MSC Software Development Kit 2010 User's Guide

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Disclaimer
MSC.Software Corporation reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information contained in this document without prior notice. The concepts, methods, and examples presented in this text are for illustrative and educational purposes only, and are not intended to be exhaustive or to apply to any particular engineering problem or design. MSC.Software Corporation assumes no liability or responsibility to any person or company for direct or indirect damages resulting from the use of any information contained herein. User Documentation: Copyright 2010 MSC.Software Corporation. Printed in U.S.A. All Rights Reserved. This notice shall be marked on any reproduction of this documentation, in whole or in part. Any reproduction or distribution of this document, in whole or in part, without the prior written consent of MSC.Software Corporation is prohibited. This software may contain certain third-party software that is protected by copyright and licensed from MSC.Software suppliers. MSC, MD, Dytran, Marc, MSC Nastran, MD Nastran, Patran, MD Patran, the MSC.Software corporate logo, and Simulating Reality are trademarks or registered trademarks of the MSC.Software Corporation in the United States and/or other countries. NASTRAN is a registered trademark of NASA. PAMCRASH is a trademark or registered trademark of ESI Group. SAMCEF is a trademark or registered trademark of Samtech SA. LS-DYNA is a trademark or registered trademark of Livermore Software Technology Corporation. All other brand names, product names or trademarks belong to their respective owners. PCGLSS 6.0, Copyright © 1992-2005, Computational Applications and System Integration Inc. All rights reserved. PCGLSS 6.0 is licensed from Computational Applications and System Integration Inc.

Revision 0. May 11, 2010 MDNA:2010:Z:SCA:Z:DC-USR-PDF

Contents
SCA Framework User’s Guide (DEV)

1

Introduction
Introduction 2 3 Organization of this manual Source Code Examples 4

2

SCA Overview
Introduction 6 7 11 Interface Based Programming

SCA Interfaces and the IDL language SCA Services 12 13 14 15 16

SCA Components 13 What is the SCA Kernel The SCA Framework Language support Platform support Summary 17

3

A SCA Hello World Application
Introduction 20 Defining the Interfaces 21 Include guard 21 Include declarations 22 Module declarations 22 Interface declarations 23 Defining the Service 24

2 SCA Framework User’s Guide (DEV)

Include guard 24 Include declarations Module declarations Service declaration

24 25 25

Defining the Component 26 Include guard 26 Include declarations 26 Component declaration 27 Generating the Code Skeletons 28 The genskeleton command 28 Adding the required functionality to the skeletons Implementing the service in C++ 29 Implementing the service in java 30 Implementing the service in C# 31 Implementing the service in visual basic 32 Building the Component 34

28

Creating a Client for the Service 35 Implementing the Application in C++ 35 Implementing the Application in Java 38 Implementing the Application in C# 39 Implementing the Application in Visual Basic Implementing the Application in Python 43 Intra-language Support Summary 46 45

41

4

The IDL Language
Introduction Source Files IDL 49 SDL 49 CDL 49 48 49

Lexical Rules 51 Comments 51 Identifiers 51 Keywords 51 Escaped identifiers Literals 52

52

Contents 3

Constant expressions Preprocessing 56

55

IDL Specification for Interfaces and Types Grammar notation 57 IDL specification 57 Basic IDL Types 58 User-defined Types 62 Template Types 66 Constants 70 74

57

Modules, Names and Scoping Name lookup rules 74 Qualified names 75 Scoping rules 76 Interfaces and Operations 78 Interface header 78 Interface inheritance specification Interface body 79 Operation declaration 79 Forward declarations 81 Interface inheritance 82 SCAIService interface 83 Exceptions 85 86

79

SDL Specifications

CDL Specifications 89 Service Options 92 SCA Component Declaration Component Options 95 94

Using the SCA-IDL Compiler 96 The IDL compiler command 96 Compiler processing modes 97 Location for compiler generated files The genskeleton command 99 Summary 100

98

4 SCA Framework User’s Guide (DEV)

5

IDL to C++ Language Mapping
Introduction 102 104 105 106 107 108 Mapping for Identifiers Mapping for Modules Mapping for Basic Types Mapping for String Types

Mapping for Enumerated Types Mapping for Structures Mapping for Arrays 110 Fixed size arrays 110 Dynamic arrays 111 Mapping for Sequences Mapping for Type Aliases Mapping for SCATypeCode 116 119 120 109

Mapping for SCAAny 121 The SCAAny class definition 121 Creating new SCAAny values 123 Inserting values into exiting SCAAny values 123 Extracting the value contained in a SCAAny 124 Assigning SCAAny values 124 Interrogating the value contained in a SCAAny 125 Miscellaneous SCAAny methods 125 Special SCAAny methods for Dynamic Arrays 126 Limitations in the SCAAny 126 Mapping for SCAResult 127 SCAResult class definition 127 Creating new SCAResult values 128 Resetting the error code in a SCAResult value 128 Adding parameters to a SCAResult value 128 Interrogating the contents of a SCAResult 129 Miscellaneous SCAResult methods 129 Mapping for Constants 130 132

Mapping for Interfaces 131 Mapping for Interface Smart Pointer Definition

Contents 5

Mapping for Interface Abstract Base Class Definition Mapping for Interface Operations 133 Mapping Interface Operation Parameters 134 Using Smart Pointers 135 Mapping for Exceptions 137 SCAException class 137 SCAUserException class 137 SCASystemException class 138 Mapping for IDL defined user exceptions 138 Special Rules for using SCA Exceptions in C++ Mapping for SCA Services 141 The inheritance form of implementation The ServiceAccess interface 145 The delegation form of implementation Singleton Services 148 Aggregation 149 Mapping for SCA Components Embedded Components 150 150 142 147

133

139

6

IDL to Java Language Mapping
Introduction 152 154 155 156 157 Mapping for Identifiers Mapping for Modules Mapping for Basic Types

Mapping for Unsigned Data Types Mapping for String Types 158

Mapping for Enumerated Types Mapping for Structures Mapping for Arrays 161 Fixed size arrays 161 Dynamic Arrays 163 Mapping for Sequences Mapping for Type Aliases 164 166 160

159

6 SCA Framework User’s Guide (DEV)

Mapping for SCATypeCode

167

Mapping for SCAAny 168 The SCAAny class definition 168 Creating new SCAAny values 169 Inserting values into exiting SCAAny values Extracting the value contained in a SCAAny Miscellaneous SCAAny methods 172

170 171

Mapping for SCAResult 173 SCAResult class definition 173 Creating new SCAResult values 174 Resetting the error code in a SCAResult value 174 Adding parameters to a SCAResult value 175 Interrogating the contents of a SCAResult 175 Miscellaneous SCAResult methods 175 Mapping for Constants 177 178 178

Mapping for Interfaces 178 Mapping for Interface Operations Mapping for Interface Parameters

Mapping for Exceptions 180 SCAException interface 180 SCAUserException class 180 SCASystemException class 181 Mapping for IDL defined user exceptions The IDL raises clause 182 Mapping for SCA Services 184 The inheritance form of implementation The ServiceAccess interface 188 The delegation form of implementation Singleton Services 188 Aggregation 188 Mapping for SCA Components Embedded Components 189 SCA Framework / JVM Interaction Java Virtual Machine Initialization The IDLTypes.jar archive 190 189 190 190

181

185 188

Contents 7

7

IDL to .Net Languages Mapping
Introduction 192 194 195 196 198 199 Mapping for Identifiers Mapping for Modules Mapping for Basic Types Mapping for String Types

Mapping for Enumerated Types Mapping for Structures Mapping for Arrays 201 Fixed size arrays 201 Dynamic Arrays 202 Mapping for Sequences Mapping for Type Aliases Mapping for SCATypeCode 203 204 205 200

Mapping for SCAAny 206 The SCAAny class definition 206 Creating new SCAAny values 207 Inserting values into existing SCAAny value Extracting the value contained in a SCAAny Miscellaneous SCAAny methods 210

208 209

Mapping for SCAResult 211 SCAResult class definition 211 Creating new SCAResult values 212 Resetting the error code in a SCAResult value 212 Adding parameters to a SCAResult value 213 Interrogating the contents of a SCAResult 213 Miscellaneous SCAResult methods 214 Mapping for Constants 215 216 216

Mapping for Interfaces 216 Mapping for Interface Operations Mapping for Interface Parameters Mapping for Exceptions SCAException interface 217 217

8 SCA Framework User’s Guide (DEV)

SCAUserException class 217 SCASystemException class 217 Mapping for IDL defined user exceptions The IDL raises clause 218

218

Mapping for SCA Services 220 The inheritance form of implementation 221 Implementation for subservice classes 222 Creating instances of subservice classes 223 The ServiceAccess interface 224 The delegation form of implementation 224 Singleton Services 226 Aggregation 226 Mapping for SCA Components Embedded Components 227 227

8

IDL to Python Language Mapping
Introduction 230 232 233 234 237 Mapping for Identifiers Mapping for Modules Mapping for Basic Types

Mapping for Enumerated Types Mapping for Structures Mapping for Arrays 240 241 242 243 238

Mapping for Sequences Mapping for Type Aliases Mapping for TypeCode

Mapping for SCAAny 244 The SCAAny class definition 244 Creating new SCAAny values 245 Inserting values into existing SCAAny values Extracting the value contained in a SCAAny Miscellaneous SCAAny methods 247 Mapping for SCAResult 248 SCAResult class definition 248

246 247

Contents 9

Creating new SCAResult values 249 Resetting the error code in a SCAResult value 249 Adding parameters to a SCAResult value 250 Interrogating the contents of a SCAResult 250 Mapping for Constants 252

Mapping for Interfaces 253 Mapping for Interface Operations 253 Special Interface Attributes 253 Mapping for Interface Parameters 254 Use of getInterface in Python 255 Implementing SCA Interfaces 256 Mapping for Exceptions 258 SCAException exception 258 Mapping for other exception types The IDL raises clause 260 Mapping for SCA Services 261 262

258

Mapping for SCA Components The SCA Module 263

Accessing IDL Type Definitions from Python Running Python Scripts 267 Running Scripts with the ScriptBroker Running Scripts from the command line 267 267

264

9

Messages and Internationalization
Introduction 270 Message Files 271 Locale String 271 Message File Naming Convention File Search Order 271 Message File Format 272 Text Formatting 273 Currency Format ($) 273 Date/Time Format (#) 273 All other Formats (%) 274 Text Translation Service 278

271

10 SCA Framework User’s Guide (DEV)

SCA::Framework::SCAITextTranslationFactory Interface 278 SCA::Framework::SCAITextTranslationSettings Interface 279 SCA::Framework::SCAITextTranslationTable Interface 281

10

Error Processing
Introduction 292 Using SCA Exceptions for Error Handling 294 SCA Exception Hierarchy 295 SCA Framework provided Exceptions 295 Exception API 298 Exception Propagation Rules 298 Recommended usage of SCA Exceptions 300 Complete Exception Error Handling Example for a SCA Service Using SCAResult for Error Handling 305 Introduction 305 The SCAResult data contents 306 Overview of using the SCAResult for Error Handling 307 Registering Message Tables 307 Formatting a SCAResult value 308 Complete SCAResult Error Handling Example for a SCA Service Use of SCAResult values in the client 312

301

310

MessageDispatcher Service 316 SCA::Framework::SCAIMsgTableManager Interface 316 SCA::Framework::SCAIMsgListenerManager Interface 318 SCA::Framework::SCAIMessageDispatcher Interface 319 SCA::Framework::SCAIMessageListener Interface 322 Message Listener example using SCAServiceObjectImpl template 324 Message Listener example using a Logger Service Example 325

11

Multi-Threaded Applications
Introduction 332 333 337 Thread Safety 333 SCA Framework Synchronization Primitives Kernel Thread Safety Configuration Options Threading Infrastructure 338 339

Testing Multi-Threaded Services 339 SCA::Framework::SCAIMultiThreadBatchTest Interface Reference

Contents 11

Sample Multi-Threaded Application

341

12

Versioning
Introduction 350 351 Component Metadata

13

Configuring and Using the SCA Kernel
Introduction 354 355 Initializing and Terminating the Kernel SCA Kernel Initialization API 355 SCA Kernel Termination API 355 Examples of Configuring the SCA Kernel Kernel Configuration Variables Kernel Configuration File 361 Default Configuration File Location 359 363 364 365

356

Runtime Access to Configuration Variables

Changing the Prefix for Environement Variable Names Building Applications using the SCA Kernel Running Applications using the SCA Kernel 366 367

The SCA Services Catalog 370 SCASCons Build options for catalog processing 370 Catalog Configuration Options 370 Service Catalog Precedence Rule for Duplicate Entries Sample Service Catalog File 371 Other Configuration Files IDL Type Definitions Files Message Files 372 Language Support Files 372 372 372

370

Service Manager 373 SCA::Framework::SCAIServiceProvider Interface Reference SCA::Framework::SCAIKernelInfo Interface 374 SCA::Framework::SCAIServiceCatalog Interface 375

373

12 SCA Framework User’s Guide (DEV)

Shared Library Manager 377 SCA::Framework::SCAISharedLibraryManager Interface Reference Library loading logic 379 Library Release Queue 380 SharedLibraryManager example 381

377

14

Utility Services
Introduction XML Parser 384 385

15

SCA Utility Program and Testing Components
Introduction 388 The SCA Utility Program 389 Print the help message 389 Testing Kernel Initialization 390 Running a Batch Test 390 Run a Script 390 Test Loading of a Shared Library 390 Query SCA Kernel Information 391 Query Shared Library Build Information

391

Testing of SCA components 393 SCA::Framework::SCAIBatchTest Interface Reference 393 Running Tests Manual 393 Running Tests with the Build System 394 Setting up Test Aliases 395 Specifying when Tests run by Default 396 Running Test Using a SCA Test Component 396 Testing Using a Program 396 Testing Using Python Script 397 Using a fixup Routine 398 Using the Preprocessor on the Baseline Text 399 Performing Setup and Clean Operations 399 Special Construction Variables used by the TestRun Command

401

16

SCASCons Build System
Introduction 404 405 Configuring the Build System

Contents 13

Construction Variables 405 Directory Trees Processed by the Build System 405 Configuration files 409 Setting up the Build System in a New Source Tree 412 Setting up your Runtime Environment for the Build System 413 The SCons Construction Environment 413 Modifying Construction Variables in the SConscript File 414 Commonly Used Environment Routines 416 Microsoft Visual Studio Projects 417 Running the Build 418 Build Tasks 418 SCons Command 418 Running SCons from a Subdirectory Phases of the Build Process 419 Removing Files Created by the Build SCons Debugging Options 420 Selecting Debug and Optimize builds

418 420 420

14 SCA Framework User’s Guide (DEV)

Chapter 1: Introduction SCA Framework User’s Guide

1

Introduction
Introduction Organization of this manual Source Code Examples

  

2 SCA Framework User’s Guide
Introduction

Introduction
The Simulation Component Architecture, or SCA, is designed to enable the delivery of MSC’s simulation technology as reusable software components. With this framework, engineers can develop integrated high-performance computing (HPC) applications more quickly and efficiently, while also making the technology more accessible to MSC clients’ applications. It also provides a framework that allows clients to build extensions or customizations that can easily be plugged into MSC applications or reuse components that are delivered my MSC.

Chapter 1: Introduction 3
Organization of this manual

Organization of this manual
This manual contains a lot of detailed information on the SCA Framework. Much of it is not required to get started using SCA. To begin building and using simple SCA components it is recommended that you review the following chapters first.
• SCA Architecture Overview • A SCA Hello World Application • The IDL Language • The IDL mapping chapter for the language you will be using • Configuring and Using the SCA Kernel • The SCASCons Build System

The rest of the chapters in this manual provide details on more specialized topics that can be reviewed when needed to use the features they cover.

4 SCA Framework User’s Guide
Source Code Examples

Source Code Examples
There are a lot of snippets of example code in the various chapters in this manual. Most of this code is delivered with the SCA Software Development Kit so you can run and play with them as desired. See the SCA SDK chapter in the manual for more details.

Chapter 2: SCA Overview SCA Framework User’s Guide

2

SCA Overview
Introduction Interface Based Programming SCA Interfaces and the IDL language SCA Services SCA Components The SCA Framework Language support Platform support Summary

        

6 SCA Framework User’s Guide
Introduction

Introduction
A central principle of the SCA architecture is the concept of interface-based programming which is sometimes called component-based programming. Interfaces provide a separation of the API, the clients see, from their actual implementation. When a developer separates an interface from its implementation, the client code is developed around an abstraction of the implementation or the interface. When developing SCA based components, you will be working with three levels of abstractions.
• SCA Interfaces define the API that your clients will be exposed to. • SCA Services provide the actual implementation of the interfaces. • SCA Components provide the packages that are used to deliver the services to your clients.

Chapter 2: SCA Overview 7
Interface Based Programming

Interface Based Programming
To better understand interface based programming, consider the following typical C++ class definition. MyImplementation.h class MyImplementation { public: void doSomething(); void doSomethingElse(); }; MyImplementation.cpp void MyImplementation::doSomething() { …… } void MyImplementation::doSomethingElse() { …… } We can then write a client application that uses the simple class. Client.cpp #include “MyImplementation.h” main() { MyImplementation* impl; impl = new MyImplementation(); impl->doSomething(); impl->doSomethingElse(); } There are a number of disadvantages to this type of implementation and most of these are because the client code is directly linked to the class implementation. This means that any changes in the internal implementation of the MyImplementation class will require the client application to be recompiled and relinked. Some of these changes include the following.
• Size of class • Method layout of class • Class inheritance structure

This type of inter dependency is unacceptable in a large software development environment. In such environments it is desired to hide internal changes to the private portion of a class from the users of the class. For example, why should the client have to be recompiled because the implementation adds a new private data member or method? Only changes to public methods should have an effect on them. What we really need is a way of separating the API that the client uses from the code that actually implements it. To do this we introduce the concept of an interface. The following is a definition of an interface class, MyInterface, for our sample class.

8 SCA Framework User’s Guide
Interface Based Programming

MyInterface.h class MyInterface { public: virtual void doSomething() = 0; virtual void doSomethingElse() = 0; }; The interface definition is a normal C++ class where every method is a pure virtual method. In C++, a pure virtual function declaration provides only the prototype of the method and no implementation. The actual implementation for the methods remains in the same C++ class, MyImplementation, we had before. The only difference is now our implementation class must inherit from the interface class. MyImplementation.h class MyImplementation : public MyInterface { public: void doSomething(); void doSomethingElse(); }; MyImplementation.cpp void MyImplementation::doSomething() { …… }; void MyImplementation::doSomethingElse() { …… }; When using interfaces, there is one other issue that needs to be resolved. The desire is for the client to only reference the interface class and have no knowledge of the actual implementation. But, how does the client get an instance of the class. They cannot do a C++ new operation on the interface class because it is abstract meaning it does not contain all of the implementation for the methods it contains. C++ does not allow you to instantiate an abstract class. To fix this problem we introduce the concept of a factory. Each class that implements an interface that you want to expose to your clients must provide a factory function. The factory function is responsible for getting new instances of the class. Since the factory function is part of the class's implementation, it has access to the header files for the implementation which are required for the C++ new operation. The following is the definition of the factory for our example class. MyFactory.h MyInterface* MyFactory(); MyFactory.cpp MyInterface* MyFactory() { return new MyImplementation(); };

Chapter 2: SCA Overview 9
Interface Based Programming

Notice that this function returns a pointer to the interface class, MyInterface, and not the implementation class. We now have all of the pieces to recode our client application to use the interface version of our example class. Client.cpp #include “MyInterface.h” #include “MyFactory.h” main() { MyInterface* inf; inf = MyFactory(); inf->doSomething(); inf->doSomethingElse(); } The client gets an instance of the MyImplementation class using its factory function, MyFactory. But it knows nothing about the implementation class because it is returned a pointer to the interface class. Once the interface pointer is obtained, any of the methods it contains may be called. When you package this class for delivery to your clients, you would only need to deliver the header file for the interface class and the object for the implementation class and its factory. There is no need to delivery any of the header or implementation files from the MyImplementation class. Because of this, the client has no knowledge of the implementation other then the API exposed to them through its interface. Another advantage of interface-based programming is that one version of the implementation can replace a different version without requiring the client code to change. This new implementation could correct errors in the previous version or it could provide different internal algorithms. In the example, you could write a different implementation class called MyImplementation2, and as long as it inherits from the same MyInterface interface class and implements all of the methods, it can be used interchangeably with the first version. The client’s code would be able to use this updated code without any changes except to link with the object file for MyImplementation2. It is also possible to deliver the implementation in a shared library instead of an object library. By using this method, the client’s code would not have to be modified in any way, including linking, to use the new implementation. This illustrates another important feature of an interface: once an interface is delivered to a client, it should not change. This insures that the client code will continue to function correctly even if the underlying implementation is changed. If the new implementation needs to change the interface, then it should provide a different interface for the new functionality and continue to support the old interface, if possible. The client code can then determine at run time if the implementation they are using provides the new or old interface and follow the appropriate procedure. This allows old clients to work with new implementations and new clients to work with old implementations. In summary, the use of interfaces provides the following advantages.
• Client code is separated from class implementation code. • As long as the interface does not change, then class implementation changes do not affect the

client.

10 SCA Framework User’s Guide
Interface Based Programming

• One version of implementation can be replaced with another without requiring the client to be

recompiled but it may have to be relinked.
• If implementation is in a shared library then even the relink is not required. • The implementation of the class can be shared by more than one client. • Applications can be built on a component-by-component basis.

Chapter 2: SCA Overview 11
SCA Interfaces and the IDL language

SCA Interfaces and the IDL language
The SCA Framework uses interface-based programming as a fundamental design premise. Access to all exposed functionality is indirectly through interfaces. In SCA, all interface definitions are defined in the interface definition language (IDL). These definitions completely define the interface. This includes its methods, each of their parameters and any user constructed data types required. The IDL definitions of the interfaces provide the information needed to develop clients that use the interface’s operations. The IDL language is a purely descriptive language. This means that the implementation of the interfaces are not written in IDL, but in normal programming languages for which mappings from the IDL concepts have been defined. The SCA IDL compiler will process the IDL language and generate the required source files needed to access the functionality of the interfaces in the requested language. Currently the SCA Framework supports mappings for the C++, Java, C#, Visual Basic and Python languages. In addition to the benefits of using interfaces, the use of IDL offers a number of additional benefits.
• The success of any large scale system may be strongly influenced by the design of its interfaces.

The use of an IDL promotes good software engineering practice by reinforcing the idea of good interface design by forcing the developer to consider the interfaces to the system before the implementation details are coded.
• Because the IDL language is different from the various implementation languages, it enables

cross language applications development. You can use any of the supported implementation languages to implement the API defined in an interface.
• The use of an IDL compiler can greatly enhance productivity by automating the generation of

much of the code required to implement the many low-level details. This frees the developer from performing these mundane tasks.
• Similar to multi-language support, the use of IDL also allows for the transparent access between

SCA services and clients running on different computers.

12 SCA Framework User’s Guide
SCA Services

SCA Services
SCA services provide the implementation for the interfaces. One or more classes may be used to implement each service. These classes inherit from one or more interface classes and provide the implementation for their methods. The service is the level of functionality that a client requests. They do not request an interface because several different implementations for the same interface may reside in difference services. By requesting the service, the client can easily select from the available implementations that they require. Instances of the classes that make up a SCA service are called SCA service objects. The lifecycle of SCA service objects is automatically handled by the SCA Kernel. The technique used to manage the lifecycle depends on the language being used.
• In C++, smart pointers are used to automate the destruction of service objects when all

references to them have been removed.
• In Java, .NET and Python the normal garbage collection facilities in the languages are used.

Chapter 2: SCA Overview 13
SCA Components

SCA Components
A SCA component is the container that is used to deliver one or more services. Depending on the language, physically it may be a dynamically linked shared library or a Java JAR file. Client code is not aware of components. When a client requests an instance of a SCA service, the SCA Kernel will look in the SCA Service Catalog to determine which component contains the requested service. It will then load the appropriate shared library or JAR file and request an instance of the service from its factory. The lifecycle of components is also automatically handled. When all instances of services in a component are released, the shared library will be unloaded.

What is the SCA Kernel
The SCA Kernel is a collection of common services that reside in the SCAKernel and SCAKernelUtil shared libraries. One of the main functions the kernel provides is the lifecycle management of services. The process of getting instances of service objects, tracking their use and deleting them when they are no longer required is referred to as the lifecycle management. The SCA Kernel performs the following function to help control lifecycle.
• Maintains a catalog of services and the shared libraries that contain them. • Loads the required shared libraries for services when they are requested. • Initializes the shared libraries which makes available to the application all of the services they

contain.
• Gets instances of the class for a service by calling its factory method. • Unloads the shared library when it is no longer required.

The SCA Kernel is composed of the following services.
• ServiceManager which is responsible for the lifecycle management of services. • SharedLibraryManager which is responsible for loading and unloading of shared libraries. • TextTranslation which provides the core message processing functions. • EventManager which provides facilities for event processing.

14 SCA Framework User’s Guide
The SCA Framework

The SCA Framework
The SCA Framework is composed of the SCA Kernel, utility services, and supporting infrastructure. It is delivered as a collection of shared libraries, Python files, Java files, XML files, and other configuration files. The framework facilitates the designing, coding, and building of applications through several facilities. These facilities are accessed though a set of common services using interfaces provided by the SCA Framework. They currently include the following:
• Loading and lifecycle management of services • Error and exception management • Event support • Implementation reuse support • Memory management • Messaging support • Scripting support • Multithreading support • Regular expression searching • Remoting support • I/O • System Utilities • XML parsing

Some of the infrastructure related utilities provided by the SCA Framework include the following:
• Build system based on the SCons software • IDL compiler

Chapter 2: SCA Overview 15
Language support

Language support
The SCA Framework language support differs from language to language. The level of support for a given language can be described by the following capabilities.
• Can you call SCA interfaces implemented in the same language or in other languages? • Can you implement a SCA interface in the language? • Can you implement a SCA service in the language?

The following is the supports matrix for the languages currently supported. Language C++ Java C# Visual Basic Python Call Interface Implement Interfaces Implement Services Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No

Other .NET Languages Yes

16 SCA Framework User’s Guide
Platform support

Platform support
The SCA Framework is currently support on the following Windows, Linux and UNIX platforms. Identifier aix aixi8 aix32 hpux hpuxi8 hpux32 hpuxipf hpuxipfi8 irix linux64 linux64i8 linux32 linuxipf linuxipfi8 solaris solarisi8 solaris32 win64 win64i8 win32 Description IBM RS/6000 AIX, 64 bit IBM RS/6000 AIX, ILP64 bit IBM RS/6000 AIX, 32 bit Hewlett-Packard HP-UX PA-RISC, 64 bit Hewlett-Packard HP-UX PA-RISC, ILP64 bit Hewlett-Packard HP-UX PA-RISC, 32 bit Hewlett-Packard HP-UX IPF (IA-64) Hewlett-Packard HP-UX IPF (IA- 64) (ILP64) SGI Irix, 64-bit Linux on Intel x86_64 or AMD Opteron hardware, 64 bit Linux on Intel x86_64 or AMD Opteron hardware, ILP64 bit Linux on Intel x86 or similar AMD hardware, 32 bit Linux on Intel IPF (IA-64) hardware Linux on Intel IPF (IA- 64) hardware (ILP64) Solaris on Sparc hardware, 64 bit Solaris on Sparc hardware, ILP64 bit Solaris on Sparc hardware, 32 bit Windows on Intel x86_64 or AMD Opteron hardware, 64 bit Windows on Intel x86_64 or AMD Opteron hardware,ILP64 bit Windows on x86 or similar AMD hardware, 32 bit

Note that not all of the advanced features of the platform are supported on all platforms.

Chapter 2: SCA Overview 17
Summary

Summary
An important thing to remember about the SCA Architecture is that it is not anything entirely new or radical.
• SCA interfaces are just C++ pure virtual classes or Java or .NET interface classes • Services are made up of one or more normal language classes. • Components are just shared libraries or JAR files

The development of SCA component is not that different from the development of a normal C++ application. What SCA provides is a formalization of the processes that govern normal object based programming practices. In addition to this, the SCA Framework provides a set of tools that automates much of the mundane aspects of building and deploying SCA components. These include benefits at both build time and run time. For example the build time benefits include the automatic generation of much of the infrastructural code required by SCA service like the service factories. At runtime the SCA Kernel provides the automatic lifecycle management of SCA components. The benefits provided by SCA do not come completely free. In order to provide them it is necessary to impose some restrictions on what you are allowed to do. An example of this is the restriction on the type of interface arguments and return values that are allowed. Because of the requirement that the API defined by the IDL language must be implemented in a number of different languages and you must be able to marshal the data from one language to the other at run time, you are only allowed to use types that are fully defined. This means that indescript types like pointers are not allowed. Full details on all of these restrictions are presented in the appropriate chapters of this manual. In summary, the use of interface-based programming and the SCA Framework provide a number of benefits to the developers:
• The success of any large scale system may be strongly influenced by the design of its interfaces.

The use of an IDL promotes good software engineering practice by reinforcing the idea of good interface design by forcing the developer to consider the interfaces to the system before the implementation details are coded.
• Because the IDL language is different from the various implementation languages, it enables

cross language applications development. You can use any of the supported implementation languages to implement the API defined in an interface.
• The use of an IDL compiler can greatly enhance productivity by automating the generation of

much of the code required to implement the many low-level details. This frees the developer from performing these mundane tasks.
• Similar to multi-language support, the use of IDL also allows for the transparent access between

SCA services and clients running on different computers.
• Clients and services can be implemented in any of the supported programming languages and do

not have to be implemented in the same language.
• Inter-process communication is automatically provided by the Framework.

18 SCA Framework User’s Guide
Summary

• A service’s implementation can change without affecting the client, as long as the interface does

not change. Developers can replace an existing version of a service with a new version without requiring any changes to the client.
• Applications can be built on a component-by-component basis.

A service can be used by all applications that use the SCA Framework.

Chapter 3: A SCA Hello World Application SCA Framework User’s Guide

3

A SCA Hello World Application

        

Introduction

20 21 24 26 28

Defining the Interfaces Defining the Service

Defining the Component

Generating the Code Skeletons Building the Component 34

Creating a Client for the Service Intra-language Support Summary 46 45

35

20 SCA Framework User’s Guide
Introduction

Introduction
The Simulation Component Architecture (SCA) Framework is designed to enable the development of reusable software components quickly and efficiently. In this chapter we will show the actual steps involved in implementing a SCA component by creating a simple component that contains one service named HelloWorld. This service will implement the SCAIHello interface. We will then show an example client application that uses this service. Each of these examples will be done in the following languages which are currently supported by the SCA Framework.
• C++ • C# • Java • Visual Basic • Python

Currently you cannot implement SCA components in Python so for this language we will only show a sample client application. The following are the basic steps that you must follow to create a SCA component. The steps are the same regardless of which implementation language you choose. 1. Define the interfaces 2. Define the services 3. Define the component 4. Generating code stubs for the language of your choice 5. Add the required functionality to the generated stubs All of the code for the examples created in this chapter is delivered with the SCA Software Development Kit. The actual building of the components and client applications will not be discussed in this chapter. If you wish to actual build and run the samples please consult the instructions delivered with the examples.

Chapter 3: A SCA Hello World Application 21
Defining the Interfaces

Defining the Interfaces
The first step in creating a service is to define the interfaces that the service will support. These interfaces form the API that the service's clients will use, and they should not change once they are delivered to the client. Because of this, it is important that the appropriate thought is given to develop consistent and well-designed interfaces. Interfaces are defined by using the SCA interface definition language (IDL). The SCA IDL compiler processes the IDL and generates the required source files needed to access the functionality defined by the interfaces in each of the supported languages. The SCA IDL is based on the OMG IDL and is described in detail in the IDL Language chapter of this manual IDL files have the extension .idl and may contain as many interface and type definitions as you need. Our HelloWorld service will implement one interface which is called SCAIHello. This interface has one method named printHello which requires a single string argument which is the implementation language of the client calling the service. The printHello method for our simple service will just print the language that it was called from and the language that it is implemented in. The following is the IDL definition for the SCAIHello interface. #ifndef SCA_HELLOWORLD_EXAMPLE_HELLOWORLD_IDL_INCLUDED #define SCA_HELLOWORLD_EXAMPLE_HELLOWORLD_IDL_INCLUDED #include "SCA/Service.idl" module SCA { module HelloWorld { module Example { interface SCAIHello : SCAIService { SCAResult printHello (in SCAString sName ); }; }; }; }; #endif The IDL definition contains the following sections.

Include guard
The first two lines of the IDL definition contain the standard include guard definitions that keep the file from being expanded more than once during each compilation. This may happen if the IDL file is included by more than one file that is part of the current compilation. To make sure the guard name is unique, the convention is use the full relative path to the file being guarded followed by _INCLUDED. In this case we have used SCA_HELLOWORLD_EXAMPLE_HELLOWORLD_IDL_INCLUDED for the guard name.

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Defining the Interfaces

Include declarations
The next section of the IDL file is for the include statements for any other IDL files that are required by the interface definitions. If the SCA Framework or some other service has previously defined an interface that is being implemented, the IDL file where it is defined should be included, instead of redefining the interface in your file. It is important to remember that the file names used in these include statements must include the correct relative directory location in the delivery tree for the IDL files. You should not use the directory names in the source tree. This is because the IDL you create must be delivered to the users of your service. When they use the IDL files, they will be using them from the delivery tree. They should have no knowledge of the structure of your source tree. To enforce this, The IDL compiler will not look in the source tree for the files that are included. The build system will automatically copy the IDL files from the source tree into the correct location in your delivery tree before it runs the IDL compiler. However, if the IDL compiler is manually run, you may need to copy the files and add appropriate include paths on the command. In our IDL file we have included the IDL file SCA/Service.idl because the SCAIHello interface inherits from the SCAIService interface which is defined in this file.

Module declarations
The IDL file's module statements are used to define the namespace and the locations in the delivery tree where the IDL and header files are stored. A namespace should always be used for interface definitions to minimize naming collisions with other definitions. The fully qualified name of an interface is determined by combining the module names and the interface name. The fully qualified interface name in this example is SCA.HelloWorld.Example.SCAIHello. The implementation language's namespace for the interface is also taken directly from the module statements as well. For example in C++ the namespace in this example would be SCA::HelloWorld::Example and in Python it would be SCA.HelloWorld.Example. The installation subdirectories for the IDL in the delivery tree are also taken from the module statements. In this example, the IDL files will be stored in the idl/SCA/HelloWorld/Example directory in the delivery tree. This is the relative location that should be used by all users of the SCAIHello interface. In a similar manner, any language specific support files that are generated by the IDL compiler and are required for the clients to use your interface will also be stored in the delivery tree. The installation subdirectories for these files are also taken from the module statements. In this example, the C++ include file for this interface will be stored in the include/SCA/HelloWorld/Example directory in the delivery tree.

Chapter 3: A SCA Hello World Application 23
Defining the Interfaces

Interface declarations
Each interface is declared with an interface statement that contains the definitions of the methods it implements. The syntax for interface definition is similar to C++ class declarations. The main difference is that each parameter in the method definitions must contain a direction parameter. This parameter can be in, out, or inout and is used to define whether the parameter is input only, output only, or both input and output. It is used to determine how the parameters are declared and passed. It also determines the data transfer direction for marshalling the parameters between different languages or different address spaces. A SCA Framework requires that each interface inherits from the SCAIService interface. This inheritance may be direct, as in this example, or indirectly through another interface from which it inherits. The SCAIService interface defines the methods used to support interface navigation, reference counting, and runtime introspection. You need to include the file that defines this interface, SCA/Service.idl, in the IDL file unless it is already included in another file that you have included. Since every interface must inherit from the SCAIService interface, the IDL compiler will generate all the code that is required to implement the methods it contains.

24 SCA Framework User’s Guide
Defining the Service

Defining the Service
After defining the interfaces in the IDL file, you must define the service itself. A service definition language (SDL) file is used to define which interfaces a service supports. It also defines the structure of the classes that will implement the interfaces. The IDL compiler uses this information to generate a set of skeleton implementation classes to which the developer adds the required functionality. When the build system compiles your service, it will also run the IDL compiler to generate the implementation for the required base classes. SDL files have the extension .sdl and only one service definition is allowed in each SDL file. We have defined the HelloWorld service which implements the SCAIHello interface with the SDL file HelloWorld.sdl, which is listed below. #ifndef HELLOWORLDCPP_HELLOWORLD_SDL_INCLUDED #define HELLOWORLDCPP_HELLOWORLD_SDL_INCLUDED #include "SCA/HelloWorld/Example/HelloWorld.idl" module Samples { module HelloWorld { module Example { service SCA.Example.CPP.HelloWorld { interface SCA::HelloWorld::Example::SCAIHello; }; }; }; }; #endif Note that this is the SDL file for the C++ implementation of the HelloWorld service. The only difference for the implementation in the other languages is the include guard and the actual name of the service. Most of the SDL file is similar to the IDL file. It contains the include guard, include statements, module statements and service statements.

Include guard
The first two lines of the SDL definition contain the standard include guard that keep the file from being expanded more than once during each compilation. To make sure the guard name is unique, the convention is use the full relative path to the file being guarded followed by _INCLUDED. In this case we have used HELLOWORLDCPP_HELLOWORLD_SDL_INCLUDED for the guard name.

Include declarations
The next section of the SDL file is for the include statements. You should include all the IDL files that define the interfaces implemented by the service. Once again remember that when including IDL files you need to use the correct relative directory location in the deliver tree and not the directory names from the source tree.

Chapter 3: A SCA Hello World Application 25
Defining the Service

Module declarations
The SDL file's module statements are used to define the implementation code's namespace. For example, in C++, the namespace for the service's implementation class would be Samples::HelloWorld::Example. The general policy for SDL files is that each service is put in its own separate implementation code namespace to minimize the change of symbol collisions. The SDL namespace is not related to the IDL namespace and will normally be different. Remember that the interface namespace is exposed to clients and has different requirements than the implementation code's namespace. The IDL namespace needs to coexist with all of the other interfaces defined by all of the components in your application. It therefore should follow some application determined convention. The SDL namespace is unique to your implementation and you can choose any appropriate value you like. One common convention is to use the directory structure of the source tree for you namespace. There is no installation information needed for services because they are delivered in components and not installed by themselves. As a result, the SDL namespace has no affect on any installation decisions.

Service declaration
The definition of the service starts with the service statement in the SDL file. The fully qualified service name is the name clients will use to request instances of this service and is defined by the name following the service statement. It must be a fully qualified name to make sure the service name is unique from all other service names in the system. The service name in the example is SCA.Example.CPP.HelloWorld. The fully qualified service name is not based on the namespace defined by the SDL file's module statements. The service name is also not related to the IDL namespace, even though it may be similar to it. The last part of the service name, HelloWorld, is used as the name of the top level class that will be generated to implement the service.

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Defining the Component

Defining the Component
Once the service has been defined, a component must be defined to contain it. The exact format of the component generated by the build system depends on the language it is implemented in. If you are using C++, C# or Visual Basic, the component is a dynamically linked shared library and for Java it will be a jar file. CDL files have the extension .cdl and only one component definition is allowed in each CDL file. In our example, the CPPGreeting component contains one service, HelloWorld. The following is the CDL file for the component.

#ifndef HELLOWORLDCPP_HELLOWORLD_CDL_INCLUDED #define HELLOWORLDCPP_HELLOWORLD_CDL_INCLUDED #include "HelloWorld.sdl" component SCA.HelloWorld.CPPGreeting { service HelloWorld; }; #endif Once again, note that this is the CDL file for the C++ implementation of the HelloWorld service. The only difference for the implementation in the other languages is the include guard and the actual name of the component. The component definition does not require a namespace or module declarations. If you include one it will have no affect on the build.

Include guard
The first two lines of the CDL definition contain the standard include guard that keep the file from being expanded more than once during each compilation. To make sure the guard name is unique, the convention is use the full relative path to the file being guarded followed by _INCLUDED. In this case we have used HELLOWORLDCPP_HELLOWORLD_CDL_INCLUDED for the guard name.

Include declarations
The next section of the CDL file is for the include statements. You should include all the SDL files that define the services that the component will contain. Because the SDL files are never delivered to the clients of your services, they are never installed in the delivery tree. As a result, the directory structure for including SDL files should be relative to the source tree and not the delivery tree.

Chapter 3: A SCA Hello World Application 27
Defining the Component

Component declaration
The fully qualified component name is determined directly from the name following the component statement, which is SCA.HelloWorld.CPPGreeting in the example. It is not related to the IDL namespace, SDL namespace, or service name, though it may look similar to any of them. The short name is CPPGreeting, and it is used for the name of the generated library file. The fully qualified component defines the relative path where the build system stores the shared library. The delivery locations for the example components in each of the supported languages are show below. Language C++ Java C# Visual Basic Platform Windows Linux All Windows Windows File WINNT/bin/SCA/HelloWorld/CPPGreeting.dll LX86/lib/SCA /HelloWorld/libGreeting.so lib/java/SCA/HelloWorld/JavaGreeting.jar WINNT/bin/SCA/HelloWorld/CSGreeting.dll WINNT/bin/SCA/HelloWorld/VBGreeting.dll

28 SCA Framework User’s Guide
Generating the Code Skeletons

Generating the Code Skeletons
Once the IDL and SDL files have been created, the IDL compiler can be used to generate the skeleton code for the implementation of the service. This code will only include the methods that are defined in the interfaces that the service will implement. The exception is the SCAIService interface; its methods are implemented in a base class that the HelloWorld service implementation needs to inherit from. The code for the base class will be generated as part of the build process.

The genskeleton command
A special command called genskeleton is provided with the SDK. It is used to run the IDL compiler and create these code file skeletons. The genskeleton command takes an option to indicate which language the services will be implemented in. The default is to generate the implementation in C++. The genskeleton command is located in the SCA tools directory. Using the definitions in the SDL files, the IDL compiler will generate a number of language specific skeleton code files in the current directory. For example, when running the genskeleton command for C++, it will create a .h header and a .cpp implementation file. If there are existing versions of any of the files to be generated, then all of the new files will be generated with the additional extension of .new. If you add the -r option to the genskeleton command, then the existing files will be renamed by adding an extension of .old and the newly generated files will not nave the .new extension. These files can now be used as a base to implement the service. The genskeleton command will only work correctly if you are running from a directory inside of a properly formatted SCA source tree. This means the directory needs to contain a SConscript file and the source tree must contain a SConstruct in its root directory. These are required because a short build step, which uses them, is initially run to install any IDL files from the current directory in the source tree into the delivery tree so the IDL compiler can access them. The IDL compiler does not need to be manually run on the IDL or CDL files. That will be done as part of the normal build process when required.

Adding the required functionality to the skeletons
Once you have generated the skeleton files, you can modify them to add whatever details are required to implement the desired functionality. You are free to add any new methods or data that you require. There are a couple of things that you cannot change.
• The implementation class must inherit from the IDL generated base class. You may add to the

inheritance structure but you may not remove the generated one.
• You cannot change the signature of the constructor for the implementation class. The IDL

compiler will also generate factory code that is used to instantiate instances of the service and it requires the signature of the constructor as generated.

Chapter 3: A SCA Hello World Application 29
Generating the Code Skeletons

In the HelloWorld example, the only implementation that is required is a simple write statement in the printHello method. In the following sections we show the formats for the generated skeleton file for the implementation in each of the supported languages. In the example code, the light gray background shows the code generated by the genskeleton command. The lines of code that have the darker gray background represent the lines of code that were changed to add the required functionality to the generated skeletons.

Implementing the service in C++
The following genskeleton command will generate the implementation stubs in C++. /Tools/genskeleton HelloWorld.sdl Or /Tools/genskeleton -cxx HelloWorld.sdl From the SDL, the compiler will generate the following C++ skeleton code files in the current directory. HelloWorld.h HelloWorld.cpp C++ header file for the top level service class C++ implementation file for the top level service class

The following is the content of the C++ header file HelloWorld.h that is generated. #ifndef SAMPLES_HELLOWORLD_EXAMPLE_HELLOWORLD_H_INCLUDED #define SAMPLES_HELLOWORLD_EXAMPLE_HELLOWORLD_H_INCLUDED #include "HelloWorldBase.h" namespace Samples { namespace HelloWorld { namespace Example { class HelloWorld : public HelloWorldBase { public: // Constructor and Destructor HelloWorld(SCAIHelloWorldFactoryAccess* factoryAccess); virtual ~HelloWorld(); // Methods for interface SCA.HelloWorld.Example.SCAIHello virtual SCA::SCAResult printHello(const SCA::SCAString sName);

};

} } } #endif The following is the content of the C++ implementation file HelloWorld.cpp that is generated.

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Generating the Code Skeletons

#include "HelloWorld.h" #include <iostream> namespace Samples { namespace HelloWorld { namespace Example { // Constructor HelloWorld::HelloWorld(SCAIHelloWorldFactoryAccess* factoryAccess) : HelloWorldBase(factoryAccess) { } // Destructor HelloWorld::~HelloWorld() { } SCA::SCAResult HelloWorld::printHello(const SCA::SCAString sName) { std::cout << sName << " client calling HelloWorld " << "implemented in C++" << std::endl; return SCA::SCASuccess; } } } } Next we just need to add the actual functionality to the stubs. In our simple case, there were no changes required to the header file. The only change required to the implementation file was to add an include statement and an output statement in the printHello method. We now have a complete SCA service implemented in C++ that is ready to be built.

Implementing the service in java
The following genskeleton command will generate the implementation stubs in Java. /Tools/genskeleton -java HelloWorld.sdl From the SDL, the compiler will generate the following Java skeleton code file. HelloWorld.java Java implementation file for the top level service class

For Java, the generated implementation files will not be in the current directory. This is because the Java compiler uses the relative directory structure to determine the name of the Java package that is created. The SDL namespace is used to determine this package name. In our example, the generated Java implementation files will actually be in the directory Samples/HelloWorld/Example relative to the current directory. The following is the content of the Java implementation file Samples/HelloWorld/Example/HelloWorld.java that is generated.

Chapter 3: A SCA Hello World Application 31
Generating the Code Skeletons

package Samples.HelloWorld.Example; public class HelloWorld extends HelloWorld_base { // Constructor public HelloWorld (SCA.Framework.SCAIServiceProvider provider) { super(); setServiceProvider(provider); } // Methods for interface SCA.HelloWorld.Example.SCAIHello public final SCA.SCAResult printHello (String sName) { System.out.println(sName+" client calling HelloWorld "+ "implemented in Java"); return SCA.SCAResult.SCASuccess; }

}

Next we just need to add the actual functionality to the stubs. In our simple case, the only changed required to the implementation file was to add a print statement in the printHello method and to return the appropriate value. We now have a complete SCA service implemented in Java that is ready to be built.

