination for the regression line, and comment on the adequacy

of the straight line ﬁt. [4 marks]

12. A thread always breaks during the weaving of cloth in a factory. The number of breaks per thread

which occur for 100 threads of equal length are tabulated as follows:

Number of breaks per thread 0 1 2 3 4 5

Number of threads 15 22 31 18 8 6

(a) Calculate the expected number of threads with respect to the number of breaks based on a

Poisson distribution having the same mean as the observed distribution. [6 marks]

(b) Carry out a χ

2

test, at the 5% signiﬁcance level, to determine whether the data ﬁts the proposed

model in (a). [7 marks]

48

A

K

E

O

N

G

FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 2 QUESTIONS STPM 2011

STPM 2011

1. When integers a and b are divided by 8, the reminaders are 3 and 7 respectively. Find the remainder

when 5a +b divided by 8. [4 marks]

2. If n is an integer such that 7 divides n+1 and 19 divides n+3, show that 12n ≡ 2(mod 133). Hence,

determine the smallest value of n. [5 marks]

3. The adjacency matrix of a simple graph G is

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

0 0 0 1 1

0 0 1 1 0

0 1 0 1 m

2

1 1 1 0 0

1 0 4m−3 0 0

¸

.

(a) Determine the value of m, and draw the graph G. [4 marks]

(b) State the length of the longest cycle in the graph G. [1 marks]

4. The line r =

¸

1

2

3

¸

+λ

¸

3

p

1

¸

is perpendicular to the plane r =

¸

5

0

1

¸

+s

¸

1

−1

q

¸

+t

¸

0

1

2

¸

, where p and

q are constants.

(a) Determine the values of p and q. [5 marks]

(b) Using the values of p and q in (a), ﬁnd the position vector of the point of intersection of the line

and the plane [5 marks]

5. The transformation T: R

2

→R

2

is deﬁned by T:

x

y

→A

x

y

, where A =

−2 3

3 6

.

(a) Determine the invariant line under T. [7 marks]

(b) Find the image of the line y = x −1 under T. [5 marks]

6. The transformation T: R

2

→R

2

is deﬁned by F

x

y

=

x −y

x +y

.

(a) Show that F is a linear transformation. [4 marks]

(b) If the image of the point (x, y) under F is the point (u, v), show that 2x = u+v and 2y = v −u.

Hence ﬁnd and sketch the image of the region {(x, y) : 0 ≤ x ≤ 1, 0 ≤ y ≤ 1}. [6 marks]

(c) Given that F is a composition of transformations M and N,

i. Describe M and N, [4 marks]

ii. state the matrices representing M and N. [2 marks]

7. X

1

, and X

2

are two independent observations of a random variable X. Two estimators for the mean

value of x are deﬁned by

θ

1

=

kX

1

+ 2kX

2

3

and θ

2

= kX

1

+ (1 −k)X

2

,

where k is a constant and k = 1. Determine whether the estimators are unbiased. [4 marks]

49

A

K

E

O

N

G

FURTHER MATHEMATICS PAPER 2 QUESTIONS STPM 2011

8. Five pairs of values of variables x and y are taken from a bivariate sample. The scatter diagrams of

y against x and ln y against x are shown below.

The Pearson correlation coeﬃcient between x and y is 0.901, and the Pearson correlation coeﬃcient

between x and ln y is 0.998. Comment on these two values with respect to the scatter diagrams.

[4 marks]

9. A random sample of size n is taken to estimate the mean length of a particular aluminum rod

produced by a factory. Assuming that the length of the rod is normally distributed with a standard

deviation of 2 mm, determine the smallest value of n so that the width of the conﬁdence interval for

the mean length of the rod is 1 mm with a conﬁdence level of at least 90%. [5 marks]

10. A nutritionist wishes to determine whether the mean intake of fat by women in a city exceeds the

recommended 25 g of fat intake per day. A random sample of 20 women from the city gives a mean

of 27.5 g and a standard deviation of 12 g of fat intake per day.

(a) State the appropriate hypotheses for a signiﬁcance test. [1 marks]

(b) Carry out the test at the 5% signiﬁcance level. [6 marks]

(c) State any assumption required. [1 marks]

11. For several pairs of observations of variables x and y, where 5 ≤ x ≤ 28 and ¯ x = 16.8, the Pearson

correlation coeﬃcient is 0.92. The equation of the regression line of y on x is y = −1.172 + 0.115x.

(a) Estimate the values of y when x = 10 and x = 30. Comment on the reliability of the two

estimates. [5 marks]

(b) Find the equation of the regression line of x on y. [5 marks]

12. In a physics experiment, the number of emissions per hour from a radioactive substance is recorded

for 100 hours. The results of the experiment are shown in the following table.

Number of emissions per hour 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Frequency 2 15 21 16 19 12 9 3 3

(a) Calculate the sample mean and an unbiased estimate for the variance of the number of emissions

per hour from the radioactive substance. Give a reason why the number of emissions per hour

may have a Poisson distribution. [6 marks]

(b) Carry out a χ

2

goodness-of-ﬁt test, at the 5% signiﬁcance level, to determine whether the number

of emissions per hour has a Poisson distribution. [11 marks]

50

A

K

E

O

N

G

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