Implementing the service in C#
The following genskeleton command will generate the implementation stubs in C#. /Tools/genskeleton -csharp HelloWorld.sdl From the SDL, the compiler will generate the following C# skeleton code file in the current directory. HelloWorld.cs C# implementation file for the top level service class

The following is the content of the C# implementation file HelloWorld.cs that is generated.

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Generating the Code Skeletons

using System.Collections.Generic; using SCA; namespace Samples { namespace HelloWorld { namespace Example { public class HelloWorld: HelloWorld_base , SCA.HelloWorld.Example.SCAIHello { // Constructor public HelloWorld (SCA.Framework.SCAIServiceProvider provider) { setServiceProvider(provider); } // Methods for interface SCA.HelloWorld.Example.SCAIHello SCA.SCAResult SCA.HelloWorld.Example.SCAIHello.printHello (string sName) { System.Console.WriteLine(sName+" client calling HelloWorld "+ "implemented in C#"); return SCA.SCAResult.SCASuccess; } } } } } Next we just need to add the actual functionality to the stubs. In our simple case, the only changed required to the implementation file was to add a write statement in the printHello method and to return the appropriate value. We now have a complete SCA service implemented in C# that is ready to be built.

Implementing the service in visual basic
The following genskeleton command will generate the implementation stubs in Visual Basic. /Tools/genskeleton -vb HelloWorld.sdl From the SDL, the compiler will generate the following Visual Basic skeleton code file in the current directory. HelloWorld.vb VB implementation file for the top level service class

The following is the content of the Visual Basic implementation file HelloWorld.vb that is generated.

Chapter 3: A SCA Hello World Application 33
Generating the Code Skeletons

Imports System.Collections.Generic Namespace Samples Namespace HelloWorld Namespace Example Public Class HelloWorld Inherits HelloWorld_base Implements SCA.HelloWorld.Example.SCAIHello ' Constructor Public Sub New(ByVal provider As SCA.Framework.SCAIServiceProvider) setServiceProvider(provider) End Sub ' Methods for interface SCA.HelloWorld.Example.SCAIHello Public Function printHello (ByVal sName As String) As SCA.SCAResult Implements SCA.HelloWorld.Example.SCAIHello.printHello System.Console.WriteLine(sName & " client calling HelloWorld " & "implemented in VB") Return SCA.SCAResult.SCASuccess End Function

_ _

End Class End Namespace End Namespace End Namespace

Next we just need to add the actual functionality to the stubs. In our simple case, the only change required to the implementation file was to add a write statement in the printHello method and to return the appropriate value. We now have a complete SCA service implemented in Visual Basic that is ready to be built.

34 SCA Framework User’s Guide
Building the Component

Building the Component
Once we have created the implementation files for our service, we can now build the component. We will not go into details on how this is done in this chapter because it will be discussed in detail latter in the manual. All of the code for the examples created in this chapter is delivered with the SCA Software Development Kit. If you wish to actually build and run the samples please consult the instructions delivered with the examples. In this section what we will discuss is some of the processing that the build system will take care of to build a SCA component. All of these steps are automatic and require no actions by the developer. As part of building a SCA component, the SCA build system will perform the following general steps. The exact details of these and what each generates is a function of the implementation language being used and the platform you are building on.
• Run the IDL compiler on the IDL file to generate the appropriate language support files. For

C++ these include header files that are stored in the delivery tree. For the other language they include implementation files that will be stored in the object directory which will be compiled and linked as required by the language.
• Run the IDL compiler on the SDL file to generate the required base class implementation files

for the service. These will be stored in the object directory and be compiled and linked in with your component.
• Run the IDL compiler on the CDL file to generate the required initialization function for the

component. These will be stored in the object directory and be compiled and linked in with your component. Not all languages require this step.
• Compile and link your code for the implementation of the service.

Chapter 3: A SCA Hello World Application 35
Creating a Client for the Service

Creating a Client for the Service
Now that we have a working SCA component, the next sections will show how we can create a simple client application that will use our component in each of the supported languages. The basic steps for the client application are as follows. 1. Initialize the SCA Kernel 2. Get an instance of the HelloWorld service which returns a SCAIService interface on it. 3. Obtain a SCAIHello interface on the service instance. This usually involves calling the getInterface method in the SCAIService interface. 4. Call the printHello method in the interface 5. Terminate the SCA Kernel The client applications that we will create in these sections are all stand-alone programs. It is also possible to use SCA services from code that that is part of the implementation of another SCA service. When doing this, it is not necessary to initialize or terminate the SCA Kernel because it will already be active. Also, the process of getting an instance of a SCA service is usually different when you are inside the implementation of another SCA service. Consult the language mapping chapter for your implementation language for the complete details.

Implementing the Application in C++
The following is a sample C++ application that will exercise our HelloWorld service.

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Creating a Client for the Service

#include <iostream> #include <SCA/HelloWorld/Example/SCAIHello.h> #include <SCA/SCAKernel.h> using namespace std; using namespace SCA; using namespace SCA::HelloWorld::Example; int main() { try { initializeSCAKernel(1); } catch (SCAException& e) { cout << "Initialization of SCAKernel failed" << endl << e.what() << endl; return 0; } SCAIService spService; SCAIHello hwInf; try { spService = getSCAService("SCA.Example.CPP.HelloWorld"); hwInf = static_cast<SCAIHello>(spService); spService = NULLSP; hwInf->printHello("C++"); hwInf = NULLSP; } catch (SCAException& e) { cout << "Load of HelloWorld service failed" << endl << e.what() << endl; } try { terminateSCAKernel(); } catch (SCAException& e) { cout << "Termination of the SCAKernel failed" << << e.what() << endl; } return 0;

endl

}

The basic SCA Kernel operations are provided in the SCA/SCAKernel.h header file. These include the following functions that are used in this example.

Chapter 3: A SCA Hello World Application 37
Creating a Client for the Service

void initializeSCAKernel( SCA::SCAInt32 verbose=0, const SCA::SCAString& configPath="" ); SCA::SCAIService getSCAService( const SCA::SCAString name ); SCA::SCAInt32 terminateSCAKernel(); All of these will throw an exception if they encounter an error so they have been included in try/catch blocks in the sample application. The first thing our application must do is initialize the SCA kernel. initializeSCAKernel(1); Since this call may throw an exception, in the actual application we have enclosed it in a try/catch block. This is the case for all of the functions defined in the SCA/SCAKernel.h header file that we will be using. Once we have initialized the SCA Kernel, we need to get an instance of the HelloWorld service. In this example we are getting an instance of the version of the service that is implemented in C++ but it could have been one of the versions implemented in any of the other languages by just changing the service name. To do this we use the following lines of code. SCAIService spService; spService = getSCAService("SCA.Example.CPP.HelloWorld"); The getSCAService function will always return a SCAIService interface pointer on the service. This is possible because every SCA interface must inherit from the SCAIService interface. But what we really want is a SCAIHello interface pointer. In the C++ language mapping, SCA interface pointers are special C++ classes know as smart pointers. These smart pointers can automate many of the details of using the interfaces. This includes the automatic handling of reference counting and providing a simplified method of interface navigation using normal C++ casting syntax. The following lines of code will get a SCAIHello interface pointer from the SCAIService pointer that was returned when we got an instance of the service. SCAIHello hwInf; hwInf = static_cast<SCAIHello>(spService); Once we have the SCAIHello interface pointer we can then call the printHello method that it contains. hwInf->printHello("C++"); The final thing our application should do is terminate the SCA kernel.

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terminateSCAKernel();

Implementing the Application in Java
The following is a sample Java application that will exercise our HelloWorld service. import SCA.*; import SCA.HelloWorld.Example.*; import SCA.SystemProvider.*; public class Driver{ public static void main (String args[]) { try{ SCA.SystemProvider.loadSCA(); } catch (SCASystemException e) { System.out.println("Initialization of SCAKernel failed\n" + e.what()); } SCAIService spService; SCAIHello hwInf; try{ spService = SCA.SystemProvider.getService( "SCA.Example.Java.HelloWorld"); hwInf = (SCAIHello)spService.getInterface( "SCA.HelloWorld.Example.SCAIHello"); hwInf.printHello("Java"); } catch (SCASystemException e) { System.out.println("Failed to get HelloWorld\n" + e.what()); } try{ SCA.SystemProvider.unloadSCA(); } catch (SCASystemException e) { System.out.println("Termination of the SCAKernel failed\n" + e.what()); } } }

In Java, the SCA.SystemProvider interface provided by the SCA Kernel is used to access the basic SCA Kernel operations. All of the method of this interface will throw exceptions if they encounter errors, so be sure to enclose these calls in a try/catch block. The first thing our application must do is initialize the SCA kernel utilizing this interface.

Chapter 3: A SCA Hello World Application 39
Creating a Client for the Service

import SCA.SystemProvider.*; SCA.SystemProvider.loadSCA(); Once we have initialized the SCA Kernel, we need to get an instance of the HelloWorld service. In this example we are getting an instance of the version of the service that is implemented in Java but it could have been one of the versions implemented in any of the other languages by just changing the service name. To do this we use the following lines of code. SCAIService spService; spService = SCA.SystemProvider.getService( "SCA.Example.Java.HelloWorld"); The getService function will always return a SCAIService interface pointer on the service. This is possible because every SCA interface must inherit from the SCAIService interface. But what we really want is a SCAIHello interface pointer. In the Java language mapping it is only possible to navigate from one interface to anther using the normal JAVA casting syntax if the interface is pointing to a service implemented in Java. If the service is implemented in any other language you must make an explicit getInterface call to do the navigation. Since you never know for sure what language the service you are using is written in, it is a good practice to always use this syntax. The following lines of code will get a SCAIHello interface pointer from the SCAIService pointer that was returned when we got an instance of the service. SCAIHello hwInf; hwInf = (SCAIHello)spService.getInterface( "SCA.HelloWorld.Example.SCAIHello"); Once we have the SCAIHello interface pointer we can then call the printHello method that it contains.
.

hwInf.printHello("Java"); The final thing our application should do is terminate the SCA kernel. SCA.SystemProvider.unloadSCA();

Implementing the Application in C#
The following is a sample C# application that will exercise our HelloWorld service..

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Creating a Client for the Service

using System; using SCA; using SCA.HelloWorld.Example; class CSDriver { static void Main(string[] args) { try { SCA.SystemProvider.loadSCA(); } catch (SCAException e) { Console.WriteLine("Initialization of SCAKernel failed\n" + e.what()); } SCAIService spService; SCAIHello hwInf; try { spService = SCA.SystemProvider.getService( "SCA.Example.CS.HelloWorld"); hwInf = (SCAIHello)spService.getInterface( "SCA.HelloWorld.Example.SCAIHello"); spService = null; hwInf.printHello("C#"); } catch (SCAException e) { Console.WriteLine("Load of HelloWorld service failed\n" + e.what()); } finally { hwInf = null; } try { SCA.SystemProvider.unloadSCA(); } catch (SCAException e) { Console.WriteLine("Termination of the kernel failed\n" + e.what()); } } }

In C#, the SCA.SystemProvider interface provided by the SCA Kernel is used to access the basic SCA Kernel operations. All of the method of this interface will throw exceptions if they encounter errors, so be sure to enclose these calls in a try/catch block. The first thing our application must do is initialize the SCA kernel utilizing this interface.

Chapter 3: A SCA Hello World Application 41
Creating a Client for the Service

using SCA; SCA.SystemProvider.loadSCA(); Once we have initialized the SCA Kernel, we need to get an instance of the HelloWorld service. In this example we are getting an instance of the version of the service that is implemented in C# but it could have been one of the versions implemented in any of the other languages by just changing the service name. To do this we use the following lines of code. SCAIService spService; spService = SCA.SystemProvider.getService( "SCA.Example.CS.HelloWorld"); The getService function will always return a SCAIService interface pointer on the service. This is possible because every SCA interface must inherit from the SCAIService interface. But what we really want is a SCAIHello interface pointer. In the C# language mapping it is only possible to navigate from one interface to anther using the normal C# casting syntax if the interface is pointing to a service implemented in one of the .Net languages which include C# and VB. If the service is implemented in any other language you must make an explicit getInterface call to do the navigation. Since you never know for sure what language the service you are using is written in, it is a good practice to always use this syntax. The following lines of code will get a SCAIHello interface pointer from the SCAIService pointer that was returned when we got an instance of the service. SCAIHello hwInf; hwInf = (SCAIHello)spService.getInterface( "SCA.HelloWorld.Example.SCAIHello"); Once we have the SCAIHello interface pointer we can then call the printHello method that it contains.
.

hwInf.printHello("C#"); The final thing our application should do is terminate the SCA kernel. SCA.SystemProvider.unloadSCA();

Implementing the Application in Visual Basic
The following is a sample Visual Basic application that will exercise our HelloWorld service.

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Creating a Client for the Service

Imports SCA Imports System Imports SCA.HelloWorld.Example Module ModuleMain Sub Main(ByVal args As String()) Try SystemProvider.loadSCA() Catch e As SCASystemException System.Console.WriteLine("Initialization of SCAKernel failed\n" + End Try e.ToString())

_

_

Try Dim spService As SCA.SCAIService = SystemProvider.getService( _ "SCA.Example.VB.HelloWorld") Dim hwInf As SCAIHello = CType(spService.getInterface( _ "SCA.HelloWorld.Example.SCAIHello"), SCAIHello) hwInf.printHello("Visual Basic") Catch e As SCASystemException System.Console.WriteLine("Load of HelloWorld service failed\n" + End Try e.ToString())

Try SystemProvider.unloadSCA() Catch e As SCASystemException System.Console.WriteLine("Termination of SCAKernel failed\n" + _ e.ToString()) End Try End Sub End Module

In Visual Basic, the SCA.SystemProvider interface provided by the SCA Kernel is used to access the basic SCA Kernel operations. All of the method of this interface will throw exceptions if they encounter errors, so be sure to enclose these calls in a try/catch block. The first thing our application must do is initialize the SCA kernel utilizing this interface. Imports SCA SystemProvider.loadSCA() Once we have initialized the SCA Kernel, we need to get an instance of the HelloWorld service. In this example we are getting an instance of the version of the service that is implemented in Visual Basic but

Chapter 3: A SCA Hello World Application 43
Creating a Client for the Service

it could have been one of the versions implemented in any of the other languages by just changing the service name. To do this we use the following line of code. Dim spService As SCA.SCAIService = SystemProvider.getService( _ "SCA.Example.VB.HelloWorld") The getService function will always return a SCAIService interface pointer on the service. This is possible because every SCA interface must inherit from the SCAIService interface. But what we really want is a SCAIHello interface pointer. In the Visual Basic language mapping it is only possible to navigate from one interface to anther using the Visual Basic DirectCast keyword if the interface is pointing to a service implemented in one of the .Net languages which include C# and VB. If the service is implemented in any other language you must make an explicit getInterface call to do the navigation. Since you never know for sure what language the service you are using is written in, it is a good practice to always use this syntax. The following lines of code will get a SCAIHello interface pointer from the SCAIService pointer that was returned when we got an instance of the service. Dim hwInf As SCAIHello = CType(spService.getInterface( _ "SCA.HelloWorld.Example.SCAIHello"), SCAIHello) Once we have the SCAIHello interface pointer we can then call the printHello method that it contains. hwInf.printHello("Visual Basic") The final thing our application should do is terminate the SCA kernel. SystemProvider.unloadSCA()

Implementing the Application in Python
We have not discussed using Python yet because currently you cannot implement a SCA component in Python. But you can easily use SCA services written in any of the other support languages from Python. The following is a sample Python application or script that will exercise our HelloWorld service.

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try: import SCA svc = SCA.getService("SCA.Example.CPP.HelloWorld") (ret,hwinf) = svc.getInterface("SCA.HelloWorld.Example.SCAIHello") hwinf.printHello("Python") except SCA.SCAException, exc: print "SCAException:",exc.what() In Python, the SCA module provided by the SCA Kernel is used to access the basic SCA Kernel operations. All of the method of this interface will throw exceptions if they encounter errors, so be sure to enclose these calls in a try/except block. The first thing our application must do is initialize the SCA kernel utilizing this interface. This is done by importing the SCA module. In Python there is no explicit call required to initialize the SCA Kernel. It is done automatically when it is required. import SCA Once we have initialized the SCA Kernel, we need to get an instance of the HelloWorld service. In this example we are getting an instance of the version of the service that is implemented in C++ but it could have been one of the versions implemented in any of the other languages by just changing the service name. To do this we use the following line of code. svc = SCA.getService("SCA.Example.CPP.HelloWorld") The getService function will always return a SCAIService interface pointer on the service. This is possible because every SCA interface must inherit from the SCAIService interface. But what we really want is a SCAIHello interface pointer. Since Python is a type less language, it is only possible to navigate from one interface to anther using an explicit getInterface call to do the navigation. The following line of code will get a SCAIHello interface pointer from the SCAIService pointer that was returned when we got an instance of the service. (ret,hwinf) = svc.getInterface("SCA.HelloWorld.Example.SCAIHello") Once we have the SCAIHello interface pointer we can then call the printHello method that it contains. hwinf.printHello("Python") In Python there is no requirement to terminate the SCA kernel.

Chapter 3: A SCA Hello World Application 45
Intra-language Support

Intra-language Support

46 SCA Framework User’s Guide
Summary

Summary
In this chapter we have shown how to develop a simple SCA HelloWorld service in each of the supported languages. Let's review the basic steps that are required.
• Design the interfaces the service will support and code them in IDL • Create the SDL file for the service. • Create the CDL file for the component. • Run the IDL compiler to generated skeleton implementation code for the service. • Add code to skeletons to implement the desired behavior for each interface method. • Build the component using the SCA build system.

We then showed how to implement a simple client application in each of the supported languages that exercised our HelloWorld service.

Chapter 4: The IDL Language SCA Framework User’s Guide

4

The IDL Language

             

Introduction Source Files Lexical Rules Preprocessing

48 49 51 56 57

IDL Specification for Interfaces and Types Constants 70 74

Modules, Names and Scoping Interfaces and Operations Exceptions 85 86 89 78

SDL Specifications CDL Specifications

SCA Component Declaration Using the SCA-IDL Compiler Summary 100

94 96

48 SCA Framework User’s Guide
Introduction

Introduction
The Object Management Group (OMG) Interface Definition Language, or IDL, is the language used to describe SCA interfaces. The OMG is an open membership, not-for-profit consortium that produces and maintains computer industry specifications for interoperable enterprise applications. Some of these specifications include the Unified Modeling Language, or UML and the CORBA middleware platform. An interface definition written in the IDL language completely defines the interface. This includes its methods, each of their parameters and any user constructed data types required. The IDL definitions of the interfaces provide the information needed to develop clients that use the interface's operations. Extensions to the OMG IDL language have been added to allow for the description of SCA services and components. The IDL language is a purely descriptive language. This means that services are not written in IDL, but in languages for which mappings from the IDL concepts have been defined. Currently the SCA Framework supports mapping for the C++, Java, C#, Visual Basic and Python languages.

Chapter 4: The IDL Language 49
Source Files

Source Files
The SCA IDL compiler processes three types of source files. All of these files use the same IDL language but each is restricted to different types of definitions.

IDL
These source files contain definitions of interfaces and user constructed data types. These files must have an extension of ".idl". These definitions declare the exposed API for a service that is available to its users. No implementation details are contained in the IDL files.

SDL
These source files contain service definitions and must have an extension of ".sdl". Service definitions specify the implementation details that the IDL compiler needs to generate the appropriate code to link a service to the SCA Framework. This information includes which interfaces the service will implement and how these interfaces are mapped to language specific class definitions which will be used in the implementation.

CDL
These source files contain component definitions and must have an extension of ".cdl". Component definitions specify which services a component will contain. The separation of the different types of definitions into different files has been done for several reasons.
• Because IDL files contain the definitions of the published interfaces and their supporting types,

these are generally delivered with their components. Since service and component definitions contain implementation specific information you do not want to deliver these. By separating these definitions from the interface and type definitions, they do not need to be delivered.
• Separating the definitions into separate files allow them to be placed in the appropriate locations

in the source tree. For example a component may include several services and each is implemented in a different directory in the source tree. This way the SDL files can be places with their service definition and the CDL file place where the component is built.
• The separate files allow developers and the SCA Build system to easily determine the types of

objects that are being built in the various source tree directories without having to examine the contents of the files. For example, if a directory contains a CDL file, then it is immediately known that an appropriate package file must for a SCA component needs be built in that directory. The SCA IDL compiler processes the IDL definitions and generates the appropriate code in the chosen implementation language. In general, the following types of source code are generated.

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Source Files

• Interface definitions: For each interface, appropriate source files are generated that defines the

interface and the operations it contains. Additional files may also be generated for any user constructed IDL types defined.
• Service definitions: Two types of code are generated for SCA service definitions. During the

build process, various source files are generated which are used to link the developer's implementation code to the SCA Framework. This is done to reduce as much as possible the amount of code that must be written by the developer. This support code also provides a level of isolation between the service's implementation code and the SCA Framework. This allows framework changes to be made with less impact on the existing service implementation code. The developer can also run the IDL compiler to generate skeleton implementation code for their service. This is usually done once at the beginning of the development cycle. The generated skeletons can then be expanded with the code to implement the desired behavior for each interface method. You can also run the IDL compiler at a later time if any interface changes are made and you want to see how these affect the skeletons.
• Component definitions: During the build process, the IDL compiler may be run to generate

support code used to initialize the services it implements. This is not required for all support languages. The developer never required to generate any code for the implementation of a SCA component. See the sections on the IDL mappings for the language you will be using for additional information on the generated code.

Chapter 4: The IDL Language 51
Lexical Rules

Lexical Rules
The IDL language obeys the same lexical rules as C++ with a few exceptions.

Comments
Both C and C++ style comments are supported. C style comments start with the characters "/*" and terminate with the characters "*/". These comments do not nest. C++ style comments start with the characters "//" and terminate at the end of the line on which they occur. The comment characters "//", "/*", and "*/" have no special meaning within a C++ style comment and are treated just like other characters. Similarly, the comment characters "//" and "/*" have no special meaning within a C style comment. Comments may contain alphabetic, digit, graphic, space, horizontal tab, vertical tab, form feed, and new line characters.

Identifiers
An identifier is an arbitrarily long sequence of ASCII alphabetic, digits, and underscores characters. The first character of an identifier must be an ASCII alphabetic character. All characters in the sequence are significant. When comparing two identifiers, upper and lower case letters are treated as the same letter. Identifiers that differ only in case of the letters are treated as the same identifier and can cause compilation errors if used improperly. This rule is used to allow mapping to implementation languages that are not case sensitive.

Keywords
The identifiers listed in the following table are reserved by the OMG IDL specification for use as keywords and may not be used otherwise unless they are properly escaped. Keywords must be written exactly as shown in the table. Identifier names that collide with keywords are illegal. For example, since boolean is a valid keyword, Boolean and BOOLEAN would be illegal identifiers.

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Lexical Rules

any attribute boolean case char const context default

double enum exception FALSE fixed float in inout

interface long module object octet oneway out raises

readonly sequence short string struct switch TRUE typedef

unsigned union void wchar wstring

The SCA Framework does not support all of the capabilities of the OMG IDL language, but since it uses a modified OMG IDL compiler, all of the OMG keywords are still restricted.

Escaped identifiers
As described in the previous section, the IDL language contains a set of reserved keywords that may not be used as identifiers. As the language evolves, new keywords that are added may inadvertently collide with identifiers used in existing IDL definitions and implementation code. Fixing these collisions could require not only the modification to the IDL definitions, but also to the implementation coded that uses them. To minimize this effect, the language allows you to lexically escape identifiers by prefixing an underscore "_" to an identifier. This is purely a lexical convention that turns off keyword checking. The resulting identifier follows all of the other rules for identifier processing except the underscore is not considered part of its name. For example, the identifier _attribute is treated the same as if it were attribute but it will not clash with the IDL reserved attribute keyword. The implementation code should still use the identifier name without the prefix. This way only the IDL definitions and not the implementation code need to be changed to fix any conflicts.

Literals
The IDL language supports the same literals as C++. Integer literals An integer literal consists of an optional "+" or "-" sign character followed by a sequence of digits that is treated as a decimal (base ten) value. If the sequence of digits starts with the digit zero, then they are treated as an octal (base eight) value. If the characters "0x" or "0X" precedes the sequence of digits, then they are treated as a hexadecimal (base sixteen) value. The hexadecimal digits also include the letters "A" through "F" which represent the decimal values of ten through fifteen, respectively. Hexadecimal digits can be either upper or lower case. Here are some examples for integer literals.

Chapter 4: The IDL Language 53
Lexical Rules

const SCAInt32 i1 = -123; const SCAInt32 i2 = 0123; const SCAInt32 i3 = 0X1A2B3C; Floating-point Literals

// decimal value -123 // octal value 123 // hexidimal value 1A2B3C

A floating-point literal consists of an optional sign character, an integer part, a decimal point, a fraction part, and optionally a signed integer exponent proceeded by the character "e" or "E". The integer and fraction parts both consist of a sequence of decimal (base ten) digits. Either the integer part or the fraction part, but not both, may be missing; either the decimal point or the exponent part, but not both, may be missing. The following are some examples for floating point literals. const const const const const const SCAReal64 SCAReal64 SCAReal64 SCAReal64 SCAReal64 SCAReal64 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 = = = = = = 1.23e-10; -1.23; .23; 1.; 1e10; .23e-1 // // // // // // integer, fraction and exponent integer and fraction fraction only integer only integer and exponent fraction and exponent

Character literals A character literal is one or more character enclosed in single quotes. A character is an 8-bit quantity defined by the ISO Latin-1 character set which supports a superset of the ASCII character set. The following escape sequences are supported. Newline Horizontal tab Vertical tab Backspace Carriage return Form feed Alert Backslash Question mark Single quote Double quote Octal byte value Hexadecimal byte value \n \t \v \b \r \f \a \\ \? \’ \” \ooo \xhh

Each escape sequence specifies a single character. The escape "\ooo" consists of the backslash followed by one, two, or three octal digits that are taken to specify the value of the desired character. The escape "\xhh" consists of the backslash followed by the character "x" followed by one or two hexadecimal digits

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Lexical Rules

that are taken to specify the value of the desired character. A sequence of octal or hexadecimal digits is terminated by the first character that is not an octal or a hexadecimal digit, respectively. The following are some examples for character literals. const const const const SCAChar SCAChar SCAChar SCAChar C1 C2 C3 C4 = = = = 'c'; '\123'; '\t'; '\XAB'; // // // // character c character with value of octal 123 horizontal tab character character with a value of hex AB

Wide character literals have an L prefix, for example. const SCAWChar WC1 = L'c' // wide character c

Attempts to assign a wide character literal to a non-wide character constant or to assign a non-wide character literal to a wide character constant will result in a compile time diagnostic. String literals A string literal is a sequence of characters surrounded by double quotes. Adjacent string literals are concatenated. Characters in concatenated strings are kept distinct. For example, the following string contains the two characters "\xA" and "B" after concatenation and not the single hexadecimal character "xAB" “\xA” “B” The size of a string literal is the number of character literals enclosed by the quotes after concatenation. Within a string, the double quote character " must be preceded (escaped) by a "\". A string literal may not contain the null character "\0". The following are some examples of string literals. const SCAString S1 = "this is a string"; const SCAString S2 = "\"quoation\""; const SCAString S3 = "one" "string"; // simple string // embeded double quotes // concatenated string // = "onestring" const SCAString S4 = "this is a " "string"; // concatenated string // = "this is a string" const SCAString S3 = "ap" "pear"; // concatenated string // = "appear"

Wide string literals have an L prefix, for example: const SCAWString WS1 = L"this is a string"; // simple wide string A wide string literal may not contain a wide character with a value of zero. Attempts to assign a wide string literal to a non-wide string constant or to assign a non-wide string literal to a wide string constant will result in a compile time diagnostic.

Chapter 4: The IDL Language 55
Lexical Rules

Constant expressions
The IDL language offers the arithmetic and bitwise binary operators shown in the following table. Operator + * / % | & ^ << >> ~ Meaning Arithmetic addition Arithmatic subtraction Arithmatic multiplication Arithmatic division Arithmatic modulo Bitwise OR Bitwise AND Bitwise exclusive OR Bitwise left shift Bitwise right shift Bitwise complement

The arithmetic operators apply to both floating-point and integer expressions with the exception of "%" which must have integer operands. Bitwise operators only apply to integer expressions. The semantics of these operators are the same as their C++ counterparts with the following exceptions.
• The arithmetic operators do not support mixed-mode expressions. You may not mix integer and

floating-point constants in the same expression. There is no automatic promotion.
• The bitwise shifting operators always perform logical shifts.

See section Constant Declaration the detailed syntax and semantics of constant expressions.

56 SCA Framework User’s Guide
Preprocessing

Preprocessing
IDL source files are preprocessed to perform file inclusion and macro substitution before being compiled. Preprocessing is controlled by directives introduced by lines having "#" as the first non white space character. The preprocessing rules for IDL are the same as defined for the C and C++ languages. When coding IDL files, make sure you include the appropriate preprocessor guard definitions just as you would in a C or C++ header file. These are required to make sure the file will not get expanded more than once in the same compilation, which can cause compilation errors due to duplicate definitions of the symbols. #ifndef TEST_KERNEL_BASEIMPL_IDL_INCLUDED #define TEST_KERNEL_BASEIMPL_IDL_INCLUDED #include "SCA/Service.idl" module Test { module Kernel { interface SCAIBaseImpl : SCAIService { … }; }; }; #endif

The preprocessor used by the IDL compiler also supports the normal conditional compilation directives. But you are strongly discouraged from using them because they may cause some confusion to the build system.

Chapter 4: The IDL Language 57
IDL Specification for Interfaces and Types

IDL Specification for Interfaces and Types
Grammar notation
The description of OMG IDL grammar in this document uses a syntax notation that is similar to Extended Backus-Naur Format (EBNF). The following table lists the symbols used in this format and their meaning.. Symbol ::= | <text> “text” * + {} [] Is defined to be Alternatively Non-terminal Literal The preceding syntactic unit can be repeated zero or more times The preceding syntactic unit can be repeated one or more times The enclosed syntactic units are grouped as a single syntactic unit The enclosed syntactic unit is optional--may occur zero or one time Meaning

IDL specification
An OMG IDL specification consists of one or more type, constant, exception, interface, module, service and component definitions. The grammar is: <specification> ::= <definition>+ <definition> ::= <type_dcl> ";" | <const_dcl> ";" | <except_dcl> ";" | <interface> ";" | <module> ";" | <service> ";" | <component> ";" See section Type Declaration for the specification of <type_dcl>. See section Constant Declaration for the specification of <const_dcl>. See section SCA Exception Declaration the specification of <except_decl>. See section SCA Interface Declaration for the specification of <interface>. See section Module Declaration for the specification of <module>. See section SCA Services Declaration for the specification of <service>. See section SCA Component Declaration for the specification of <component>.

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Basic IDL Types
The IDL language provides constructs for naming data types; that is, it provides C language like declarations that associate an identifier with a type. IDL supports both basic and user constructed types. The complete grammar for type declarations is: <type_dcl> ::= "typedef" <type_declarator> | <struct_type> | <enum_type> <type_declarator> ::= <type_spec> <declarators> <type_spec> ::= <simple_type_spec> | <constr_type_spec> <simple_type_spec> ::= <base_type_spec> | <template_type_spec> | <scoped_name> <base_type_spec> ::= <floating_pt_type> | <integer_type> | <char_type> | <wide_char_type> | <boolean_type> | <any_type> <template_type_spec> ::= <sequence_type> | <string_type> | <wide_string_type> <constr_type_spec> ::= <struct_type> | <enum_type> <declarators> ::= <declarator> { "," <declarator> }? <declarator> ::= <simple_declarator> | <complex_declarator> <simple_declarator> ::= <identifier> <complex_declarator> ::= <array_declarator> | <dynarray_declarator> <floating_pt_type> ::= "SCAReal32" | "SCAReal64" <integer_type> ::= <signed_int> | <unsigned_int> <signed_int> ::= <signed_byte_int> | <signed_short_int> | <signed_long_int> | <signed_llong_int> <signed_byte_int> ::= "SCAInt8" <signed_short_int> ::= "SCAInt16" <signed_long_int> ::= "SCAInt32" <signed_llong_int> ::= "SCAInt64" <unsigned_int> ::= <unsigned_byte_int> | <unsigned_short_int> | <unsigned_long_int> | <unsigned_llong_int> <unsigned_byte_int> ::= "SCAUInt8" <unsigned_short_int> ::= "SCAUInt16" <unsigned_long_int> ::= "SCAUInt32" <unsigned_llong_int> ::= "SCAUInt64" <char_type> ::= "SCAChar" <wide_char_type> ::= "SCAWChar"

Chapter 4: The IDL Language 59
IDL Specification for Interfaces and Types

<boolean_type> ::= "SCABool" <any_type> ::= "SCAAny" <struct_type> ::= "struct" <identifier> "{" <member_list> "}" <member_list> ::= <member>+ <member> ::= <type_spec> <declarators> ";" <enum_type> ::= "enum" <identifier> "{" <enumerator> { "," <enumerator> }??"}" <enumerator> ::= <identifier> <sequence_type> ::= "SCASequence" "<" <simple_type_spec> ">" <string_type> ::= "SCAString" <wide_string_type> ::= "SCAWString" <array_declarator> ::= <identifier> <array_size> | <identifier> <array_size> <array_size> <array_size> ::= "[" <positive_int_const> "]" <dynarray_declarator> ::= <identifier> "[" "]" | <identifier> "[" "]" "[" "]" <scoped_name> ::= <identifier> | "::" <identifier> | <scoped_name> "::" <identifier> <positive_int_const> ::= <const_exp> The <scoped_name> in <simple_type_spec> must be a previously defined type introduced by an interface declaration <interface_dcl>, see section SCA Interface Declaration, or a type declaration <type_dcl>, see section Type Declaration. An IDL <type_spec>, which can consist of a basic or constructed type, can be used in operation declarations to assign data types to parameters and in the construction of user defined data types. The next sections describe the basic and constructed types. Basic types The IDL language supports a number of different basic data types. When specifying the size of the basic data types, the OMG IDL requirements only specify a lower bound. Since not all CPU architectures or languages provide the ability to implement exact size definitions, the range requirements for the IDL types have been left loose. When passing IDL data types between machines or languages, you are only guaranteed of maintaining the documented data ranges. For example, you may have code running on a CPU architecture or language that allows values larger than 16 bits in a SCAInt16 value, but when the data is marshaled to another CPU type or a different language, which restricts the size to 16 bits, then the data will be truncated. All basic data types are subject to changes in representation if they are transmitted between different CPU architectures. For example, a SCAInt32 value undergoes byte swapping when sent from a big-endian to a little-endian machine. The grammar for the basic type declarations is as follows: <base_type_spec> ::= <floating_pt_type> | <integer_type> | <char_type> | <wide_char_type>

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IDL Specification for Interfaces and Types

| <boolean_type> | <any_type> <floating_pt_type> ::= "SCAReal32" | "SCAReal64" <integer_type> ::= <signed_int> | <unsigned_int> <signed_int> ::= <signed_byte_int> | <signed_short_int> | <signed_long_int> | <signed_llong_int> <signed_byte_int> ::= "SCAInt8" <signed_short_int> ::= "SCAInt16" <signed_long_int> ::= "SCAInt32" <signed_llong_int> ::= "SCAInt64" <unsigned_int> ::= <unsigned_byte_int> | <unsigned_short_int> | <unsigned_long_int> | <unsigned_llong_int> <unsigned_byte_int> ::= "SCAUInt8" <unsigned_short_int> ::= "SCAUInt16" <unsigned_long_int> ::= "SCAUInt32" <unsigned_llong_int> ::= "SCAUInt64" <char_type> ::= "SCAChar" <wide_char_type> ::= "SCAWChar" <boolean_type> ::= "SCABool" <any_type> ::= "SCAAny" Integer The following basic types represent integer values in the ranges indicated. SCAInt8 SCAInt16 SCAInt32 SCAInt64 SCAUInt8 SCAUInt16 SCAUInt32 SCAUInt64 Floating-point A number of different floating-point types are supported. See the IEEE Standard for Binary FloatingPoint Arithmetic, ANSI/IEEE Standard 754-1985, for complete details.

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IDL Specification for Interfaces and Types

SCAReal32 SCAReal64 Note:

IEEE single IEEE double

The number of bits includes the sign, the mantissa and the exponent. The actual number of bits in each field is defined in the IEEE standard.

Character

The SCAChar data type is defined as an 8-bit quantity. The ISO Latin-1 character set, which supports a superset of the ASCII character set, is used. The bottom 128-character positions are identical to ASCII. The upper 128 character positions are extensions to ASCII that allow most European languages to be used with an 8-bit character set. SCAChar Wide character The SCAWChar data type that encodes wide characters from any character set. As with character data, an implementation is free to use any code set internally for encoding wide characters. The size of a SCAWChar is implementation dependent. SCAWChar Booleans The SCABool data type is used to denote a data item that can only take a value of TRUE or FALSE. The IDL specification has no requirements on how these values are represented or about their size. SCABool SCAAny The SCAAny data type is a universal container type that can hold a value of any arbitrary IDL type with the exception of an exception type. This includes all basic types, user constructed types and interface types. This allows for interface operations to pass a value when the actual type is not known before run time. A SCAAny contains a pair of values that includes a type code value, which describes what type of data is contained, and the actual value of the data. The language mappings for each IDL data type provide operations that allow you to insert and extract the type code and data value from a SCAAny. SCAAny Any IDL type TRUE or FALSE

The SCAAny type can be compared to a void* in C. Like a pointer to a void, a SCAAny value can denote a value of any type. However, there is an important difference. The void* denotes a completely type less value that can be interpreted only with advance knowledge of its contents. In contrast, values of type

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SCAAny maintain type safety. For example, if the caller places a string value in a SCAAny, the receiver cannot extract the string as a value of the wrong type. Attempts to treat the contents of the SCAAny as the wrong type will cause a run-time error. This is possible because the SCAAny contains a type code value, defining the type of data stored, which can be used by the language mappings to enforce type safety. Type codes not only serve to enforce type safety but also provide an introspection capability. The receiver of the SCAAny value can access the type code to find out what type of value it contains. This capability is useful because it makes SCAAny values stand-alone data items. The receiver of the SCAAny can always interpret the value inside it without requiring additional contextual information.

User-defined Types
In addition to the basic data types, The IDL language allows you to construct more complex types like enumerations, structures and arrays. Enumeration Enumerated types consist of ordered lists of identifiers. The grammar for an enum is: <enum_type> ::= "enum" <identifier> "{" <enumerator> { "," <enumerator> }* "}" <enumerator> ::= <identifier> The <identifier> in the <enum_type> specification introduces the name of the new legal data type. The IDL enumeration is similar to the C++ version except IDL does not allow you to control the ordinal values of the enumerator values. enum Grade {A, B, C, D, F,}; A maximum of 232 identifiers may be specified in an enumeration. Therefore, the enumerated names are mapped to a data type capable of representing a 32-bit value. Enum definitions do not introduce a new namespace. Enumeration value names are introduced into the enclosing scope and then are treated like any other declaration in that scope. See section on Scoping Rules for further details. Enumerated types may also be defined using a typedef declaration, which will introduce an additional alias for the type. typedef enum Grade {A, B, C, D, F,} MyGrade; In this example, Grade and MyGrade are now valid IDL type names that can be used to reference the newly defined enum.

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Structure The IDL language supports structures containing one or more named members of arbitrary type, including user constructed complex types. The grammar for the struct type is <struct_type> ::= "struct" <identifier> "{" <member_list> "}" <member_list> ::= <member>+ <member> ::= <type_spec> <declarators> ";" <declarators> ::= <declarator> { "," <declarator> }? <declarator> ::= <simple_declarator> | <complex_declarator> <simple_declarator> ::= <identifier> <complex_declarator> ::= <array_declarator> | <dynarray_declarator> The <identifier> in the <struct_type> specification introduces the name of the new legal data type. The following is an example of a simple structure definition.. struct TimeOfDay { SCAInt8 hour; SCAInt8 minute; SCAInt8 second; }; These definitions can be more complicated by using other constructed types as members.. typedef SCAInt16 MeetingDate[3]; struct MeetingTime { SCAInt8 Hour,Minute; MeetingDate Date; }; enum MeetingType { REQUIRED, OPTIONAL }; typedef SCASequence<SCAString> MeetingComments; struct Meeting { SCAString Subject; MeetingTime StartTime,EndTime; MeetingType Type; MeetingComments Comments; }; Structure definitions form a new namespace, so the names of the structure members need to be unique only within their enclosing structure. The following demonstrates this.. struct FirstStructure { SCAInt32 first; SCAInt32 second; }; struct SecondStructure { SCAInt32 first; SCAInt32 second; };

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While this type of definition is legal, it should be considered a bad practice to reuse the same identifiers for two different purposes. Structure types may also be defined using a typedef declaration, which will introduce an additional alias for the type.. Typedef struct TimeOfDay { SCAInt8 hour; SCAInt8 minute; SCAInt8 second; } CurrentTime; In this example, TimeOfDay and CurrentTime are now valid IDL type names that can be used to reference the newly defined struct. The IDL grammar allows for the generation of recursive structures for members that have a sequence type. For example, the following is a valid IDL definition:. struct Node { SCAInt32 value; sequence<Node> children; }; This example defines a structure for a Node, which contains a SCAInt32 value and list of children Nodes. Fixed-size array The IDL language supports multidimensional arrays with fixed-sized dimensions. A fixed-size array definition must include explicit sizes for each dimension. Only arrays of rank 1 or 2 are allowed. Arrays of arbitrary element types are supported in IDL. The grammar for arrays is: <array_declarator> ::= <identifier> <array_size> | <identifier> <array_size> <array_size> <array_size> ::= "[" <positive_int_const> "]" <positive_int_const> ::= <const_exp> The array size, <const_exp>, for each dimension is fixed at compile time and must be a positive constant integer expression. When an array is passed as a parameter in an operation invocation, all elements of the array are transmitted. The implementation of array indices is language mapping specific. Some language mappings may define the first element in the array as having an index value of zero and others may use

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a value of one. As a result, passing of array indices as parameters may yield incorrect results unless they are correctly handled.. typedef SCAInt32 ArrayOfLongs[100]; typedef TimeOfDay ArrayOfTimes[100]; typedef SCAInt32 MultiDimensionalArray[10][100]; The use a typedef construct to declare an array is required. The following array definition is invalid.. SCAInt32 ArrayOfLongs[100]; // Error: typedef missing

All array dimensions must be specified in the IDL. Open-ended arrays are not supported because IDL does not support pointers. The complete size for each data type must be known at compilation time. Because of this rule, the following definition is invalid.. typedef SCAString StringTable[][10]; Dynamic array The IDL language also supports multidimensional arrays with dynamic dimensions which are not set until run time. Only arrays of rank 1 or 2 are allowed. Dynamic arrays differ from fixed-size arrays in that the actual array dimensions are not determined until run time. Arrays of arbitrary element types are supported in IDL. The grammar for arrays is: <dynarray_declarator> ::= <identifier> "[" "]" | <identifier> "[" "]" "[" "]" The array size for each dimension must be left blank and is specified when the array is allocated at run time. When a dynamic array is passed as a parameter in an operation invocation, all elements of the array are transmitted. The implementation of dynamic array indices is language mapping specific. Some language mappings may define the first element in the array as having an index value of zero and others may use a value of one. As a result, passing of array indices as parameters may yield incorrect results unless they are correctly handled. typedef SCAInt32 ArrayOfLongs[]; typedef TimeOfDay ArrayOfTimes[]; typedef SCAInt32 MultiDimensionalArray[][]; The use a typedef construct to declare an array as is required. The following array definition is invalid. // Error: missing dimension

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SCAInt32 ArrayOfLongs[];

// Error: typedef missing

For convenience, the SCA Framework provides predefined dynamic arrays types for each basic SCA type. These are described in the section Special SCA Framework Provided Types.

Template Types
SCASequence The IDL language provides the sequence type that is a one-dimensional array with a length that is determined at run time. The grammar for a sequence is: <sequence_type> ::= "SCASequence" "<" <simple_type_spec> ">" <simple_type_spec> ::= <base_type_spec> | <template_type_spec> | <scoped_name> Variable length arrays of arbitrary element types are supported in IDL with the sequences type. You must use a typedef construct to declare a sequence. typedef SCASequence<SCAInt32> SCAInt32Sequence; typedef SCASequence<Grade> Grades; typedef SCASequence<TimeOfDay> Times; The SCASequence only supports one-dimensional arrays, but defining a sequence of sequences can approximate a multi-dimensional array. typedef SCASequence<SCAInt32> SCAInt32Sequence; typedef SCASequence<SCAInt32Sequence> SequenceOfSequence; typedef SCASequence< SCASequence<SCAInt32> > SequenceOfSequence; Notice that in the nested sequence declaration a white space must be used to separate the two tokens of ">" at the end of the declaration. This is required to keep the two characters from being parsed as a single token of ">>". The SCA Framework does not support bounded sequences as defined by the OMG IDL specification. For convenience, the SCA Framework provides predefined sequence types for each basic SCA type. These are described in the section Special SCA Framework Provided Types. SCAString The IDL language provides a string type of SCAString that is a sequence of character values. ASCII null values of '\0' are not allowed inside IDL strings. Strings are singled out as a separate data type because

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many languages have special built-in or standard library functions for string manipulation. A separate string type may permit substantial optimization in the handling of strings compared to what can be done with sequences of characters. The grammar for a string declaration is: <string_type> ::= "SCAString" The SCA Framework does not support bounded string types as defined by the OMG IDL specification. SCAWString The IDL language provides a wide string type of SCAWString that is a sequence of wide character values. Wide character null values of L'\0' are not allowed inside IDL wide strings. Wide strings are singled out as a separate data type because many languages have special built-in or standard library functions for wide string manipulation. A wide separate string type may permit substantial optimization in the handling of strings compared to what can be done with sequences of characters. The grammar for a string declaration is: <wide_string_type> ::= "SCAWString" The SCA Framework does not support bounded string types as defined by the OMG IDL specification. Aliases to other types The typedef construct can be used to create a new type name or alias for any other valid IDL type. The grammar for a typedef declaration is as follows: ::= ::= ::= ::= | <simple_declarator> ::= <complex_declarator> ::= <type_dcl> <type_declarator> <declarators> <declarator> "typedef" <type_declarator> <type_spec> <declarators> <declarator> { "," <declarator> }? <simple_declarator> <complex_declarator> <identifier> <array_declarator>

Some simple examples of typedef declarations follow: typedef SCAInt16 YearType; typedef SCAInt16 MonthType; These types of specifications can make the IDL file more readable and self-documenting. This example would indicate to the reader that the values represent a year or month, rather than the more generic SCAInt16 type. For more complex data types, the typedef construct can be used to define the data type and create an alias for it in the same statement.:

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typedef sequence <SCAInt32> SCAInt32Sequence; typedef struct Time { SCAInt8 hour; SCAInt8 minute; SCAInt8 second; } CurrentType; typedef enum Color { RED, BLUE, GREEN } CurrentColor; typedef SCAInt32 ArrayOfLongs[100];

Sequences versus arrays Sequences and the two arrays types are similar because they all provide a vector of elements of the same type. The three types of vectors are provided to allow more efficient mappings in the various languages. In some languages, the mappings for some of the vector types may be the same and in others they may all be different. The language dependent mappings have been chosen to optimize performance and to provide various memory management models where appropriate. You should consult the IDL mapping section for your language for complete details. Here are some general guidelines to help you decide whether a sequence or an array is the more appropriate type.
• If the length of the list is not known at compilation time, either a dynamic array or a sequence

must be used.
• If you have a fixed length list and all of the elements exist all of the time, use either the fixed-

size array or the dynamic array.
• If you have a variable length list, even if the upper bound on the size is known at compile time, it

may be more efficient to use a sequence rather than an array. Consider the following IDL example for the definition of a matrix.: typedef SCAReal32 Matrix[100][100]; This definition defines a square matrix of dimension 100. It also will cause the allocation of 10,000 storage locations, which could be very inefficient if the matrix is sparse. If this matrix is passed out-ofproc, it is even more inefficient because all 10,000 values will be transmitted, even if only a few are used. In contrast, consider the following IDL definition which could be used to define a sparse matrix storage scheme.:

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struct MatrixElement { SCAUInt32 row; SCAUInt32 col; SCAReal32 value; }; typedef sequence<MatrixElement> Matrix; This definition is more efficient in both storage and transmission time because only the meaningful matrix elements will be stored and processed.

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Constants
The grammar for a constant declaration in the IDL language is:

<const_dcl> ::= "const" <const_type> <identifier> "=" <const_exp> <const_type> ::= <integer_type> | <char_type> | <wide_char_type> | <boolean_type> | <floating_pt_type> | <string_type> | <wide_string_type> | <scoped_name> <const_exp> ::= <or_expr> <or_expr> ::= <xor_expr> | <or_expr> "|" <xor_expr> <xor_expr> ::= <and_expr> | <xor_expr> "^" <and_expr> <and_expr> ::= <shift_expr> | <and_expr> "&" <shift_expr> <shift_expr> ::= <add_expr> | <shift_expr> ">>" <add_expr> | <shift_expr> "<<" <add_expr> <add_expr> ::= <mult_expr> | <add_expr> "+" <mult_expr> | <add_expr> "-" <mult_expr> <mult_expr> ::= <unary_expr> | <mult_expr> "*" <unary_expr> | <mult_expr> "/" <unary_expr> | <mult_expr> "%" <unary_expr> <unary_expr> ::= <unary_operator> <primary_expr> | <primary_expr> <unary_operator> ::= "-" | "+" | "~" <primary_expr> ::= <scoped_name> | <literal> | "(" <const_exp> ")" <literal> ::= <integer_literal> | <string_literal> | <character_literal> | <floating_pt_literal> | <boolean_literal> <boolean_literal> ::= "TRUE" | "FALSE" <positive_int_const> ::= <const_exp> <scoped_name> ::= <identifier> | "::" <identifier> | <scoped_name> "::" <identifier>

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The <scoped_name> in the <const_type> definition must be a previously defined name of an <integer_type>, <char_type>, <wide_char_type>, <string_type>, <wide_string_type>, <enum_type> <boolean_type> or <floating_pt_type> constant. The value of a <positive_int_const> expression must evaluate to a positive integer constant. One side effect of a constant type definition is the <identifier> in the <const_dcl> specification introduces the name of the new legal data type with the same type as <const_type>. This can be confusing if you use this type for any other purposes in the IDL definitions. Consider the following example.: const SCAInt32 ConstType = 123; interface Inf { SCAVoid meth1 ( in ConstType inval ); SCAVoid meth2 ( in SCAInt32 inval ); }; In this example the signature for both methods in the interface definition will be identical. This is because the first method is just defining a parameter of type ConstType which is the same as SCAInt32. It is not defining parameter with a value of "123". To avoid this confusion you should not use the type names introduced by constant definitions in any other places in the IDL. They should only used by the implementation code where normal constant can appear. For example it is perfectly fine to use the constant value as a parameter value in a call to an interface method, but it is not appropriate to use in the declaration of a method. Only integer values can be assigned to integer (SCAInt8, SCAInt16, SCAInt32 and SCAInt64) constants. Only positive integer values can be assigned to unsigned integer (SCAUInt8, SCAUInt16, SCAUInt32 and SCAUInt64) constants. If the value of the right hand side of an integer constant declaration is too large to fit in the actual type of the constant, or the value is inappropriate for the actual type of the left hand side, it is flagged as a compile time error.

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const SCAInt16 s = 655592; // Error: value to large const SCAUInt16 o = -54; // Error: negative value in unsigned type Only floating-point values can be assigned to floating point (SCAReal32 and SCAReal64) constants. If the value of the right hand side is too large to fit in the actual type of the constant to which it is being assigned it is flagged as a compile time error. A binary operator can combine two integers or two floats, but not mixtures of these. Binary operators are applicable only to integer and float-point types. If the type of an integer constant is a SCAInt8, SCAUInt8, SCAInt16, SCAUInt16, SCAInt32 or SCAUInt32, then each sub expression of the associated constant expression is treated as a signed SCAInt32 or unsigned SCAUInt32 value accordingly. It is an error if any sub expression values exceed the precision of the SCAInt32 or SCAUInt32 type, or if a final expression value exceeds the precision of the target type. A similar rule applies to SCAInt64 and SCAUInt64 constants. If the type of a floating-point constant is SCAReal64, then each sub expression of the associated constant expression is treated as a SCAReal64. It is an error if any sub expression value exceeds the precision of SCAReal64. Unary (+ -) and binary (* / + -) operators are applicable in floating-point expressions. Unary (+ - ~) and binary (* / % + - << >> & | ^) operators are only applicable in integer expressions. The "~" unary operator indicates that the bit-complement of the expression to which it is applied should be generated. For the purposes of such expressions, the values are 2's complement numbers. As such, the complement can be generated as follows: Integer Expression Type SCAInt32 SCAUInt32 SCAInt64 SCAUInt64 Generated 2’s Complement Numbers SCAInt32 -(value+1) SCAUInt32 (2**32-1) - value SCAInt64 -(value+1) SCAUInt64 (2**64-1) - value

The "%" binary operator yields the remainder from the division of the first expression by the second. If the second operand is zero, the result is undefined. If both operands are nonnegative, then the remainder is nonnegative; if not, the sign of the remainder is implementation dependent. The "<<" binary operator indicates that the value of the left operand should be shifted left the number of bits specified by the right operand with zero fill for the vacated bits. The right operand must be in the range 0 <= right operand < 64. The ">>" binary operator indicates that the value of the left operand should be shifted right the number of bits specified by the right operand with zero fill for the vacated bits. The right operand must be in the range 0 <= right operand < 64.

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The "&" binary operator indicates that the logical, bitwise AND of the left and right operands should be generated. The "|" binary operator indicates that the logical, bitwise OR of the left and right operands should be generated. The "^" binary operator indicates that the logical, bitwise EXCLUSIVE-OR of the left and right operands should be generated. An enum constant can only be defined using a correctly scoped name for the enumerator. The scoped name is resolved using the normal scope resolution rules described in section Scoping Rules. For example: enum Color { red, green, blue }; const Color FAVORITE_COLOR = red; module M { enum Size { small, medium, large }; }; const M::Size MYSIZE = M::medium; The constant name for the right hand size of an enumerated constant definition must denote one of the enumerators defined for the enumerated type of the constant. For example:: const Color col = red; const Color another = M::medium; // OK // Error: medium is not a Color

Constant definitions in IDL are not permitted for user constructed complex types of structures or arrays. The following are some examples of constant definitions.: const SCAString Version = "Version 10.3"; const SCAWString wstr = L"Test wide string"; const SCAReal32 Pi = 3.14159; const SCAChar Null = '\0'; const SCAWChar wchr = 'A'; const SCABool myTrue = TRUE; enum Color { RED, GREEN, BLUE }; const Color Favorite_Color = RED; const SCAReal32 Test1 = (1.0+4.0-2.0)*20.0/2.0; const SCAInt32 Test2 = (1+4-2)*20/2; const SCAUInt32 Test3 = ~2; const SCAInt32 Test4 = 100 % 12; const SCAInt32 Test5 = 2 << 4; const SCAInt32 Test6 = 32 >> 4; const SCAInt32 Test7 = 1 | (1<<4) | (1<<8); const SCAInt32 Test8 = 0x1234 & 0xF; const SCAInt32 Test9 = 0xF ^ 0x5;

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Modules, Names and Scoping
The IDL language uses the module construct to create a namespace. Namespaces combine related definitions into a logical group and prevent the pollution of the global namespace. A module definition satisfies the following grammar: <module> ::= "module" <identifier> "{" <definition>+ "}" A <definition> is any valid IDL specification as shown in section SCA IDL Specification. Nested module definitions are supported as the following example illustrates. module SCA { module FileReader { // Some definitions here }; }; Modules are similar to C++ namespaces in that they can be reopened to add additional definitions. module A { // Some definitions here }; module B { // Some definitions here }; module A { // Reopen module A and add some definitions to it };

Name lookup rules
IDL identifiers are case insensitive; that is, two identifiers that differ only in the case of their characters are considered redefinitions of one another. However, all references to a definition must use the same case as the defining occurrence. This allows natural mappings to case-sensitive languages. For example:.

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module M { typedef SCAInt32 Long; // Error: Long clashes with keyword long typedef SCABool MyBool; interface I { typedef SCAInt32 MyLong; SCAResult meth1( in myLong val; // Error: inconsistent capitalization in MyBool mybool; // Error: MyBool clashes with mybool ); }; };

Qualified names
A qualified name, of the form scope::identifier, is resolved by first resolving the qualifier scope in scope S, where S is the current scope, and then locating the definition of identifier within S::scope. If the qualified name is not found in S, then each of S's enclosing scopes will be checked. The identifier must exist in the namespace scope; it is not searched for directly in the enclosing scopes of S. Consider the following example. module A { module B { typedef C::X mytype; }; }; The following fully qualified names will be tried to find X ::A::B::C::X ::A::C::X ::C::X The following fully qualified names will NOT be tried to find X ::A::B::X ::A::X ::X When a qualified name begins with "::", the resolution process will only look in the file or global scope and not look in any intermediate enclosing scopes. For example:

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module A { module B { typedef ::C::X mytype; }; }; The only fully qualified name that will be tried to find X ::C::X Inheritance causes all of the identifiers defined in the base interfaces, both direct and indirect, to be visible in the derived interfaces. Such identifiers are considered to be semantically the same as the original definitions. interface CBase { typedef long X; }; interface C : CBase } }; Either of the following references are identical typedef CBase::X mytype1; typedef C::X mytype2;

Scoping rules
The scoping rules used in IDL are the same as in C++. The IDL compiler searches for the definition of an identifier from the innermost scope outward toward the outermost scope. The entire contents of an IDL file, together with the contents of any files referenced by #include statements, forms a naming scope. Definitions that do not appear inside a scope are part of the global scope. There is only a single global scope, irrespective of the number of source files that form a specification. The following IDL definitions form new naming scopes:
• module • struct • interface • interface operation

The appearance of a declaration for any of these in any scope opens a nested scope associated with that declaration. An identifier can only be defined once in a scope. However, identifiers can be redefined in nested scopes. An identifier declaring a module is defined by its first occurrence in a scope. Subsequent occurrences of a module declaration with the same identifier within the same scope reopens the module and hence its scope, allowing additional definitions to be added to it.

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The name of an interface, struct, or a module may not be redefined within the immediate scope of the interface, struct, or the module. For example: module Test { typedef SCAInt16 Test; interface Inf { SCAResult inf ( ); }; };

// Error: Test is the name of the module // Error: inf clashes with interface Inf

Enum definitions do not introduce a new scope. Enumeration value names are introduced into the enclosing scope and then are treated like any other declaration in that scope. For example: module Test { enum VAL { E1, E2, E3 }; enum BAD { E3, E4, E5 }; };

// Error: Test::E3 is already defined

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Interfaces and Operations
An interface definition satisfies the following grammar: <interface> ::= <interface_dcl> | <forward_dcl> <interface_dcl> ::= <interface_hdr> "{" <interface_body> "}" <forward_dcl> ::= "interface" <identifier> <interface_hdr> ::= "interface" <identifier> [ <inheritance_spec> ] <interface_body> ::= <export>* <export> ::= <type_dcl> ";" | <const_dcl> ";" | <op_dcl> ";" <inheritance_spec> ::= ":" <inferface_name> { "," <interface_name> }* <interface_name> ::= <scoped_name> <scoped_name> ::= <identifier> | "::" <identifier> | <scoped_name> "::" <identifier> <op_dcl> ::= <op_type_spec> <identifier> <parameter_dcls> [ <raises_expr> ] <op_type_spec> ::= "SCAResult" <parameter_dcls> ::= "(" <param_dcl> { "," <param_dcl> }* ")" | "(" ")" <param_dcl> ::= <param_attribute> <param_type_spec> <simple_declarator> <param_attribute> ::= "in" | "out" | "inout" <raises_expr> ::= "raises" "(" <scoped_name> {"," <scoped_name> }* ")" <param_type_spec> ::= <base_type_spec> | <string_type> | <wide_string_type> | <scoped_name>

Interface header
The interface header consists of these elements:
• The keyword interface. • The interface name consists of an <identifier> that names the interface. The SCA Framework

uses the convention that all interface names should begin with the prefix SCAI but this is not enforced by the IDL compiler.
• An optional inheritance specification, which consists of, a colon followed by a comma-separated

list of interfaces that are inherited from.

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• Definition of the interface body enclosed by the characters "{" and "}".

interface A {}; interface B : A {}; interface C : A, B {}; The <identifier> that names an interface introduces a new legal type name. Such a type name may be used anywhere an <identifier> is legal in the grammar.

Interface inheritance specification
The grammar for interface inheritance is as follows: <inheritance_spec> ::= ":" <inferface_name> { "," <interface_name> }* <interface_name> ::= <scoped_name> Each <scoped_name> in an <inheritance_spec> must denote a previously defined interface. See section Interface Inheritance for the description of how interface inheritance is use in the SCA Framework.

Interface body
The interface body can contain the following kinds of declarations:
• Type declarations, which specify the type definitions that the interface exports as described in

section Type Declaration.
• Constant declarations, which specify the constants that the interface exports as described in

section Constant Declaration.
• Operation declarations, which specify the operations that the interface exports and the format of

each, including operation name, the type of data returned and the types of all parameters for the operation. Operation declarations are described in section Operation Declaration. Although it is legal to include type and constant definitions inside an interface body, it is a discouraged practice. This is because the required language mapping for these types is not always obvious and can lead to undesirable implementation code. Empty interfaces, that contain no declarations, are permitted.

Operation declaration
Operation declarations in the IDL language are similar to C++ method declarations. The grammar is: <op_dcl> ::= <op_type_spec> <identifier> <parameter_dcls> [ <raises_expr> ] <op_type_spec> ::= "SCAResult" <parameter_dcls> ::= "(" <param_dcl> { "," <param_dcl> }* ")"

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| "(" ")" <param_dcl> ::= <param_attribute> <param_type_spec> <simple_declarator> <param_attribute> ::= "in" | "out" | "inout" <raises_expr> ::= "raises" "(" <scoped_name> {"," <scoped_name> }* ")" <param_type_spec> ::= <base_type_spec> | <string_type> | <wide_string_type> | <scoped_name> An operation declaration consists of:
• The type of the operation's return result. • An identifier that names the operation in the scope of the interface in which it is defined. • A parenthesized, comma separated parameter list that specifies zero or more parameter

declarations for the operation.
• An optional raises clause that identifies which exceptions the operation may throw.

Each parameter declaration consists of three parts.
• A directional attribute for the parameter. • The type of the parameter that may be any type that is defined in IDL. • An identifier that names the parameter. Since the parameter list for each operation opens a new

naming scope, the names only need to be unique in the same list. Each parameter declaration must have a directional attribute that informs the framework the direction in which the parameter is to be passed. This is different than a parameter definition in a C++ method. The directional attributes are as follows:. in out inout The parameter is passed from caller to callee The parameter is passed from callee to caller The parameter is passed in both directions

It is expected that an implementation will not attempt to modify an in parameter. The ability to even attempt to do so is language-mapping specific. The effect of such an action is undefined. The following are valid operation definitions.

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interface A { SCAResult meth1 ( ); SCAResult meth2 ( out SCAInt32 val ); SCAResult meth3 ( in SCABool ival, out SCAInt32 oval, inout SCAString ioval ); }; An IDL operation may have an optional raises clause. The raises clause defines what type of exceptions the method may throw. The syntax is defined as follows: <raises_expr> ::= "raises" "(" <scoped_name> {"," <scoped_name> }* ")" Where <scoped_name> is any valid IDL exception specification as show in section SCA Exception Declaration. You may also specify one of the built-in exceptions, SCASystemException, SCAUserException or SCAException, in the raises clause. The following shows an example of the raises clause. interface A { SCAResult meth1 ( )raises (Exception1, Exception2); SCAResult meth2 ( )raises (SCAException); };

Forward declarations
It is valid for interface-defined types to be passed as parameters to operations. Occasionally, interfaces are mutually dependent to each other; each one is expecting a parameter of the other's type. This can present a problem because the IDL compiler is a one-pass compiler and all types must be defined before being used. In this case a forward declaration can be used to resolve the problem. A forward declaration declares the name of an interface without defining it. This interface can then be used as a parameter in another interface definition. Multiple forward declarations of the same interface name are legal. It is illegal to inherit from a forward-declared interface that has not yet been defined.

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module Example { interface A; interface B { SCAResult meth ( in A inf ); }; interface A { SCAResult meth ( in B inf ); }; };

// Forward declaration of A // Full declaration of B // Use forward declared A // Full declaration of A // Use fully declared B

Interface inheritance
An interface can be derived from another interface, which is then called a base interface of the derived interface. A derived interface, like all interfaces, may declare new constants, types, and operations. In addition, unless redefined in the derived interface, the elements of a base interface can be referred to as if they were elements of the derived interface. The name resolution operator "::" may be used to refer to a base element explicitly. This permits reference to a name that has been redefined in the derived interface. A derived interface may redefine any of the types or constants that have been inherited. A derived interface may not redefine operations that have been inherited. An interface is called a direct base if it is mentioned on the interface definition and an indirect base if it is not a direct base but is a base interface of one of the interfaces that is inherited from. An interface may be derived from any number of base interfaces, which is often referred to as multiple inheritance. The order of derivation is not significant except that is should never be changed once it has been set. An interface may not be specified as a direct base interface of a derived interface more than once, but it may be an indirect base interface more than once. Consider the following valid examples:. interface interface interface interface interface A { ... }; B: A { ... }; C: A { ... }; D: B, C { ... }; E: A, B { ... }; // // // // Direct base of A Direct base of A Multiple indirect bases of A A is both a direct and indirect base

References to base interface elements must be unambiguous. A reference to a base interface element is ambiguous if the name is declared as a constant or type in more than one base interface. Ambiguities can be resolved by qualifying a name with its interface name. Consider the following examples:

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Interfaces and Operations

interface A { typedef SCAInt32 L1; SCAResult meth1(in L1 l_1); }; interface B { typedef SCAInt16 L1; SCAResult meth2(in SCAInt32 l); }; interface C: B, A { typedef L1 L2; // Error: L1 typedef A::L1 L3; // OK: A::L1 SCAResult meth1 ( in L3 val1, // OK: L3 is in B::L1 val2 // OK: B::L1 ); };

ambiguous is not ambiguous not ambiguous is not ambiguous

Overloading of operation definitions is not allowed. This means it is illegal to inherit from two interfaces containing the same operation name, or to redefine an operation in the derived interface. This is required because operation names are used at run-time with dynamic interfaces and in scripting and must be unique. Also, not all implementation languages support operation overloading. interface A { SCAResult meth1(); }; interface B: A { SCAResult meth1(in long times); };

// Error: redefinition of meth1

SCAIService interface
The SCA Framework requires that all interfaces inherit, either directly or indirectly form the SCAIService interface. The SCAIService interface defines the methods used to support interface navigation, reference counting and runtime introspection. You need to include the file that defines this interface, "SCA/Service.idl", in your IDL file unless it is already included in another include file that you are using. The following is the definition of the SCAIService interface.

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Module SCA { interface SCAIService { SCAVoid addReference(); SCAVoid releaseReference( out SCAVoidPtr pPublisher ); SCAResult getInterface( in SCAString sName, out SCAVoidPtr pIface ); SCAString getImplName(); SCAInt32 getInstanceID(); }; }; The following example shows two valid SCA interface definitions. The first interface directly inherits from the SCAIService interface and the second one indirectly inherits from it. #include "SCA/Service.idl" module Test { interface SCAITest1 : SCA::SCAIService { SCAResult meth1(); }; interface SCAITest2: SCAITest1 { SCAResult meth2(); }; Since every interface must inherit from the SCAIService interface, the IDL compiler will generate all the code that is normally required to implement its methods.

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Exceptions

Exceptions
The IDL language supports exception declarations containing zero or more named members of arbitrary type, including user constructed complex types. The grammar for the exception is similar to the struct type with several differences. Exceptions are allowed to inherit from other exceptions but inheritance is not supported on structures. Also it is possible to define an exception type with zero members. The following is the grammar for the exception type. <except_dcl> ::= "exception" <identifier> [ <except_inherit> ] "{" <member>* "}" <except_inherit> ::= ":" <scoped_name> <member> ::= <type_spec> <declarators> ";" <declarators> ::= <declarator> { "," <declarator> }? <declarator> ::= <simple_declarator> | <complex_declarator> <simple_declarator> ::= <identifier> <complex_declarator> ::= <array_declarator> | <dynarray_declarator> [ <except_inherit> ] "{" <member>* "}" The <identifier> in the <except_dcl> specification introduces the name of the new legal data type. These identifiers may appear only in an exception inheritance <except_inherit> clause or a raises clause in an interface operation definition described in section Operation Declaration. Exception identifiers are not allowed to be used for any other purpose. The following is an example of SCA IDL exception definition.. exception MyException : SCAUserException { SCAInt32 id; SCAString value; }; exception MyException2 : MyException { SCAString extradata; };

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SDL Specifications

SDL Specifications
The SCA Framework SDK delivery includes many IDL files which define types supported by the framework. But, most of these types are no different than the types you define in the components you deliver. There are a few exceptions to this. The framework also provides a number of special types, described in this section, that are treated differently for the following reasons.
• Some types are provided for convenience because they tend to be useful to all developers. In this

case it is better to use the framework provided types rather than defining your own for the purpose of consistency.
• Some of these types are provided because they utilize special language specific mappings to

provide the required functionality. In many of these cases the framework provided special implementation classes for these types in each supported language. The following special types can be thought of as new basic types provided by the SCA Framework. The IDL compiler treats them the same as any other IDL provided type but they are so fundamental to the workings of the framework that it provides special implementations for each. module SCA { // Type for holding return values and error messages struct SCAResult { SCAInt32 errorCode; SCAInt32 messageTable; SCAInt32 messageID; SCAAnySequence params; }; // UUID definition for SCA Types struct SCAUUID { SCA::SCAUInt64 part1; SCA::SCAUInt64 part2; }; }; The following exception types are predefined by the SCA framework. .

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module SCA { // Base for all SCA exceptions exception SCAException{}; // Base for all User defined exceptions exception SCAUserException: SCAException{}; // Base for all System defined exception exception SCASystemException: SCAException { SCAInt32 id; }; }; The following sequence and dynamic array types are provided by the framework. These are provided for convenience and to since many components required similar definitions it is more consistent if everyone uses the same ones.

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module SCA { // Standard sequence types typedef sequence<SCAInt8> SCAInt8Sequence; typedef sequence<SCAUInt8> SCAUInt8Sequence; typedef sequence<SCAInt16> SCAInt16Sequence; typedef sequence<SCAUInt16> SCAUInt16Sequence; typedef sequence<SCAInt32> SCAInt32Sequence; typedef sequence<SCAUInt32> SCAUInt32Sequence; typedef sequence<SCAInt64> SCAInt64Sequence; typedef sequence<SCAUInt64> SCAUInt64Sequence; typedef sequence<SCAReal32> SCAReal32Sequence; typedef sequence<SCAReal64> SCAReal64Sequence; typedef sequence<SCAChar> SCACharSequence; typedef sequence<SCAWChar> SCAWCharSequence; typedef sequence<SCAString> SCAStringSequence; typedef sequence<SCAWString> SCAWStringSequence; typedef sequence<SCABool> SCABoolSequence; typedef sequence<SCAAny> SCAAnySequence; typedef sequence<SCATypeCode> SCATypeCodeSequence; // Define some standard dynamic array types typedef SCAInt8 SCAInt8DynamicArray[]; typedef SCAUInt8 SCAUInt8DynamicArray[]; typedef SCAInt16 SCAInt16DynamicArray[]; typedef SCAUInt16 SCAUInt16DynamicArray[]; typedef SCAInt32 SCAInt32DynamicArray[]; typedef SCAUInt32 SCAUInt32DynamicArray[]; typedef SCAInt64 SCAInt64DynamicArray[]; typedef SCAUInt64 SCAUInt64DynamicArray[]; typedef SCAReal32 SCAReal32DynamicArray[]; typedef SCAReal64 SCAReal64DynamicArray[]; typedef SCAChar SCACharDynamicArray[]; typedef SCAWChar SCAWCharDynamicArray[]; typedef SCAString SCAStringDynamicArray[]; typedef SCAWString SCAWStringDynamicArray[]; typedef SCABool SCABoolDynamicArray[]; typedef SCAAny SCAAnyDynamicArray[]; typedef SCATypeCode SCATypeCodeDynamicArray[]; };

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CDL Specifications

CDL Specifications
The SCA IDL language allows for the definition of SCA services. The definition of services should always be placed in source files with the extension of ".sdl" and these SDL files should only contain service definitions. Only one service definition is allowed in each SDL file. The IDL compiler uses the service definitions in SDL files to generate sample implementation code skeletons for a service in one of the supported languages. See the IDL mapping section for your language for the complete details. The IDL compiler also uses the service definitions to generate support code that links the developer's implementation code to the SCA Framework. This code is automatically generated, compiled and linked with the SCA services you build. When designing the implementation for a SCA service, the developer is free to structure the code any way they wish. Usually the implementation of a service will be split among several different classes. In some cases the IDL compiler needs to understand this structure. In general, the following types of classes might be used.
• The Top-Level class that is instantiated when an instance of the service is requested. This class

must implement at least one SCA interface. This class is referred to as the Top-Level service class.
• Additional classes may be instantiated that also implement SCA interfaces. Pointers to instances

of these classes, in the form of interface references, may then be passed outside of the service to other SCA services. These classes are referred to as Sub-Service classes.
• Additional classes may be instantiated that do not implement SCA interfaces. Because these

classes do not implement any SCA interfaces, pointers to them cannot be passed outside of the service. They can only be used internally as part of the implementation of the service. Of these three types of classes, the IDL compiler only needs to be aware of the first two because they each implement SCA interfaces. Since interface references to any instance of these classes may be passed outside of the service, appropriate support code is generated to control the life cycle of these instances to insure that they will be deleted when no longer referenced. When coding SDL definitions, the general rule is that any class in the implementation of a service that implements a SCA interface must be declared in the SDL file. The declaration must also include, either directly or indirectly, all of interfaces that each class implements. Because interfaces can inherit from other interfaces, if the SDL specifies that a class implements a specific interface, then the class must also implement all interfaces that it is derived from. Because of this it is not required that you specify every base interface in your SDL definitions. It is only required that you include the most derived interfaces. The structure of the Top-Level service class and Sub-Service classes is very similar but do differ because of the way instances of them are created. An instance of the Top-Level class is only triggered when a SCA Framework request is made for a new instance of the service. There is no provision for this type of request to include any parameters that can be passed to the service instance when it is constructed. SubService classes, however, can only be instantiated from within the implementation code of a service. It is reasonable to assume that there will be a need to initialize these classes so this information can also be provided in the definition of Sub-Service classes.

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CDL Specifications

The grammar of a SCA service definition is as follows: <service> ::= <service_dcl> "{" <service_body> "}" <service_dcl> ::= "service" <service_name> < service_name > ::= <identifier> | < service_name > "." <identifier> <service_body> ::= <service_entry>+ <service_entry> ::= <option_dcl> ";" | <interface_ref> ";" | <sub_service> ";" <option_dcl> ::= <option>+ <option> ::= "singleton" | "delegate" | "inherit" | "aggregates" | "aggregated" <interface_ref> ::= "interface" <scoped_name> <scoped_name> ::= <identifier> | "::" <identifier> | <scoped_name> "::" <identifier> <sub_service> ::= <subservice_dcl> "{" <sub_service_body> "}" <sub_service_dcl> ::= "subservice" <identifier> [ <parameter_dcls> ] <parameter_dcls> ::= "(" <param_dcl> { "," <param_dcl> }* ")" | "(" ")" <sub_service_body> ::= <sub_service_entry>+ <sub_service_entry> ::= <interface_ref> ";" A service definition consists of these elements:
• The keyword service • The fully qualified dotted service name • Definition of the service body enclosed by the characters "{" and "}".

service A.B.C.MyService {}; The fully qualified dotted service name serves several purposes. For complete details on these see section IDL/SDL/CDL Names, Namespaces and Directories. The body of a service definition consists of the following elements in any order.
• Zero or more service option specifications. • One or more interface references for the interfaces that the Top-Level service class will

implement. The interface names must be normally scoped names that resolve to previously defined interfaces.
• Zero or more Sub-Service definitions.

The following example shows a service that implements one interface.

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service A.B.C.MyService1 { interface Inf1; }; Since the service class must also implement all base classes of the specified interface, in reality this service class will implement a minimum of two interfaces. The second interface is SCA::SCAIService which is the common base class for all SCA interfaces. It may also implement additional interfaces depending on the actual definition of the Inf1. You may also specify more the one interface for the service class. service A.B.C.MyService2 { interface Inf1; interface Inf2; }; You may need to also specify some options for the service. service A.B.C.MyService3 { singleton; delegate; interface Inf1; }; A Sub-Service definition consists of these elements.
• The keyword subservice. • An optional parenthesized initialization parameter list for the Sub-Service class that is passed to

the class when it is instantiated.
• Definition of the Sub-Service body enclosed by the characters "{" and "}"

The grammar for the optional parameter list for a Sub-Service is the same as for an interface operation and is described in section Operation Declaration. Generally, the only parameter types that are allowed in the parameter list are those that can be defined in the IDL. But, in some languages it is possible to pass non-IDL pointer types using the special SCAVoidPtr type. The Sub-Service body contains one or more interface references for the interfaces this Sub-Service class will implement. The interface names must be normally scoped names that resolve to previously defined interfaces.

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service A.B.C.MyService1 { interface Inf1; subservice MySub1 { interface Inf2; }; }; The following example shows a second subservice class which includes optional parameters. service A.B.C.MyService2 { interface Inf1; subservice MySub1 { interface Inf2; }; subservice MySub2( in SCAInt32 value, in SCAVoidPtr ptr ) { interface Inf3; interface Inf4; }; };

Service Options
In the definition of a SCA service there are several options that can be specified which will affect the type of code generated by the IDL compiler.
• singleton: Only one instance of a singleton service may exist at any given time. Once an instance

of the service has been created, additional calls to get a copy of the service will return the same instance. For normal non-singleton services, each call to get a copy of the service will return a new instance of the service.
• delegate or inherit: The default code generated for a SCA service will use an implementation that

inherits from a base class generated by the IDL compiler. This base class will then inherit from the interface class and also provide all the necessary links to the SCA Framework. There may be situations where this form of implementation is inconvenient because of other requirements in your classes. To resolve this, the delegation form of implementation can be used. With delegation, the skeleton classes generated by the IDL compiler do not inherit from a base or interface classes. Instead the base class is replaced with a separate or tie class which inherits from the interface class and provides all the necessary links to the SCA Framework. When a new instance of the service is requested, an instance of the tie class is constructed and returned. The tie class will internally construct a separate instance of your implementation class when it is initialized. Interface calls to the methods in the tie class are then delegated to the methods in the implementation class.

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CDL Specifications

• aggregates: Interface aggregation is one method in interface based programming to extend a

service by reusing implementation from another service. The aggregates option specifies that this service class will use aggregation. The services that implement the interfaces that will be aggregated must be defined with the aggregated option. For complete details on aggregation see the section on implementation reuse.
• aggregated: This option specifies that the interfaces implemented by this service class may be

aggregated by another service which is defined with the aggregates option. Not all languages support all of these options. See the sections on the IDL mappings for the language you will be using for the complete details on which options are supported.

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SCA Component Declaration

SCA Component Declaration
The SCA IDL language allows for the definition of SCA components. A SCA component is the container that is used to deliver one or more services. The definition of components should always be placed in files with the extension of ".cdl" and these CDL files should only contain component definitions. Only one component definition is allowed in each CDL file. The IDL compiler uses the component definitions to generate support code that makes the services in the component available to the SCA Framework. This code is automatically generated, compiled and linked with the SCA component you build. Since SCA components are nothing more than a container for one or more SCA services, their definitions consists of a list of these services. The grammar of a SCA component definition is as follows: <component> ::= <component_dcl> "{" <component_body> "}" <component_dcl> ::= "component" <component_name> < component_name > ::= <identifier> | < component_name > "." <identifier> <component_body> ::= <component_entry>+ <component_entry> ::= <option_dcl> ";" | <service_ref> ";" <option_dcl> ::= <option>+ <option> ::= "embedded" <service_ref> ::= "service" <service_name> < service_name > ::= <identifier> | < service_name > "." <identifier> A component definition consists of these elements:
• The keyword component • The fully qualified dotted component name • Definition of the component body enclosed by the characters "{" and "}"

The body of a component definition consists of the following elements in any order.
• Zero or more component option specifications. • One or more service references for the services that the component will contain.

component A.B.C.MyComponent1 { service Service1; service SCA.Util.Service2; }; You may need to also specify some options for a component.

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component A.B.C.MyComponent1 { service Service1; service SCA.Util.Service2; }; The fully qualified dotted component name serves several purposes. For complete details on these see section IDL/SDL/CDL Names, Namespaces and Directories. The service names used may be either a short name or the fully qualified dotted name. If a short name is used there must be no ambiguities when resolving it to a service definition based on the following rules.
• If there is only one service in the entire source tree with the same short name, that that service

definition is used.
• If there is more than one service in the entire source tree with the same short name, there must be

only one in the sub-tree of the source tree that is rooted in the directory that contains the CDL file for the component.

Component Options
In the definition of a SCA component there are several options that can be specified which will affect the type of code generated by the IDL compiler.
• embedded: Normally, each SCA component will be packaged by the build system into a separate

package that is appropriate for the language it is implemented in. For example a component implemented in C++ is linked into a shared library and a Java component is packaged in a jar file. Under some conditions it may be desirable to not do this packaging. This allows you to manually package the files with other parts of your program as required. See the section on Embedded Components for examples of when this may be useful. Not all languages support all of these options. See the sections on the IDL mappings for the language you will be using for the complete details on which options it supports.

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Using the SCA-IDL Compiler

Using the SCA-IDL Compiler
The SCA Framework provides an IDL compiler that is used to process the ".idl", ".sdl" and ".cdl" files. Using the definitions in these files, the compiler generates a set of source files that are appropriate for the implementation language being used.

The IDL compiler command
The following is the syntax for the command to run the SCA IDL compiler command..

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Run the SCA/IDL compiler. Usage: idl [options] file, [file, file, ...] One of the following options must be given: -w -s -h : Generates glue part of interfaces, services and components : Generates skeleton for user's part of a service : Print this message

Additional Options: -b backend -c -e -f -Dxxx -i path -nf -o path : : : : : : : : Name of back-end module to run Keep comments from IDL files in interface headers An error is generated if any of the files already exist List the files that will be generated, do not generate them Add pre-preprocessor define Add path to the list of search directories for includes Do not warn about unresolved forward declarations Base directory where output files are written Default is the current working directory Base directory where XML output files are written Default is the same as specified with the "-O" parameter Do not put interface header files in relative sub-directories specified by IDL module statements. Instead they will be put directly in the current working directory or the directory specified with the "-o" option. Do not print the IDL compiler version number on stdout Generate tie or delegated service implementation Pass option "xxx" directly to the back-end module Generate TypeCode information for IDL defined types Do not generate TypeCode information for IDL defined types If "-tc" set, generate XML TypeCode information If "-tc" set, generate embedded TypeCode information

-xmlo path : -nrd :

-q -t -wbxxx -tc -ntc -xmltc -nxmltc

: : : : : : :

Debug options: -dump -p -v : Dump the parsed IDL then exit, without running back-end : Only run the pre-processor, sending its output to stdout : Verbose output to trace compilation stages

The extension of the input file is used to determine the type of files that will be generated: .cdl -> Generate component implementation (-w) .sdl -> Generate service implementation (-w) or skeletons (-s) .idl -> Generate interface headers (-w)

Compiler processing modes
When running the IDL compiler, one of the two following modes must be selected.

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• The "-s" option is used when you want the IDL compiler to generate skeleton code for the

implementation of a SCA service. This option only has affect when processing SDL files. The files generated will always have an extension of ".new" appended to their name so they will not accidentally overwrite any existing implementation files. This option is normally used when you are first starting to develop a SCA service. You first write the IDL and SDL definitions for the service and then use the IDL compiler to generate the skeleton code. You may also want to rerun the compiler at a latter time if you make significant changes to your IDL and/or SDL files and need to update your existing implementation. Normally you do not directly run the IDL compiler with this option. Instead you will use the genskeleton command which provides additional features for generate your skeletons.
• The "-w" option is used when you want the IDL compiler to generate the code that is required to

link the developer's implementation code to the SCA Framework. This option is normally only used by the SCA Build System and applies to all three IDL file types.

Location for compiler generated files
The files generated by the IDL compiler will be stored in several different locations depending on the compiler options provided and the type of files being generated. The default location for files generated from SDL and CDL inputs, regardless of whether the "-s" or "w" mode is selected, is always the current directory where the command was run from. The "-o" compiler option can be used to change this location. For IDL files, which are only processed when the "-w" mode is selected, the generated files are normally stored in a relative sub-directory that is determined from the module commands in the IDL file. Consider the following example IDL file. module SCA { module FileReaders { module Nastran { interface SCAIReader : SCAIService { SCAResult importBDF( in SCAString sFileName ); }; }; }; }; In this example, the file generated for the "SCAIReader" interface would be stored in the relative subdirectory "SCA/FileReaders/Nastran". The base for the relative sub-directory will be the current directory where the command was run from. The "-o" compiler option can be used to change this base location. If the "-nrd" compiler option is specified, then the files will not be stored in a relative subdirectory. Instead they will be stored directly in the current directory or in the directory specified with the "-o" option.

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Using the SCA-IDL Compiler

The genskeleton command
The genskeleton command is used to generate skeletons for the implementation code, in the language of your choice, for the service definitions provide in ".sdl" files. The following is the syntax for the command to run the SCA genskeleton command. Generate skeleton code for a service implementation from the definitions in a SDL file. Usage: genskeleton [options] file [files, file, ...] The following options are available: -h -cxx -java -csharp -vb -r -v : : : : : : Print usage information For C++ implmentation (default) For Java implmentation For C# implmentation For Visual Basic .NET implmentation If versions of the output files already exist, they will be renamed by appending an extension of ".old". The new files will then have their ".new" extension removed. : Show the actual commands as they are executed.

The generation of skeleton files is a two step process.
• The SCons build system is run to install any IDL files in the current directory into your

APPS_LOCAL directory. This is required because the IDL compiler cannot use the IDL files located in your source directory. This is because the relative paths for the IDL files that must be included must use the directory structure in the APPS_LOCAL tree and not the directory structure used in the source tree.
• The IDL compiler is run to build the skeletons from the SDL file.

Since the build system must be run first, this script will only work if you are located in a properly configured source tree. This means there must be a SConscript file in the current directory and there must be a SConstruct file in either the the current directory or one of its parents. The skeleton files generated by the IDL compiler normally have an extension of ".new" appended to the files names so they will not overwrite any existing versions. If none of the files currently exist, then the new versions will have the ".new" extension removed. If any of the files do exist, the newly generated files will keep their ".new" extension unless "-r" option is provided. In this case, the existing versions of the files will be saved by adding an extension of ".old", and the new versions will then replace them.

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Summary

Summary

Chapter 5: IDL to C++ Language Mapping SCA Framework User’s Guide

5

IDL to C++ Language Mapping
                 

Introduction

102 104 105 106 107 108

Mapping for Identifiers Mapping for Modules

Mapping for Basic Types Mapping for String Types

Mapping for Enumerated Types Mapping for Structures Mapping for Arrays 110 116 119 120 109

Mapping for Sequences Mapping for Type Aliases

Mapping for SCATypeCode Mapping for SCAAny Mapping for SCAResult Mapping for Constants Mapping for Interfaces Mapping for Exceptions Mapping for SCA Services 121

127 130 131 137 141 150

Mapping for SCA Components

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Introduction

Introduction
The IDL language provides a language independent definition of SCA interfaces and data types. In order to actually use these definitions, there must be a set of rules, commonly known as a mapping; that describes how these types are represented in a particular language. This chapter explains the mapping that SCA uses for the C++ language. For every type defined in IDL, the IDL compiler will generate the code required to expose the proper C++ definition of the type. In addition to the actual C++ definition of the type, there is also some support code generated which is used by the SCA Framework to manage instances of each type. An example of this is the bridging of instances of the type between C++ and the other languages supported by the SCA Framework.
• The SCA C++ mapping uses a set of overloaded bi-directional marshalling operators to

manipulate data in instances of the SCAAny type and for some bridging operations. For each user defined type the IDL compiler will generate these required operator definitions. The format for these is different for each different type and will be shown in the various mapping sections below. For the basic and predefined types that are delivered with the SCA Framework, these operators are predefined in the delivered header files.
• For each type the IDL compiler will generate some support code for accessing the

SCATypeCode created at runtime by the SCA Framework. This code will be described in the SCATypeCode mapping section latter in this chapter. The code that is generated by the IDL compiler is stored in one of several files depending on whether it is an interface or a user defined type definition.
• All of the user defined types, defined outside of interfaces, in the same .idl file will be store in a

single header file. The name of the file will be xxxTypes.h for the IDL file named xxx.idl. The relative directory under the include directory in the delivery tree where the generated file is stored is taken from the namespace of the first type defined in the file.
• For each interface defined in the IDL file, two header files will be generated, one for the smart

pointer definition and one for the full definition of the abstract interface class. The relative directory under the include directory in the delivery tree where the generated files are stored is taken from the namespace that the interface is defined in. Consider the following simple IDL file to demonstrate these rules. IDL file “mytest.idl” module SCA { module Test { enum MyENUM { VALUE1, VALUE2 }; Module Test2 { Struct MyStruct { SCAInt32 data; } ; Interface SCAITest1 : SCAIService { };

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Introduction

}; Interface SCAITest2 : SCAIService { }; }; }; The IDL compiler will generate the following type file for this definition.

SCA/Test/mytestTypes.h SCA/Test/Test2/SCAITest1SPtr.h SCA/Test/Test2/SCAITest1.h SCA/Test/SCAITest2SPtr.h SCA/Test/SCAITest2.h

-

contains contains contains contains contains

MyEnum and MyStruct smart pointer for SCAITest1 interface for SCAITest1 smart pointer for SCAITest2 interface for SCAITest2

Although it is legal to include type and constant definitions inside an interface body, it is a discouraged practice. As a result the affect on the mappings described in this section will not be discussed.

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Mapping for Identifiers

Mapping for Identifiers
IDL identifiers are mapped to C++ with no change. For example: IDL enum Color { RED, GREEN, BLUE }; C++ enum Color { RED, GREEN, BLUE }; There is one potential problem to be aware of. If the IDL contains an identifier that is also a C++ reserved keyword, then the resulting C++ code will not compile. The OMG IDL specification dictates that in this case the identifier should be automatically prefixed with the string “_cxx_”. Since this leads to ugly and non-intuitive code, the SCA IDL compiler does not implement this feature. Therefore, the use of C++ reserved words for identifiers is not allowed.

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Mapping for Modules

Mapping for Modules
The IDL module construct is mapped directly to a C++ namespace with the same name. IDL module SCA { module Test { // definitions }; }; C++ namespace SCA { namespace Test { // definitions } } The IDL module constructs also affect other aspects of the SCA mapping. See the IDL Compiler chapter for detailed information on how the IDL module statements are used.

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Mapping for Basic Types
Each basic IDL data type is mapped to a C++ typedef in the SCA namespace with the same name. This is done because some types, like SCAInt16 and SCAInt32, may have different representations on different platforms, and the SCA definitions will reflect the appropriate representation for that platform. It is therefore important to use the appropriate SCA types and not the native C++ types when dealing with interface parameters and results to insure compatibility across platforms. SCA IDL Type SCA::SCAInt8 SCA::SCAInt16 SCA::SCAInt32 SCA::SCAInt64 SCA::SCAUInt8 SCA::SCAUInt16 SCA::SCAUInt32 SCA::SCAUInt64 SCA::SCAReal32 SCA::SCAReal64 SCA::SCAChar SCA::SCAWChar SCA::SCABool C++ Type SCA::SCAInt8 SCA::SCAInt16 SCA::SCAInt32 SCA::SCAInt64 SCA::SCAUInt8 SCA::SCAUInt16 SCA::SCAUInt32 SCA::SCAUInt64 SCA::SCAReal32 SCA::SCAReal64 SCA::SCAChar SCA::SCAWChar SCA::SCABool

All of the mappings for the basic types are distinguishable and unique with respect to overloading. That is, one can safely write overloaded C++ functions for SCAInt8, SCAUInt8, SCAInt16, SCAUInt16, SCAInt32, SCAUInt32, SCAInt64, SCAUInt64, SCAReal32, SCAReal64, SCAChar, SCAWChar and SCABool types and each of these will be unique. Remember that overloading is not permitted in interface operations in IDL but it can be used in service implementation code. This is also a requirement to allow type-safe processing of data in a SCAAny type.

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Mapping for String Types
The IDL SCAString type is directly mapped to the C++ STL string class and the SCAWString type is directly mapped to the C++ STL wstring class. namespace SCA { typedef std::string SCAString; typedef std::wstring SCAWString; }

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Mapping for Enumerated Types
An IDL enum maps directly to the corresponding C++ enum type definition. IDL enum Color { RED, GREEN, BLUE }; C++ enum Color { RED, GREEN, BLUE }; inline SCAMarshaller& operator >>= (const Color& val, SCAMarshaller& stream){ SCAInt32 ival = static_cast< SCAInt32 >(val); ival >>= stream; return stream; } inline SCAMarshaller& operator <<= (Color& val, SCAMarshaller& stream){ SCAInt32 ival; ival <<= stream; val = static_cast< Color >(ival); return stream; }

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Mapping for Structures

Mapping for Structures
An IDL structure maps to a C++ struct, with each IDL structure member mapped to a corresponding member of the C++ structure. The C++ structure members appear in the same order as the corresponding IDL structure members. For example: IDL struct Node { SCAInt32 id; SCAReal32 x; SCAReal32 y; SCAReal32 z; }; C++ struct Node { SCAInt32 id; SCAReal32 x; SCAReal32 y; SCAReal32 z; }; inline SCAMarshaller& operator >>= (const Node& val SCAMarshaller& stream){ stream.setSize(TypeCodeForType< Node >::get()); val.id >>= stream; val.x >>= stream; val.y >>= stream; val.z >>= stream; return stream; } inline SCAMarshaller& operator <<= (Node& val, SCAMarshaller& stream){ val.id <<= stream; val.x <<= stream; val.y <<= stream; val.z <<= stream; return stream; }

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Mapping for Arrays
Two types of array definitions are supported in IDL. Fixed size arrays must have their size defined in the IDL and can never change. Dynamic arrays allow you to delay the specification of the array size until it is actually allocated. Only arrays of rank 1 or 2 are supported.

Fixed size arrays
The C++ compiler represents a standard array reference as a simple pointer to values of their data type. As a result, two different IDL defined arrays which contain data of the same type will be treated as the same type when distinguishing operator overloads. This would make it difficult to support the insertion of these arrays into a SCAAny value in a type-safe manner. To allow for the type-safe handling of arrays, each IDL defined array is mapped to a light weight C++ class which acts like a normal C++ array. IDL typedef SCAInt32 Date[3]; C++ class Date { public: typedef SCAInt32 value_type; typedef size_t size_type; Date() { } size_type size() const { return 3; } value_type& operator[](size_type idx) { return data[idx]; } const value_type& operator[](size_type idx)const { return data[idx]; } private: value_type data[3]; }; inline SCAMarshaller& operator >>= (const Date& val, SCAMarshaller& stream){ stream.setSize(TypeCodeForType< Date >::get()); for(Date::size_type i=0; i<3; i++) val[i] >>= stream; return stream; } inline SCAMarshaller& operator <<= (Date& val, SCAMarshaller& stream){ for(Date::size_type i=0; i<3; i++) val[i] <<= stream; return stream; } Two dimensional arrays are handled in a similar manner.

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IDL typedef SCAInt32 Matrix[5][5]; C++ class Matrix { public: typedef SCAInt32 value_type; typedef size_t size_type; Matrix() {} size_type size1() const { return 5; } size_type size2() const { return 5; } value_type* operator[](size_type idx) { return data[idx]; } const value_type* operator[](size_type idx) const { return data[idx]; } private: value_type data[5][5]; }; inline SCAMarshaller& operator >>= (const Matrix& val, SCAMarshaller& stream){ stream.setSize(SCA::TypeCodeForType< Matrix >::get()); for(Matrix::size_type i=0; i<5; i++) for(Matrix::size_type j=0; j<5; j++) val[i][j] >>= stream; return stream; } inline SCAMarshaller& operator <<= (Matrix& val, SCAMarshaller& stream){ for(Matrix::size_type i=0; i<5; i++) for(Matrix::size_type j=0; j<5; j++) val[i][j] <<= stream; return stream; } Only one and two dimensional arrays are support by the C++ mapping.

Dynamic arrays
Dynamic arrays are implemented in C++ with several template class types. The following is the definitions for the one and two dimensional dynamic array. The ArrayData class is the actual object that stores the data for an instance of either a one or two dimensional dynamic array. It adds reference counting to the data to allow more efficient handling of it. template <typename T> class ArrayData { public: typedef T value_type;

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typedef size_t size_type; typedef value_type& reference; typedef const value_type& const_reference; typedef value_type* pointer; typedef const value_type* const_pointer; friend class ArrayPtr1<value_type>; friend class ArrayPtr2<value_type>; friend class SCAMemoryMarshaller; ArrayData(pointer data, size_type size1, size_type size2, DestroyFunc destroyFunc, SCATypeCode contTC); ~ArrayData(); SCAVoid addReference(); SCAVoid releaseReference(); private: value_type* m_data; unsigned long m_refcnt; size_type m_size1; size_type m_size2; DestroyFunc m_destroyFunc; SCATypeCode m_contTC;

};

ArrayPtr1 is the template class for a one dimensional dynamic array. The actual instance of a dynamic array objects are an instance of this class. It contains an instance of the ArrayData class and manages the reference count on it. The ArrayPtr1 class provides the appropriate operator overloads to act like a normal C++ array. It also provides a number of additional methods for managing the ArrayData data it points to. template<typename T> class ArrayPtr1 { public: typedef T value_type; typedef ArrayData<value_type> arraydata; typedef typename arraydata::size_type size_type; typedef typename arraydata::reference reference; typedef typename arraydata::const_reference const_reference; typedef typename arraydata::pointer pointer; typedef typename arraydata::const_pointer const_pointer; friend class SCAMemoryMarshaller; ArrayPtr1(); ArrayPtr1(value_type* data, size_type size, DestroyFunc destroyFunc=NULL, SCATypeCode contTC=SCATypeCode()); ArrayPtr1(const ArrayPtr1& val) ~ArrayPtr1(); void set(pointer data, size_type size, DestroyFunc destroyFunc=NULL, SCATypeCode contTC=SCATypeCode());

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void setTypeCode(SCATypeCode contTC); void clear(); size_t size() const; bool empty() const; bool shared() const; pointer data() const; ArrayPtr1<value_type>& operator=(const ArrayPtr1& val); const_reference operator[](size_type index) const; reference operator[](size_type index); private: arraydata* m_arraydata; }; ArrayPtr2 is the template class for a two dimensional dynamic array. The actual instance of a dynamic array objects are an instance of this class. It contains an instance of the ArrayData class and manages the reference count on it. template<typename T> class ArrayPtr2 { public: typedef T value_type; typedef ArrayData<value_type> arraydata; typedef typename arraydata::size_type size_type; typedef typename arraydata::reference reference; typedef typename arraydata::const_reference const_reference; typedef typename arraydata::pointer pointer; typedef typename arraydata::const_pointer const_pointer; ArrayPtr2(); ArrayPtr2(value_type* data, size_type size1, size_type size2, DestroyFunc destroyFunc=NULL, SCATypeCode contTC=SCATypeCode()); ArrayPtr2(const ArrayPtr2& val); ~ArrayPtr2(); void set(pointer data, size_type size1, size_type size2, DestroyFunc destroyFunc=NULL, SCATypeCode contTC=SCATypeCode()); void setTypeCode(SCATypeCode contTC); void clear(); size_t size1() const; size_t size2() const; bool empty() const; bool shared() const; pointer data() const; ArrayPtr2<value_type>& operator=(const ArrayPtr2& val); const_pointer operator[](size_type index) const; pointer operator[](size_type index); private: arraydata* m_arraydata; };

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The generated code for dynamic array types must also be handled differently because the C++ compiler treats two different instantiation of a template with the same parameter type the same when distinguishing operator overloads. This would make it difficult to support the insertion of the dynamic arrays into a SCAAny value in a type-safe manner. To allow for the type-safe handling of dynamic arrays, each IDL defined sequence is mapped to a light weight C++ class that inherits from the template class. The following shows an example of the generated code for a one dimensional dynamic array type. IDL typedef SCAInt32 DynDate[]; C++ class DynDate : public DynamicArray::ArrayPtr1< SCAInt32 > { public: typedef SCAInt32 value_type; typedef DynamicArray::ArrayPtr1<value_type> base; typedef base::size_type size_type; DynDate() : base() {} DynDate(value_type* data, size_type size, DynamicArray::DestroyFunc desfunc=0) : base(data,size,desfunc) {}; }; inline SCAMarshaller& operator >>= (const DynDate& val, SCAMarshaller& stream) { stream.packDynamicArray(&val); return stream; } inline SCAMarshaller& operator <<= (DynDate& val, SCAMarshaller& stream) { stream.unpackDynamicArray(&val); return stream; } The following shows an example of the generated code for a two dimensional dynamic array type. IDL typedef SCAInt32 DynMatrix[][]; C++ class DynMatrix : public DynamicArray::ArrayPtr2< SCAInt32 > { public: typedef SCAInt32 value_type; typedef DynamicArray::ArrayPtr2<value_type> base; typedef base::size_type size_type; DynMatrix() : base() {}

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};

DynMatrix(value_type* data, size_type size1, size_type size2, DynamicArray::DestroyFunc desfunc=0) : base(data,size1,size2,desfunc) {};

inline SCAMarshaller& operator >>= (const DynMatrix& val, SCAMarshaller& stream) { stream.packDynamicArray(&val); return stream; } inline SCAMarshaller& operator <<= (DynMatrix& val, SCAMarshaller& stream) { stream.unpackDynamicArray(&val); return stream; } The details of using dynamic arrays are an advanced topic and are discussed in detail in the Dynamic SCA chapter of the Advanced SDK manual.

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Mapping for Sequences
The IDL SCASequence type is implemented in C++ as a template class type that inherits from the standard C++ STL vector class. The SCASequence template class adds the following new behavior to the standard STL vector class.
• The actual sequence data is reference counted to reduce to a minimum the times when the actual

data will be copied.
• The SCASequence implements the copy on write idiom so multiple readers can share the same

copy of the data and only when one copy is changed is a copy of the actual data made The following example uses the framework provided SCAInt32Sequence to show how this works. First the code declares an instance of the sequence, values1, and fills it with data. SCAInt32Sequence values1; for ( int i=0; i<1000; i++ ) values1.push_back(i); Then a new instance of the sequence, values2, is allocated and set equal to the first instance. This operation will not cause a new copy of the data in the sequence to be made. Instead both instances, values1 and values2, will be referencing the same data. vector<int> values2 = values1; for ( int i=0; i<1000; i++ ) cout << values2.r_at(i) << endl; Then an entry in the sequence is changed using the values2 instance. At this time a copy of the data will be made and only the value in the second copy will be changed. Now when the sequence instance values1 is printed it will contain the original values but the values2 instance will contain the modified data. values2[5] = 10; for ( int i=0; i<1000; i++ ) cout << values1.r_at(i) << endl; for ( int i=0; i<1000; i++ ) cout << values2.r_at(i) << endl; In order for the copy on write behavior to work correctly, the various methods in the SCASequence class must know when the data in the sequence is being read or when it is being written. The standard C++ vector class does not provide this ability because certain methods can be used for both purposes as shows by the following example. vector<int> values(10); values.at(5) = 10; int ival = values.at(5); To solve this problem, the SCASequence provides two different versions of these methods, one for reading and one for writing. The version for reading uses the standard std::vector name with an r_ prefix and the writing version uses a w_ prefix. SCAInt32Sequence values(10); values.w_at(5) = 10; int ival = values.r_at(5);

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The following table shows the standard methods in the STL vector class and their corresponding methods in the SCASequence class which are different. All of the other methods are the same. std::vector SCASequence – read SCASequence - write begin end rbegin rend address at front back r_begin r_end r_rbegin r_rend r_address r_at r_front r_back w_begin w_end w_rbegin w_rend w_address w_at w_front w_back

The mapping for sequences types must be handled differently because the C++ compiler treats two different instantiation of a template with the same parameter type the same when distinguishing operator overloads. This would make it difficult to support the insertion of these sequences into a SCAAny value in a type-safe manner. To allow for the type-safe handling of sequences, each IDL defined sequence is mapped to a light weight C++ class that inherits from the template class. IDL typedef SCASequence<Node> NodeSequence; C++ class NodeSequence : public SCA::SCASequence< Node > { public: NodeSequence(size_type n, const Node& value = Node()) : SCA::SCASequence< Node >(n,value) { } NodeSequence() : SCA::SCASequence< Node >() { } template <class InputIterator> NodeSequence(InputIterator first, InputIterator last) : SCA::SCASequence< Node >(first,last) { } }; inline void swap(NodeSequence& x, NodeSequence& y) { x.swap(y); } inline SCAMarshaller& operator >>= (const NodeSequence& val, SCAMarshaller& stream){ SCAUInt32 len = static_cast< SCAUInt32 >(val.size()); len >>= stream; for(SCAUInt32 i=0; i<len; i++) val.r_at(i) >>= stream; return stream;

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} inline SCAMarshaller& operator <<= (NodeSequence& val, SCAMarshaller& stream){ SCAUInt32 len; len <<= stream; val.resize(len); for(SCAUInt32 i=0; i<len; i++) val.w_at(i) <<= stream; return stream; }

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Mapping for Type Aliases
An IDL typedef creates an alias for a type and is mapped to the corresponding C++ typedef. The examples below illustrate this mapping. IDL typedef SCAInt32 Hour; typedef SCAInt32 Minute; typedef SCAInt32 Second; C++ typedef SCAInt32 Hour; typedef SCAInt32 Minute; typedef SCAInt32 Second;

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Mapping for SCATypeCode
The SCATypeCode type is a special type used by the SCA Framework to describe the details about each IDL defined type. The SCA Framework creates instances of the SCATypeCode using XML data generated by the IDL compiler. Each instance of the SCATypeCode contains the complete description of one IDL defined type. For example, the description of a structure would include the name and type for each of its members. The SCATypeCode type is treated in IDL as a basic type and it can appear anywhere in the IDL where a basic type can appear. For example it could be the member of a structure or one of the arguments in an interface method. In C++ a type code is represented by an instance of the SCA::SCATypeCode class. The definition of a SCATypeCode contains a pair of values. These include a SCATypeCodeID value that indicates the type of data and a description of the type. The contents of the description depend on the value of the SCATypeCodeID. The SCATypeCode class is fairly complex and will not be discussed in detail here. The data contained in this class is mostly used internally within the SCA Framework. If you need to access these detailed type definitions you are encouraged to use the SCA.Framework.Reflection service that is describe in detail in the Dynamic SCA chapter of the Advanced SDK manual. Besides generating the XML type definition for every type defined, the IDL compiler also generates a small bit of code for every IDL defined type which is used to obtain the SCATypeCode instance for a given type. The following is the format of this code which is the same for all IDL types. static SCATypeCode TC_SCA_Test_Color; template<> struct TypeCodeForType< Color > { static const SCATypeCode get() { if ( !TC_SCA_Test_Color.m_ptc ) getCachedTypeCodeInit("SCA.Test.Color",TC_SCA_Test_Color); return TC_SCA_Test_Color; } }; The usage of these template specializations as well as other methods for accessing SCATypeCode values is also described in the Dynamic SCA chapter of the Advanced SDK manual

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Mapping for SCAAny

Mapping for SCAAny
The SCAAny is a container data type which can hold a single value of any other arbitrary IDL data type. Only values for types that are defined in IDL can be stored in a SCAAny. This is because the SCAAny design requires a SCATypeCode value to describe the data it holds and marshalling operators to insert and extract the actual value. Both of these are generated by the IDL compiler and will not exist for types that are not defined in IDL. The C++ mapping for the IDL type SCAAny fulfills two important requirements:
• It must handle the C++ types in a type-safe manner. • It must handle values for complex types that are not known at compile time.

The first requirement covers the typical usage of the SCAAny type, the insertion of typed values into the SCAAny and the type-safe extraction of the values. The second requirement covers situations like a requirement to process a SCAAny value that holds data of a type that is unknown when the service was built. In this case the receiver must be able to determine information about what type of data the SCAAny contains so it can be processed correctly. To achieve these requirements, the definition of a SCAAny contains a pair of values that includes a SCATypeCode value, which describes what type of data is contained, and the actual value of the data. Using the type code value, the C++ mapping of the SCAAny can enforce type safety and also allow for the handling of types not known at compile time. If the value stored in a SCAAny instance is a type that is referenced counted, like an interface pointer or a SCASequence, the reference count will be correctly incremented when the value is inserted into the instance and decremented when the SCAAny instance is destroyed or overwritten. It is therefore safe for the SCAAny to hold only a reference to value and not a copy of it. To decrease the chances of creating a SCAAny with a mismatched SCATypeCode and value, the C++ operator overloading facility is utilized. Specifically, for each distinct type in an IDL specification, overloaded operators to insert and extract values of that type are used. Overloaded operators are used instead of functions definitions to avoid namespace pollution. The usage of these insertion and extraction operators is described below.

The SCAAny class definition
In C++ the SCAAny type is implemented by the SCA::SCAAny class. The public methods for the class are shown below. namespace SCA { class SCAAny { public: // Default constructor SCAAny();

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// Templated constructor to intialize SCAAny with a value template<typename t_type> explicit SCAAny(const t_type& val); // Destructor ~SCAAny(); // Copy constructor SCAAny(const SCAAny& val); // Assignment operator SCAAny& operator = (const SCAAny& val); // Special insertion operator for a SCAAny iself SCAVoid operator <<= (const SCAAny& val); // Templated insertion operator for all other values. template<typename t_type> SCAAny& operator <<= (const t_type& val); // Special extraction operator for a SCAAny iself. True is // returned if and only if the extraction is successful SCABool operator >>= (SCAAny& val) const; // Templated extraction operator for all other values. True is // returned if and only if the extraction is successful template<typename t_type> SCABool operator >>= (t_type& val) const; // Routines to directly process dynamic arrays in a Any SCAAny& insertArray(const SCATypeCode tcval, SCAVoid* values, SCAUInt32 numEnt1, SCAUInt32 numEnt2, const SCATypeCode tcArray=SCATypeCode(), const DynamicArray::DestroyFunc destroyFunc=NULL); SCABool extractArray(SCATypeCode& tcval, SCAVoid** values, SCAUInt32& numEnt1, SCAUInt32& numEnt2) const; // Data extraction and testing SCAVoid dump() const; SCATypeCode getType() const; SCATypeCodeID getTypeID() const; SCAString getTypeDesc() const; SCAUInt32 getLength() const; SCABool sameTypeCode(const SCATypeCode& tcval) const; SCABool empty() const; SCAVoid flush();

}; }

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The class provides the following capabilities:
• Default constructor to create an empty SCAAny instance • Copy constructor • Destructor to release all resource held by the SCAAny instance • Assignment operator • Templated constructors to create a SCAAny instance from the given value • Utility members for accessing and testing type of data stored in the SCAAny • Templated insertion operator <<= for inserting a value into SCAAny • Templated extraction operator >>= for extracting the contents of a SCAAny

Examples of the usages of these are show in the following sections.

Creating new SCAAny values
The following example creates an empty SCAAny value. // Create an empty SCAAny instance SCAAny anyval; To create a new SCAAny value that contains a value you can use the templated constructor. Note that if the value is a constant that could be converted to any one of several SCA types, you will have to explicitly tell the compiler which one you wish to use. // Create a SCAAny instance which contains a SCAInt32 value SCAAny anyval(SCAInt32(100));

Inserting values into exiting SCAAny values
The insertion operator is used to insert a value into an existing SCAAny instance. If the SCAAny already holds a value it will be replaced with the existing value and any resources used by the old value will be released. Remember that the SCAAny can only hold a single instance at a time. // Insert an SCAInt32 value to SCAAny instance SCAInt32 int32val = 100; anyval <<= int32val; Or for a simpler version of the same operation you could use the following. // Insert an SCAInt32 value to SCAAny instance anyval <<= SCAInt32(100); Remember that a SCAAny can hold any IDL defined type, not just the basic types used in the previous example. Here is an example of inserting a sequence into a SCAAny. // Insert an SCAReal32Sequence value to SCAAny instance SCAReal32Sequence seqval; seqval.push_back(1.2);

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seqval.push_back(2.3); anyval <<= seqval; A SCAAny can even hold another SCAAny instance. // Insert an SCAAny value to SCAAny instance SCAAny anyval1(SCAInt32(100)); anyval <<= anyval1;

Extracting the value contained in a SCAAny
The extraction operator is used to extract the value from a SCAAny instance. The SCAAny remains unchanged after the extraction. // Extract the value from a SCAAny instance SCAInt32 int32val anyval >>= int32val; The C++ implementation of the SCAAny is type safe. This means you can only extract the value from the SCAAny if the type of the value it contains is the same as the type of the value you are trying to extract it into. Since the compiler has no way of knowing what type of value it may contain, this decision must be made at runtime. To handle this, the extraction operator returns a logical flag indicating if the extraction was successful or if it failed. If the extraction was successful, the operation returns true, otherwise it returns false. The following example shows how several extractions can be used to handle different possible types of values that may be in the SCAAny instance. // Extract the value from the SCAAny instance SCAInt32 int32val; SCAReal32 real32val; if ( anyval >>= int32val ){ // Value in SCAAny was a SCAInt32 value and stored in “int32val” } else if( anyval >>= real32val ){ // Value in SCAAny was a SCAReal32 value and stored in “real32val” } else { // Unsupported type }

Assigning SCAAny values
The SCAAny provides an assignment operator and copy constructor that allows you to copy the value of one SCAAny value into another. The actual data stored in the SCAAny is referenced counted so this operation does not result in the coping of any actual data. It only needs to copy the pointer to the data and increase its reference count. // Assign a SCAAny value to another SCAAny instance SCAAny anyval2; anyval2 = anyval;

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Interrogating the value contained in a SCAAny
In addition to using the return value from the extraction operator, you can also directly interrogate the SCAAny value to see what type of data it contains. This is done by using the information in the SCATypeCode value contained in the SCAAny instance. The following shows an example of using this information to determine what type of value should be extracted instead of using the return value from the extraction operator. // Extract the value from the SCAAny instance SCAInt32 int32val; SCAReal32 real32val; if ( anyval.getTypeID() == TCID_Int32 ){ anyval >>= int32val } else if(anyval.getTypeID() == TCID_Real32 ){ anyval >>= real32val } else { // Unsupported type } Other methods are also available for accessing the type information. // Get the SCATypeCode for the value in the SCAAny SCATypeCode tcval = anyval.getType(); // Get the ID from the SCATypeCode for the value in the SCAAny SCATypeCodeID tcid = anyval.getTypeID(); // Get the type description from the SCATypeCode for the value SCAString tcdesc = anyval.getTypeDesc(); // Check if value of the type in the SCAAny is the same as // the given SCATypeCode value If ( anyval.sameTypeCode(tcval) ) { // Value in SCAAny is the same as SCATypeCode tcval }

Miscellaneous SCAAny methods
The SCAAny provides several miscellaneous methods that can be used to check if the SCAAny contains any data or to flush its contents. // Check if SCAAny is empty If ( anyval.empty() ){ // SCAAny value is empty } // Flush the contents of the SCAAny which will now be empty any.flush();

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Special SCAAny methods for Dynamic Arrays
Two special methods, insertArray and extractArray, are also provided by the SCAAny. These are used for the processing of dynamic arrays and are discussed in detail in the Dynamic SCA chapter of the Advanced SDK manual.

Limitations in the SCAAny
The current mapping for SCAAny does not allow you to control the precise type code if an IDL typedef definition is used. Consider the following IDL. IDL typedef SCAInt16 YearType; typedef SCAInt16 MonthType; The problem is that any of the types SCAInt16, YearType or MonthType can be used for insertion and extraction into the same SCAAny. This is because C++ does not permit overloading on types that are aliased to the same underlying type.

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Mapping for SCAResult

Mapping for SCAResult
The SCAResult type is used to return error information from calls to interface methods. It contains the following information.
• Error code • Message table ID • Message number • Message parameters

The values in a SCAResult instance can be used by the SCA Framework to format and dispatch messages in the language appropriate for the current user. For more information on using SCAResult for error processing see the Error Handling chapter of this manual.

SCAResult class definition
The SCAResult type is directly mapped to the C++ SCA::SCAResult class. It provides methods to construct instances of the class, add parameters and interrogate it contents. namespace SCA { class SCA_EXPORT SCAResult { public: // Constructors SCAResult( SCAInt32 eid=0) SCAResult( SCAInt32 eid, SCAInt32 msgTableId, SCAInt32 mid); SCAResult( const SCAResult &sr ) ~SCAResult(); // Add an error parameter to SCAResult void addParam( SCAInt8 ); void addParam( SCAUInt8 ); void addParam( SCAInt16 ); void addParam( SCAUInt16 ); void addParam( SCAInt32 ); void addParam( SCAUInt32 ); void addParam( SCAInt64 ); void addParam( SCAUInt64 ); void addParam( SCAReal32 ); void addParam( SCAReal64 ); void addParam( SCAChar ); void addParam( SCAString ); void addParam( SCAWString ); void addParam( SCABool ); // Conversion operator which returns error code value operator SCAInt32() const; // Comparison operator

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bool equals(const SCAResult& ); // Assignment operators SCAResult & operator=( const SCAResult& ); SCAResult & operator=( const SCAInt32 eid ); // Return the information of error SCAInt32 getTableID() const; SCAInt32 getMessageID() const; SCAInt32 getErrorCode() const; SCAAnySequence getParams() const; SCABool hasParams() const; SCABool isOk() const; SCABool isSystemError() const; // Marshalling insertion and extraction operators SCAMarshaller& operator >>= (SCAMarshaller& stream) const; SCAMarshaller& operator <<= (SCAMarshaller& stream);

}; }

Two predefined SCAResult values are provided when you do not need to return more detailed information to the caller. namespace SCA { const SCAResult SCASuccess(0); const SCAResult SCAError(0XFFFFFFFF); } Examples of the usages of these are shown in the following sections.

Creating new SCAResult values
The following example creates SCAResult values with different levels of initialization. // Create SCAResult SCA.SCAResult rstat // Create SCAResult SCA.SCAResult rstat // Create SCAResult SCA.SCAResult rstat with all zero values = new SCA.SCAResult(); with only an error value = new SCA.SCAResult(1); with error, tableID and messageID = new SCA.SCAResult(1,4,301);}

Resetting the error code in a SCAResult value
The error code in an existing SCAResult value can be reset using the normal assignment operator. // Reset error code in SCAResult rstat = 201;

Adding parameters to a SCAResult value
You use one of the overloaded addParam methods to add a parameter to a SCAResult value.

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// Add parameters to SCAResult value rstat.addParam(SCAInt8(1)); rstat.addParam(SCAInt16(12)); rstat.addParam(SCAInt32(123)); rstat.addParam(SCAInt64(1234)); rstat.addParam(SCAUInt8(2)); rstat.addParam(SCAUInt16(23)); rstat.addParam(SCAUInt32(234)); rstat.addParam(SCAUInt64(2345)); rstat.addParam(SCAReal32(12.34)); rstat.addParam(SCAReal64(123.456)); rstat.addParam('A'); rstat.addParam("TestString"); rstat.addParam(L"TestWideString"); rstat.addParam(true);

Interrogating the contents of a SCAResult
The is Ok method provides a simple way to test if the SCAResult value has an error. // Test if SCAResult has a non-zero error if ( !rstat.isOk() ) // Process error The get methods can be used to extract the error, table and message values. // Extract the error, tableID and messageID values int error = rstat.getErrorCode(); int tableid = rstat.getTableID(); int messageid = rstat.getMessageID(); The hasParams and getParams methods can be used to determine if the SCAResult has parameters and to process them. The parameter values are returned in a SCAAnySequence. // If the SCAResult has parameters, print them if ( rstat.hasParams() ) { SCAAnySequence params = rstat.getParams(); for ( int i=0; i<params.size(); i++ ) { SCA.SCAAny param = params.elementAt(i); System.out.println("Param " + i + " = " + param.toString()); } }

Miscellaneous SCAResult methods
The SCAResult also implements a dump method which allows you to print the raw contents. // Print contents using the dump method anyval.dump();

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Mapping for Constants
IDL constants are mapped directly to C++ constant definitions. IDL const SCAString name1 = "testing1"; const SCAWString name1 = L"testing2"; C++ const SCA::SCAString name1 = "testing1"; const SCA::SCAWString name1 = L"testing2"; In certain situations, use of a constant in IDL might generate the constant’s value instead of the constant’s name. This is shown in the following array definition which uses a constant definition for its size. IDL const SCAInt32 n = 10; typedef SCAInt32 Vec[n]; C++ const SCAInt32 n = 10; class Vec { public: typedef SCAInt32 value_type; typedef size_t size_type; Vec() { } size_type size() const { return 10; } value_type& operator[](size_type idx) { return data[idx]; } const value_type& operator[](size_type idx)const { return data[idx]; } private: value_type data[10]; };

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Mapping for Interfaces
SCA interfaces are mapped to abstract C++ base classes that contain only pure virtual functions with no implementation. The mapping for each interface will also contain a smart pointer definition that is used by the client code to access the interface. The following is a simple interface definition. This example is missing the definitions of all the required types but they have no affect on actual interface mapping so they have been left out to simplify the example. IDL #include "SCA/Service.idl" module SCA { module Test { interface SCAIReader : SCA::SCAIService { SCAVoid readModel( in SCAString name ) raises(ReaderException); SCAINode getNode( in SCAInt32 id ) raises(ReaderException); }; }; }; Each IDL defined interface will generate two different C++ definitions. Each of these definitions will be put in a separate header file
• A smart pointer definition for the interface with the same name as the interface. In this example

the smart pointer name will be SCAIReader and it will be stored in a header file with the name SCAIReaderSPtr.h.
• An abstract class with the name composed of the interface name followed by the string

Interface. In this example the name of the C++ class will be SCAIReaderInterface and it will be stored in a header file with the name SCAIReader.h. This file will always include the file containing the smart pointer definition so you do not need to explicitly include both. Each of the generated header files is completely defined. This means they will include any required header files to allow a successful compile whenever it is used. The definitions are split between different header files because the smart pointer definition can act very similar to the forward definition of a C++ class. When you do not need the detailed information about the methods in an interface you can include the header file for the smart pointer, SCAIReaderSPtr.h, instead of the header file with the full interface class definition, SCAIReader.h. This can result in a substantial reduction in the size of the expanded source files because they do not need to include the definitions of all the types that are used as parameters in the interface methods. The IDL compiler makes extensive use of the behavior to keep down the size of the expanded skeleton files it generates. This means that the generated header files for the full interface definition will only include the smart pointer definitions for any other interfaces that appear only as parameter values. There is a side effect when only including the smart pointer definition that needs to be understood. The stub files for your implementation class will compile correctly as generated by the IDL compiler. But, as

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soon as you add a call to a method on an interface that is passed in as a parameter, you may get a compiler error. Unfortunately these errors tend to be very cryptic and difficult to understand because they are related to template expansions. If you get one of these cryptic errors, just include the header file with the full definition of the interface appearing in the error and it will usually fix the problem. To illustrate this problem consider the following portion of a simple interface definition. interface SCAITest1 : SCA::SCAIService { SCAVoid test1( in SCAITest2 inf ); }; The code for the test1 method in the generated implementation stub would look something like this. This code will compile as generated with no errors. SCA::SCAVoid TestService::test1(const SCAITest2 inf) { } But if you then add a call to a method in the SCAITest2 interface a compilation error may occur. SCA::SCAVoid TestService::test1(const SCAITest2 inf) { inf->test2(); } To fix the error, just add an include statement for the SCAITest2.h header file.

Mapping for Interface Smart Pointer Definition
The generated code for the header file containing the definition of the smart pointer for the SCAIReader interface is shown below. // Definition of SmartPointer for SCAIReader #ifndef SCA_TEST_SCAIREADERSPTR_H_INCLUDED #define SCA_TEST_SCAIREADERSPTR_H_INCLUDED namespace SCA { namespace Test { struct SCAIReaderInterface; typedef SCASmartPointer< SCAIReaderInterface > SCAIReader; } } namespace SCA { template <> const SCAString SCASmartPointer< SCAIReaderInterface >::getInfName() { static SCAString infName = "SCA.Test.SCAIReader"; return infName; } template <>

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const SCAUUID& SCASmartPointer< SCAIReaderInterface >::getUUID(){ static SCAUUID uuid = {0x0d291f4bfd5331e3,0xa1fcefd01e371d1f}; return uuid; } } #endif The smart pointer definition contains the following pieces of information.
• The expansion of the SCASmartPointer template for the SCAIReaderInterface abstract class

which has the name SCAIReader. The smart pointer is used by the client to access the methods in the interface.
• A template specialization of the getInfName method of the SCASmartPointer class which

contains the name of the interface.
• A template specialization of the getUUID method of the SCASmartPointer class which

contains the UUID value for the interface.

Mapping for Interface Abstract Base Class Definition
The generated code for the header file containing the full definition of the SCAIReaderInterface abstract base class is shown below. #ifndef SCA_TEST_SCAIREADER_H_INCLUDED #define SCA_TEST_SCAIREADER_H_INCLUDED #include "SCAIReaderSPtr.h" #include "FileReaderTypes.h" #include "SCAINodeSPtr.h" // Definition of Interface SCAIReader namespace SCA { namespace Test { struct SCAIReaderInterface : public SCAIServiceInterface { virtual SCAVoid readModel(const SCAString name) = 0; virtual SCAINode getNode(const SCAInt32 id) = 0; }; } } #endif

Mapping for Interface Operations
Each interface operation maps to a C++ member function with the same name as the operation.

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Mapping Interface Operation Parameters
The following table shows details on how each IDL type is passed when it is use as an in, out or inout parameter in an interface method or as a return value from a method. Type SCAInt8 SCAInt16 SCAInt32 SCAInt64 SCAUInt8 SCAUInt16 SCAUInt32 SCAUInt64 SCAReal32 SCAReal64 SCAChar SCAWChar SCABool SCAResult enum interface struct SCAString SCAWString SCASequence array SCAAny SCATypeCode in const SCAInt8 const SCAInt16 const SCAInt32 const SCAInt64 const SCAUInt8 const SCAUInt16 const SCAUInt32 const SCAUInt64 const SCAReal32 const SCAReal64 const SCAChar const SCAWChar const SCABool const SCAResult& const enum interface& const struct& const SCAString const SCAWString const sequence& const array& const SCAAny& const SCATypeCode& inout SCAInt8& SCAInt16& SCAInt32& SCAInt64& SCAUInt8& SCAUInt16& SCAUInt32& SCAUInt64& SCAReal32& SCAReal64& SCAChar& SCAWChar& SCABool& SCAResult& enum& interface& struct& SCAString& SCAWString& sequence& array& SCAAny& SCATypeCode& out SCAInt8& SCAInt16& SCAInt32& SCAInt64& SCAUInt8& SCAUInt16& SCAUInt32& SCAUInt64& SCAReal32& SCAReal64& SCAChar& SCAWChar& SCABool& SCAResult& eum& interface& struct& SCAString& SCAWString& sequence& array& SCAAny& SCATypeCode& return SCAInt8 SCAInt16 SCAInt32 SCAInt64 SCAUInt8 SCAUInt16 SCAUInt32 SCAUInt64 SCAReal32 SCAReal64 SCAChar SCAWChar SCABool SCAResult eum interface struct SCAString SCAWString sequence array SCAAny SCATypeCode

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Using Smart Pointers
In the SCA Framework, all access to interfaces is through smart pointers generated by the SCA IDL compiler. The smart pointers are used to automatically manage the lifecycle control of the objects that implement the interfaces. A smart pointer is a C++ class that implements all the required methods and operator overloads to allow it to behave like a normal C pointer. Since the smart pointer is really a class object, it can act as an intelligent pointer to objects and hide the complications of dealing with the objects they point to. Some of the functionality that the SCA smart pointers provide is as follows.
• Every time a smart pointer is created, destroyed, copied or assigned to another smart point, the

appropriate reference counting calls are made to automatically manage the lifecycle of the objects pointed to.
• Navigating or switching between interfaces implemented by the same service object can be

made using standard C++ assignment or casting operators instead of requiring special framework calls.
• Allows you to determine if two different interface references point to the same underlying

implementation object using standard C++ comparison tests. The following shows some examples of how using smart pointers simplify the handling of interfaces. Declarations of smart pointer instances are the same as instances of any C++ class. Note that no * is used as would be the case with a normal C pointer. SCAITest1 spTest1; SCAITest2 spTest2; The conversion of one smart pointer type to another smart point type is also referred to as interface navigation. With smart pointers, the syntax for interface navigation is the same as normal C++ casts or conversions. try { spTest2 = static_cast<SCAITest2>(spTest1); spTest2 = (SCAITest2)spTest1; spTest2 = spTest1; } catch(SCAIException ex) { cout << “Interface cast failed = “ << e.what() << endl; } It is important to remember that you can only navigate from one interface to another interface if the underlying implementation object supports both interfaces. If the underlying object does not implement the interface that you wish to navigate to, a SCAException will be thrown. As a result you should always include interface casts in a try/catch block to catch any errors. The smart pointer implementation provides a number of different operator overloads that can be used. Two smart pointers are defined to be equal if they point to the same underlying implementation object. The normal C++ equality operators can be used for this test. Less then and greater then operators have no meaning and are not defined. if ( spTest1 == spTest2 ) ...;

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if ( spTest1 != spTest2 ) ...; The C++ pointer-to-member operator is used to make a call to a method in the interface. spTest1->doSomething(); A special value, SCA::NULLSP, is provided which is a used to represent a null interface pointer. The use of the normal C++ NULL value or a 0 value will not work and will generate a compilation error. The following shows how a smart pointer instance can be reset. If the instance currently contains a pointer to an implementation object, then the reference count on that object will be decremented before the pointer is set to null. spTest1 = NULLSP; The NULLSP value can also be used to test for an unassigned smart pointer or you can just test its value. if if if if ( ( ( ( spTest1 == NULLSP ) ...; spTest1 != NULLSP ) ...; !spTest1 ) ...; spTest1 ) ...;

Several methods are provided which allow you to interrogate information about the contents of the smart pointer. // Get the name of the interface the smart pointer is for cout << “Interface name is “ << spTest1.getInfName() << endl; // Get the UUID for the interface the smart pointer is for SCAUUID uuid = spTest1.getUUID(); // Get the raw pointer that is held by the smart pointer void* ptr = spTest1.getInfPtr();

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Mapping for Exceptions
The SCA Framework predefines three exception types, SCA::SCAException, SCA::SCAUserException and SCA::SCASystemException. All user defined exceptions in IDL must inherit either SCA::SCAUserException or another user-defined exception. Only single inheritance is allowed.

SCAException class
The base for all IDL defined exceptions is SCA::SCAException. It is mapped to the following C++ class. Only those methods intended for external use have been shown here. Other methods required by the framework to manage exceptions and marshal them between different languages have not been shown. namespace SCA { struct SCA_EXPORT SCAException { //Constructors and destructors SCAException(SCABool deleteOnThrow=false); SCAException(const SCAException &copy); virtual ~SCAException() throw(); //Method to print out description of exception SCAString what() const throw(); //Method to get SCATypeCode for this exception virtual SCATypeCode getTypeCode() const throw(); //Method to get raw text string for this exception SCAString getText() const throw(); //Method to set raw text string for this exception SCAVoid setText(const SCAString text) throw(); //Creates an SCAException object static SCAException* create(); //Throws this exception virtual void throwit(); //Optional exception description SCAString m_text; }; }

SCAUserException class
The SCA::SCAUserException class adds no new data or method. It is provided as a base for all user defined exceptions.

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namespace SCA { struct SCA_EXPORT SCAUserException: public SCAException { //Constructors and destructors SCAUserException(SCABool deleteOnThrow=false); SCAUserException(SCAString text, SCABool deleteOnThrow=false); virtual ~SCAUserException() throw(); //Method to get SCATypeCode for this exception virtual SCATypeCode getTypeCode() const throw(); //Creates an SCAUserException object static SCAException* create(); //Throws this exception virtual void throwit();

}; }

SCASystemException class
The SCA::SCASystemException class should only be used internally by the SCA Framework. It adds an error ID to the base SCAException. namespace SCA { struct SCA_EXPORT SCASystemException: public SCAException { //Constructors and destructors SCASystemException(SCABool deleteOnThrow=false); SCASystemException(SCAInt32 id, SCAString text, SCABool deleteOnThrow=false); virtual ~SCASystemException() throw(); //Method to get SCATypeCode for this exception virtual SCATypeCode getTypeCode() const throw(); //Creates an SCASystemException object static SCAException* create(); //Throws this exception virtual void throwit(); //System exception ID SCAInt32 id;

}; }

Mapping for IDL defined user exceptions
All exceptions defined in IDL should inherit either directly or indirectly from the SCAUserException type.

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IDL exception ReaderException : SCAUserException { SCAString name; SCAString error; }; C++ struct ReaderException : public SCAUserException { ReaderException(SCABool deleteOnThrow=false) : SCAUserException(deleteOnThrow) {} virtual ~ReaderException() throw() {} static SCAException* create() { return new ReaderException(true); } virtual void throwit() { if ( m_deleteOnThrow ) { ReaderException exc = *this; delete this; exc.setThrow(); throw exc; } else { this->setThrow(); throw *this; } } virtual SCATypeCode getTypeCode() const throw() { return getCachedTypeCode("SCA.FileReader.ReaderException"); } SCAString name; SCAString error; };

Special Rules for using SCA Exceptions in C++
The using of SCA exceptions in the C++ language is the same as normal C++ exception usage with one exception. You should not use the normal C++ throw statement to throw SCA exceptions. Instead you should use the throwit method provided in the base SCAException class. The following code shows how this should be done. ReaderException ex; ex.name = “TestInput.dat”; ex.error = “The file does not exist”; ex.throwit(); To understand why this is important, consider the following simple example which loads a service and calls a method which throws an exception. try { SCAIReader spReader = getSCAService("SCA.Test.FileReader");

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SCAINode spNode = spReader->getNode(123); } catch (SCAException& e) { cout << "Exception: " << e.what() << endl; } In this example, if the getNode method throws an exception there is a potential problem. Notice that the getSCAService call to load the service and the only references to it, spReader and spNode, are all inside the try block. This means that when the method throws an exception, and the execution flow leaves the try block to enter the catch block, the destructors for the smart pointers spReader and spNode will be called. Since these are the only references to the service, the shared library for the service may be unloaded by the SCA Kernel at this point. This is a problem because the code in the catch block requires access to the implementation of the exception object which would be no longer available. This can trigger a crash in the catch block. To keep this from happening you should always throw the exception using the throwit method. This will trigger some additional logic in the SCA Kernel that will insure that no shared libraries are unloaded until all of the SCA exception objects that have been thrown have been deleted. For a complete discussion of how exceptions are used in the SCA Framework see the Error Processing chapter of this manual.

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Mapping for SCA Services
Two types of code are generated for SCA service definitions. 1. The genskeleton command is used to generate the initial implementation skeletons for a service. The generated skeletons can then be expanded with the code required to implement the desired behavior for the various interface operations. 2. During the build process, various C++ base, tie and factory classes are generated by the IDL compiler. This code is used to link the developer generated implementation code to the SCA Framework. This is done to reduce as much as possible the amount of code that must be written by the developer to implement a service. This support code also provides a level of isolation between the service’s implementation code and the SCA Framework. This allows for future changes to be made in the interaction between the base or tie classes and the SCA Framework without affecting the developer’s implementation code. The low level details of this support code will not be discussed in this section. The only things about the support code that will be shown are the methods that it exposes for use by the component developer. The following is the IDL for an example interface definition that will be used in this section. #ifndef SCA_FILEREADER_FILEREADER_IDL_INCLUDED #define SCA_FILEREADER_FILEREADER_IDL_INCLUDED #include "SCA/Service.idl" module SCA { module FileReader { struct Node { SCAInt32 id; SCAReal32 x; SCAReal32 y; SCAReal32 z; }; exception ReaderException : SCAUserException { SCAString name; SCAString error; }; interface SCAINode; interface SCAIReader : SCA::SCAIService { SCAVoid readModel( in SCAString name ) raises(ReaderException); SCAINode getNode( in SCAInt32 id ) raises(ReaderException); }; interface SCAINode : SCA::SCAIService {

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};

SCAInt32 getID(); SCAReal32 getX(); SCAReal32 getY(); SCAReal32 getZ();

}; }; #endif The following is the SDL for an example service that will implement these interfaces. #ifndef FILEREADER_SDL_INCLUDED #define FILEREADER_SDL_INCLUDED #include "SCA/FileReader/FileReader.idl" module SCA { module FileReader { module Impl { service SCA.Test.FileReader { interface SCA::SCAIReader; subservice NodeImpl ( in SCA::Node node ) { interface SCA::SCAINode; }; }; }; }; }; #endif

The inheritance form of implementation
The C++ mapping for SCA services supports two styles of implementation. The default code generated will use an implementation form where the implementation classes generated by genskeleton will inherit from base classes that the IDL compiler will generate at build time. These base classes then inherit from the interface classes and also provide all the necessary links to the SCA Framework. When the genskeleton command is run on the above SDL file to generate the skeleton code for the service, it will generate two C++ classes, FileReader which implements the SCAIReader interface and NodeImpl which implements the SCAINode interface. The FileReader class is referred to as the toplevel class for the service because it has the same name as the service. A service implemented in C++ will always have a top-level class. The NodeImpl class is referred to as a subservice class because it is defined using the subservice construct in the SDL definition for the service. Subservice classes are optional and will only be generated if requested in the SDL. Implementation for top-level class The following is the header file FileReader.h that is generated for the top-level service class.

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#ifndef SCA_FILEREADER_IMPL_FILEREADER_H_INCLUDED #define SCA_FILEREADER_IMPL_FILEREADER_H_INCLUDED #include "FileReaderBase.h" namespace SCA { namespace FileReader { namespace Impl { class FileReader : public FileReaderBase { public: // Constructor and Destructor FileReader(SCAIFileReaderFactoryAccess* factoryAccess); virtual ~FileReader(); // Methods for interface SCA.FileReader.SCAIReader virtual SCAVoid readModel(const SCAString name); virtual SCAINode getNode(const SCAInt32 id);

};

} } } #endif The following is the implementation file FileReader.cpp that is generated. #include "FileReader.h" namespace SCA { namespace FileReader { namespace Impl { // Constructor FileReader::FileReader(SCAIFileReaderFactoryAccess* factoryAccess) : FileReaderBase(factoryAccess) { } // Destructor FileReader::~FileReader() { } SCAVoid FileReader::readModel(const SCAString name) { } SCAINode FileReader::getNode(const SCAInt32 id) { } } } } The C++ implementation will be put in a namespace that is defined by the SDL module statements. In this example it will be SCA::FileReader::Impl.

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The implementation classes generated are fairly simple, but there are a couple of requirements for these that are imposed by the SCA Framework. These are the requirements when using the default or inheritance form of implementation.
• The class must inherit from the base class generated by the IDL compiler. The name of the base

class will be xxxBase where xxx is the name of the service class.
• The class can have only one constructor and it must have a single argument of

SCAIxxxFactoryAccess* where xxx is the name of the top-level service class. This pointer is used by the base class to access the SCA Framework.
• The base class constructor must be explicitly called from the class constructor. • The class must implement each of the operations defined in the interfaces it supports and any

interfaces that inherit from them. The exception to this rule is the methods in the SCAIService interface do not need to be implemented. As long as these requirements are followed, the developer is free to make any desired modifications to these implementation classes. The base class, FileReaderBase, generated by the IDL compiler during the build process, does the following.
• Inherits from the abstract base class for each interface implemented by the service object. In this

example it will be the SCAIReaderInterface class.
• Provides the implementation for all of the required reference counting, interface navigation and

introspection methods in the SCAIService interface that every SCA service must implement.
• Provides complete access to the SCA Framework facilities through the service access interface. • Provides helper functions for creating new instances of subservice objects using any

initialization parameters defined in the SDL through the service access interface. If the FileReader service used in this example implemented additional interfaces, the only changes to the generated code would be the addition of the method definitions for the operations in the new interfaces. Implementation for subservice class The SDL for the FileReader service also includes the definition of a subservice NodeImpl which takes a Node constructor argument. A separate C++ class, NodeImpl, will be generated for the subservice class. The format of this class is identical to the FileReader class except for the addition of an extra argument on the class constructor and the interface methods it implements. The following is the header file generated for this class. #ifndef SCA_FILEREADER_IMPL_NODEIMPL_H_INCLUDED #define SCA_FILEREADER_IMPL_NODEIMPL_H_INCLUDED #include "NodeImplBase.h" namespace SCA { namespace FileReader { namespace Impl { class NodeImpl : public NodeImplBase

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{

public: // Constructor and Destructor NodeImpl(SCAIFileReaderFactoryAccess* factoryAccess, const Node& node); virtual ~NodeImpl(); // Methods for interface SCA.FileReader.SCAINode virtual SCAInt32 getID(); virtual SCAReal32 getX(); virtual SCAReal32 getY(); virtual SCAReal32 getZ();

};

} } } #endif Subservice classes have the same requirements imposed by the SCA Framework as top-level classes except the restrictions on its constructor are relaxed. Subservice classes may still only have one constructor defined but it is possible for it to have additional user defined arguments. Only subservice classes can have user defined constructor arguments. This is because instances of the top-level FileReader class are instantiated by the IDL generated factory class in response to getService calls made by the clients of the service. There is currently no way for clients to passes constructor arguments through the getService call. On the other hand, instances of subservice objects can only be generated by the implementation code in the service. In this case the implementation is free to pass any desired arguments to the constructors. It is even possible to pass argument types that are not supported in IDL by using the SCAVoidPtr IDL type in the SDL definition.

The ServiceAccess interface
In addition to the supporting base classes, the IDL compiler will always generate a unique ServiceAccess interface for each service. This interface is the link between the implementation of the service and the SCA Framework. The name of this interface will always be SCAIxxxServiceAccess where xxx is the name of the top-level service class. The following is the generated interface for the FileReader service. #ifndef SCA_FILEREADER_IMPL_SCAIFILEREADERSERVICEACCESS_H_INCLUDED #define SCA_FILEREADER_IMPL_SCAIFILEREADERSERVICEACCESS_H_INCLUDED #include "SCA/SCAIServiceAccess.h" #include "FileReaderTypes.h" namespace SCA { namespace FileReader { namespace Impl { SCAINTERFACE SCAIFileReaderServiceAccess : public SCAIServiceAccess { // Ask the Service Manager for a service instance virtual SCAIService getService(const SCAString name, const SCAString attributes="");

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virtual SCAIService getService(const SCAString name, const SCAString attributes, SCAResult& rstatus); virtual SCAIService getService(const SCAString name, SCAResult& rstatus); // Get system interfaces virtual SCAIServiceProvider getSCAIServiceProvider(); virtual SCAIServicePublisher getSCAIServicePublisher(); virtual SCAIServiceFactory getSCAIServiceFactory(); // Get a subservice object virtual SCAIService getNodeImpl(const Node& node);

};

} } } #endif The ServiceAccess interface is made available to the implementation classes using the m_serviceAccess variable defined in the base class. The ServiceAccess interface provides three overloaded getService methods that should be used by the implementation code if it needs to load other SCA services. Here is an example of using these. SCAIService spSvc; SCAResult rStat; spSvc = m_serviceAccess->getService(“Test.Service.Name”); spSvc = m_serviceAccess->getService(“Test.Service.Name”,rStat) if ( rStat ) return rStat; For each subservice class defined in the SDL, the ServiceAccess interface will also include a helper method that can be used to create instances of it. The arguments to the method will match the constructor arguments specified in the SDL for the class. These simplify the task of creating subservice object instances because the implementation code does not need to worry about the Factory Access interface that is always required as a constructor argument. The name of each helper method will be getXxx where Xxx is the name of the subservice class. The following shows how we can use this helper method in a sample implementation of the getNode method in the SCAIReader interface. This interface is implemented by the FileReader class. SCAINode FileReader::getNode(const SCAInt32 id) { // Find and initialize the node with the requested ID Node node = … // Return a new subservice object for this node SCAINode spNode = m_serviceAccess->getNodeImpl(node); return spNode;

}

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The delegation form of implementation
There may be situations where the inheritance form of implementation is inconvenient because of other requirements in your classes. An example of this is if you wish to use a base class to provide the implementation for some of the interface methods. The C++ compiler will not allow the implementation of method in one branch of the inheritance tree to satisfy a pure virtual method in another branch of the inheritance tree. To resolve this, the delegation form of implementation can be used. With delegation, the skeleton classes generated by the IDL compiler do not inherit from a base or interface classes. Instead the base class is replaced with a separate tie class which inherits from the interface class and provides all the necessary links to the SCA Framework. When a new instance of the service is requested, an instance of the tie class is constructed and returned. The tie class will internally construct a separate instance of your implementation class when it is initialized. Interface calls to the methods in the tie class are then delegated to the methods in the implementation class that it wraps. You use the delegate keyword in the SDL file to select the delegation form of implementation. The following is the header file FileReader.h that is generated for the top-level service class when delegation is used. The lines in a darker shade of gray are the lines that are different from the format of this header when the inheritance form of implementation is used. #ifndef SCA_FILEREADER_IMPL_FILEREADER_H_INCLUDED #define SCA_FILEREADER_IMPL_FILEREADER_H_INCLUDED #include "SCA/Framework/Scripting/SCAITypeProvider.h" #include "SCA/FileReader/SCAIReader.h" #include "SCAIFileReaderServiceAccess.h" namespace SCA { namespace FileReader { namespace Impl { class FileReader { public: // Constructor and Destructor FileReader(SCAIFileReaderServiceAccess* serviceAccess); virtual ~FileReader(); // Methods for interface SCA.FileReader.SCAIReader SCAVoid readModel(const SCAString name); SCAINode getNode(const SCAInt32 id); private: SCAIFileReaderServiceAccess* m_serviceAccess; }; } } } #endif

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Notice that class no longer inherits from a base class and as a result the interface methods are no longer declared virtual. Because there is no requirement that the implementation inherit from an IDL generated base class, you are free to use any inheritance structure you require. Also note that the m_serviceAccess variable must now be a member of the implementation class because there is no longer a base class for it to reside in. The following is the implementation file FileReader.cpp that is generated for the delegation form of implementation.

#include "FileReader.h" namespace SCA { namespace FileReader { namespace Impl { // Constructor FileReader::FileReader(SCAIFileReaderServiceAccess* serviceAccess) { m_serviceAccess = serviceAccess; } // Destructor FileReader::~FileReader() { } SCAVoid FileReader::readModel(const SCAString name) { } SCAINode FileReader::getNode(const SCAInt32 id) { } } } }

Singleton Services
It is also possible to indicate that the service is a singleton in the SDL. The use of this keyword has no affect on any of the C++ implementation skeletons generated for a service. The processing of singleton services is handled entirely in the factory support code that is generated when the service is built. It is important to remember that even so the generated skeletons are the same; the implementation code for a singleton service may need to be different. Because multiple clients may be sharing the same instance of the service, the code needs to make sure this is done in a safe manner.

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Aggregation
The C++ mapping also supports the aggregates and aggregated keywords in the SDL. The affect of these on the mapping for service objects is an advanced topic that is covered later in this manual.

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Mapping for SCA Components
The C++ mapping uses a normal shared library for SCA components. The only code required for SCA components is support code generated by the IDL compiler during the build process. This code is used by the SCA Framework to initialize the component and expose the services it provides when the component is loaded at runtime. There is no code that the developer needs to create for a component.

Embedded Components
The C++ mapping supports the embedded option in the CDL. When this option is specified, the build system compiles the source for the component in normal fashion but it will not link the object files into a separate shared library. Instead you are allowed to include the generated object files where ever you would like in the application. Also since the SCA framework will no longer be loading the share library, a different initialization scheme is required. See section on embedded components in the Advanced SDK manual for complete details.

Chapter 6: IDL to Java Language Mapping SCA Framework User’s Guide

6

IDL to Java Language Mapping
                   

Introduction

152 154 155 156 157

Mapping for Identifiers Mapping for Modules

Mapping for Basic Types

Mapping for Unsigned Data Types Mapping for String Types 158

Mapping for Enumerated Types Mapping for Structures Mapping for Arrays 160

159

161 164 166 167

Mapping for Sequences Mapping for Type Aliases

Mapping for SCATypeCode Mapping for SCAAny Mapping for SCAResult Mapping for Constants Mapping for Interfaces Mapping for Exceptions Mapping for SCA Services 168

173 177 178 180 184 189 190

Mapping for SCA Components

SCA Framework / JVM Interaction

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Introduction
The IDL language provides a language independent definition of SCA interfaces and data types. In order to actually use these definitions, there must be a set of rules, commonly known as a mapping that describes how these types are represented in a particular language. This chapter explains the mapping that SCA uses for the Java language. The following table summarizes the data type mapping between IDL and Java types. The following sections of this chapter will provided the details on each mapping. IDL Type SCA::SCAInt8 SCA::SCAUInt8 SCA::SCAInt16 SCA::SCAUInt16 SCA::SCAInt32 SCA::SCAUInt32 SCA::SCAInt64 SCA::SCAUInt64 SCA::SCAReal32 SCA::SCAReal64 SCA::SCAChar SCA::SCAWChar SCA::SCAString SCA::SCAWString SCA::SCABool SCA::SCAAny SCA::SCATypeCode SCA::SCAVoid SCA::SCAResult sequence enum struct array const byte short short int int long long long float double char char java.lang.String java.lang.String boolean SCA.SCAAny SCA.SCATypeCode void SCA.SCAResult class (extends java.util.Vector) enum class [] or class (that wraps []) interface.value Java Type

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IDL Type interface exception interface

Java Type class (extends SCA.SCAException)

For every type defined in IDL, the IDL compiler will generate the code required to expose the proper Java definition of the type. In addition to the actual Java definition of the type, there is also some support code generated for each interface which is used by SCA Framework to make interface calls from Java to services implemented in the other supported languages. When building a Java application or component, the SCA SCons build system will compile the Java definitions for all of the known IDL types and store them in a single jar file APPS/lib/java/IDLTypes.jar. See the section on the SCA Kernel interactions with the JVM later in this chapter for more details on this.

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Mapping for Identifiers
IDL identifiers are mapped to Java with no change. For example: IDL enum Color { RED, GREEN, BLUE }; Java public enum Color { RED, GREEN, BLUE } There is one potential problem to be aware of. If the IDL file contains an identifier that is also a Java reserved keyword, then the resulting Java code will not compile. Therefore, the use of Java reserved words for identifiers is not allowed.

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Mapping for Modules

Mapping for Modules
IDL defined types are created in Java packages with the same name as the fully qualified IDL name scope. IDL module SCA { module FileReader { // definitions }; }; Java package SCA.FileReader; // definitions The IDL module constructs also affect other aspects of the SCA mapping. See the IDL Compiler chapter for detailed information on how the IDL module statements are used.

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Mapping for Basic Types
Basic data types, SCAInt8, SCAInt16, SCAInt32, SCAInt64, SCAReal32, SCAReal64 and SCABool are directly mapped to Java primitives with no potential for data loss. The SCAChar is mapped to the Java char. This can cause issues because the Java char contains multi-byte Unicode characters while the IDL definition of a SCAChar only accommodates the single-byte ISO Latin-1 character set. When passing SCAChar data from Java to a different language, the high byte will be discarded. The following table shows the Java mapping for the basis SCA types. SCA IDL Type SCAInt8 SCAInt16 SCAInt32 SCAInt64 SCAReal32 SCAReal64 SCAChar SCAWChar SCABool Java Type byte short int long float double char char boolean

The following structure definition illustrates this mapping. IDL: struct Node { SCAInt32 id; SCAReal32 x; SCAReal32 y; SCAReal32 z; }; Java: public class Node { public int id; public float x; public float y; public float z; }

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Mapping for Unsigned Data Types

Mapping for Unsigned Data Types
Since Java does not provide unsigned data types, the IDL unsigned integers are mapped to larger Java integers to preserve their values. For example, SCAUInt8 is mapped to Java short (16-bit). The exception is that SCAUInt64 is also mapped to long (64-bit). SCA IDL Type SCAUInt8 SCAUInt16 SCAUInt32 SCAUInt64 int long long Java Type short

The following example illustrates this mapping. IDL struct Time { SCAUInt8 hour; SCAUInt8 minute; SCAUInt8 second; }; Java public class Time { public short hour; public short minute; public short second; } Because of the mapping of IDL unsigned data to Java signed data, care must be taken when dealing with the unsigned SCA data types in the Java code.
• When calling an interface method implemented in a non-Java service, the Java number may be

truncated if its value is out of the supported range for the IDL type.
• When calling an interface method implemented in a non-Java service and the Java value is

negative, the converted IDL unsigned value will be a large positive value.
• If a non-Java client passes a large SCAUint64 value to an interface implemented in Java and its

value does not fit in a Java long, then the convert Java value will be a very large negative value.

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Mapping for String Types
Both SCAString and SCAWString are mapped to java.lang.String. Converting from a SCAString or SCAWString to a Java value will not lose any information. When converting from a Java value to a SCAString, the Java value is first converted to Unicode UTF8 value which is then stored in the SCAString. IDL: struct address { SCAString street; SCAString city; SCAInt32 zipcode; }; Java: public class address { public String street; public String city; public int zipcode; }

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Mapping for Enumerated Types

Mapping for Enumerated Types
An IDL enum is directly mapped to Java enum. IDL enum Colors{ RED, GREEN, BLUE }; Java public enum Colors { RED, GREEN, BLUE }

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Mapping for Structures
An IDL structure maps to a Java class with all public fields. Each IDL structure member is mapped to a corresponding member of the Java structure. The Java structure members appear in the same order as the corresponding IDL structure members. For example: IDL struct Node { SCAInt32 id; SCAReal32 x; SCAReal32 y; SCAReal32 z; }; Java public class Node { public int id; public float x; public float y; public float z; }

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Mapping for Arrays
Two types of array definitions are supported in IDL. Fixed size arrays must have their size defined in the IDL and can never change. Dynamic arrays allow you to delay the specification of the array size until it is actually allocated. Only arrays of rank 1 or 2 are supported.

Fixed size arrays
In Java, arrays are mapped to a Java class of the same name which wraps a Java array. The class provides a setElementAt and elementAt method, like Java’s java.util.Vector, for setting and accessing the members of the array. The following is an example of a one dimensional array. IDL typedef SCAInt32 Date[3]; Java public class Date { public Date(){ data=new int[size]; } public void setElementAt(int e, int index){ data[index]=e; } public int elementAt(int index){ return data[index]; } public int[] getArray(){ return data; } public static final int size=3; private int[] data; } The following example shows how the array can be used. // Set the values of the array Date dateVal = new Date(); dateVal.setElementAt(8,0); dateVal.setElementAt(10,1); dateVal.setElementAt(2009,2); System.out.println("Data is " + dateVal.elementAt(0) + "/" + dateVal.elementAt(1) + "/" + dateVal.elementAt(2)); The class also provided a getArray method that allows you to extract a reference to the wrapped Java array which can then be used to // Access wrapped Java array directly int[] dateArray = dateVal.getArray(); System.out.println("Data is " + dateArray[0] + "/" + dateArray[1] + "/" + dateArray[2]);

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dateArray[0] = 12; System.out.println("Modified data is " + dateArray[0] + "/" + dateArray[1] + "/" + dateArray[2]); Two dimensional IDL arrays are handled in a similar manner. IDL typedef SCA::SCAInt64 Matrix[5][5]; Java public class Matrix { public Matrix(){ data=new long[size1][size2]; } public void setElementAt(long e, int index1, int index2){ data[index1][index2]=e; } public long elementAt(int index1, int index2){ return data[index1][index2]; } public long[][] getArray(){ return data; } public long[] getRow(int index1){ return data[index1]; } private long[][] data; public static final int size1=5; public static final int size2=5; } If an IDL array appears as a member of a structure, it is mapped directly to the member of the Java defined structure. IDL struct Node2 { SCAInt32 id; SCAReal32 location[3]; }; Java public class Node2 { public int id; public final float[] location= new float[3]; }

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Dynamic Arrays
Dynamic Arrays are mapped to Java classes which are very similar to fixed size arrays except they take in the size of the array as an argument of the constructor. Dynamic Arrays cannot be declared inside structures and they are not a substitute for a java.util.Vector since they do not allow resizing of the array at runtime. Dynamic arrays exist primarily to provide more optimized code in other languages supported by the SCA framework. IDL typedef Node NodeArray[]; Java public class NodeArray { public NodeArray(int s1){ size=s1; data=new Node[size]; } public void setElementAt(Node e, int index){ data[index]=e; } public Node elementAt(int index){ return data[index]; } public Node[] getArray(){ return data; } public final int size; private final Node[] data; } Two dimensional dynamic arrays are handled in a similar manner.

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Mapping for Sequences
An IDL sequence is mapped to a Java class that inherits from java.util.Vector. IDL typedef SCASequence<Node> NodeSequence; Java public class NodeSequence extends java.util.Vector<Node> { public NodeSequence(){ super(); } public NodeSequence(int initialCapacity){ super(initialCapacity); } public NodeSequence(int initialCapacity, int capacityIncrement){ super(initialCapacity, capacityIncrement); } } When an IDL sequence appears as a member of a structure, a Java class for the sequence is defined inside the Java class for the structure and it is used for the structure member. IDL struct Node3 { SCAInt32 id; SCASequence<SCAReal32> location; }; Java public class Node3 { public static class Internal_location_1 extends java.util.Vector<Float> { public Internal_location_1(){ super(); } public Internal_location_1(int initialCapacity){ super(initialCapacity); } public Internal_location_1(int initialCapacity, int capacityIncrement){ super(initialCapacity, capacityIncrement); } } public int id; public Node3.Internal_location_1 location; }

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Since generated sequence classes inherit from java.util.Vector, they are used the same way as any Java Vector object. // Initialize contents of the sequence SCAReal64Sequence seq = new SCAReal64Sequence(); seq.add(1.0); seq.add(2.0); seq.add(3.0); // Print contents of the sequence for ( int i=0; i<seq.size(); i++ ) System.out.println("seq[" + i + "] = " + seq.get(i));

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Mapping for Type Aliases
A typedef is used in SCA IDL to define a sequence, an array or an alias for an existing type. The Java mapping for sequences and arrays has already been discussed in the previous sections. The use of the IDL typedef to create a new name for an existing type must be handled differently in Java because the language does not support this concept. Therefore, IDL typedef definitions are first unwound to either the SCA basic type or the user defined IDL type that it refers to and then the unwound type is used as the Java type. As a result, the name of the IDL typedef type will never appear in the generated Java code. The following examples show how IDL typedef definitions that refer to both SCA basic types and other IDL defined types are unwound. IDL typedef SCAInt32 HourValue; typedef SCAInt32 MinuteValue; typedef SCAInt32 SecondValue; struct TimeDef { HourValue hour; MinuteValue minute; SecondValue second; }; typedef TimeDef LocalTime; typedef TimeDef GMTTime; interface SCAITimeConvert { LocalTime convert(in GMTTime time); }; Java public class { public int public int public int } TimeDef hour; minute; second;

public interface SCAITimeConvert extends SCA.SCAIService { TimeDef convert(TimeDef time); } Notice how the HourValue, MinuteValue, SecondValue, LocalTime and GMTTime alias types have been unwound and the SCA basic types or IDL defined types have been used instead.

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Mapping for SCATypeCode
The SCATypeCode type is a special type used by the SCA Framework to describe the details about each IDL defined type. The SCA Framework creates instances of the SCATypeCode using XML data generated by the IDL compiler. Each instance of the SCATypeCode contains the complete description of one IDL defined type. For example, the description of a structure would include the name and type for each of its members. The SCATypeCode type is treated in IDL as a basic type and it can appear anywhere in the IDL where a basic type can appear. For example it could be the member of a structure or one of the arguments in an interface method. In Java a type code value is represented by the SCATypeCode class. The definition of a SCATypeCode contains a pair of values. These include a SCATypeCodeID value that indicates the type of data and a description of the type. The contents of the description depend on the value of the SCATypeCodeID. The SCATypeCode class is fairly complex and will not be discussed in detail here. The data contained in this class is mostly used internally within the SCA Framework. If you need to access these detailed type definitions you are encouraged to use the SCA.Framework.Reflection service that is describe in detail in the Dynamic SCA chapter of this manual.

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Mapping for SCAAny
The SCAAny is a container data type which can hold a single value of any other arbitrary IDL data type. Only values for types that are defined in IDL can be stored in a SCAAny. This is because the SCAAny design requires a SCATypeCode value to describe the data it holds and these are only generated by the IDL compiler and will not exist for types that are not defined in IDL. The Java mapping for the IDL type SCAAny fulfills two important requirements:
• It must handle the Java types in a type-safe manner. • It must handle values for complex types that are not known at compile time.

The first requirement covers the typical usage of the SCAAny type, the insertion of typed values into the SCAAny and the type-safe extraction of the values. In Java the type-safety is ensured by the SCAAny class and the Java JVM. When you try to insert a value into a SCAAny, the class will make sure that the data being inserted is an IDL defined type and consistent with the SCA type description. If it is not, then a SCASystemException will be thrown. When you try to extract a value from the SCAAny, the JVM will attempt to cast it to the type you requested. If the value can be converted then the extraction will succeed. If it cannot be converted then a Java RuntimeException exception will be thrown. The second requirement covers situations like the need to extract data from the SCAAny when you do not know the type of data it contains. In this case the receiver must be able to determine information about what type of data the SCAAny contains. To achieve this, SCAAny contains a pair of values that includes the actual value of the data and a description of its type. The type information can then be inspected to determine the details on the value stored in the SCAAny instance.

The SCAAny class definition
In Java the SCAAny type is implemented by the SCA.SCAAny class. The public methods for the class are shown below. package SCA; public class SCAAny { // Constructors public SCAAny() public SCAAny(Object data); public SCAAny(Object data, String typeString); // Methods for inserting and extracting values public void setSCAInt8(byte data); public byte getSCAInt8(); public void setSCAUInt8(short data); public short getSCAUInt8(); public void setSCAInt16(short data); public short getSCAInt16(); public void setSCAUInt16(int data); public int getSCAUInt16(); public void setSCAInt32(int data); public int getSCAInt32();

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public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public

void setSCAUInt32(long data); long getSCAUInt32(); void setSCAInt64(long data); long getSCAInt64(); void setSCAUInt64(long data); long getSCAUInt64(); void setSCAReal32(float data); float getSCAReal32(); void setSCAReal64(double data); double getSCAReal64(); void setSCAChar(char data); char getSCAChar(); void setSCAString(String data); String getSCAString(); void setSCAWChar(char data); char getSCAWChar(); void setSCAWString(String data); String getSCAWString(); void setSCABool(boolean data); boolean getSCABool(); void setSCAAny(SCAAny data); SCAAny getSCAAny(); void setSCATypeCode(SCATypeCode data); SCATypeCode getSCATypeCode(); void setSCAResult(SCAResult data); SCAResult getSCAResult(); void setSCAObject(Object data); void setSCAObject(Object data, String typeString); Object getSCAObject();

// Flush the contents public void flush(); // Methods for getting information about the contents public String type(); public boolean empty(); public String toString(); // SCAAny data private Object m_data; private String m_type; } Examples of using the SCAAny are show in the following sections.

Creating new SCAAny values
The following example creates an empty SCAAny value. // Create an empty SCAAny instance SCA.SCAAny any = new SCA.SCAAny();

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To create a new SCAAny value that contains a value you can use the constructor which takes a Java Object and an optional string description of the type. Which form you use depends on the way the SCA type is mapped in Java. If the SCA type maps to a Java class that is generated by the IDL compiler, then you only need to provide the instance in the constructor. This includes types like sequences, structures, enumerations, array and interfaces. The following shows an example of this. // Create a SCAAny instance which contains a structure value Node node = new Node(); node.id = 123; node.x = 1.0; node.y = 2.0; node.z = 3.0; SCA.SCAAny any = new SCA.SCAAny(node); But, if the SCA type maps to a native Java type that cannot be uniquely mapped to a SCA type then you will need to add the type description to explicitly specify the type. An example of this is a Java String value which can be mapped to either a SCAString or a SCAWString value. // Create a SCAAny instance which contains a SCAString value SCA.SCAAny any = new SCA.SCAAny(new String(“test”),”SCA.SCAString”); Because the SCAAny will only hold an object that inherits from the Java Object type, you cannot create a new SCAAny with a primitive type directly. Instead you must use its corresponding wrapper classes as shown in this example. Since the wrapper classes do have unique SCA mappings, you must also include the type description in this case. // Create a SCAAny instance which contains a SCAInt32 value SCA.SCAAny any = new SCA.SCAAny(new Integer(123),”SCA.SCAInt32”);

Inserting values into exiting SCAAny values
You also insert a value into an existing SCAAny instance. If the instance already holds a value it will be replaced with the new value. Remember that the SCAAny can only hold a single value at a time. Inserting values into an existing SCAAny instance follows a similar pattern that was described previously for constructing new SCAAny values with one exception. Since the insertion of basic types into a SCAAny is so common, a special group of set methods is provided. There is a separate set method defined for each basic SCA type. These methods allow you to insert primitive values directly into the SCAAny without having to use the wrapper classes. // Insert a SCAInt32 value into a SCAAny instance anyval.setSCAInt32(12); // Insert a SCAString value into a SCAAny instance Anyval.setSCAString(“value”); Non-basic types are inserted using the setSCAObject method. Here is an example of inserting a sequence into a SCAAny. // Insert a SCAReal64Sequence value into a SCAAny instance SCAReal64Sequence seq = new SCAReal64Sequence(); seq.add(1.0);

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seq.add(2.0); anyval.setSCAObject(seq); As before, since a SCA sequence has a unique mapping to a Java class, you do not need to add the type description. But if the mapping is not unique you will need to. // Insert a SCAString value into a SCAAny instance anyval.setSCAObject(new String(“value”),”SCA.SCAString”); // Insert a SCAInt32 value into a SCAAny instance anyval.setSCAObject(new Integer(123),”SCA.SCAInt32”); A SCAAny can even hold another SCAAny instance. // Insert an SCAAny value to SCAAny instance SCA.SCAAny anyval2 = new SCA.SCAAny(new Long(123),”SCA.SCAInt64”); anyval.setSCAAny(anyval2);

Extracting the value contained in a SCAAny
To extract a value from the SCAAny, you use the get method that corresponds to the data contained in it. When extracting values, it is important that you pick the correct method otherwise Java will throw a RuntimeException exception.

// Extract a SCAInt32 from a SCAAny instance try { int int32val = anyval.getSCAInt32(); } catch (RuntimeException ex) { System.out.println("RuntimeException:" + ex.toString()); } For non-basic types, you will need to use the getSCAObject method to extract the value. This value must be cast to the desired Java type as shown in this example.

// Extract a Node structure value from a SCAAny instance try { Node node = (Node)anyval.getSCAObject(); System.out.println("Extracted value: id=" + node2.id + " x=" + node.x + " y=" + node.y + " z=" + node.z); } catch (RuntimeException ex) { System.out.println("RuntimeException:" + ex.toString()); } There may be cases where the SCAAny value may hold one of a number of different types and you do not know at compilation time which one it is. In this case you can use the type method to determine what type it contains so you can choose the correct get method. The following example shows how several extractions can be used to handle different possible types of values that may be in the SCAAny instance.

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// Extract an unknown type from a SCAAny instance int int32val; float real32val; if ( anyval.type() == "SCA.SCAInt32" ) { int32val = anyval.getSCAInt32(); System.out.println("int32val = " + int32val); } else if ( anyval.type() == "SCA.SCAReal32" ) { real32val = anyval.getSCAReal32(); System.out.println("real32val = " + real32val); } else { System.out.println("Unsupported type " + anyval.type()); }

Miscellaneous SCAAny methods
The SCAAny provides several miscellaneous methods that can be used to check if the SCAAny contains any data or to flush its contents. // Check if SCAAny is empty If ( anyval.empty() ){ // SCAAny value is empty } // Flush the contents of the SCAAny which will now be empty any.flush(); The SCAAny also implements the toString method which allows you to get a string representation of its contents. // Print the information about the contents of the SCAAny System.out.println("SCAAny value is " + anyval.toString());

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Mapping for SCAResult

Mapping for SCAResult
The SCAResult type is used to return error information from calls to interface methods. It contains the following information
• Error code • Message table ID • Message number • Message parameters

The values in a SCAResult instance can be used by the SCA Framework to format and dispatch messages in the language appropriate for the current user. For more information on using SCAResult for error processing see the Error Handling chapter of this manual.

SCAResult class definition
The SCAResult type is mapped to the following Java class package SCA; public class SCAResult { // Constructors public SCAResult(); public SCAResult(int errorCode); public SCAResult( int errorCode, int msgTableId, int messageID); // Setting values public void setErrorCode( int errorCode ); // Return values public int getErrorCode(); public int getTableID(); public int getMessageID(); // Add public public public public public public public public public public public public public public a new parameter void addSCAInt8(byte t ); void addSCAUInt8(short t ); void addSCAInt16(short t ); void addSCAUInt16(int t ); void addSCAInt32(int t ); void addSCAUInt32(long t ); void addSCAInt64(long t ); void addSCAUInt64(long t ); void addSCAReal32(float t ); void addSCAReal64(double t ); void addSCAChar(char t ); void addSCAString(String t ); void addSCAWString(String t ); void addSCABool(boolean t );

// Compare all fields of SCAResult data, excluding parameters

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public boolean equals(SCAResult sr ); // Return the parameters public SCAAnySequence getParams(); // Return true if has parameters, return false otherwise. public boolean hasParams(); // Return true if the error code == 0 public boolean isOk(); // Return true if it is a system error public boolean isSystemError(); // Print raw contents of SCAResult public void dump(); // Return a formatted message public String toString(); // Predefined SCAResult values public final static SCAResult SCASuccess = new SCAResult(0); public final static SCAResult SCAError = new SCAResult(0X7FFFFFFF);

}

Two predefined SCAResult values are provided when you do not need to include more detailed information to the callers. // Return error return SCA.SCAResult.SCAError; // Return success return SCA.SCAResult.SCASuccess; Examples of the usages of these are shown in the following sections.

Creating new SCAResult values
The following example creates SCAResult values with different levels of initialization. // Create SCAResult SCA.SCAResult rstat // Create SCAResult SCA.SCAResult rstat // Create SCAResult SCA.SCAResult rstat with all zero values = new SCA.SCAResult(); with only an error value = new SCA.SCAResult(1); with error, tableID and messageID = new SCA.SCAResult(1,4,301);}

Resetting the error code in a SCAResult value
The error code in an existing SCAResult value can be reset as follows. // Reset error code in SCAResult rstat.setErrorCode(201);

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Adding parameters to a SCAResult value
You use one of the add methods to add a parameter to a SCAResult value. // Add parameters to SCAResult value rstat.addSCAInt8((byte)1); rstat.addSCAInt16((short)12); rstat.addSCAInt32((int)123); rstat.addSCAInt64((long)1234); rstat.addSCAUInt8((byte)2); rstat.addSCAUInt16((short)23); rstat.addSCAUInt32((int)234); rstat.addSCAUInt64((long)2345); rstat.addSCAReal32(12.34F); rstat.addSCAReal64(123.456); rstat.addSCAChar('A'); rstat.addSCAString("TestString"); rstat.addSCAWString("TestWideString"); rstat.addSCABool(true);

Interrogating the contents of a SCAResult
The is Ok method provides a simple way to test if the SCAResult value has an error. // Test if SCAResult has a non-zero error if ( !rstat.isOk() ) // Process error The get methods can be used to extract the error, table and message values. // Extract the error, tableID and messageID values int error = rstat.getErrorCode(); int tableid = rstat.getTableID(); int messageid = rstat.getMessageID(); The hasParams and getParams methods can be used to determine if the SCAResult has parameters and to process them. The parameter values are returned in a SCAAnySequence. // If the SCAResult has parameters, print them if ( rstat.hasParams() ) { for ( int i=0; i<params.size(); i++ ) { SCA.SCAAny param = params.elementAt(i); System.out.println("Param " + i + " = " + param.toString()); } }

Miscellaneous SCAResult methods
The SCAResult also implements the toString and dump method which allows you to get or print the contents. The toString method will attempt to format a message for the SCAResult value while the dump method just prints the raw data. // Print a string representation of the SCAAny

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System.out.println("SCAResult value is " + anyval.toString()); // Print contents using the dump method anyval.dump();

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Mapping for Constants
An IDL defined constants are mapped to an interface of the same name as the constant which contains a single fixed data value with the name value which has the value of the IDL constant. IDL const SCA::SCAInt32 NUM_OF_STATES = 50; Java public interface NUM_OF_STATES { final int value = 50; } The value of the constant can be referenced using the value field. // Print value of constant defined in IDL System.out.println("constant value = " + NUM_OF_STATES.value);

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Mapping for Interfaces
SCA interfaces are mapped directly to Java interfaces. The following is a simple interface definition. This example is missing the definitions of all the required types but they have no affect on actual interface mapping so they have been left out to simplify the example. IDL interface SCAIReader : SCA::SCAIService { SCAVoid readModel( in SCAString name ) raises(ReaderException); SCAINode getNode( in SCAInt32 id ) raises(ReaderException); SCAVoid getNodeCoordinates( in SCAInt32 id, out SCAReal32 x, out SCAReal32 y, out SCAReal32 z ) raises(ReaderException); }; Java public interface SCAIReader extends SCA.SCAIService { void readModel(String name) throws ReaderException; SCAINode getNode(int id) throws ReaderException; void getNodeCoordinates(int id, SCA.Holder<Float> x, SCA.Holder<Float> y, SCA.Holder<Float> z) throws ReaderException; }

Mapping for Interface Operations
Each interface operation (or method) is mapped to a method in the Java interface with the same name.

Mapping for Interface Parameters
Each parameter in an IDL operation must have direction of in, out or inout. Input parameters are mapped directly to their corresponding Java parameters. But, since Java does not support output type parameters, they must be handled specially. The mapping for out or inout parameters in Java uses a predefined generic class, SCA.Holder, that holds an instance of the parameter. package SCA; public class Holder<T>{ public Holder(){ value=null; } public Holder(T obj){ value=obj;

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}

} public T value;

If the IDL parameter is one of the SCA basic types then the SCA.Holder class must hold its corresponding Java box type and not the primitive type. The following table shows the corresponding box type for each SCA IDL type. IDL Type SCA::SCAInt8 SCA::SCAUInt8 SCA::SCAInt16 SCA::SCAUInt16 SCA::SCAInt32 SCA::SCAUInt32 SCA::SCAInt64 SCA::SCAUInt64 SCA::SCAReal32 SCA::SCAReal64 SCA::SCAChar SCA::SCAWChar SCA::SCABool Java primitive type byte short short int int long long long float double char char boolean Java box type java.lang.Byte java.lang.Short java.lang.Short java.lang.Short java.lang.Integer java.lang.Integer java.lang.Long java.lang.Long java.lang.Float java.lang.Double java.lang.Character java.lang.Character java.lang.Boolean

When calling a method with output parameters, you must first create instances of the SCA.Holder class and pass them as the parameter as shown in this example.

SCA.Holder<Float> x = new SCA.Holder<Float>(); SCA.Holder<Float> y = new SCA.Holder<Float>();; SCA.Holder<Float> z = new SCA.Holder<Float>();; inf.getNodeCoordinates(id,x,y,z); System.out.println(“X=” + x.value()); System.out.println(“Y=” + y.value()); System.out.println(“Y=” + z.value()); If any of these parameters was specified with the inout direction, the value in the holder class should be set before the interface method is called.

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Mapping for Exceptions
The SCA Framework predefines three exception types, SCA.SCAException, SCA.SCAUserException and SCA.SCASystemException. All user defined exceptions in IDL must inherit either SCA::SCAUserException or another user-defined exception. Only single inheritance is allowed.

SCAException interface
The base for all IDL defined exceptions is SCAException which is mapped to the java interface SCA.SCAException.

package SCA; public interface SCAException { // Method to return description of the exception String what(); // Method to get SCATypeCode for this exception SCATypeCode getTypeCode(); // Method to get raw text string for this exception String getText(); // Method to set raw text string for this exception void setText(String text); }

SCAUserException class
The SCAUserException exception adds no new data to SCAException and should be used as the base for all user defined exceptions. It is mapped to the predefined Java class SCA.SCAUserException which implements the SCA.SCAException interface.

package SCA; public class SCAUserException extends Exception implements SCAException { // Constructor public SCAUserException(); // Methods to return description of exception public final String what(); public final String toString(); // Method to get SCATypeCode for this exception public final SCATypeCode getTypeCode(); // Method to get raw text string for this exception public final String getText(); // Method to set raw text string for this exception public final void setText(String text); // Method to set exception type protected final void setType(String type);

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}

// Exception data private String m_type; protected String m_text;

SCASystemException class
The SCASystemException exception should only be used internally by the SCA Framework and adds an error ID member to SCAException. It is mapped to the predefined Java class SCA.SCASystemException which implements the SCA.SCAException interface. Note that SCA.SCASystemException inherits from Java’s RuntimeException exception, so it is treated as an unchecked exception by the java runtime. package SCA; public class SCASystemException extends RuntimeException implements SCAException { // Constructors public SCASystemException(); public SCASystemException(int iid); public SCASystemException(int iid, String text); // Methods to return description of the exception public final String what(); public final String toString(); // Method to get SCATypeCode for this exception public final SCATypeCode getTypeCode(); // Method to get raw text string for this exception public final String getText(); // Method to set raw text string for this exception public final void setText(String text); // Method to set exception type protected final void setType(String type); // Method to return exception traceback public static String getTrace(Throwable e); // Exception data private String m_type; protected String m_text; public int id; }

Mapping for IDL defined user exceptions
User-defined exceptions are mapped to respective Java classes. All the user defined members in an exception are mapped as public fields in the exception class. IDL exception ReaderException : SCAUserException { SCAString name;

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};

SCAString error;

Java public class ReaderException extends SCA.SCAUserException { public ReaderException(); public String name; public String error; }; The following code shows an example of how you throw a SCA exception in Java. ReaderException ex = new ReaderException(); ex.name = “TestInput.dat”; ex.error = “The file does not exist”; throw ex; And the exception can be caught as follows. try { // Code that triggers an exception } catch (ReaderException ex) { System.out.println("ReaderException caught for"); System.out.println(“File: “ + ex.name); System.out.println(“Error: “ + ex.error); }

The IDL raises clause
An IDL interface operation may contain a raises clause to indicate what kind of exceptions the operation may throw. IDL interface SCAIReader : SCA::SCAIService { SCAVoid readModel( in SCAString name ) raises(ReaderException); }; Java public interface SCAIReader extends SCA.SCAIService { void readModel(String name) throws ReaderException; }

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Use of the raises clause is especially important in Java, since a method that throws an exception should specify it in a throws clause. The SCASystemException exception is an unchecked Java exception so it can always be thrown and users do not need to include it in the raises clause. Other exceptions that may be thrown must be one of the exceptions in the raises clause to inherit from one of them.

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Mapping for SCA Services
Two types of code are generated for SCA service definitions. 1. The genskeleton command is used to generate the initial implementation skeletons for a service. The generated skeletons can then be expanded with the code required to implement the desired behavior for the various interface operations. 2. During the build process, various Java base classes are generated which are used to link the developer generated implementation code to the SCA Framework. This is done to reduce as much as possible the amount of code that must be written by the developer to implement a service. These classes also provide a level of isolation between the service’s implementation code and the SCA Framework. This allows for future changes to be made in the interaction between the base classes and the SCA Framework without affecting the developer’s implementation code. The following is the IDL file for an example interface definition that will be used in this section. #ifndef SCA_FILEREADER_FILEREADER_IDL_INCLUDED #define SCA_FILEREADER_FILEREADER_IDL_INCLUDED #include "SCA/Service.idl" module SCA { module FileReader { struct Node { SCAInt32 id; SCAReal32 x; SCAReal32 y; SCAReal32 z; }; exception ReaderException : SCAUserException { SCAString name; SCAString error; }; interface SCAINode; interface SCAIReader : SCA::SCAIService { SCAVoid readModel( in SCAString name ) raises(ReaderException); SCAINode getNode( in SCAInt32 id ) raises(ReaderException); }; interface SCAINode : SCA::SCAIService { SCAInt32 getID(); SCAReal32 getX(); SCAReal32 getY(); SCAReal32 getZ();

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}; }; }; #endif The following is the SDL for an example service that will implement these interfaces. #ifndef FILEREADER_SDL_INCLUDED #define FILEREADER_SDL_INCLUDED #include "SCA/FileReader/FileReader.idl" module SCA { module FileReader { module Impl { service SCA.Test.FileReader { interface SCA::FileReader::SCAIReader; subservice NodeImpl ( in SCA::FileReader::Node node ) { interface SCA::FileReader::SCAINode; }; }; }; }; }; #endif

The inheritance form of implementation
In the inheritance form of implementation, the implementation classes generated by genskeleton will inherit from base classes generated by the IDL compiler at build time. These base classes will then inherit from the interface classes and also provide all the necessary links to the SCA Framework. When the genskeleton command is run for the above SDL file to generate the skeleton code for the service, it will generate two Java classes, FileReader which implements the SCAIReader interface and NodeImpl which implements the SCAINode interface. The Java implementation will be put in a package that is defined by the SDL module statements. In this example it is SCA.FileReader.Impl. This will also define the subdirectory where the implementation files will be written. In this example the actual file created for the FileReader class will be SCA/FileReader/Impl/FileReader.java. The following is the file FileReader.java that is generated for the top-level service class. package SCA.FileReader.Impl; public class FileReader extends FileReader_base { // Constructor public FileReader (SCA.Framework.SCAIServiceProvider provider) { super();

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}

setServiceProvider(provider);

}

// Methods for interface SCA.FileReader.SCAIReader public final void readModel (String name) throws SCA.FileReader.ReaderException { //implementation goes here } public final SCA.FileReader.SCAINode getNode (int id) throws SCA.FileReader.ReaderException { //implementation goes here }

The implementation classes generated are fairly simple, but there are a couple of requirements for these imposed by the SCA Framework. These are the requirements when using the default or inheritance form of implementation. The class must inherit from the base class generated by the IDL compiler.
• The class can have only one constructor and it must have a single argument of

SCAIServiceProvider type. This argument is used by the base class to access the SCA Framework.
• The base class constructor must be explicitly called from the class constructor. • The class must implement each of the operations defined in the interfaces it supports except for

SCAIService. As long as these requirements are met, the developer is free to make any desired modifications to these implementation classes. The base class FileReader_base, which will be generated by the IDL compiler when it is run during the build process, provides the following.
• Inherits from the respective interface for each interface implemented by the service class. In this

example it will be the SCAIReader interface.
• Provides the implementation for all of the required reference counting, interface navigation and

introspection methods in the SCAIService interface that every SCA service class must implement.
• Provides access to the SCA Framework facilities.

If the FileReader service used in this example implemented additional interfaces, the only changes to the generated code would be the addition of the method definitions for the operations in the new interfaces. The SDL for the FileReader service also includes the definition of a subservice NodeImpl which takes a Node constructor argument. A separate Java class, NodeImpl, will be generated for the subservice class. The format of this class is identical to the FileReader class except for the addition of an extra argument defined in the SDL file on the class constructor and the interface methods it implements.

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Following is the NodeImpl.java class generated by the genskeleton command package SCA.FileReader.Impl; public class NodeImpl extends NodeImpl_base { // Constructor public NodeImpl (SCA.Framework.SCAIServiceProvider provider, SCA.FileReader.Node node) { super(); setServiceProvider(provider); } // Methods for interface SCA.FileReader.SCAINode public final int getID () { //implementation goes here } public final float getX () { //implementation goes here } public final float getY () { //implementation goes here } public final float getZ () { //implementation goes here }

}

Only subservice classes can have user specified constructor arguments. This is because instances of the top-level FileReader class are instantiated by the IDL generated factory class in response to getService calls made by the clients of the service. There is currently no way for clients to passes constructor arguments through the getService call. On the other hand, instances of subservice classes can only be generated by the implementation code in the service. In this case the implementation is free to pass any desired arguments to the constructors. The following is an example implementation for the getNode method which returns an instance of the SCAINode interface. The SDL definition for this service specifies that the SCAINode interface is implemented by the NodeImpl subservice class. That means that the getNode method needs to allocate an instance of the NodeImpl class and return the SCAINode interface on it. The constructor for the NodeImpl class, generated by the genskeleton utility, requires two parameters. The first parameter is the SCAIServiceProvider interface which is available in the m_provider variable in the base class. The second argument is an instance of the Node structure that was specified as a constructor argument in the SDL. SCAINode FileReader::getNode(const SCAInt32 id) { // Find and initialize the node which cooresponds to ID Node node = …

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}

// Return a new subservice class instance for this node NodeImpl spNode = new NodeImpl(m_provider,node); return (SCAINode)spNode;

The ServiceAccess interface
The base classes generated by the IDL compiler will always implement the SCA.ServiceAccess interface. This interface is the link between the implementation of the service and the SCA Framework. The following is the definition of the ServiceAccess interface: package SCA; public interface ServiceAccess { // Load a SCA service SCAIService getService(String name, String attr); // Set the SCAIServiceProvider interface void setServiceProvider(SCA.Framework.SCAIServiceProvider provider); } If the implementation of the service needs to load another SCA service, then the getService method in the ServiceAccess class is used. SCAIService spSvc; spSvc = getService(“Test.Service.Name”, “”)

The delegation form of implementation
You use the delegate keyword in the SDL file to select the delegation form of implementation. Currently the delegation form of implementation is not supported in Java.

Singleton Services
It is also possible to indicate that the service is a singleton in the SDL. The use of this keyword has no affect on any of the Java implementation skeletons generated for a service. The processing of singleton services is handled entirely in the factory support code that is generated when the service is built. It is important to remember that even so the generated skeletons are the same; the implementation code for a singleton service may need to be different. Because multiple clients may be sharing the same instance of the service, the code needs to make sure this is done in a safe manner.

Aggregation
The support for aggregation is requested with the aggregates and aggregated keywords in the SDL. Currently aggregation is not supported in Java.

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Mapping for SCA Components
The Java mapping uses a normal jar files for SCA components. The only code required for a SCA component is support code generated by the IDL compiler during the build process. This code is used by the SCA Framework to initialize the component and expose the services it provides when the component is loaded at runtime. There is no code that the developer needs to create for a component.

Embedded Components
Support for embedded components is requested with the embedded option in the CDL. Currently embedded components are not supported in Java.

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SCA Framework / JVM Interaction
Java Virtual Machine Initialization
The initialization of the Java virtual machine can be triggered in two different ways when running SCA applications that use components written in Java.
• If the SCA application is written in Java, then the application will normally be started using the

Java application launcher utility. In this case the application launcher is responsible for initializing the JVM and the normal command line parameters and environment variables it supports are used to provide any user defined options for the JVM.
• If the SCA application is written in a language other than Java, then the JVM will be initialized

by the SCA Kernel when the first Java service is loaded. In this case, the SCA Kernel JVMConfig configuration parameter is used to provide any user defined options for the JVM.

The IDLTypes.jar archive
When the scons build command is run to build the Java service, the IDL compiler will be run on all the known IDL files to generate the required Java mappings. This includes all of the IDL files in the APPS_SYSTEM and the APPS_LOCAL directories. The generated Java files will be compiled and archived in a single jar archive, APPS_LOCAL/lib/java/ IDLTypes.jar. This jar archive must be included in the class path for the JVM.
• If the SCA application is written in Java, then the IDLTypes.jar archive must be manually added

to the Java class path using either CLASSPATH environment variable or the classpath or cp command line parameter for the Java application launcher utility.
• If the SCA application is written in a language other than Java, then the SCA kernel will

initialize the JVM using the JVMConfig configuration variable. If no JVMConfig variable is provided, then it will automatically provide one that includes an IDLTypes.jar archive which is located relative to the SCA resource directory which is specified with the Resource configuration value. JVMConfig=”-Djava.class.path=Resource/../lib/java/IDLTypes.jar”
• If the SCA application is written in a language other than Java and the JVMConfig

configuration variable is provided, then the location of the IDLTypes.jar archive must be manually included in it. For further details on setting the JVMConfig and other SCA configuration parameters please refer to the SCA Kernel documentation.

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7

IDL to .Net Languages Mapping
Introduction 192 194 195 196 198 199

                 

Mapping for Identifiers Mapping for Modules

Mapping for Basic Types Mapping for String Types

Mapping for Enumerated Types Mapping for Structures Mapping for Arrays 200

201 203 204 205

Mapping for Sequences Mapping for Type Aliases

Mapping for SCATypeCode Mapping for SCAAny Mapping for SCAResult Mapping for Constants Mapping for Interfaces Mapping for Exceptions Mapping for SCA Services 206 211 215 216

217 220 227

Mapping for SCA Components

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Introduction
The IDL language provides a language independent definition of SCA interfaces and data types. In order to actually use these definitions, there must be a set of rules, commonly known as a mapping that describes how these types are represented in a particular language. This chapter explains the mapping that SCA uses for the .NET languages. Since .NET has a unified type system, the SCA types can be used in any .NET language. The following table summarizes the data type mapping between IDL, CLR, C# and Visual Basic types. The following sections of this chapter will provide the details on each mapping. IDL Type SCA::SCAInt8 SCA::SCAUInt8 SCA::SCAInt16 SCA::SCAUInt16 SCA::SCAInt32 SCA::SCAUInt32 SCA::SCAInt64 SCA::SCAUInt64 SCA::SCAReal32 SCA::SCAReal64 SCA::SCAChar SCA::SCAWChar SCA::SCAString SCA::SCAWString SCA::SCABool SCA::SCAAny SCA::SCATypeCode SCA::SCAResult sequence enum struct array interface exception SByte Byte Int16 UInt16 Int32 UInt32 Int64 UInt64 Single Double Char Char String String Boolean SCA.SCAAny SCA.SCATypeCode SCA.SCAResult class that inherits from List enum struct [] or[][] interface class that inherits from System.Exception CLR Type C# Type sbyte byte short ushort int uint long ulong float double char char string string bool VB Type SByte Byte Short UShort Integer UInteger Long ULong Single Double Char Char String String Boolean

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Introduction

See the HelloWorld Application chapter of this manual for examples on how SCA applications can be written in different .NET languages. In that chapter both a C# and Visual Basic version of the application is shown. To reduce the amount of sample code, this chapter will only show examples in the C# language. For every type defined in IDL, the IDL compiler will generate the code required to expose the proper CLR definition of the type. In addition to the actual CLR definition of the type, there is also some support code generated for each interface which is used by SCA Framework to make interface calls from .NET to services implemented in the other supported languages. When building a .NET application or component, the SCA SCons build system will compile the CLR definitions for all of the known IDL types and store them in a single assembly APPS/WINNT/bin/IDLTypes.dll.

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Mapping for Identifiers
IDL identifiers are mapped to CLR identifiers with no change. For example: IDL enum Color { RED, GREEN, BLUE }; C# public enum Color { RED, GREEN, BLUE } There is one potential problem to be aware of. If the IDL file contains an identifier that is also a reserved keyword in the language you are using, then the code will not compile. Therefore, the use of any of these reserved words for IDL identifiers is not allowed.

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Mapping for Modules

Mapping for Modules
SCA IDL namespaces are defined with the module keyword. These namespaces are mapped directly to CLR namespaces. IDL module Test{ … }; C# namespace Test{ … } The IDL module constructs also affect other aspects of the SCA mapping. See the IDL Compiler chapter for detailed information on how the IDL module statements are used.

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Mapping for Basic Types
Basic data types, SCAInt8, SCAUInt8, SCAInt16, SCAUInt16, SCAInt32, SCAUInt32, SCAInt64, SCAUInt64, SCAReal32, SCAReal64, SCAChar, SCAWChar and SCABool are mapped to the corresponding Common Language Runtime (CLR) types. The SCAChar is mapped to the CLR Char. This can cause issues because the CLR Char contains multi-byte Unicode characters while the IDL definition of a SCAChar only accommodates the single-byte ISO Latin-1 character set. When passing SCAChar data from .NET to a different language, the high byte will be discarded. The following table shows the CLR, C# and Visual Basic mappings for the basic SCA types. IDL Type SCA::SCAInt8 SCA::SCAUInt8 SCA::SCAInt16 SCA::SCAUInt16 SCA::SCAInt32 SCA::SCAUInt32 SCA::SCAInt64 SCA::SCAUInt64 SCA::SCAReal32 SCA::SCAReal64 SCA::SCAChar SCA::SCAWChar SCA::SCABool CLR Type SByte Byte Int16 UInt16 Int32 UInt32 Int64 UInt64 Single Double Char Char Boolean C# Type sbyte byte short ushort int uint long ulong float double char char bool VB Type SByte Byte Short UShort Integer UInteger Long ULong Single Double Char Char Boolean

The following structure definition illustrates this mapping. IDL: struct Node { SCAInt32 id; SCAReal32 x; SCAReal32 y; SCAReal32 z; }; C#: public struct Node { public int id; public float x;

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}

public float y; public float z;

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Mapping for String Types
Both SCAString and SCAWString are mapped to System.String. Converting from a SCAString or SCAWString to a CLR value will not lose any information. When converting from a CLR value to a SCAString, the CLR value is first converted to an ANSI value which is then stored in the SCAString. IDL: struct address { SCAString street; SCAString city; SCAInt32 zipcode; }; C#: public class address { public String street; public String city; public int zipcode; }

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Mapping for Enumerated Types

Mapping for Enumerated Types
An IDL enum is mapped directly to a CLR enum. IDL enum Colors { RED, GREEN, BLUE }; C# public enum Colors { RED, GREEN, BLUE }

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Mapping for Structures
An IDL structure maps to a CLR struct with all public fields. Each IDL structure member is mapped to a corresponding member of the CLR structure. The CLR structure members appear in the same order as the corresponding IDL structure members. For example: IDL struct Node { SCAInt32 id; SCAReal32 x; SCAReal32 y; SCAReal32 z; }; C# public struct Node { public int id; public float x; public float y; public float z; }

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Mapping for Arrays

Mapping for Arrays
Two types of array definitions are supported in IDL. Fixed size arrays must have their size defined in the IDL and can never change. Dynamic arrays allow you to delay the specification of the array size until it is actually allocated. Only arrays of rank 1 or 2 are supported.

Fixed size arrays
There is no special code generated for the mapping of IDL defined arrays. Normal CLR arrays should be used for these types. When arrays are allocated you need to make sure that the correct length is specified. The array sizes are not checked when making interface calls between .NET languages, but if making a call to another language through a SCA bridge the sizes are checked and a SCASystemException will be thrown if incorrect. IDL typedef SCAInt32 Date[3]; C# int[] date = new int[3]; Two dimension arrays use the CLR jagged array format. IDL typedef SCAInt32 Matrix[3][3]; C# int[][] matrix = { new int[] {1,3,5}, new int[] {0,2,4}, new int[] {11,22,22} }; If an IDL array is defined in a structure, it is also mapped directly to a CLR array. IDL struct Node2 { SCAInt32 id; SCAReal32 location[3]; }; C# public struct Node2 { public int id; public float[] location }

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Dynamic Arrays
Dynamic Arrays also use normal CLR arrays types. Since the size of a dynamic array is not fixed in the IDL, you can use any appropriate size when you allocate the CLR array type. Dynamic arrays exist primarily to provide more optimized code in other languages supported by the SCA framework.

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Mapping for Sequences

Mapping for Sequences
An IDL sequence is mapped to a class that inherits from System.Collections.Generic.List. IDL typedef SCASequence<SCA::SCAInt32> NodeSequence; C# public class NodeSequence : List<SCA.FileReader.Node>{ public NodeSequence() { } public NodeSequence(int initialCapacity): base(initialCapacity) { } public override string ToString() { string s="["; foreach(SCA.FileReader.Node i in this){ s+=i.ToString()+" "; } s+="]"; return s; } } When an IDL sequence appears as a member of a structure, it is mapped directly to a System.Collections.Generic.List type as the member of the structure. IDL struct Node3{ SCAInt32 id; SCASequence<SCAReal32> location; }; C# public struct Node3{ int id; public List<float> location; } Since generated sequence classes inherit from List they are used the same way as any List object. // Initialize contents of the sequence SCAReal64Sequence seq = new SCAReal64Sequence(); seq.Add(1.0); seq.Add(2.0); seq.Add(3.0); //Print contents of the sequence foreach (double val in seq) Console.WriteLine(val);

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Mapping for Type Aliases
A typedef is used in SCA IDL to define a sequence, an array or an alias for an existing type. The CLR mapping for sequences and arrays has already been discussed in the previous sections. The use of the IDL typedef to create a new name for an existing type must be handled differently in .NET because not all of the different languages provide a similar capability. Therefore, IDL typedef definitions are first unwound to either the SCA basic type or the user defined IDL type that it refers to and then the unwound type is used as the CLR type. As a result, the name of the IDL typedef type will never appear in the generated code. The following examples show how IDL typedef definitions that refer to both SCA basic types and other IDL defined types are unwound. IDL typedef SCAInt32 HourValue; typedef SCAInt32 MinuteValue; typedef SCAInt32 SecondValue; struct TimeDef { HourValue hour; MinuteValue minute; SecondValue second; }; typedef TimeDef LocalTime; typedef TimeDef GMTTime; interface SCAITimeConvert { LocalTime convert(in GMTTime time); }; C# public struct TimeDef { public int hour; public int minute; public int second; } public interface SCAITimeConvert : SCA.SCAIService { TimeDef convert(TimeDef time); } Notice how the HourValue, MinuteValue, SecondValue, LocalTime and GMTTime alias types have been unwound and the SCA basic types or IDL defined types have been used instead.

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Mapping for SCATypeCode

Mapping for SCATypeCode
The SCATypeCode type is a special type used by the SCA Framework to describe the details about each IDL defined type. The SCA Framework creates instances of the SCATypeCode using XML data generated by the IDL compiler. Each instance of the SCATypeCode contains the complete description of one IDL defined type. For example, the description of a structure would include the name and type for each of its members. The SCATypeCode type is treated in IDL as a basic type and it can appear anywhere in the IDL where a basic type can appear. For example it could be the member of a structure or one of the arguments in an interface method. In .NET a type code value is represented by the SCATypeCode class. The definition of a SCATypeCode contains a pair of values. These include a SCATypeCodeID value that indicates the type of data and a description of the type. The contents of the description depend on the value of the SCATypeCodeID. The SCATypeCode class is fairly complex and will not be discussed in detail here. The data contained in this class is mostly used internally within the SCA Framework. If you need to access these detailed type definitions you are encouraged to use the SCA.Framework.Reflection service that is describe in detail in the Dynamic SCA chapter of this manual.

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Mapping for SCAAny
The SCAAny is a container data type which can hold a single value of any other arbitrary IDL data type. Only values for types that are defined in IDL can be stored in a SCAAny. This is because the SCAAny design requires a SCATypeCode value to describe the data it holds and these are only generated by the IDL compiler and will not exist for types that are not defined in IDL. The .NET mapping for the IDL type SCAAny fulfills two important requirements: 1. It must handle the CLR types in a type-safe manner. 2. It must handle values for complex types that are not known at compile time. The first requirement covers the typical usage of the SCAAny type, the insertion of typed values into the SCAAny and the type-safe extraction of the values. In .NET the type-safety is ensured by the SCAAny class and the CLR. When you try to insert a value into a SCAAny, the class will make sure that the data being inserted is an IDL defined type and consistent with the SCA type description. If it is not, then a SCASystemException will be thrown. When you try to extract a value from the SCAAny, the CLR will attempt to cast it to the type you requested. If the value can be converted then the extraction will succeed. If it cannot be converted then a CLR Exception will be thrown. The second requirement covers situations like the need to extract data from the SCAAny when you do not know the type of data it contains. In this case the receiver must be able to determine information about what type of data the SCAAny contains. To achieve this, SCAAny contains a pair of values that includes the actual value of the data and a description of its type. The type information can then be inspected to determine the details on the value stored in the SCAAny instance.

The SCAAny class definition
In .NET the SCAAny type is implemented by the SCA.SCAAny class. The public methods for the class are shown below. namespace SCA { public class SCAAny { // Constructors public SCAAny(); public SCAAny(Object data); public SCAAny(Object data, String typeName); // Methods for inserting and extracting values public void setSCAInt8(sbyte data); public sbyte getSCAInt8(); public void setSCAUInt8(byte data); public byte getSCAUInt8(); public void setSCAInt16(short data); public short getSCAInt16(); public void setSCAUInt16(ushort data); public ushort getSCAUInt16(); public void setSCAInt32(int data); public int getSCAInt32();

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public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public public

void setSCAUInt32(uint data); uint getSCAUInt32(); void setSCAInt64(long data); long getSCAInt64(); void setSCAUInt64(ulong data); ulong getSCAUInt64(); void setSCAReal32(float data); float getSCAReal32(); void setSCAReal64(double data); double getSCAReal64(); void setSCAChar(char data); char getSCAChar(); void setSCAString(String data); String getSCAString(); void setSCAWChar(char data); char getSCAWChar(); void setSCAWString(String data); String getSCAWString(); void setSCABool(bool data); bool getSCABool(); void setSCAAny(SCAAny data); SCAAny getSCAAny(); void setSCATypeCode(SCATypeCode data); SCATypeCode getSCATypeCode(); void setSCAResult(SCAResult data); SCAResult getSCAResult(); void setSCAObject(Object data); void setSCAObject(Object data, String typeName); Object getSCAObject();

// Flush the contents public void flush(); // Methods for getting information about the contents public String type(); public bool empty(); public override String ToString(); // Data private Object m_data; private String m_type; } }

Examples of using the SCAAny are show in the following sections.

Creating new SCAAny values
The following example creates an empty SCAAny value. // Create an empty SCAAny instance SCA.SCAAny any = new SCA.SCAAny();

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To create a new SCAAny value that contains a value you can use the constructor which takes a CLR Object and an optional string description of the type. Which form you use depends on the way the SCA type is mapped in .NET. If the SCA type uniquely maps to a CLR type, then you only need to provide the object in the constructor. Types like sequences, structures, enumerations, interfaces and all basic types except characters and strings fall into this category. The following shows several examples of this. // Create a SCAAny instance which contains a structure value Node node = new Node(); node.id = 123; node.x = 1.0; node.y = 2.0; node.z = 3.0; SCA.SCAAny any = new SCA.SCAAny(node); // Create a SCAAny instance which contains a SCAInt64 value SCA.SCAAny any2 = new SCA.SCAAny((long)123); But, if the SCA type maps to a native CLR type that cannot be uniquely associated to a SCA type then you will need to add the type description to explicitly specify the type. An example of this is a CLR String value which can be mapped to either a SCAString or a SCAWString value. If the type description is not specified when required a SCASystemException will be thrown. // Create a SCAAny instance which contains a SCAString value SCA.SCAAny any = new SCA.SCAAny(new String(“test”),”SCA.SCAString”);

Inserting values into existing SCAAny value
You can also insert a value into an existing SCAAny instance. If the instance already holds a value it will be replaced with the new value. Remember that the SCAAny can only hold a single value at a time. Inserting values into an existing SCAAny instance follows a similar pattern that was described previously for constructing new SCAAny values with one exception. Since the insertion of basic types into a SCAAny is so common, a special group of set methods is provided. There is a separate set method defined for each basic SCA type. These methods allow you to easily insert primitive values directly into the SCAAny without having to specify the SCA type names or do any casts to remove ambiguities. // Insert an SCAInt32 value to SCAAny instance anyval.setSCAInt32(12); // Insert a SCAString value into a SCAAny instance Anyval.setSCAString(“value”); Non-basic types are inserted using the setSCAObject method. Here is an example of inserting a sequence into a SCAAny. // Insert an SCAReal64Sequence value to SCAAny instance SCAReal64Sequence seq = new SCAReal64Sequence (); seq.Add(1.0); seq.Add(2.0); anyval.setSCAObject(seq);

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As before, since a SCA sequence has a unique mapping to a CLR class, you do not need to add the type description. But if the mapping is not unique you will need to. // Insert a SCAString value into a SCAAny instance anyval.setSCAObject(new String(“value”),”SCA.SCAString”); A SCAAny can even hold another SCAAny instance. // Insert an SCAAny value to SCAAny instance SCAAny anyval2 = new SCAAny((long)123,"SCA.SCAInt64"); anyval.setSCAAny(anyval2);

Extracting the value contained in a SCAAny
To extract a value from the SCAAny, you use the get method that corresponds to the data contained in it. When extracting values, it is important that you pick the correct method otherwise the CLR will throw a SystemException exception. // Extract the value from an the SCAAny instance try { int int32val = anyval.getSCAInt32(); } catch (Exception ex) { Console.WriteLine("Exception:" + ex); } For non-basic types, you will need to use the getSCAObject method to extract the value. This value must be cast to the desired CLR type as shown in this example. // Extract a Node structure value from a SCAAny instance try { Node node = (Node)anyval.getSCAObject(); Console.WriteLine("Extracted value: id=" + node2.id + " x=" + node.x + " y=" + node.y + " z=" + node.z); } catch (Exception ex) { Console.WriteLine("Exception:" + ex); } There may be cases where the SCAAny value may hold a number of different types and you do not know at compilation time which one it is. In this case you can use the type method to determine what type it contains so you can choose the correct get method. The following example shows how several extractions can be used to handle different possible types of values that may be in the SCAAny instance. // Extract an unknown type from a SCAAny instance int int32val; float real32val; if ( anyval.type() == "SCA.SCAInt32" ) { int32val = anyval.getSCAInt32(); Console.WriteLine("int32val = " + int32val); } else if ( anyval.type() == "SCA.SCAReal32" ) { real32val = anyval.getSCAReal32(); Console.WriteLine("real32val = " + real32val);

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} else { Console.WriteLine("Unsupported type " + anyval.type()); }

Miscellaneous SCAAny methods
The SCAAny provides several miscellaneous methods that can be used to check if the SCAAny contains any data or to flush its contents. // Check if SCAAny is empty If ( anyval.empty() ){ // SCAAny value is empty } // Flush the contents of the SCAAny which will now be empty any.flush(); The SCAAny also implements the ToString method which allows you to get a string representation of its contents. // Print the information about the contents of the SCAAny Console.WriteLine("SCAAny value is " + anyval.ToString());

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Mapping for SCAResult

Mapping for SCAResult
The SCAResult type is used to return error information from calls to interface methods. It contains the following information.
• Error code • Message table ID • Message number • Message parameters

The values in a SCAResult instance can be used by the SCA Framework to format and dispatch messages in the language appropriate for the current user. For more information on using SCAResult for error processing see the Error Handling chapter of this manual.

SCAResult class definition
The SCAResult type is mapped to the following class: namespace SCA { public class SCAResult { // Constructors public SCAResult(); public SCAResult(int errorCode); public SCAResult( int errorCode, int msgTableId, int messageID; // Setting values public void setErrorCode( int errorCode ); // Return values public int getErrorCode(); public int getTableID(); public int getMessageID(); // Add public public public public public public public public public public public public public public a parameter void addSCAInt8(sbyte t); void addSCAUInt8(byte t); void addSCAInt16(short t); void addSCAUInt16(ushort t); void addSCAInt32(int t); void addSCAUInt32(uint t); void addSCAInt64(long t); void addSCAUInt64(ulong t); void addSCAReal32(float t); void addSCAReal64(double t); void addSCAChar(char t); void addSCAString(string t); void addSCAWString(string t); void addSCABool(bool t);

// Compare all fields of SCAResult data, excluding parameters

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public bool equals (SCAResult sr); // Return the parameters public SCAAnySequence getParams(); // Return true if has parameters, return false otherwise public bool hasParams(); // Return true if the error code ==0 public bool isOk(); // Returns true if it is a system error public bool isSystemError(); // Print raw contents of SCAResult public void dump(); // Returns a formatted message public override string ToString(); // Predefined SCAResult values public static SCAResult SCASuccess = new SCAResult(0); public static SCAResult SCAError = new SCAResult(0X7FFFFFFF);

}

}

Two predefined SCAResult values are provided when you do not need to include more detailed information to the callers. // Return error return SCA.SCAResult.SCAError; // Return success return SCA.SCAResult.SCASuccess; Examples of the usages of these are shown in the following sections.

Creating new SCAResult values
The following example creates SCAResult values with different levels of initialization. // Create SCAResult with all zero values SCA.SCAResult rstat = new SCA.SCAResult(); // Create SCAResult with only an error value SCA.SCAResult rstat = new SCA.SCAResult(1); // Create SCAResult with error, tableID and messageID SCA.SCAResult rstat = new SCA.SCAResult(1,4,301);}

Resetting the error code in a SCAResult value
The error code in an existing SCAResult value can be reset as follows.

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// Reset error code in SCAResult rstat.setErrorCode(201);

Adding parameters to a SCAResult value
You use one of the add methods to add a parameter to a SCAResult value. // Add parameters to SCAResult value rstat.addSCAInt8((sbyte)1); rstat.addSCAInt16((short)12); rstat.addSCAInt32((int)123); rstat.addSCAInt64((long)1234); rstat.addSCAUInt8((byte)2); rstat.addSCAUInt16((ushort)23); rstat.addSCAUInt32((uint)234); rstat.addSCAUInt64((ulong)2345); rstat.addSCAReal32(12.34F); rstat.addSCAReal64(123.456); rstat.addSCAChar('A'); rstat.addSCAString("TestString"); rstat.addSCAWString("TestWideString"); rstat.addSCABool(true);

Interrogating the contents of a SCAResult
The is Ok method provides a simple way to test if the SCAResult value has an error.

// Test if SCAResult has a non-zero error if ( !rstat.isOk() ) // Process error The get methods can be used to extract the error, table and message values. // Extract the error, tableID and messageID values int error = rstat.getErrorCode(); int tableid = rstat.getTableID(); int messageid = rstat.getMessageID(); The hasParams and getParams methods can be used to determine if the SCAResult has parameters and to process them. The parameter values are returned in a SCAAnySequence. // If the SCAResult has parameters, print them if ( rstat.hasParams() ) { for ( int i=0; i<params.size(); i++ ) { SCA.SCAAny param = params.elementAt(i); Console.WriteLine("Param " + i + " = " + param.ToString()); } }

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Miscellaneous SCAResult methods
The SCAResult also implements the ToString and dump method which allows you to get or print the contents. The ToString method will attempt to format a message for the SCAResult value while the dump method just prints the raw data. // Print a string representation of the SCAAny Console.WriteLine("SCAResult value is " + anyval.ToString()); // Print contents using the dump method anyval.dump();

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Mapping for Constants
IDL defined constants are mapped to a struct of the same name as the constant which contains a single fixed data value with the name value which has the value of the IDL constant. IDL const SCAInt32 NUM_OF_STATES = 50; C# public struct NUM_OF_STATES { public const int value = (int)50; } The value of the constant can be referenced using the value field. // Print value of constant defined in IDL Consol.WriteLine("constant value = " + NUM_OF_STATES.value);

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Mapping for Interfaces
SCA interfaces are mapped directly to CLR interfaces. The following is a simple interface definition. This example is missing the definitions of all the required types but they have no affect on actual interface mapping so they have been left out to simplify the example. IDL interface SCAIReader : SCA::SCAIService { SCAVoid readModel( in SCAString name ) raises(ReaderException); SCAINode getNode( in SCAInt32 id ) raises(ReaderException); SCAVoid getNodeCoordinates( in SCAInt32 id, out SCAReal32 x, out SCAReal32 y, out SCAReal32 z ) raises(ReaderException); }; C# public interface SCAIReader : SCA.SCAIService { void readModel(string name); SCAINode getNode(int id); void getNodeCoordinates(int id, out float x, out float y, out float z); }

Mapping for Interface Operations
Each interface operation (or method) is mapped to a method in the CLR interface with the same name.

Mapping for Interface Parameters
Each parameter in an IDL operation must have a direction of in, out or inout. They are mapped to C# and Visual Basic according to the following table. IDL direction in out inout CLR attribute In Out In+Out out ref C# keyword VB keyword ByVal ByRef ByRef

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Mapping for Exceptions

Mapping for Exceptions
The SCA Framework predefines three exception types, SCA.SCAException, SCA.SCAUserException and SCA.SCASystemException. All user defined exceptions in IDL must inherit either SCA::SCAUserException or another user-defined exception. Only single inheritance is allowed

SCAException interface
The base for all IDL defined exceptions is SCAException which is mapped to the SCA.SCAException class. namespace SCA{ public class SCAException: System.Exception { // return a string to explain what message the exception carries public string what(){…} //Method to get SCATypeCode for this exception public SCATypeCode getTypeCode(){…} //Method to get raw text string for this exception public string getText(){…} //Method to set raw text string for this exception public void setText(string text){…}

}

}

SCAUserException class
The SCAUserException exception adds no new data to SCAException and should be used as the base for all user defined exceptions. It is mapped to the SCA.SCAUserException class which inherits from the SCA.SCAException class. namespace SCA { public class SCAUserException: SCAException { public SCAUserException(){…} } }

SCASystemException class
The SCASystemException exception should only be used internally by the SCA Framework and adds an error ID member to SCAException. It is mapped to the SCA.SCASystemException class which inherits from the SCA.SCAException class. namespace SCA { public class SCASystemException: SCAException{

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}

}

//Constructors public SCASystemException() {…} public SCASystemException(int iid) {…} public SCASystemException(int iid, string text) {…} public int id;

Mapping for IDL defined user exceptions
User-defined exceptions are mapped to respective classes. All the user defined members in an exception are mapped as public fields in the exception class. IDL exception ReaderException : SCAUserException { SCAString name; SCAString error; }; C# public class MyException : SCA.SCAUserException{ public MyException(); public string name; public string error; } The following code shows an example of how you throw a SCA exception in C#. ReaderException ex = new ReaderException(); ex.name = “TestInput.dat”; ex.error = “The file does not exist”; throw ex; And the exception can be caught as follows. try {

// Code that triggers an exception } catch (ReaderException ex) { Console.WriteLine("ReaderException Caught for”); Console.WriteLine(“File: “ + ex.name); Console.WriteLine(“Error: “ + ex.error); }

The IDL raises clause
An IDL interface operation may contain a raises clause to indicate what kind of exceptions the operation may throw.

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IDL interface SCAIReader : SCAIService { SCAVoid readModel( in SCAString name ) raises (ReaderException); }; C# interface TestInterface{ public void testEx(); } Since the CLR does not support checked exceptions, the presence of a raises clause in the IDL has no affect on any of the generated code. But, when implementing components in .NET it is still important that the IDL definition of the interfaces that they implement contain the appropriate raises clauses. This is because the various SCA language bridges do check the exceptions thrown and will only pass those that have been specified. If an exception is thrown that is not specified in the raises clause, it will be converted to a SCASystemException. The SCASystemException exception is an unchecked exception that can always be thrown. Users do not need to include SCASystemException or SCAException in the raises clause.

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Mapping for SCA Services
Two types of code are generated for SCA service definitions.
• The genskeleton command is used to generate the initial implementation skeleton for a service.

The generated skeleton can then be expanded with the code required to implement the desired behavior for the various interface operations.
• During the build process, various base or tie classes are generated which are used to link the

developer generated implementation code to the SCA Framework. This is done to reduce as much as possible the amount of code that must be written by the developer to implement a service. These classes also provide a level of isolation between the service’s implementation code and the SCA Framework. This allows for future changes to be made in the interaction between the base or tie classes and the SCA Framework without affecting the developer’s implementation code. The following is the IDL file for an example interface definition that will be used in this section. #ifndef SCA_FILEREADER_FILEREADER_IDL_INCLUDED #define SCA_FILEREADER_FILEREADER_IDL_INCLUDED #include "SCA/Service.idl" module SCA { module FileReader { struct Node { SCAInt32 id; SCAReal32 x; SCAReal32 y; SCAReal32 z; }; exception ReaderException : SCAUserException { SCAString name; SCAString error; }; interface SCAINode; interface SCAIReader : SCA::SCAIService { SCAVoid readModel( in SCAString name ) raises(ReaderException); SCAINode getNode( in SCAInt32 id ) raises(ReaderException); }; interface SCAINode : SCA::SCAIService { SCAInt32 getID(); SCAReal32 getX(); SCAReal32 getY(); SCAReal32 getZ();

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}; }; }; #endif The following is the SDL for an example service that will implement these interfaces. #ifndef FILEREADER_SDL_INCLUDED #define FILEREADER_SDL_INCLUDED #include "SCA/FileReader/FileReader.idl" module SCA { module FileReader { module Impl { service SCA.Test.FileReader { interface SCA::FileReader::SCAIReader; subservice NodeImpl ( in SCA::FileReader::Node node ) { interface SCA::FileReader::SCAINode; }; }; }; }; }; #endif

The inheritance form of implementation
In the inheritance form of implementation, the implementation classes generated by genskeleton will inherit from base classes generated by the IDL compiler at build time. These base classes will then inherit from the interface classes and also provide all the necessary links to the SCA Framework. When the genskeleton command is run for the above SDL file to generate the skeleton code for the service, it will generate two classes, FileReader which inherits from the SCAIReader interface and FileReader_base and NodeImpl which inherits from the SCAINode interface and NodeImpl_base. The implementation will be put in a namespace that is defined by the SDL module statements. In this example its namespace is SCA.FileReader.Impl. The following is the file FileReader.cs that is generated for the top-level service class. using System.Collections.Generic; namespace SCA { namespace FileReader { namespace Impl { public class FileReader: FileReader_base , SCA.FileReader.SCAIReader { // Constructor public FileReader (SCA.Framework.SCAIServiceProvider provider) { setServiceProvider(provider); } // Methods for interface SCA.FileReader.SCAIReader void SCA.FileReader.SCAIReader.readModel (string name)

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{ }

//implementation goes here

}

SCA.FileReader.SCAINode SCA.FileReader.SCAIReader.getNode (int id) { //implementation goes here }

} } } The implementation classes generated are fairly simple, but there are a couple of requirements for these imposed by the SCA Framework. These are the requirements when using the default or inheritance form of implementation.
• The class must inherit from the base class generated by the IDL compiler. • The class can have only one constructor and it must have a single argument of

SCAIServiceProvider type. This argument is used by the base class to access the SCA Framework.
• The class must implement each of the operations defined in the interfaces it supports except for

SCAIService. As long as these requirements are met, the developer is free to make any desired modifications to these implementation classes. The base class FileReader_base, which will be generated by the IDL compiler when it is run during the build process, provides the following.
• Inherits from the respective interface for each interface implemented by the service class. In this

example it will be the SCAIReader interface.
• Provides the implementation for all of the required reference counting, interface navigation and

introspection methods in the SCAIService interface that every SCA service class must implement.
• Provides access to the SCA Framework facilities.

If the FileReader service used in this example implemented additional interfaces, the only changes to the generated code would be the addition of the method definitions for the operations in the new interfaces.

Implementation for subservice classes
The SDL for the FileReader service also includes the definition of a subservice NodeImpl which takes a Node constructor argument. A separate class, NodeImpl, will be generated for the subservice class. The format of this class is identical to the FileReader class except for the addition of an extra argument on the class constructor and the interface methods it implements. Following is the NodeImpl.cs class generated by the genskeleton command

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using System.Collections.Generic; namespace SCA { namespace FileReader { namespace Impl { public class NodeImpl: NodeImpl_base , SCA.FileReader.SCAINode { // Constructor public NodeImpl (SCA.Framework.SCAIServiceProvider provider, SCA.FileReader.Node node) { setServiceProvider(provider); } // Methods for interface SCA.FileReader.SCAINode public int SCA.FileReader.SCAINode.getID () { //implementation goes here } public float SCA.FileReader.SCAINode.getX () { //implementation goes here } public float SCA.FileReader.SCAINode.getY () { //implementation goes here } public float SCA.FileReader.SCAINode.getZ () { //implementation goes here }

} } } }

Only subservice classes can have user specified constructor arguments. This is because instances of the top-level FileReader class are instantiated by the IDL generated factory class in response to getService calls made by the clients of the service. There is currently no way for clients to pass constructor arguments through the getService call. On the other hand, instances of subservice classes can only be created by the implementation code in the service. In this case the implementation is free to pass any desired arguments to the constructors.

Creating instances of subservice classes
Instances of subservice classes can only be created by the implementation code in the service. The following is an example implementation for the getNode method of the SCAIReader interface which returns an instance of the SCAINode interface. The SDL definition for this service specifies that the SCAINode interface is implemented by the NodeImpl subservice class. That means that the getNode method needs to allocate an instance of the NodeImpl class and return the SCAINode interface on it. The constructor for the NodeImpl class, generated by the genskeleton utility, requires two parameters. The first parameter is the SCAIServiceProvider interface which is available in the m_provider variable in the base class. The second argument is an instance of the Node structure that was specified as a constructor argument in the SDL.

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SCAINode FileReader::getNode(const SCAInt32 id) { // Find and initialize the node which cooresponds to ID Node node = … // Return a new subservice class instance for this node NodeImpl spNode = new NodeImpl(m_provider,node); return (SCAINode)spNode;

}

The ServiceAccess interface
The base classes generated by the IDL compiler will always implement the SCA.ServiceAccess interface. This interface is the link between the implementation of the service and the SCA Framework. The following is the definition of the ServiceAccess interface: namespace SCA{ public interface ServiceAccess { SCAIService getService(string name, string attr) ; void setServiceProvider(SCAIServiceProvider provider); SCA.Framework.SCAIServiceProvider getServiceProvider(); } } If the implementation of the service needs to load another SCA service, then the getService method in the ServiceAccess class is used. SCAIService spSvc; spSvc = getService(“Test.Service.Name”, “”)

The delegation form of implementation
There may be situations where the inheritance form of implementation is inconvenient because of other requirements in your classes. An example is if you want to inherit the implementation class from your own base class. This is not possible with the inheritance form of implementation because the CLR does not allow multiple inheritance and the implementation class must inherit from the base class generated by the IDL compiler. To resolve this, the delegation form of implementation can be used. With delegation, the skeleton classes generated by the IDL compiler do not inherit from a base or interface classes. Instead the base class is replaced with a separate tie class which inherits from the interface class and provides all the necessary links to the SCA Framework. When a new instance of the service is requested, an instance of the tie class is constructed and returned. The tie class will internally construct a separate instance of the implementation class when it is initialized. Interface calls to the methods in the tie class are then delegated to the methods in the implementation class that it wraps. You use the delegate keyword in the SDL file to select the delegation form of implementation. The following is the FileReader.cs class that is generated for the top-level service class when delegation is used. The lines in a darker shade of gray are the lines that are different from the format of this file when the inheritance form of implementation is used.

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using SCA.FileReader; namespace SCA { namespace FileReader { namespace Impl { public class FileReader { // Constructor public FileReader (FileReader_tie tie) { m_tie = tie; } // Methods for interface SCA.FileReader.SCAIReader public void readModel (string name) { //implementation goes here } public SCA.FileReader.SCAINode getNode (int id) { //implementation goes here } protected FileReader_tie m_tie; } } } } Notice that class no longer inherits from a base class and as a result the interface methods names are not longer in the scope of the interface. Because there is no requirement that the implementation inherit from an IDL generated base class, you are fee to use any inheritance structure you required. The class also saves a reference to the tie class which is required to access the ServiceAccess interface that it implements. Since a subservice was also defined in the SDL file, NodeImpl is also created as a delegated subservice. A separate tie class named NodeImp_tie is created for the subservice which creates an instance of the NodeImpl generated by the genskeleton command. Therefore, when creating an instance of the subservice, the user will have to create an instance of the tie class. The following illustrates how the getNode method would be implemented when delegation is used. public SCA.FileReader.SCAINode getNode (int id) { // Find and initialize the node which cooresponds to ID Node node = … // Return a new subservice class instance for this node NodeImpl_tie spNode = new NodeImpl_tie(m_tie.getServiceProvider(), node) return (SCAINode)spNode;

}

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Singleton Services
It is also possible to indicate that the service is a singleton in the SDL. The use of this keyword has no affect on any of the implementation skeletons generated for a service. The processing of singleton services is handled entirely in the factory support code that is generated when the service is built. It is important to remember that even so the generated skeletons are the same; the implementation code for a singleton service may need to be different. Because multiple clients may be sharing the same instance of the service, the code needs to make sure this is done in a safe manner.

Aggregation
The .NET mapping also supports the aggregates and aggregated keywords in the SDL. The affect of these on the mapping for service objects is an advanced topic that is covered in a separate manual.

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Mapping for SCA Components
The .NET mapping uses normal assemblies for SCA components. The only code required for a SCA component is support code generated by the IDL compiler during the build process. This code is used by the SCA Framework to initialize the component and expose the services it provides when the component is loaded at runtime. There is no code that the developer needs to create for a component.

Embedded Components
Support for embedded components is requested with the embedded option in the CDL. Currently embedded components are not supported in .NET.

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Chapter 8: IDL to Python Language Mapping SCA Framework User’s Guide

8

IDL to Python Language Mapping
                   

Introduction

230 232 233 234 237

Mapping for Identifiers Mapping for Modules

Mapping for Basic Types

Mapping for Enumerated Types Mapping for Structures Mapping for Arrays 238

240 241 242 243 244 248 252 253 258 261 262

Mapping for Sequences Mapping for Type Aliases Mapping for TypeCode Mapping for SCAAny Mapping for SCAResult Mapping for Constants Mapping for Interfaces Mapping for Exceptions Mapping for SCA Services

Mapping for SCA Components The SCA Module 263

Accessing IDL Type Definitions from Python Running Python Scripts 267

264

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Introduction
Python scripting in the SCA Framework allows a SCA enabled application to execute one or more Python scripts at runtime. Users can also access SCA services from the Python command line. In both cases, the Python scripts can load SCA services and invoke their methods. SCA interfaces can also be implemented in Python scripts. Python is a type-less language which means that you do not declare variables to be of a specific type. Instead, any Python variable can assume any type at runtime. In addition to this, the SCA mappings of types in many cases directly use native Python types. As a result many of the type names defined in IDL never appear in Python. Instead you just use the native Python types as appropriate. But because Python does no type checking, you have to be careful when calling a SCA interface to make sure the arguments are Python objects of the correct type. If you try to pass a Python object to a SCA interface that cannot be converted to the required SCA type, then the SCA language bridge will throw a SCASystemException exception. The following table summarizes the data type mappings between IDL and Python types. The following sections of this chapter will provided the details on each mapping. IDL Type SCA::SCAInt8 SCA::SCAUInt8 SCA::SCAInt16 SCA::SCAUInt16 SCA::SCAInt32 SCA::SCAUInt32 SCA::SCAInt64 SCA::SCAUInt64 SCA::SCAReal32 SCA::SCAReal64 SCA::SCAChar SCA::SCAString SCA::SCAWChar SCA::SCAWString SCA::SCABool SCA::SCAAny SCA::SCAVoid SCA::SCAResult plain integer plain integer plain integer plain integer plain integer long integer long integer long integer float float string of length 1 string Unicode string of length 1 Unicode string plain integer SCA.SCAAny class None SCA.SCAResult class Python Type

SCA::SCATypeCode SCA.SCATypeCode class

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IDL Type sequence array list list of the array size (1D array)

Python Type

list of lists of array size (2D array) enum struct interface exception plain integer SCA defined structure type SCA defined interface type or Python class inheriting from SCAIServiceBase SCA.SCAException class or SCA defined exception type

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Mapping for Identifiers
IDL identifiers are mapped to Python with no change. For example: IDL struct Node { SCAInt32 id; SCAReal32 x; SCAReal32 y; SCAReal32 z; }; Python node = Node() node.id = 123 node.x = 2.345 node.y = 3.456 node.z = 4.567 Remember that most IDL defined identifies will never appear in the Python mappings. The only IDL defined types whose identifiers will appear are enumerators, structures, exceptions and constants. This will be described in more detail in the following sections.

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Mapping for Modules

Mapping for Modules
IDL defined types are created in Python modules with the same name as the fully qualified IDL name scope. When referencing an interface or an IDL defined type, the fully qualified name should be used. IDL module SCA { module Test { struct Node { SCAInt32 id; SCAReal32 x; SCAReal32 y; SCAReal32 z; }; }; }; Python node = SCA.Test.Node()

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Mapping for Basic Types
SCA basic types are mapped directly to native Python types. Also since Python is a type-less language, the SCA basic type names have no purpose in Python and are not exposed. The mapping between SCA basic types and Python type happens in two directions. If the Python script is calling an interface method written in a different language, the SCA language bridge maps any input type in a two step process.
• The Python value is converted to a C value • The range of the C value is checked to be consistent with the SCA type

These conversions use the functions provided by the Python interpreter and are quite liberal. For example you they will convert a Python plain integer, long integer, floating point or even a string value to a C long value as long as the conversion makes sense. The following examples show some valid types of conversions that would be acceptable when making a call to an interface method that has an input SCAInt32 value. inf.method(123) inf.method(long(123)) inf.method (123.0) inf.method ('123') But the following calls would throw a SCASystemException exception because they do not represent a valid integer value. inf.method (123.45) inf.method ('123.45') The following table shows the Python types and value ranges that can be converted to each SCA basic type. IDL Type IDL Type SCA::SCAInt8 SCA::SCAUInt8 SCA::SCAInt16 SCA::SCAUInt16 SCA::SCAInt32 SCA::SCAUInt32 SCA::SCAInt64 Python Types Python Types integer, long, float, string integer, long, float, string integer, long, float, string integer, long, float, string integer, long, float, string integer, long, float, string integer, long, float, string Legal Range Legal Range -128,127 0,255 -32768,32767 0,65535 -2147483648,2147483647 0,4294967295 -9223372036854775808, 9223372036854775807 SCA::SCAUInt64 integer, long, float, string 0,18446744073709551615

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IDL Type SCA::SCAReal32

Python Types integer, long, float, string

Legal Range -3.4028235×1038, 3.4028235×1038

SCA::SCAReal64

integer, long, float, string

-1.7976931348623157×10308, 1.7976931348623157×10308

SCA::SCAChar SCA::SCAString SCA::SCAWChar

string string string, Unicode string

string length 1 string length 1

SCA::SCAWString string, Unicode string SCA::SCABool integer, long, float, string, True, False True = 0 False != 0 After making the actual call to the interface method, any output values must then be converted back to a Python value. This conversion is much simpler because the SCA types are already strongly typed and no value checking is required. The following table shows the Python type that will be created for each value type. IDL Type SCA::SCAInt8 SCA::SCAUInt8 SCA::SCAInt16 SCA::SCAUInt16 SCA::SCAInt32 SCA::SCAUInt32 SCA::SCAInt64 SCA::SCAUInt64 SCA::SCAReal32 SCA::SCAReal64 SCA::SCAChar SCA::SCAString SCA::SCAWChar Python Type plain integer plain integer plain integer plain integer plain integer long integer long integer long integer floating point floating point string string Unicode string

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IDL Type SCA::SCAWString SCA::SCABool

Python Type Unicode string integer 0 or 1

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Mapping for Enumerated Types
Each enumerator of an enumerated type is mapped to a Python integer with the appropriate value as show in this example. IDL module SCA { module Test { enum Color { RED, GREEN, BLUE }; }; }; Python print 'Enumerator Color.RED =',SCA.Test.RED print 'Enumerator Color.GREEN =',SCA.Test.GREEN print 'Enumerator Color.BLUE =',SCA.Test.BLUE The following output would be generated by this code Enumerator Color.RED = 0 Enumerator Color.GREEN = 1 Enumerator Color.BLUE = 2 Since the mapping for enumerators is to plain Python integers which are not write protected, care should be taken to not accidentally change their values. The actual enumeration type, Color in this example, is not required in Python and not exposed in the mapping.

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Mapping for Structures
Each IDL defined structure is mapped to a Python class which contains a data value for each member. IDL module SCA { module Test { struct Node { SCAInt32 id; SCAReal32 x; SCAReal32 y; SCAReal32 z; }; }; }; Python node = SCA.Test.Node() node.id = 123 node.x = 2.345 node.y = 3.456 node.z = 4.567 print 'node =',node.id,node.x,node.y,node.z The structure objects also have a couple of special attributes that can be used to reflect on their definition. Attribute __doc__ __name__ __members__ Value String representation of definition Name of structure Python list with data member names

The following example shows how these attributes can be used. Python print '\nStructure name is',node.__name__ print '\n',node.__doc__ print '\nStructure members are',node.__members__ Would produce the following output: Structure name is SCA.Test.Node Structure SCA.Test.Node { SCA.SCAInt32 id SCA.SCAReal32 x SCA.SCAReal32 y SCA.SCAReal32 z }

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Structure members are ['id', 'x', 'y', 'z'] Because Python is type-less, each member in the structure is defined as a generic Python object. When initializing the structure, you need to be careful that it can be converted to the required SCA type when the structure passes through a SCA language bridge. If it cannot, then a SCASystemException exception will be thrown at that time. The following IDL contains a structure with an array member to demonstrate this. IDL module SCA { module Test { struct Node2 { SCAInt32 id; SCAReal32 loc[3]; }; }; }; Python node = SCA.Test.Node2() node.id = 123 node.loc = [2.345,3.456,4.567] When using structures, you should remember that Python assignment statements only generate a new reference to the data. As a result, the change to the node2.id value in the following example will also cause the value of the node1 reference to change. node1 = SCA.Test.Node() node1.id = 1 node2.id = node1 node2.id = 999 To make the node2 value a separate copy of the data so any changes to it will not affect the node1 value, you can use the following code. node1 = SCA.Test.Node() node1.id = 1 node2.id = SCA.Test.Node(node1) node2.id = 999

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Mapping for Arrays
Two types of array definitions are supported in IDL. Fixed size arrays must have their size defined in the IDL and can never change. Dynamic arrays allow you to delay the specification of the array size until it is actually allocated. Only arrays of rank 1 or 2 are supported. Both types of arrays are mapped directly to native Python lists. As a result, the IDL defined type name will not appear in the Python mapping. Fixed size arrays In Python, arrays are represented by normal Python lists. When arrays are created you need to make sure that their length is correct and that each entry of the list can be converted to the required SCA type. The array sizes and types are not checked when making calls within Python but if making a call to an interface implemented in another language through a SCA language bridge, a SCASystemException will be thrown if the length is incorrect or any of the entries cannot be converted. IDL typedef SCAInt32 Date[3]; Python date = [9,1,2009] Two dimensional IDL arrays are represented as a list of lists. IDL typedef SCAInt64 Matrix[5][5]; Python matrix = [] for i in range(5): column = [] for j in range(5): column.append((i+1)*10 + (j+1)) matrix.append(column) Dynamic Arrays Dynamic Arrays are handled the same way as fixed size arrays except they may have any desired size. Dynamic arrays exist primarily to provide more optimized code in other languages supported by the SCA framework.

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Mapping for Sequences

Mapping for Sequences
In Python, sequences are represented by normal Python lists. When sequences are created you need to make sure that each entry of the list can be converted to the required SCA type. The entry types are not checked when making interface calls within Python but if making a call to another language through a SCA language bridge a SCASystemException will be thrown if any of the entries cannot be converted. IDL typedef sequence<SCAReal64> SCAReal64Sequence; Python # Initialize contents of the sequence seq = [] for i in range(100): seq.append(i+1+.2) # Print contents of the sequence print seq Since sequences are mapped directly to native Python lists, the IDL defined type name will not appear in the Python mapping.

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Mapping for Type Aliases
A typedef is used in SCA IDL to define a sequence, an array or an alias for an existing type. The Python mapping for sequences and arrays has already been discussed in the previous sections. The use of the IDL typedef to create a new name for an existing type normally does not have a meaning in Python because it is a type-less language. As a result most of the IDL defined type names never appear in Python. The one exception to this is for structures where actual Python classes are created to represent the IDL type. In this case, any aliases defined for these types in IDL will also be available in Python as shown in the following examples. IDL module SCA { module Test { struct TimeDef { SCAInt32 hour; SCAInt32 minute; SCAInt32 second; }; typedef TimeDef LocalTime; typedef TimeDef GMTTime; }; }; Python time = SCA.Test.TimeDef() localtime = SCA.Test.LocalTime() gmttime = SCA.Test.GMTTime()

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Mapping for TypeCode

Mapping for TypeCode
The SCATypeCode type is a special type used by the SCA Framework to describe the details about each IDL defined type. The SCA Framework creates instances of the SCATypeCode using XML data generated by the IDL compiler. Each instance of the SCATypeCode contains the complete description of one IDL defined type. For example, the description of a structure would include the name and type for each of its members. The SCATypeCode type is treated in IDL as a basic type and it can appear anywhere in the IDL where a basic type can appear. For example it could be the member of a structure or one of the arguments in an interface method. In Python a type code value is represented by the SCATypeCode class. The definition of a SCATypeCode contains a pair of values. These include a SCATypeCodeID value that indicates the type of data and a description of the type. The contents of the description depend on the value of the SCATypeCodeID. The SCATypeCode class is fairly complex and will not be discussed in detail here. The data contained in this class is mostly used internally within the SCA Framework. If you need to access these detailed type definitions you are encouraged to use the SCA.Framework.Reflection service that is describe in detail in the SCA SDK Advanced Features manual.

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Mapping for SCAAny
The SCAAny is a container data type which can hold a single value of any other arbitrary IDL data type. Only values for types that are defined in IDL can be stored in a SCAAny. This is because the SCAAny design requires a SCATypeCode value to describe the data it holds and these are only generated by the IDL compiler and will not exist for types that are not defined in IDL. The normal mapping for the SCAAny type in the languages supported by SCA fulfills two important requirements:
• It must handle types in a type-safe manner. • It must handle values for complex types that are not known at compile time.

The first requirement covers the typical usage of the SCAAny type, the insertion of typed values into the SCAAny and the type-safe extraction of the values. Because of the type-less nature of Python, many of the type-safe features of the SCAAny provided in other languages are not supported in Python. More details on what type-safe features are supported are discussed later in this section. The second requirement covers situations like the need to extract data from the SCAAny when you do not know the type of data it contains. In this case the receiver must be able to determine information about what type of data the SCAAny contains. To achieve this, SCAAny contains a pair of values that includes the actual value of the data and a description of its type. The type information, contained in a SCATypeCode value, can then be inspected to determine the details on the value stored in the SCAAny instance.

The SCAAny class definition
The Python mapping for the IDL type SCAAny is pretty simple and is implemented by the SCA.SCAAny class. The methods for the class are shown below. class SCAAny: # Attributes m_type = None m_data = None # Initialize the SCAAny def __init__(self, data=None, tc=None): # Reset the value in the SCAAny def setValue(self, data=None, tc=None): # Return the type of data in the SCAAny def getType(self): # Return the data in the SCAAny def getData(self): # Determine if the SCAAny has data def empty(self):

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# Flush the SCAAny def flush(self): # Methods to format contents def dump(self): def __str__(self): Examples of using the SCAAny are show in the following sections.

Creating new SCAAny values
The following example creates an empty SCAAny value. # Create an empty SCAAny instance any = SCA.SCAAny() To create a new SCAAny value that contains a value you can use the constructor which takes a Python value and an optional string description of the type. The form you choose depends on the type of the Python value you provide. The following table shows the Python types which support an automatic mapping to a SCA type. For these types you only need to provide the Python object when creating a SCAAny instance. Python type Plain Integer Long integer Boolean Floating String Unicode SCA.SCATypeCode SCA.SCAAny SCA.SCAResult SCA Structure SCA Interface SCA Type used SCA.SCAInt32 SCA.SCAInt64 SCA.SCABool SCA.SCAReal64 SCA.SCAString SCA.SCAWString SCA.SCATypeCode SCA.SCAAny SCA.SCAResult Appropriate structure type Appropriate interface type

The following shows some examples of this. # Create a SCAAny instance which contains a SCAInt32 value any = SCA.SCAAny(123) # Create a SCAAny instance which contains a SCABool value any = SCA.SCAAny(True)

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# Create a SCAAny instance which contains a structure value node = SCA.Test.Node() node.id = 123 node.x = 1.0 node.y = 2.0 node.z = 3.0 any = SCA.SCAAny(node) If the Python value is not one of the types that supports an automatic mapping or if you want a different mapping then you will need to add the type description to explicitly specify the type. An example of this is a Python plain integer value which will normally map to a SCAInt32 value but you wish to make it a SCAInt64 value instead. # Create a SCAAny instance which contains a SCAInt64 value any = SCA.SCAAny(123,'SCA.SCAInt64') Another example of this would be inserting a Python list that has no automatic mapping defined. # Create a SCAAny instance which contains a SCA.Test.Date value date = [9,1,2009] any = SCA.SCAAny(date,'SCA.Test.Date') When both a Python object and the type description are given, some limited checking will be done to ensure that the two are consistent. For example for an array a check is made to be sure the Python object is a list and that its length is correct but the individual entries in the list will not be checked. The complete checking will be performed when the data is actually used when making an interface method call through a SCA language bridge.

Inserting values into existing SCAAny values
You can also insert a value into an existing SCAAny instance. If the instance already holds a value it will be replaced with the new value. Remember that the SCAAny can only hold a single value at a time. Inserting values into an existing SCAAny instance follows the same pattern that was described previously for constructing new SCAAny values and used the setValue method. # Insert a SCAInt32 value into a SCAAny instance Any.setValue(123) # Insert a SCA.Test.Node value into a SCAAny instance node = SCA.Test.Node() node.id = 123 node.x = 1.0 node.y = 2.0 node.z = 3.0 any.setValue(node) # Insert a SCA.Test.Date value into a SCAAny instance date = [9,1,2009] any.setValue(date,'SCA.Test.Date') A SCAAny can even hold another SCAAny instance.

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# Insert an SCAAny value to SCAAny instance any2 = SCA.SCAAny(123) any.setValue(any2)

Extracting the value contained in a SCAAny
To extract a value from the SCAAny, you use the getData method. # Extract a SCAInt32 from a SCAAny instance val = any.getData() print 'Extracted value is',val There may be cases where the SCAAny value may hold one of a number of different types and you do not know beforehand which one it contains. In this case you can use the getType method to determine the type so you can process the data correctly. The getType method returns a SCA.SCATypeCode value which describes the type. The following example shows how the type of the value can be tested at runtime to handle different possibilities. # Extract an unknown type from a SCAAny instance typeid = any.getType().getTypeID() if typeid == SCA.TCID_Int32: print 'SCAInt32 value is',any.getData() elif typeid == SCA.TCID_Real64: print 'SCAReal64 value is',any.getData() elif typeid == SCA.TCID_String: print 'SCAString value is',any.getData() else: print 'Unsupported type',any.getType().getTypeDesc()

Miscellaneous SCAAny methods
The SCAAny provides several miscellaneous methods that can be used to check if the SCAAny contains any data or to flush its contents. # Check if SCAAny is empty if any.empty(): print 'The SCAAny is empty' # Flush the contents of the SCAAny which will now be empty any.flush() The SCAAny also implements the dump method which allows you print its contents and the __str__ method which allows you to convert its value to a string. # Print the information about the contents of the SCAAny any.dump() print str(any)

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Mapping for SCAResult
The SCAResult type is used to return error information from calls to interface methods. It contains the following information
• Error code • Message table ID • Message number • Message parameters

The values in a SCAResult instance can be used by the SCA Framework to format and dispatch messages in the language appropriate for the current user. For more information on using SCAResult for error processing see the Error Handling chapter of this manual.

SCAResult class definition
The Python mapping for the IDL type SCAResult is implemented by the SCA.SCAResult class. The methods for the class are shown below. class SCAResult: # Supported attributes m_errorCode=0 m_msgTable=0 m_messageID=0 m_params=None # Initialization def __init__(self, eid=0, tid=0, mid=0, params=None): # Setting values def setErrorCode(self,errorCode): # Return values def getErrorCode(self): def getTableID(self): def getMessageID(self): # Add a new parameter def addSCAInt8(self,value): def addSCAUInt8(self,value): def addSCAInt16(self,value): def addSCAUInt16(self,value): def addSCAInt32(self,value): def addSCAUInt32(self,value): def addSCAInt64(self,value): def addSCAUInt64(self,value): def addSCAReal32(self,value): def addSCAReal64(self,value): def addSCAChar(self,value):

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def def def def

addSCAString(self,value): addSCAWString(self,value): addSCABool(self,value): addParam(self, anyvalue):

# Compare all fields of SCAResult data, excluding parameters def equals(self, obj): # Return the parameters def getParams(self): # Return true if has parameters, return fals otherwise def hasParams(self): # Return true if the error code == 0 def isOK(self): def SCABool(self): # Return true if it is a system error def isSystemError(self): # Print the raw contents of the SCAResult def dump(self): # Return a formatted message def __str__(self): Two predefined SCAResult values are provided to indicate a simple success or error when you do not need to include more detailed information to the callers. // Return error return SCA.SCAError // Return success return SCA.SCASuccess Examples of the usages of these are shown in the following sections.

Creating new SCAResult values
The following example creates SCAResult values with different levels of initialization. # Create SCAResult with all zero values rstat = SCA.SCAResult() # Create SCAResult with only an error value rstat = SCA.SCAResult(1) # Create SCAResult with error, tableID and messageID rstat = SCA.SCAResult(1,4,301)

Resetting the error code in a SCAResult value
The error code in an existing SCAResult value can be reset as follows.

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# Reset error code in SCAResult rstat.setErrorCode(201)

Adding parameters to a SCAResult value
You use one of the add methods to add a parameter to a SCAResult value. There is a separate method for each basic type that is supported as a parameter value. # Add parameters to SCAResult value rstat.addSCAInt8(1) rstat.addSCAInt16(12) rstat.addSCAInt32(123) rstat.addSCAInt64(1234) rstat.addSCAUInt8(2) rstat.addSCAUInt16(23) rstat.addSCAUInt32(234) rstat.addSCAUInt64(2345) rstat.addSCAReal32(12.34) rstat.addSCAReal64(123.456) rstat.addSCAChar('A') rstat.addSCAString('TestString') rstat.addSCAWString('TestWideString') rstat.addSCABool(True) You can also use the addParam method to add a parameter which takes a SCAAny value. rstat.addParam(SCA.SCAAny('TestString')) You can even create a SCAResult value and add parameters in one operation. But in this case you can only user parameter values that have already been inserted into SCAAny instances. params = [] params.append(SCA.SCAAny("TestString")) params.append(SCA.SCAAny(123)) rstat = SCA.SCAResult(1,4,301,params)

Interrogating the contents of a SCAResult
The is Ok method provides a simple way to test if the SCAResult value has an error. # Test if SCAResult has a non-zero error if not rstat.isOk(): print 'The SCAResult contains an error' The get methods can be used to extract the error, table and message values. # Extract the error, tableID and messageID values error = rstat.getErrorCode() tableid = rstat.getTableID() messageid = rstat.getMessageID() The hasParams and getParams methods can be used to determine if the SCAResult has parameters and to process them. The parameter values are returned in a SCAAnySequence.

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# If the SCAResult has parameters, print them if rstat.hasParams(): params = rstat.getParams() for (i,param) in zip(range(len(params)),params): print 'Param',i,'=',str(param) Miscellaneous SCAResult methods The SCAResult also implements the __str__ and dump methods which allow you to get or print the contents. The __str__ method will attempt to format a message for the SCAResult value using the MessageDispatcher service which is described in the Error Handling chapter of this manual. The dump method will just print the raw data contained in the SCAResult value. # Print a string representation of the SCAAny print 'SCAResult value is ' + str(rstat) # Print contents using the dump method rstat.dump()

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Mapping for Constants
IDL defined constants are mapped directly to appropriate Python values in the module they are defined in. Since the mapping for constants is to plain Python values which are not write protected, care should be taken to not accidentally change their values. IDL module SCA { module Test { const SCA::SCAInt32 NUM_OF_STATES = 50; }; }; Python # Print value of constant defined in IDL print 'Constant value = ',SCA.Test.NUM_OF_STATES

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Mapping for Interfaces
There are two different Python mappings for SCA interfaces depending on what language they are implemented in.
• SCA interfaces implemented in a language other than Python are mapped to a special SCA

proxy class.
• Interfaces implemented in Python are mapped to a normal Python class that inherits from the

SCA.SCAIServiceBase class. Since interfaces are either mapped to an instance of a generic proxy class or to a user provided Python class, the IDL interface names are not used in Python and are not exposed. The only required references to interface names are using string types which contain their name. The following is a simple interface definition that will be used in this section to demonstrate the use of SCA interfaces in Python. IDL module SCA { module Test { typedef SCAInt32 Date[3]; interface SCAITestInterface : SCA::SCAIService { SCAInt32 testInt32(in SCAInt32 inval, out SCAInt32 outval, inout SCAInt32 inoutval); Date testDate(in Date inval, out Date outval, inout Date inoutval); SCAInt32 testNoArg(); }; }; };

Mapping for Interface Operations
Each interface operation (or method) is mapped to a method in the Python class with the same name. There is one exception to this rule. Since Python does not allow a class attribute with the name print, if the IDL method name is print, it will be mapped to _print in Python.

Special Interface Attributes
The interface mappings also provide a couple of special attributes that can be used to reflect their definition. Attribute __doc__ __methods__ Value Information about interface object Python list with names of methods

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The following example shows how these attributes can be used assuming you have an instance of a Python mapping to the SCA.Test.SCAITestInterface interface. Python # Variable sp points to a SCAITestInterface interface print sp.__doc__ for meth in sp.__methods__: print 'method ',meth Would produce the following output: SCAPyInterface object for interface SCA.Test.SCAITestInterface method addReference method releaseReference method getInterface method getImplName method getInstanceID method testInt32 method testDate method testNoArg

Mapping for Interface Parameters
The Python language does not support the concept of output arguments so the handling of arguments in calls to interface methods must be a bit different. Only arguments with an IDL defined direction of in or inout should appear in the argument list. This is because these are the only type of arguments that have an input value. The arguments should maintain the same relative order as specified in the IDL. Each interface call will normally return a tuple of values. The first member of the tuple is always the return value of the method unless it is a SCAVoid. The remaining values in the tuple are any arguments with an IDL defined direction of inout or out. Once again these will maintain the same relative order as specified in the IDL. Note that arguments with a direction of inout appear in both the argument list and the return tuple. The following example calls the testInt32 method of the SCAITestInterface interface. This method has an argument of each of the supported directions plus a return value to show how they are handled in Python. inval = 1 inoutval = 3 (retval,outval,inoutval) = splist.testInt32(inval,inoutval) print 'Call results: inval=%d outval=%d inoutval=%d retval=%d' % (inval,outval,inoutval,retval) Notice the actual call only passes the arguments with a direction of in and inout which are the ones with input values. The argument with the out direction is not passed as an argument in the call. The return value from the call is a tuple which contains the return value and the arguments with a directions of out or inout. While Python does not support the concept of output arguments it does support mutable arguments which act like arguments with a inout direction. An example of this is an argument which is a Python list type.

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Some SCA types map to mutable Python types. Examples of these are arrays and sequences which map to Python lists. Even so these types of arguments could be mapped to take advantage of the fact that they are mutable, this is not done. If this was done then a different set of mapping rules would be used for different parameter types and this would be confusing. As a result, even for SCA types which map to mutable Python types, a parameter with a inout direction should still appear in both the argument list and the return tuple. This is shown with the following example. # Test with mutable arguments indate = [11,12,13] inoutdate = [31,32,33] (retdate,outdate,inoutdate) = splist.testDate(indate,inoutdate) print 'Call results: inval=%s outval=%s inoutval=%s retval=%s' % (indate,outdate,inoutdate,retdate) If the total number of return values and arguments with a direction of out or inout is only one, then the single value will be returned directly instead of in a tuple of length one. This is demonstrated in the following example. # Test with single value return retval = splist.testNoArg() print 'Call results: retval=%d' % retval You can also use keyword arguments when calling interface methods. In this case the order of the arguments is not important, but you need to make sure that a value for each required argument is supplied. # Test with keyword arguments ival = 1 ioval = 3 (rval,oval,ioval) = splist.testInt32(inoutval=ioval,inval=ival) print 'Call results: inval=%d outval=%d inoutval=%d retval=%d' % (ival,oval,ioval,rval)

Use of getInterface in Python
Since Python is a type-less language, the use of casting for interface navigation which is supported by other language is not available in Python. Instead you must always make explicit getInterface calls to obtain the desired interface pointer. Every SCA interface mapping provides a getInterface method. This is true if the interface object is represented by a SCA proxy object or a user provided Python class that inherits from the SCA.SCAIServiceBase class. The following example shows how this is done. import SCA svc = SCA.getService('ServiceName') (ret,sp) = svc.getInterface('SCA.Test.SCAITestProcessor') The important thing to remember here is that the getService routine returns a SCA.SCAIService interface. You must then make a getInterface call on this object to obtain the interface that you really need.

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Implementing SCA Interfaces
Currently you cannot implement a normal SCA service in Python. But it is still possible to implement a SCA interface in Python. A common pattern where this is needed is the listener pattern. Consider the following IDL. IDL module SCA { module Test { interface SCAITestListener : SCA::SCAIService { void notify(in SCA::SCAString msg); }; interface SCAITestProcessor : SCA::SCAIService { void registerListener(in SCAITestListener spListener); SCA::SCAResult process(); }; }; }; The service that implements the SCAITestProcessor interface is using a listener interface. Any client of this service is required to implement the SCAITestListener interface and register it with the service. The service can then use this interface to make calls back into the client as required. This means that if the client using this service is written in Python, then it must be able to implement the listener interface. A SCA interface can be implemented with a normal Python class. The class must follow the following rules.
• The class must inherit from the SCA.SCAIServiceBase class provided with the SCA

framework.
• The initialization routine in the implementation class must explicitly call the initialization

routine of the SCA.SCAIServiceBase class. The arguments for this call must be a list with the names of interfaces that the class will implement.
• The class must implement each method in each of the interfaces that are implemented. This also

includes methods in any interfaces that they inherit from. You do not need to implement the methods in SCA.SCAIService because these are implemented in SCA.SCAIServiceBase class. The following example shows a simple Python class that will implement the listener interface. class MyPyImpl(SCA.SCAIServiceBase): def __init__(self): interfaces = ['SCA.Test.SCAITestListener'] SCA.SCAIServiceBase.__init__(self,interfaces) def notify(self,msg): print 'MyPyImpl::notify -',msg The __init__ routine in SCA.SCAIServiceBase checks to make sure that the Python class implements each of the required interface methods. If any of the methods are missing it will throw an exception.

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When implementing interface methods, you need to use the same rules for handling arguments that was described above. Only arguments with directions of in and inout should appear as parameters to the method and the method should return a tuple which contains the return value and any arguments with directions of out or inout. You also need to make sure that the values in the return tuple can be converted to the required SCA types. The following example shows how an instance of this interface can be created and passed to the test service. sp = SCA.getService('ServiceName','SCA.Test.SCAITestProcessor') myinf = MyPyImpl() sp.registerListener(myinf) sp.process()

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Mapping for Exceptions
The SCA Framework provides three predefined exception types, SCA.SCAException, SCA.SCAUserException and SCA.SCASystemException. All user defined exceptions in IDL must inherit from either SCA::SCAUserException or another user-defined exception. Only single inheritance is allowed.

SCAException exception
The base for all IDL defined exceptions is SCAException which is mapped to the Python class SCA.SCAException. class SCAException: # Supported attributes text = None typecode = None def __init__(self): def what(self): def getTypeCode(self): def getText(self): def setText(self,text): def __str__(self):

Mapping for other exception types
The predefined exceptions SCA.SCAUserException and SCA.SCASystemException and all user exceptions defined in IDL are mapped to internally generated Python classes. All the user defined members in an exception are mapped to attributes in these exception classes. Consider the listener example used in the previous section. Let’s modify the example so the process method can now throw an exception by adding a raises clause to its IDL definition. This exception will be thrown if the process method is called but a listener interface was not registered. IDL module SCA { module Test { exception NoListenerException : SCAUserException { SCAInt32 id; }; interface SCAITestProcessor : SCA::SCAIService { void registerListener(in SCAITestListener spListener);

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SCA::SCAResult process() raises(NoListenerException); }; }; }; When calling the process method in Python, we can now catch the exception as follows. try: sp.process() except SCA.Test.NoListenerException, exc: print 'NoListenerException:',exc.what() print 'id =',exc.id Because we caught the actual SCA.Test.NoListenerException exception we have full access to the data members defined in it. In this case this is the id data member. It is also possible to catch the SCA.SCAException type which is the base SCA exception. But in this case we would not have access to any data members defined in the actual exception. try: sp.process() except SCA.SCAException, exc: print 'SCAException:',exc SCA exceptions do not inherit from Python's Exception type so you cannot catch them with an except clause using it. There may also be situations where you need to throw a SCA exception from a Python script. This is unusual and normally will only occur if you are implementing an interface in Python. The following Python code will implement the SCAITestProcessor interface that was described before. In the implementation of the process method, an exception will be thrown if the listener interface was never registered. class MyPyImpl(SCA.SCAIServiceBase): def __init__(self): interfaces = [] interfaces.append('SCA.Test.SCAITestProcessor') SCA.SCAIServiceBase.__init__(self,interfaces) m_spListener = None def registerListener(self,spListener): self.m_spListener = spListener def process(self): if not self.m_spListener: exc = SCA.Test.NoListenerException() exc.setText('Listener interface was never registered') exc.id = 123 raise exc self.m_spListener.notify('This is test notification from Python')

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The IDL raises clause
An IDL interface operation may contain a raises clause to indicate what kind of exceptions the operation may throw. An example of this was shown previously. The presence of a raises clause in the IDL has no affect on any of the actual Python code required to call or implement the SCA interfaces. But, when implementing interfaces in Python it is still important that the IDL definition of the interfaces contain the appropriate raises clauses. This is because the various SCA language bridges will check the exceptions thrown and will only pass those that have been specified. If an exception is thrown that is not specified in the raises clause, it will be converted to a SCASystemException and much of the information it contains may be lost.

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Mapping for SCA Services

Mapping for SCA Services
Currently, the implementation of SCA services in Python is not supported.

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Mapping for SCA Components
Currently, the implementation of SCA components in Python is not supported.

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The SCA Module

The SCA Module
The Python mapping provides an SCA module which is used to access the SCA Framework services from the Python script. The importing of the SCA module also insures that the SCA Framework is successfully initialized so SCA services and predefined types can be accessed. The following functions are available in this module. Method getService loadTypes Purpose Load a SCA service Make IDL defined type available

The getService function is used to load SCA services. The following is an example of how it is used. import SCA svc = SCA.getService('ServiceName') (ret,sp) = svc.getInterface('SCA.Test.SCAITestProcessor') It is also possible to combine the two calls into one as shown below. import SCA sp = SCA.getService('ServiceName','SCA.Test.SCAITestProcessor') The loadTypes function will be described in the next section.

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Accessing IDL Type Definitions from Python
The various mappings defined for SCA types in this chapter fall into four different categories.
• Some types are provided by the SCA Python Bridge. These types are immediately available

when the SCA module is imported. Examples of these types include SCAAny, SCAResult and SCAException.
• Some types are mapped to normal Python types. These include basic types, arrays and

sequences.
• Some types required special Python classes to be created to represent the SCA type in Python.

These types include structures and exceptions.
• Some types required instances of normal Python variables be created with the value defined by

an IDL definitions. Examples of these include enumerations and IDL defined constants. The last two categories are important because they both required the SCA Python Bridge to create Python objects at runtime which represent the IDL defined type. When using these types, it is important to understand what actually triggers the creation of these Python objects. The SCA Python Bridge will normally process these definitions when a proxy object is created for a SCA interface and only the types referenced in that interface will be created. The following IDL definitions will be used to demonstrate this. Two interfaces are defined and each one references a separate structure definition. There is also a constant definition included. IDL module SCA { module Test { const SCAInt32 ERROR_1 = 1; struct Struct1 { SCAInt32 val; }; interface SCAITestInterface1 : SCA::SCAIService { void method1(in Struct1 sval1); }; struct Struct2 { SCAInt32 val; }; interface SCAITestInterface2 : SCA::SCAIService { void method2(in Struct2 sval2); }; }; }; The following Python code illustrates when the various types will become available in the Python script. def TestVariables(): vars = [] vars.append('SCA.Test.Struct1')

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vars.append('SCA.Test.Struct2') vars.append('SCA.Test.ERROR_1') for var in vars: try: exec 'val = %s' % var print '%s defined' % var except: print '%s not defined' % var import SCA print '\nStart of test' TestVariables() print '\nLoad service' svc = SCA.getService('ServiceName') TestVariables() print '\nCall to getInterface for SCA.Test.SCAITestInterface1' (ret,sp) = svc.getInterface('SCA.Test.SCAITestInterface1') TestVariables() print '\nCall to getInterface for SCA.Test.SCAITestInterface2' (ret,sp) = svc.getInterface('SCA.Test.SCAITestInterface2') TestVariables() print '\nCall to SCA.loadTypes for SCA.Test' SCA.loadTypes('SCA.Test',True) TestVariables() Running this script generates the following output Start of test SCA.Test.Struct1 not defined SCA.Test.Struct2 not defined SCA.Test.ERROR_1 not defined Load service SCA.Test.Struct1 not defined SCA.Test.Struct2 not defined SCA.Test.ERROR_1 not defined Call to getInterface for SCA.Test.SCAITestInterface1 SCA.Test.Struct1 defined SCA.Test.Struct2 not defined SCA.Test.ERROR_1 not defined Call to getInterface for SCA.Test.SCAITestInterface2 SCA.Test.Struct1 defined SCA.Test.Struct2 defined SCA.Test.ERROR_1 not defined Call to SCA.loadTypes for SCA.Test SCA.Test.Struct1 defined

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SCA.Test.Struct2 defined SCA.Test.ERROR_1 defined Notice that at the start of the test none of the types defined in the IDL are available. This is even true after the getService call. This is because the getService call returns a SCA.SCAIService interface and none of the desired types are references by it. Only after the getInterface call for SCA.Test.SCAITestInterface1 do we get some types defined. In this case only the structure SCA.Test.Struct1 is defined because it is the only type referenced by this interface. The second structure, SCA.Test.Struct2, is not defined until the second getInterface call for SCA.Test.SCAITestInterface2 is made. Notice that even after all of the getInterface calls, the constant value SCA.Test.ERROR_1 is still not defined. This is the normal case for constants because they are usually not directly referenced by any of the methods in an interface so the SCA Python Bridge will never define them. To resolve these issues, you must explicitly trigger the loading of these SCA type definitions using the loadTypes function in the SCA module. SCA.loadTypes('SCA.Test',True) The first argument to the loadTypes call is the IDL namespace for the types you want defined. The second argument is a boolean value. If it is true then all the type in the specified namespace and recursively all of the namespaces it contains will be defined. If false then only the types in the specified namespace will be defined. It is also possible to use the loadTypes call to force the definition of types before they would normally be available. For example in the above example, if the loadTypes call is done immediately after the SCA module is imported then all of the types will be defined and available immediately. Python import SCA print '\nImmediate call to SCA.loadTypes for SCA.Test' SCA.loadTypes("SCA.FileReader",True) TestVariables() Will generate this output Immediate call to SCA.loadTypes for SCA.Test SCA.FileReader.Struct1 defined SCA.FileReader.Struct2 defined SCA.FileReader.ERROR_1 defined

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Running Python Scripts

Running Python Scripts
There are two different ways to run Python scripts in the SCA Framework
• Scripts can be run from inside an application using the ScriptBroker service • Scripts can be run using the command line Python command

This section will briefly describe both of these methods. For complete details you should consult the Scripting chapter in the SCA SDK Advanced Features manual.

Running Scripts with the ScriptBroker
The ScriptBroker is a service that is provided with the SCA Framework which can be used to run Python scripts from inside an application. The following is a simple example of a C++ routine that will use the ScriptBroker to run a script. #include <SCA/Framework/Scripting/SCAIScriptBroker.h> void runScript(SCA::SCAString scriptName) { SCA::Framework::Scripting::SCAIScriptBroker spBroker; spBroker = getSCAService("SCA.Framework.Scripting.ScriptBroker"); spBroker->runScript(scriptName); } Complete details on using the ScriptBroker service are available in the Scripting chapter in the SCA SDK Advanced Features manual.

Running Scripts from the command line
To run a Python script which used the SCA Framework from the command line, you need to make sure the environment has been setup appropriately for the SCA Kernel. The following is a simple CShell script that shows an example of this on the Windows platform. #!/bin/csh set ISYSTEM = D:/sCAKernel-V4-007 set path = ( $ISYSTEM/WINNT/bin $ISYSTEM/WINNT/lib $path ) setenv SCA_SERVICE_CATALOG "$ISYSTEM/res/SCAServiceCatalog.xml" setenv SCA_RESOURCE_DIR "$ISYSTEM/res" setenv PYTHONPATH "$ISYSTEM/lib/python;$ISYSTEM/WINNT/bin" /Tools-V5-004/python $* This script is using the Python installation that is provided in the SCA Tools directory. This is a good practice because you can be sure that it is the same version that the SCA Kernel was built with. If you use the Python installation on your machine there could be problems if the versions are not compatible. For complete details on the initialization of the SCA Kernel, see the SCA Kernel chapter of this manual.

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Chapter 9: Messages and Internationalization SCA Framework User’s Guide

9

Messages and Internationalization
  

Introduction Message Files

270 271 278

Text Translation Service

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Introduction
Internationalization is the process of adding capabilities in the software applications so that they can be adapted to various locales (languages and regions) without re-building them. Localization is the actual process of translating and formatting the text and other GUI components. The SCA Framework provides the following localization capabilities.
• XML Message Tables • The text from messages, dialog boxes and widgets is stored in XML message files. • Parameter Substitution • Support for number, date, time and currency formats. • Language Customization • The substitution parameters are indexed, so the order could be different in different

languages. This is necessary to support different writing directions, grammar and composition.
• Text Translation Service • Provides the interfaces to load the contents of the XML message files and format messages.

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Message Files

Message Files
The message files supported by the SCA framework are UTF-8 encoded XML files that allows a simple one-to-one mapping from a text ID to the respective message text. The text includes place holders to allow parameter substitution and formatting of number, date, time and currency values.

Locale String
<localeLanguageCode>_<localeCountryCode> The locale string contains the locale value, which is a 2-character language code (as defined by ISO 6391), optionally followed by an underscore and a 2-character country identifier (as defined by ISO 3166). For example "en" for English, "en_GB" for British, "fr" for French, "fr_CA" for Canadian French etc. This format is also used in XML documents as a value for the xml:lang attribute (as described in http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3066.html )

Message File Naming Convention
The message file name has the following format: <baseName>_<localeLanguageCode>_<localeCountryCode>.xml Examples: TextTranslation_fr.xml TextTranslation_en_GB.xml

File Search Order
The message file is expected to reside in the component's resource directory. For more information on setting the resource directory see the Kernel Configuration Variables seciton of SCA Kernel chapter in this manual. The SCA Kernel will first look in one of several subdirectories of the resouce directory, RESDIR, for the message file. These are as follows. Locale_<localeLanguageCode>_<localCountryCode> Locale_<localeLangueCode> If the messge file is not found in one of the subdirectores then it will search directly in the resource diretory. If a message file in the desired language can not be found, a final try will be made to load the English version of the table using the same search order as shown above. The complete order of search is as follows.
RESDIR/Locale_<language>_<country>/<baseName>_<language>_<country>.xml RESDIR/Locale_<language>/<baseName>_<language>.xml

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RESDIR/<baseName>_<language>_<country>.xml RESDIR/<baseName>_<language>.xml RESDIR/Locale_en/<baseName>_en.xml RESDIR/<baseName>_en.xml

Only the first file found using the above order is loaded. Example: baseName= "TextTranslation", localeLanguageCode = "fr" localeCountryCode= "CA" Search order: RESDIR/Locale_fr_CA/TextTranslation_fr_CA.xml RESDIR/Locale_fr/TextTranslation_fr.xml RESDIR/TextTranslation_fr_CA.xml RESDIR/TextTranslation_fr.xml RESDIR/Locale_en/TextTranslation_en.xml RESDIR/TextTranslation_en.xml

Message File Format
The supported tags and their attributes are described below: <sim_office_resource>: Wraps all nodes of the translation table entries. It can have the following attributes:
• version: <major-number>.<minor-number> (e.g. "1.0") [mandatory] • comment: explains the context of the text in this file [optional] • author: In the English ("en") version of the file, the email address of the original

author/programmer who created it, otherwise the translator. [optional]
• xml:lang: The language provided in this file. The language is also mangled into the file name,

but specifying it in the file again allows for easier conversion to other formats. [optional] <text>: A translation unit. It contains the text node in the translated language. It has the following attributes:
• id: Specifies the string id that is used to retrieve the message [mandatory] • comment: Can be used to explain the context of the text [optional] • author: If the text was not written by the author specified in the <sim_office_resource > author

attribute [optional] <module>: A dialog box. It has one attribute:
• id: Specifies the string id that is used in getModuleText etc. [mandatory]

The following enclosed tags describe the text in the module:

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• <text>: This node describes the dialog's caption; it has the same attributes as the <text> tag

described above. The id attribute is optional here! If provided, it is used to identify the context.
• <help>: A help text for the dialog.

Text Formatting
The formatting place holders are embedded in the text. Since the argument order can change in different languages, each argument is prefixed by the index of its entry in the argument sequence that is passed to the getFormattedText method. The index is 1-based. The format of this prefix is %<index>:, so the first argument would be %1:, the second %2: and so on. This index reference is followed by the data formatting information. Currently, there are three different formatting styles, which are distinguished by the first character:

Currency Format ($)
The provided argument should be an integer or a floating point number . If a floating point number is used the fractional part is ignored. The units used for the currency argument depend on the current locale setting. For example, in English they are cents. Example: Text: "The price is %1:$" Arg1= 1999 Formatted Text: "The price is $19.99"

Date/Time Format (#)
The provided argument should be an integer that stores the number of seconds since 01/01/70 (UTC). This number will be converted to the timezone that is set for the computer's system clock. It is possible to define a different timezone by changing the environment variable TZ. Caveat: changing this variable puts the whole process in a different timezone, which could have unwanted effects in a multi-threaded environment (unless secured by mutex sections). Accepted values for TZ should be found in system's documentation. How that date is displayed depends on the character that follows the # character. The available options are identical to the formats accepted by the standard C language function strftime (except that strftime uses % as prefix)

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code a A b B c d h I j m M p s u w W x X y Y Z
Example:

Meaning abbreviated weekday name (e.g. Fri) full weekday name (e.g. Friday) abbreviated month name (e.g. Oct) full month name (e.g. October) the standard date and time string day of the month, as a number (1-31) hour, 24 hour format (0-23) hour, 12 hour format (1-12) day of the year, as a number (1-366) month as a number (1-12). Note: some versions of Microsoft Visual C++ may use values that range from 0-11. minute as a number (0-59) locale's equivalent of AM or PM second as a number (0-59) week of the year, (0-53), where week 1 has the first Sunday weekday as a decimal (0-6), where Sunday is 0 week of the year, (0-53), where week 1 has the first Monday standard date string standard time string year in decimal, without the century (0-99) year in decimal, with the century time zone name

Text: "Today is a %1:#A in %1:#B, the time is %1:#X", Arg1 = 1130514894 Formatted Text: "Today is a Friday in October, the time is 5:54:54 PM".

All other Formats (%)
This formatting is modeled after printf in the programming language C: %[flags][width][.precision][modifier]conversion

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conversion c d or i e E f g G o s u x X p n % flags + (space) # Character Signed decimal integer

Output a

Example 392 3.9265e+2 3.9265E+2 392.65 392.65 392.65 610 sample 7235 7fa 7FA B800:0000

Scientific notation (mantise/exponent) using e character Scientific notation (mantise/exponent) using E character Decimal floating point Use the shorter of %e or %f Use the shorter of %E or %f Signed octal String of characters Unsigned decimal integer Unsigned hexadecimal integer Unsigned hexadecimal integer (capital letters) Pointer address Nothing printed. The argument must be a pointer to a signed int, where the number of characters written so far is stored. A % followed by another % character will write % to stdout. Description

Left-justify within the given field width; Right justification is the default (see width subspecifier). Forces to precede the result with a plus or minus sign (+ or -) even for positive numbers. By default, only negative numbers are preceded with a - sign. If no sign is going to be written, a blank space is inserted before the value. Used with o, x or X specifiers the value is preceded with 0, 0x or 0X respectively for values different than zero. Used with e, E and f, it forces the written output to contain a decimal point even if no digits would follow. By default, if no digits follow, no decimal point is written. Used with g or G the result is the same as with e or E but trailing zeros are not removed.

0

Left-pads the number with zeroes (0) instead of spaces, where padding is specified (see width sub-specifier).

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width #

Description Minimum number of characters to be printed. If the value to be printed is shorter than this number, the result is padded with blank spaces. The value is not truncated even if the result is larger. The width is not specified in the format string, but as an additional integer value argument preceding the argument that has to be formatted. Description For integer specifiers (d, i, o, u, x, X): precision specifies the minimum number of digits to be written. If the value to be written is shorter than this number, the result is padded with leading zeros. The value is not truncated even if the result is longer. A precision of 0 means that no character is written for the value 0. For e, E and f specifiers: this is the number of digits to be printed after the decimal point. For g and G specifiers: This is the maximum number of significant digits to be printed. For s: this is the maximum number of characters to be printed. By default all characters are printed until the ending null character is encountered. For c type: it has no effect. When no precision is specified, the default is 1. If the period is specified without an explicit value for precision, 0 is assumed.

*

.precision .number

.*

The precision is not specified in the format string, but as an additional integer value argument preceding the argument that has to be formatted. description The argument is interpreted as a short int or unsigned short int (only applies to integer specifiers: i, d, o, u, x and X). The argument is interpreted as a long int or unsigned long int for integer specifiers (i, d, o, u, x and X), and as a wide character or wide character string for specifiers c and s. The argument is interpreted as a long double (only applies to floating point specifiers: e, E, f, g and G).

modifier h l L

Example:

Text: "%1:%d + %2:%g %3:%s" Arg1 = 1, Arg2 = 2.5, Arg3 = "is equal to..." Formatted Text: "1 + 2.5 is equal to...". Sample1: English Message File.

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<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8' ?> <!DOCTYPE SIMOFFICERES> <!-Copyright (c) 2005, MSC.Software Corporation. All Rights Reserved. MSC PROPRIETARY/CONFIDENTIAL. Use is subject to license terms. --> <sim_office_resources version="1.0" xml:lang="en" comment="Translation Test" author="soeren.fietzke@mscsoftware.com"> <text id="color" comment="material" author="soeren.fietzke@mscsoftware.com">Color</text> <text id="help">Help</text> <text id="formatTest"> This is a formatting test: string '%1:%ls', long: %2:%d, double: %3:%1.3g </text> <text id="currencyTest">The price is %1:$</text> <text id="dateTimeTest">Today is %1:#A %1:#B - %1:#x %1:#X</text> <module id="mod_test"> <text id="m1">Text in mod_test::m1.</text> <text id="m2">Text in mod_test::m2.</text> </module> </sim_office_resources> Sample2: German Message File. <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8' ?> <!DOCTYPE SIMOFFICERES> <!-Copyright (c) 2005, MSC.Software Corporation. All Rights Reserved. MSC PROPRIETARY/CONFIDENTIAL. Use is subject to license terms. --> <sim_office_resources version="1.0" xml:lang="de" comment="Translation Test" author="soeren.fietzke@mscsoftware.com"> <text id="color" comment="material" author="fred@acme_translation.com">Farbe</text> <text id="help">Hilfe</text> <text id="formatTest"> Dies ist ein Formatierungs-Test: Zeichenkette '%1:%ls', long: %2:%d, double: %3:%1.3g </text> <text id="currencyTest">Der Preis beträgt %1:$</text> <text id="dateTimeTest">Heute ist %1:#A %1:#B - %1:#x %1:#X</text> <module id="mod_test"> <text id="m1">Der Text von mod_test::m1.</text> <text id="m2">Der Text von mod_test::m2.</text> </module> </sim_office_resources>

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Text Translation Service
Text Translation service provides the interfaces to load the contents of the XML message files and format messages. These interfaces are described in detail in the following sections.

SCA::Framework::SCAITextTranslationFactory Interface
The SCAITextTranslationFactory is used to create new translation tables and provides access to the common settings object. Member Functions SCAResult SCAResult SCAResult getTextTranslationSettings (out SCAITextTranslationSettings settings) createTextTranslationTable (in SCAWString fileBaseName, out SCAITextTranslationTable newTable) setDefaultFallbackTranslationTable (in SCAITextTranslationTable defaultTable)

Member Function Documentation

SCAResult getTextTranslationSettings (out SCAITextTranslationSettings settings ) Returns the singleton instance of SCAITextTranslationSettings (which is created by the framework on startup).
Parameters:

settings
Returns:

SCAITextTranslationSettings object

Returns SCASuccess on success, else returns an error. SCAResult createTextTranslationTable ( in SCAWString fileBaseName, out SCAITextTranslationTable newTable ) Creates a new translation table instance.
Parameters:

fileBaseName newTable

Base-name of the message file, which is expected to reside inside the components resource directory. Newly created text translation table.

SCAResult setDefaultFallbackTranslationTable ( in SCAITextTranslationTable defaultTable )

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Sets the default Translation Table. All translation tables created after the default table has been set will have their fallback set to the default table. Existing tables are not affected.
Parameters:

defaultTable
Returns:

Default text translation table.

Returns SCASuccess on success, else returns an error.

SCA::Framework::SCAITextTranslationSettings Interface
The SCAITextTranslationSettings has methods to set and get the current locale. Member Functions SCAResult SCAResult SCAResult getLocale (in LocaleCategory category, out SCAString locale) getNativeLocale (in LocaleCategory category, out SCAString nativeLocaleName) setLocale (in LocaleCategory category, in SCAString locale)

Member Function Documentation

SCAResult getLocale (in LocaleCategory category, out SCAString locale ) Inquires the currently used locale string.
Parameters:

category

The category whose locale is requested. locale Locale string

Returns:

Returns SCASuccess on success, else returns an error. SCAResult getNativeLocale (in LocaleCategory category, out SCAString nativeLocaleName ) This method is used to inquire the locale name in a format that can be used with native locale functions like setlocale or std::locale. For example the locale names are different on Windows and UNIX.

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Parameters:

category nativeLocaleName
Returns:

The category whose locale is requested. Native locale string

Returns SCASuccess on success, else returns an error. SCAResult setLocale (in LocaleCategory category, in SCAString locale ) Sets the locale string for the given category.
Parameters:

category locale
Returns:

Locale category Locale string

Returns SCASuccess on success, else returns an error.
LocaleCategory

The LocaleCategory is an enum defined below. enum LocaleCategory { LC_All, // All categories. When inquiring, it returns the locale last // used to set LC_All. LC_Messages,// Text translation. Determines the message file to load. LC_Collate, // String handling. LC_CharType,// Character handling. LC_Numeric, // Formatting of numbers. LC_Monetary,// Formatting of monetary values. LC_Time // Formatting of time and date. };
Locale String

The locale string contains the locale value, which is a 2-character language code (as defined by ISO 6391), optionally followed by an underscore and a 2-character country identifier (as defined by ISO 3166). For example "en" for English, "en_GB" for British, "fr" for French, "fr_CA" for Canadian French etc. This format is also used in XML documents as a value for the xml:lang attribute (as described in http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc3066.html )

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Mixed Locales

The text translation service supports mixed locales by allowing the assignment of different locales to different categories. The mixed locales can be set either by making multiple calls to the 'setLocale' method or by making a single call using LC_ALL category and a mixed locale strring. The mixed locale string has the following format: "CATEGORY1=locale1; CATEGORY2=locale2; locale3;locale4..." The optional category is in uppercase and the separation character is semicolon ";" For example the following call to setLocale will select German messages with US-English numeric format and Japanese for all other categories, SCAITextTranslationSettings spSettings; spFactory->getTextTranslationSettings( spSettings ); spSettings->setLocale(LC_All, "LC_MESSAGES=de;LC_NUMERIC=en_US;ja");

SCA::Framework::SCAITextTranslationTable Interface
The SCAITextTranslationTable makes the contents of a Message File available to the client applications. The text translation table allows a simple one-to-one mapping from a text ID to the respective text. There is separate message file for each locale. Changing the locale requires re-loading of the message file. When an exact match is not possible, (i.e. locale is set to "fr-CA", but translations exist only for the "fr" locale), then only the first two characters (which always indicate the language) are compared. If even then no match can be found, the default will be English ("en").

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Member Functions SCAResult SCAResult SCAResult SCAResult SCAResult SCAResult getText (in SCAString textID, out SCA::SCAWString text) getTextByIntId (in SCAInt32 textID, out SCA::SCAWString text) getModuleText (in SCAString moduleName, in SCAString itemName, in GuiMessageKind kind, out SCA::SCAWString text) getFormattedText (in SCAString textID, in SCAAnySequence args, out SCAWString text) getFormattedTextByIntId (in SCAInt32 textID, in SCAAnySequence args, out SCAWString text) getFormattedModuleText (in SCAString moduleName, in SCAString itemName, in GuiMessageKind kind, in SCAAnySequence args, out SCAWString text) getModuleTextByComment (in SCAString moduleName, in SCAString commentName, in SCAString itemName, in GuiMessageKind kind, out SCA::SCAWString text) getFormattedModuleTextByComment (in SCAString moduleName, in SCAString commentName, in SCAString itemName, in GuiMessageKind kind, in SCAAnySequence args, out SCAWString text) setFallbackTable (in SCAITextTranslationTable table) setFixedLocale (in SCAString locale)

SCAResult

SCAResult

SCAResult SCAResult

Member Function Documentation

SCAResult getText (in SCAString textID, out SCA::SCAWString text ) Gets the simple unformatted text, which does not require any arguments.
Parameters:

textID text
Returns:

String that identifies the message. Contains the simple text on return.

Returns SCASuccess on success, else returns an error. SCAResult getTextByIntId (in SCAInt32 textID, out SCA::SCAWString text ) Same as getText(), but instead of string the input is an integer textID.

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Parameters:

textID text
Returns:

Integer value that identifies which message should be looked up. Contains the simple text on return.

Returns SCASuccess on success, else returns an error. SCAResult getModuleText ( in SCAString in SCAString in GuiMessageKind moduleName, itemName, kind,

out SCA::SCAWString text ) Gets simple GUI text from <dialog> or <module> sections of the message file.
Parameters:

moduleName itemName kind text
Returns:

Module name ( dialog name). Item name (widget name). Sub-item type (GMK_Text, GMK_Help). Contains the simple text on return.

Returns SCASuccess on success, else returns an error. SCAResult getFormattedText (in SCAString textID,

in SCAAnySequence args, out SCAWString text )

Gets the formatted text. The section "Text Formatting" discusses the formatting in detail.
Parameters:

textID args text
Returns:

String that identifies the message. List of message arguments used for formatting. Could be NULLSP if no arguments are provided. Contains the translated and formatted text on return.

Returns SCASuccess on success, else returns an error. SCAResult getFormattedTextByIntId (in SCAInt32 textID,

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in SCAAnySequence args, out SCAWString text ) Same as getFormattedText(), but instead of string the input is an integer textID. See also: getFormattedText
Parameters:

textID args text
Returns:

Integer value that identifies which message should be looked up. List of message arguments used for formatting. Could be NULLSP if no arguments are provided. Contains the translated and formatted text on return.

Returns SCASuccess on success, else returns an error. SCAResult getFormattedModuleText (in SCAString moduleName, in SCAString itemName, in GuiMessageKind kind, in SCAAnySequence args, out SCAWString text ) Gets the formatted GUI text from <dialog> or <module> sections of the message file. The section "Text Formatting" discusses the formatting in detail.
Parameters

moduleName itemName kind args text
Returns:

Module name ( dialog name). Item name (widget name). Sub-item type (GMK_Text, GMK_Help). List of message arguments used for formatting. Could be NULLSP if no arguments are provided. Contains the translated and formatted text on return.

Returns SCASuccess on success, else returns an error. SCAResult getModuleTextByComment (in SCAString moduleName, in SCAString commentName,

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in SCAString itemName, in GuiMessageKind kind, out SCA::SCAWString text ) Gets simple GUI text from <dialog> or <module> sections of the message file. Uses the combination of comment and id as the key. The key is of the format (comment_id)
Parameters:

moduleName commentName itemName kind text
Returns:

Module name ( dialog name). String that identifies the widget. Item name (widget name). Sub-item type (GMK_Text, GMK_Help). Contains the translated and formatted text on return.

Returns SCASuccess on success, else returns an error. SCAResult getFormattedModuleTextByComment (in SCAString moduleName, in SCAString commentName, in SCAString itemName, in GuiMessageKind kind, in SCAAnySequence args, out SCAWString text ) Gets formatted GUI text from <dialog> or <module> sections of the message file. Uses the combination of comment and id as the key. The key is of the format (comment_id). The section "Text Formatting" discusses the formatting in detail.
Parameters:

moduleName commentName itemName kind args text

Module name ( dialog name). String that identifies the widget. Name of the widget for which contains the text that is searched. Sub-item type (GMK_Text, GMK_Help). List of message arguments used for formatting. Could be NULLSP if no arguments are provided. Contains the translated and formatted text on return.

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Returns:

Returns SCASuccess on success, else returns an error. SCAResult setFallbackTable ( in SCAITextTranslationTable table ) This method sets the fallback translation table. The fallback table is searched if a text ID is not found in this table. When the table is created by the SCAITextTranslationFactory, the fall back table is set to the default translation table.
Parameters:

table Fallback table.
Returns:

Returns SCASuccess on success, else returns an error. SCAResult setFixedLocale (in SCAString locale ) Sets a fixed locale for the translation table which overrides the locale set in the SCAITextTranslationSettings instance. Passing an empty string resets the override and re-attaches the locale to the global SCAITextTranslationSettings instance.
Parameters:

locale Locale string.
Returns:

Returns SCASuccess on success, else returns an error. Using the service The following C++ code snippets demonstrate how the text translation service should be used. The intention is to demonstrate the usage of methods. It uses the sample translation tables presented earlier in this chapter. The real code should contain proper exception and SCAResult handling.

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SCA::SCAResult result; // Get an instance of the SCAITextTranslationFactory SCA::Framework::SCAITextTranslationFactory spFactory; spFactory = getService("SCA.Framework.TextTranslation",""); if (spFactory == SCA::NULLSP){ std::cerr << "ERROR:Unable to load the TextTranslation service" << std::endl; return SCA::SCAError; } // Set the Locale to German "de" SCA::Framework::SCAITextTranslationSettings spSettings; result = spFactory->getTextTranslationSettings(spSettings); if (!result.isOk()){ std::cout << "Could not get SCAITextTranslationSettings" << std::endl; return SCA::SCAError; } result = spSettings->setLocale(SCA::Framework::LC_All,"de"); // Create a text translation table by loading the messages from the file // $SCA_RESOURCE_DIR/TranslationSample_de.xml SCA::Framework::SCAITextTranslationTable spTable; result = spFactory>createTextTranslationTable(L"TranslationSample",spTable); // Get the simple text without any place holders SCA::SCAWString text; result = spTable->getText("help",text); std::printf("%ls\n",text.c_str()); // Get the text formatted using the supplied arguments for the place holders SCAAnySequence args; args.push_back(SCA::SCAAny(SCA::SCAString("TestString"))); args.push_back(SCA::SCAAny(SCA::SCAInt32(1234))); args.push_back(SCA::SCAAny(SCA::SCAReal32(123.456))); result = spTable->getFormattedText("formatTest",args,text); std::printf("%ls\n",text.c_str()); // Get Module text result = spTable->getModuleText("mod_test","m1", SCA::Framework::GMK_Text,text); std::printf("%ls\n",text.c_str()); result = spTable->getModuleText("DeformPlotMetaDataFrame", "Qt Linguist context", SCA::Framework::GMK_Text,text); std::printf("%ls\n",text.c_str());

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Language Support Files The text translation service uses several xml files to store language and country settings. These files must be located in the applications resource directory. At startup LocaleLanguagesMap.xml and LocaleCountriesMap.xml files are parsed to load the settings. Since these settings are global they are read only once and are available to all instances of the TextTranslationSettings object. The country map is only required for Windows.
LocaleLanguagesMap.xml.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <!-- for list of language/country strings, see http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en- us/library/cdax410z(VS.71).aspx --> <LanguagesMap version="1.0"> <language code="zh" defaultCountry="cn">chinese;chinesesimplified;chs;chinese-traditional;cht</language> <language code="cs" defaultCountry="cz">csy;czech</language> <language code="da" defaultCountry="dk">dan;danish</language> <language code="nl" defaultCountry="nl">dutch;nld;belgian;dutchbelgian;nlb</language> <language code="en" defaultCountry="us">english;australian;ena;englishaus;canadian;enc;english-can;english-nz;enz;eng;englishuk;uk;american;american english;american-english;englishamerican;english-us;english-usa;enu;us;usa</language> <language code="fi" defaultCountry="fi">fin;finnish</language> <language code="fr" defaultCountry="fr">fra;french;frb;frenchbelgian;frc;french-canadian;french-swiss;frs</language> <language code="de" defaultCountry="de">deu;german;dea;germanaustrian;des;german-swiss;swiss</language> <language code="el" defaultCountry="gr">ell;greek</language> <language code="hu" defaultCountry="hu">hun;hungarian</language> <language code="is" defaultCountry="is">icelandic;isl</language> <language code="it" defaultCountry="it">ita;italian;italianswiss;its</language> <language code="ja" defaultCountry="jp">japanese;jpn</language> <language code="ko" defaultCountry="kr">kor;korean</language> <language code="no" defaultCountry="no">norwegian</language> <language code="nb" defaultCountry="no">nor;norwegianbokmal</language> <language code="nn" defaultCountry="no">non;norwegiannynorsk</language> <language code="pl" defaultCountry="pl">plk;polish</language> <language code="pt" defaultCountry="pt">portuguese;ptg;portuguese-brazil;ptb</language> <language code="ru" defaultCountry="ru">rus;russian</language> <language code="sk" defaultCountry="sk">sky;slovak</language> <language code="es" defaultCountry="es">esp;spanish;esm;spanishmexican;esn;spanish-modern</language> <language code="sv" defaultCountry="se">sve;swedish</language> <language code="tr" defaultCountry="tr">trk;turkish</language> </LanguagesMap>

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LocaleCountriesMap.xml.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <!-- for list of language/country strings, see http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cdax410z(VS.71).aspx --> <CountriesMap version="1.0"> <country code="au">aus;australia</country> <country code="at">aut;austria</country> <country code="be">bel;belgium</country> <country code="br">bra;brazil</country> <country code="ca">can;canada</country> <country code="cn">china;chn;pr china;pr-china</country> <country code="cz">cze;czech</country> <country code="dk">dnk;denmark</country> <country code="fi">fin;finland</country> <country code="fr">fra;france</country> <country code="de">deu;germany</country> <country code="gr">grc;greece</country> <country code="hk">hkg;hong kong;hong-kong</country> <country code="hu">hun;hungary</country> <country code="is">iceland;isl</country> <country code="ie">irl;ireland</country> <country code="it">ita;italy</country> <country code="jp">jpn;japan</country> <country code="kr">kor;korea</country> <country code="mx">mex;mexico</country> <country code="nl">nld;holland;netherlands</country> <country code="nz">nzl;new zealand;new-zealand;nz</country> <country code="no">nor;norway</country> <country code="pl">pol;poland</country> <country code="pt">prt;portugal</country> <country code="ru">rus;russia</country> <country code="sg">sgp;singapore</country> <country code="sk">svk;slovak</country> <country code="es">esp;spain</country> <country code="se">swe;sweden</country> <country code="ch">che;switzerland</country> <country code="tw">twn;taiwan</country> <country code="tr">Turkey tur;turkey</country> <country code="gb">gbr;britain;england;great britain;uk;united kingdom;united-kingdom</country> <country code="us">usa;america;united states;unitedstates;us</country> </CountriesMap>

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Chapter 10: Error Processing SCA Framework User’s Guide

10

Error Processing
Introduction 292 294

   

Using SCA Exceptions for Error Handling Using SCAResult for Error Handling MessageDispatcher Service 316 305

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Introduction
Error handling is a crucial part of any programming project. SCA supports the two most common forms for handling errors.
• The interface methods throw exceptions. • The interface methods return error codes.

Both methods have their own advantages over the other and users should choose the one that is most appropriate to their application. Exceptions tend to be easier to implement than error codes. Consider the example where routine A calls B, B calls C and C calls D and then D produces an error code. In this case C has to check the code, return its own code, which would be checked by B which would return its own code which would finally be checked by A. Whereas with exceptions, if D throws the exception, then a simple try/catch block in A can catch it and no special code is required in any of the intermediate routines in the call stack. Furthermore, many programmers get lazy and do not always do the appropriate checking of error codes. With error codes this can be disastrous because the error is lost and the caller will continue as if nothing happened. But with exceptions, the errors will always be triggered. If the programmer does not include the appropriate try/catch block for the exception, it will still be propagated up to the next routine in the call stack until someone eventually catches it. On the other hand, error codes tend to be more efficient then exceptions. To properly handle exceptions, the compilers need to generate special support code in every routine to correctly process them. This tends to make the generated code larger and adds overhead. Also, error codes provide for more sophisticated processing of messages. This includes more flexible formatting of error messages including parameter substitution and the ability to internationalize the messages to any language supported by the application. Exceptions and error codes are two different general error handling approach. The mixing of the two can lead to confusion and should be avoided. The following conventions are recommended for best practice.
• If an interface method defines a raises clause for any explicit exceptions, then the method should

not use a SCAResult or any other value as an error indication.
• If an interface method returns a SCAResult or any other value as an error indication, it should

not have a raises clause and it should not throw any exceptions.
• Throwing user-defined exceptions is preferred over the throwing of any of the SCA provided

base exceptions.
• Normally the same error handling method should be chosen for all interfaces implemented by a

given service. Even if the SCAResult form of error handling is chosen, it is important to realize that calls to SCA interface methods may still throw SCASystemException exceptions. This may occur if the call crosses languages boundaries or accesses remote components. In this case the SCA language bridges may need to report an error when trying to marshal the call. This is generally not a problem because these types of errors are usually catastrophic in nature and there is no recovery logic available. As a result the individual routines do not need to catch these SCASystemException exceptions. Instead they can be caught in a global try/catch block at the top of the applications call stack so the application can terminate cleanly.

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Both SCA exceptions and the SCAResult forms of error handling described in this chapter are available in all of the languages supported by the SCA framework. The exact syntax of using them vary from language to language but their general functionality is similar. As a result this chapter will only show examples using the C++ language. You should consult the IDL Mapping chapters of this manual for the complete details of using these features in each of the supported languages.

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Using SCA Exceptions for Error Handling
The SCA exception processing is available in each of the languages supported by the SCA framework including the Python scripting language. Exceptions can be thrown in one language and caught in any of the other supported languages. The SCA language bridges will catch the exception in the language it is thrown in, convert all of the data contained in it and then rethrow the exception in the language of the caller. This entire process is transparent to either the caller or the routine where the exception was thrown. SCA exceptions are types that are defined by the user through the SCA IDL language. See the IDL Language chapter of this manual for the complete details on how they are defined. Three exceptions types, SCA::SCAException, SCA::SCASystemException, and SCA::SCAUserException, are predefined in the SCA Framework. All user defined exceptions must inherit SCA::SCAUserException or another user-defined exception. Only single inheritance is allowed. In addition to the definition of the exceptions, the IDL definition of interface methods may have an optional raises clause. The raises clause defines what type of exceptions the method may throw. The use of the raises clause in the IDL interface definitions is important. While the raises information is not used by all languages when making intra language calls it is required by some. For example C++ does not use the information but Java requires it. Also when calls to SCA interface methods cross language boundaries, the various SCA language bridges are responsible for marshalling the data. These bridges will not allow exceptions to pass unless they have been specified in IDL. If a method throws an exception that is not specified in the IDL definition, it will be converted to a SCASystemException exception and some valuable information it contains may be lost. The section on exception propagation rules later in this section discusses in detail the rules used by the language bridges to propagate exceptions. Since the IDL definitions are language neutral and you never know which language they be implemented in you should always include the raises information. Also you can never be sure when a call to the interface may have to cross language boundaries. An important thing to notice about SCA exceptions is they only contain data. The IDL definition does not provide for any implementation to be included as part of the definition. The main reason for this is that exceptions may need to be marshaled between different languages and it is extremely difficult to marshal implementation. If you wish to attach implementation to a SCA exception there are several ways this can be done. The easiest way is to create your own custom class that inherits from the IDL defined SCA exception class. The disadvantage of this approach is the implementation in your custom class and any data it contains will be lost if the exception has to be marshaled to a different language. The second approach is to include a SCA interface member in the definition of the exception which contains the implementation you wish to associate with the exception. This interface will be correctly marshaled between different language types. The disadvantage of this approach is that each call to this interface will itself need to be marshaled back to the language that it was originally implemented in. If the number of calls is small this is not a problem, but there can be performance penalties if a large number of calls are made. The following example IDL shows the definition of a user exception, ReaderException, and an interface method, readModel, which can throw it. These definitions will be used for the examples in rest of this section.

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IDL #ifndef SDK_ERRORHANDLING_EXCEPTIONS_FILEREADER_IDL_INCLUDED #define SDK_ERRORHANDLING_EXCEPTIONS_FILEREADER_IDL_INCLUDED #include "SCA/Service.idl" module SDK { module ErrorHandling { module Exceptions { exception ReaderException : SCA::SCAUserException { SCA::SCAString modelName; }; interface SCAIReader : SCA::SCAIService { void readModel( in SCA::SCAString name ) raises(ReaderException); }; }; }; }; #endif

SCA Exception Hierarchy
The SCA exception hierarchy is shown below. The ultimate base of all SCA exceptions is SCAException. The SCASystemException is a special exception that is mainly used by the SCA framework to handle internal errors. The SCAUserException inherits SCAException and it is the base for all user defined exceptions, directly or indirectly.

SCA Framework provided Exceptions
Three exceptions types, SCA::SCAException, SCA::SCASystemException, and SCA::SCAUserException, are predefined in the SCA Framework. The SCAException Exception The SCAException is the base for all exceptions. It has the following IDL definitions. IDL module SCA { exception SCAException { SCAString text; }; }; This exception contains a SCAString value that the user can set to describe the nature of the exception. Each language mapping for the SCAException provides a way to set and fetch the value of this string. Since SCAException is the base class for all SCA exceptions, many of the methods it contains are available to all SCA exceptions. The individual language mapping for the SCAException may also

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contain other information required by the SCA Framework but these should generally not be used for other purposes. The SCASystemException Exception SCASystemException is used to handle internal SCA framework errors that cannot be conveniently reported in any other manner. Even if a method does not have a raises clause in its definition, the SCASystemException may always be thrown. The IDL definition of the SCASystemException is as follows. IDL module SCA { exception SCASystemException : SCAException { SCAInt32 id; }; }; This exception contains an integer error value that is used to contain one of the following SCA system errors. SCA System Error ID 2000000010 2000000020 2000000030 2000000040 2000000050 2000000060 2000000070 2000000080 2000000090 2000000100 2000000110 2000000120 2000000130 2000000140 2000000150 2000000160 2000000170 2000000180 SCA System Error Description Unknown error Invalid interface Invalid method Invalid Parameter(s) Undefined type code Communication failure Data conversion error Memory error Implementation not available Invalid exception thrown Error reading type codes Error in CORBA Rpc bridge Error in C++ bridge C++ interface cast failed XML TypeCode processing error Error in python bridge Marshalling error SCABinary processing error

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SCA System Error ID 2000000190 2000000200 2000000210 2000000220 2000000230 2000000240 2000000250 2000000260 2000000270 2000000280 2000000290 2000000300 2000000310

SCA System Error Description Internal Error Error in Java bridge SCAAny marshalling error SCA Kernel initialization error Invalid global service provider SCA Framework configuration error Error in .NET bridge SCADynAny error Corruption in SCASequence memory getSCAService error Error terminating the SCA Kernel Error initializing embedded component Error terminating embedded component

Most of these errors are generated during the marshalling of data through SCA language bridges. Many are unexpected problems which should never occur but there are others that can easily occur because of the nature of some of the SCA language mappings. For example the Python language only supports 32 and 64 bit integers. As a result types like the SCAInt16 are mapped to a 32 bit integer. When an interface method is called that has a SCAInt16 argument, the value in the 32 bit Python integer is checked to make sure it will fit in the required SCA type. If it is too large then a SCASystemException will be generated with one of the above codes. It is the responsibility of the Python code to make sure that this condition never happens. For the complete definitions of these errors see the SCA/SystemError.h header file delivered with the SCA Framework. The SCAUserException Exception The SCAUserException is the (direct or indirect) base for all user defined exceptions. It has the following IDL definition. IDL module SCA { exception SCAUserException: SCAException { }; }; This exception does not contain any data member. Its purpose is to only define the base class for user defined exceptions.

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Exception API
The syntax for using SCA exceptions and the API they provide is different for each supported language. The following example code shows how an instance of the ReaderException can be created and thrown in C++. C++ ReaderException except; except.modelName = name; except.setText("The requested model \""+name+ "\" could not be located."); except.throwit(); Notice that the actual exception is thrown using the throwit method it provides and not using the normal C++ throw statement. This is an important rule which is discussed in detail in the IDL to C++ Mapping chapter of this manual. The exception can be caught and processed like this. try { spReader->readModel("Test.Model"); } catch (SCAException& e) { cout << e.what() << endl; } For language specific exception APIs, please refer to the respective Language Mapping chapters of this manual.

Exception Propagation Rules
The exact rules covering the throwing and catching of exception vary depending on whether the thrower and the catcher are coded in the same language or in different languages. Inter Language Propagation Rules An IDL exception thrown from a callee can be caught by the caller even when the callee and the caller are coded in different languages. In the case of inter language calls, the exceptions must be marshaled through a SCA language bridge. The following rules apply in this case.
• Exception types that are defined in the raises clause always pass through the language bridges. • Exception that inherits (directly or indirectly) from an exception in the raises clause always

passes through the language bridges.
• Users may define their own non SCA exception classes that inherit from the SCA exception

classes. In this case the SCA exception that is inherited from is the one that determines if it will pass through the language bridges. When these exceptions are thrown, only the data defined in SCA exception definitions will be passed. Any data in the non SCA exception class will be lost.
• The SCASystemException always pass through the language bridges.

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• All other exceptions are blocked by the language bridge and a SCASystemException is thrown

instead. In this case any data contained in the original exception will be lost. For an example of these rules, consider the following exception hierarchy. IDL exception exception exception exception exception SCAException { }; SCAUserException : SCAException { }; TestExcept1 : SCAUserException { }; TestExcept2 : TestExcept1 { }; TestExceptX: SCAUserException { };

The following table shows which combination of exceptions specified on the raises clause in the IDL and the actual exception thrown are allowed to pass through the SCA language bridges. The exceptions that are not allowed to pass will be converted to a SCASystemException. Raises clause SCAUserException SCAUserException SCAUserException SCAUserException TestException1 TestException1 TestException1 TestException1 TestException2 TestException2 TestException2 TestException2 Thrown TestException1 TestException2 TextExceptionX None SCA Exception TestException1 TestException2 TextExceptionX None SCA Exception TestException1 TestException2 TextExceptionX None SCA Exception Does bridge pass Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No Yes No No

Intra Language Propogation Rules Normally when making interface calls between a caller and callee written in the same language, the SCA framework is not involved. As a result the rules for using exceptions in this case are the normal rules that apply to the language being used. Exception Catching Rules The rules covering which exceptions will be caught by which catch statement is completely a function of the language you are catching the exception in. It does not matter which language the exception was thrown in. This is because when an exception is marshaled through a SCA language bridge it will be rethrown by the bridge in the language of the caller. The exception that is rethrown is either the original exception thrown if it passes the propagation rules discussed above or else a SCASystemException. In

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either case it is now a native exception in the language of the caller and the rules for this language are used. Most languages have a similar set of rules governing which exceptions will be caught by which catch statement. Normally, a catch statement, or whatever the equivalent statement is in the language you are using, will catch an exception that is the same as the one thrown or if it is a base class of the one thrown. Using the same exception hierarchy that was used above the following table shows how these rules typically work. Catch Statement SCAUserException SCAUserException SCAUserException TestException1 TestException1 TestException1 TestException2 TestException2 TestException2 TestExceptionX TestExceptionX TestExceptionX Exception Thrown TestException1 TestException2 TextExceptionX TestException1 TestException2 TextExceptionX TestException1 TestException2 TextExceptionX TestException1 TestException2 TextExceptionX Will it be Caught Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No No Yes

Recommended usage of SCA Exceptions
There is nothing special about SCA exceptions and the best practice usage of them is the same as using normal exception processing. But there are a few rules that should be followed to better utilize the infrastructure provided by the SCA framework.
• Always throw user-defined exceptions. You should never directly throw a SCAException or

SCASystemException.
• When you throw an SCA user-defined exception, always define the basic text field that is

provided by the SCAException. This way there will be some information about the exception regardless of the exception class that is actually caught.
• In your code, only add catch statements for exceptions that you expect to catch and have some

special processing for.
• Always have a catch block for the SCAException class somewhere in the calling tree. Since all

SCA exceptions inherit from this one, this catch block will catch any SCA exception that was not explicitly caught by any other catch block. The text field of this exception can then be used to provide some useful information.

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Complete Exception Error Handling Example for a SCA Service
The following is the complete implementation of an example FileReader service that shows the use of SCA exceptions for error handling. This service implements the SCAIReader interface. The IDL for this example was defined earlier in this chapter. The SDL and CDL files for this example are as follows. SDL #ifndef FILEREADER_SDL_INCLUDED #define FILEREADER_SDL_INCLUDED #include "SDK/ErrorHandling/Exceptions/FileReader.idl" module SDK { module ErrorHandling { module Exceptions { service SDK.ErrorHandling.Exceptions.FileReader { interface SCAIReader; }; }; }; }; #endif CDL #ifndef FILEREADER_CDL_INCLUDED #define FILEREADER_CDL_INCLUDED #include "FileReader.sdl" component SDK.ErrorHandling.FileReaderExceptions { service FileReader; }; #endif The SCAIReader interface contains a single method, readModel that must be implemented. Only the portion of the implementation that shows the error handling functionality is shown in this example. The rest of the code is omitted to keep the code sample small. The implementation files for the FileReader service follow. FileReader.h #ifndef SDK_ERRORHANDLING_EXCEPTIONS_FILEREADER_H_INCLUDED #define SDK_ERRORHANDLING_EXCEPTIONS_FILEREADER_H_INCLUDED #include "FileReaderBase.h"

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namespace SDK { namespace ErrorHandling { namespace Exceptions { class FileReader : public FileReaderBase { public: // Constructor and Destructor FileReader(SCAIFileReaderFactoryAccess* factoryAccess); virtual ~FileReader(); // Methods for interface SDK.ErrorHandling.Exceptions.SCAIReader virtual SCA::SCAVoid readModel(const SCA::SCAString name);

};

} } } #endif

FileReader.cpp #include "FileReader.h" namespace SDK { namespace ErrorHandling { namespace Exceptions { // Constructor FileReader::FileReader(SCAIFileReaderFactoryAccess* factoryAccess) : FileReaderBase(factoryAccess) { } // Destructor FileReader::~FileReader() { } SCA::SCAVoid FileReader::readModel(const SCA::SCAString name) { bool error; // Locate the model . . . . // Return error if model could not be located if ( error ) { ReaderException except; except.modelName = name; except.setText("The requested model \""+name+ "\" could not be located."); except.throwit(); } // Process the model . . . .

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// Return error processing the model if ( error ) { ReaderException except; except.modelName = name; except.setText("An error was encountered reading model \""+ name+"\"."); except.throwit(); } // Return return;

}

} } } The example client application that uses this version of the FileReader service is shown next.

Client.cpp #include <iostream> using namespace std; #include <SCA/SCAKernel.h> #include "SCA/Framework/SCAIMessageDispatcher.h" #include <SDK/ErrorHandling/Exceptions/SCAIReader.h> using namespace SCA; using namespace SDK::ErrorHandling::Exceptions; int main() { try { cout << "Test using exceptions for error processing" << endl; // Initialize the SCA Kernel initializeSCAKernel(1); // Load the FileReader service SCAString svcName = "SDK.ErrorHandling.SCAResult.FileReader"; SCAIReader spReader = getSCAService(svcName); // Read the model try { spReader->readModel("Test.Model"); } catch (SCAException& e) { cout << e.what() << endl; } // Clean up spReader = NULLSP;

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// Terminate the SCA Kernel terminateSCAKernel(); } catch (SCAException& e) { cout << e.what() << endl; } return 0;

}

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Using SCAResult for Error Handling
Introduction
If you choose to use the error handling method where interface methods return error codes, the SCA framework provides the SCAResult type. A SCAResult instance provides information about what happened within the interface method. This includes whether the method was successful or failed and optional information that is used to generate an appropriate error message. The SCAResult data type is used in conjunction with the MessageDispatcher service to format the messages in the desired language and optionally to dispatch them. In this section, examples will show how the SCAResult data type and the MessageDispatcher service can be used to process errors. For this discussion we will use the same FileReader service that was previously used to demonstrate the use of SCA exceptions for error handling. Only in this case we will modify the IDL so the readModel method now returns a SCAResult value instead of throwing an exception. IDL #ifndef SDK_ERRORHANDLING_SCARESULT_FILEREADER_IDL_INCLUDED #define SDK_ERRORHANDLING_SCARESULT_FILEREADER_IDL_INCLUDED #include "SCA/Service.idl" module SDK { module ErrorHandling { module SCAResult { // Error codes const SCA::SCAInt32 MODEL_LOCATE_ERR = 1; const SCA::SCAInt32 MODEL_READ_ERR = 2; // Message ids const SCA::SCAInt32 MODEL_LOCATE_MSG = 101; const SCA::SCAInt32 MODEL_READ_MSG = 102; // Message severity values enum MSG_SeverityType { SDK_INFORMATION, SDK_WARNING, SDK_ERROR }; interface SCAIReader : SCA::SCAIService { SCA::SCAResult readModel( in SCA::SCAString name ); }; }; }; }; #endif

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The SCAResult data contents
The SCAResult type is used to return error information from calls to interface methods. It contains the following information.
• Error code – The meaning of the error code values are defined by the service you are using.

There may be a unique set of error codes for each method or a single set for the entire service or component. You should consult the documentation of the service you are using for definitions of the error codes that it may return.
• Message table ID – The message table ID is a unique value that is assigned by the

MessageDispatcher service when a message table is registered. In order to use a message in a message table, the message table must be first registered with the MessageDispatcher service. This registration is the responsibility of the service that will be returning SCAResult values that reference the message table.
• Message number – Message number in the message table referenced by the message table ID. • Message parameters – Optional values for parameters that will be used to format the requested

messages. The use of the message information in the SCAResult is optional. When used, the messages in SCAResult values may also include parameter values that will be substituted during the formatting of the message. The following types of parameters are supported in a SCAResult. SCA Type SCAInt8 SCAUInt8 SCAInt16 SCAUInt16 SCAInt32 SCAUInt32 SCAInt64 SCAUInt64 SCAReal32 SCAReal64 SCAChar SCAWChar SCAString SCAWString SCABool

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You should consult the appropriate IDL mapping chapter for the language you are using for the exact syntax for adding parameter values to a SCAResult instance.

Overview of using the SCAResult for Error Handling
The general error processing steps for using the SCAResult are as follows.
• The client application loads the SCA FileReader service. • The constructor for the service instance uses the MessageDispatch to register its message table

with the framework and saves the message table ID that is returned.
• The client calls the readModel interface method. • The readModel method tries to read the model but encounters an error. It formats a SCAResult

value and returns it to the caller. The SCAResult value includes an error code value, the message table ID, the message number and any optional parameter values.
• The client checks the error code in the SCAResult value to determine if there is an error. • The client uses the MessageDispatcher to format the message contained in the SCAResult

value. The formatted message is either dispatched to any registered message listeners or returned to the client.

Registering Message Tables
The definition of messages that are reference by the SCAResult values must be defined in a SCA XML message table. For a complete description of the format of these message tables see the Messages and Internationalization chapter of this manual. For our test service we have defined a simple message table with several messages. The following is the English version of the message table. FileReaderMsgTable_en.xml <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8' ?> <!-Copyright (c) 2009, MSC.Software Corporation. All Rights Reserved. MSC PROPRIETARY/CONFIDENTIAL. Use is subject to license terms. --> <sim_office_resources version="1.0" xml:lang="en" comment="Message Table for FileReader Service"> <text id="101" comment="MODEL_LOCATE_MSG" > The requested model "%1:%s" could not be located. </text> <text id="102" comment="MODEL_READ_MSG" > An error was encountered reading model "%1:%s:". </text> </sim_office_resources> We also provide a German version of the messages. FileReaderMsgTable_de.xml <?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8' ?>

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<!-Copyright (c) 2009, MSC.Software Corporation. All Rights Reserved. MSC PROPRIETARY/CONFIDENTIAL. Use is subject to license terms. --> <sim_office_resources version="1.0" xml:lang="en" comment="Message Table for FileReader Service"> <text id="101" comment="MODEL_LOCATE_MSG" > Das angeforderte Modell "%1:%s" konnte nicht gefunden werden. </text> <text id="102" comment="MODEL_READ_MSG" > Beim Einlesen des Modells "%1:%s:" trat ein Fehler auf. </text> </sim_office_resources> If you look at the IDL for FileReader example earlier in this chapter, you will see a set of IDL constants were also defined for each message. These can be used when creating SCAResult values instead of using hardcoded values. The use of these constants is a recommended practice because it provides a consistent location to document the messages and makes maintenance easier. IDL // Message ids const SCAInt32 MODEL_LOCATE_MSG = 101; const SCAInt32 MODEL_READ_MSG = 102; In order to use a message table, the table must be first registered with the MessageDispatcher service. Normally a service will do this registration in its constructor and save the message table IDL for later use. When registering the message table you used the portion of the filename for the table which does not include the language information. For our example, the name used for the registration would be FileReaderMsgTable. The following code shows how the the message table is registered. C++ #include "SCA/Framework/SCAIMsgTableManager.h" // Register our message table SCA::Framework::SCAIMsgTableManager spManager; spManager = getService("SCA.Framework.MessageDispatcher"); spManager->addTable(L"FileReaderMsgTable",m_msgTableID); In this example code the message table ID returned is m_msgTableID which should be saved for later use when it is necessary to format a SCAResult value.

Formatting a SCAResult value
There are a number of different ways that the SCAResult can be used to return error information.
• The SCAResult may only contain a success or failure indications • The SCAResult may only contain an error code value

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• The SCAResult may contain both an error code value and the information to format a message.

There may be times when specific error code values are not required. Instead it is only necessary to indicate if the method call succeeded or failed. In this case you can use one of the two predefined SCAResult values provided by the SCA framework.

SCA::SCASuccess SCA::SCAError

Error code = 0 Error Code = 0X7FFFFFFF

If the readModel method in our example only needed to return a generic error indication it could use the predefined SCAError value as follows. C++ return SCAError; Normally, this is not the ideal solution because it does not provide any details to the caller about what the error actual was. As a result it is usually a better solution if you at least return an error code value that represents the error that occurred. If you look at the example IDL again, you will notice that a set of constant values were also defined for the error codes that can be returned. Depending on how you have set up your error code values and message IDs, you may choose to use a single set of constant values for both. // Error codes const SCAInt32 MODEL_LOCATE_ERR = 1; const SCAInt32 MODEL_READ_ERR = 2; The use of these constants is a recommended practice because it provides a consistent place where the possible error code values can be documented for the users of the service. Additionally, the use of IDL defined constants reduces maintenance of the code. If you need to change error values they only need to be changed in the IDL file and not in every implementation and client file that uses them. The readModel interface routine could now create a SCAResult instance containing only an error code if that was appropriate. In this example we are using the IDL defined constants to indicate the error code value. C++ SCAResult rstat = SCAResult(MODEL_READ_ERR); return rstat; Normally, it is more desirable to also include message information that your callers can use to format and display a message which described the details of the error. The following code adds a message to the SCAResult value. The message requires one parameter which is the name of the model that cannot be read. C++ SCAResult rstat;

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rstat = SCAResult(MODEL_READ_ERR,m_msgTableID,MODEL_READ_MSG); rstat.addParam(name); return rstat; If the readModel method did not encounter any errors, then it should return the predefined SCASuccess value to indicate that the operation was successful. C++ return SCASuccess; The exact syntax for using the SCAResult data type is a function of the language you are using. Although the basic concepts are the same in all of the languages the exact syntaxes are a bit different. For complete details you should consult the IDL mapping chapter in this manual for your language.

Complete SCAResult Error Handling Example for a SCA Service
The following is the complete implementation of the example FileReader service which now uses SCAResult values for error handling. The IDL for this example was defined earlier in this chapter. The SDL and CDL files for this example follow. SDL #ifndef FILEREADER_SDL_INCLUDED #define FILEREADER_SDL_INCLUDED #include "SDK/ErrorHandling/SCAResult/FileReader.idl" module SDK { module ErrorHandling { module SCAResult { service SDK.ErrorHandling.SCAResult.FileReader { interface SCAIReader; }; }; }; }; #endif CDL #ifndef FILEREADER_CDL_INCLUDED #define FILEREADER_CDL_INCLUDED #include "FileReader.sdl" component SDK.ErrorHandling.FileReaderSCAResult { service FileReader; };

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#endif The new versions of the implementation files for the service are as follows. Once again only the error processing logic of the readModel method has been included. FileReader.h #ifndef SDK_ERRORHANDLING_SCARESULT_FILEREADER_H_INCLUDED #define SDK_ERRORHANDLING_SCARESULT_FILEREADER_H_INCLUDED #include "FileReaderBase.h" namespace SDK { namespace ErrorHandling { namespace SCAResult { class FileReader : public FileReaderBase { public: // Constructor and Destructor FileReader(SCAIFileReaderFactoryAccess* factoryAccess); virtual ~FileReader(); // Methods for interface SDK.ErrorHandling.SCAResult.SCAIReader virtual SCA::SCAResult readModel(const SCA::SCAString name); private: // Message table ID assigned by the MessageDispatcher SCA::SCAInt32 m_msgTableID; }; } } } #endif FileReader.cpp #include "FileReader.h" #include "SCA/Framework/SCAIMsgTableManager.h" #include "SDK/ErrorHandling/SCAResult/FileReaderTypes.h" namespace SDK { namespace ErrorHandling { namespace SCAResult { // Constructor FileReader::FileReader(SCAIFileReaderFactoryAccess* factoryAccess) : FileReaderBase(factoryAccess) { // Register our message table SCA::Framework::SCAIMsgTableManager spManager; spManager = getService("SCA.Framework.MessageDispatcher"); spManager->addTable(L"FileReaderMsgTable",m_msgTableID); } // Destructor FileReader::~FileReader()

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{ } SCA::SCAResult FileReader::readModel(const SCA::SCAString name) { SCA::SCAResult rstat; bool error; // Locate the model . . . . // Return error if model could not be located if ( error ) { rstat = SCA::SCAResult(MODEL_LOCATE_ERR, m_msgTableID, MODEL_LOCATE_MSG); rstat.addParam(name); return rstat; } // Process the model . . . . // Return error processing the model if ( error ) { rstat = SCA::SCAResult(MODEL_READ_ERR, m_msgTableID, MODEL_READ_MSG); rstat.addParam(name); return rstat; } // Successful return return SCA::SCASuccess;

}

} } }

Use of SCAResult values in the client
Up until this point, we have discussed how the SCAResult values are created and returned from a SCA service. Now we will discuss how the values are used by the clients of the service. The procedure for using the SCAResult value depends on the type of error and message values it contains. For example if a simple SCASuccess or SCAError value is returned all that is required is to check the error code as follows. C++ if ( rstat ) { cout << "Error encountered" << endl; return 1; }

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if ( !rstat.isOk() ) { cout << "Error encountered" << endl; return 1; } But the disadvantage of this approach is there is no indication of what the error may have been. To add some additional information, the interface method may return different error code values which may be checked. C++ if ( rstat == MODEL_LOCATE_ERR ) { cout << "Error encountered locating the model" << endl; return 1; } else if ( rstat == MODEL_READ_ERR ) { cout << "Error encountered reading the model" << endl; return 1; } But ideally the service will also include message information in the SCAResult value that can be used to format a message. In this example we use the MessageDispatcher to format the message and print it. The second blank argument to the getMessage call is the language the message should be formatted in. In this case the blank value means the current default language setting. C++ if ( rstat ) { SCA::Framework::SCAIMessageDispatcher spDispatcher; spDispatcher = getSCAService("SCA.Framework.MessageDispatcher"); SCAWString wstr; spDispatcher->getMessage(rstat,"",wstr); wcout << wstr << endl; return 1; } It is also possible to dispatch the message to any registered message listeners. See the section on the MessageDispatcher later in this chapter for more details on message listeners. In this example the dispatchMessage method is used to dispatch the message. The second argument of zero in the call is severity level you can set. This value is passed to the message listeners and they can use it as required. C++ if ( rstat ) { SCA::Framework::SCAIMessageDispatcher spDispatcher; spDispatcher = getSCAService("SCA.Framework.MessageDispatcher"); spDispatcher->dispatchMessage(rstat,0); return 1; } The following is simple C++ client application that uses the FileReader service and does the appropriate handling of any errors. In this example we are using the getMessage method to format the error message and printing it out.

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Client.cpp #include <iostream> using namespace std; #include <SCA/SCAKernel.h> #include "SCA/Framework/SCAIMessageDispatcher.h" #include <SDK/ErrorHandling/SCAResult/SCAIReader.h> #include <SDK/ErrorHandling/SCAResult/FileReaderTypes.h> using namespace SCA; using namespace SDK::ErrorHandling::SCAResult; int main() { try { cout << "Test using MessageDispatcher to format errors" << endl; // Initialize the SCA Kernel initializeSCAKernel(1); // Load the FileReader service SCAString svcName = "SDK.ErrorHandling.SCAResult.FileReader"); SCAIReader spReader = getSCAService(svcName); // Read the model SCAResult rstat = spReader->readModel("Test.Model"); if ( rstat ) { SCA::Framework::SCAIMessageDispatcher spDispatcher; spDispatcher = getSCAService("SCA.Framework.MessageDispatcher"); SCAWString wstr; spDispatcher->getMessage(rstat,"",wstr); wcout << wstr << endl; } // Clean up spReader = NULLSP; // Terminate the SCA Kernel terminateSCAKernel(); } catch (SCAException& e) { cout << e.what() << endl; } return 0;

}

If this application was run, and the readModel method returned an error indicating it could not locate the model, the following is what the output of the formatted message would look like if the default language was English. The requested model "Test.Model" could not be located. If the default language was German, we would get the following. Das angeforderte Modell "Test.Model" konnte nicht gefunden werden.

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It is also possible to use a message listener and then used the dispatchMessage method to dispatch the error. This technique will be shown in the next section.

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MessageDispatcher Service
The MessageDispatcher is a messaging service that formats the message information stored in SCAResult values and optionally dispatches them. The MessageDispatcher service provides three functions each of which is handled by a different interface.
• SCAIMsgTableManager - Acts as a front-end to the TextTranslation service discussed in the

Messages and Internationalization chapter of this manual and manages instances of client registered message tables and their locales
• SCAIMsgListenerManager - Manages instances of client registered message listeners • SCAIMessageDispatcher - Formats and optionally dispatches messages

The MessageDispatcher service uses message listeners to process the dispatched messages. The main reason for message listeners is to allow an application to compartmentalize the handling of messages into a single piece of code instead of spreading it around the application. A message listener is a SCA object which implements the SCAIMessageListener interface. This code must be provided by the clients of the MessageDispatcher and instances of the SCAIMessageListener interface must be registered by the client if the dispatching of messages is used. Each message listener can specify its own locale that it wants any message formatted in or it may choose to use the current system default locale. An application may utilize as many message listeners as it needs. Normally a different listener would be used for each different type of processing that is required for dispatched messages. For example there may be one listener that handles the logging of messages to a log file and a different listener that informs the user of the errors by displaying them in a message box. The MessageDispatcher is tightly coupled with the SCAResult data type. The SCAResult type provides the data structure where the information required for formatting the message is stored. This include the message number, message table ID and any optional message parameters. The MessageDispatcher service ignores the error code data value in the SCAResult instant. It is also possible to use the MessageDispatcher service to format general messages and not just error messages. To do this you just create a SCAResult value with the appropriate message information. In this case the error ID information has no meaning. The same interface methods in the SCAIMessageDispatcher interface are then use to format and optionally dispatch the message. The following sections describe each of the three interfaces and shows examples of how they are used.

SCA::Framework::SCAIMsgTableManager Interface
The SCAIMsgTableManager interface allows a client service to register message tables with the MessageDispatcher.

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Inherits SCA::SCAIService. Member Functions SCAResult addTable (in SCAWString fileBaseName, out SCAInt32 tableId)

Member Function Documentation

SCAResult addTable

( in SCAWString out SCAInt32 )

fileBaseName, tableId

Method to add a message table to the Messaging service so it can be used in a SCAResult value. If the table has already been added, then the table ID that was previously assigned for it will be returned. Parameters:

[in] [out] Returns:

fileBaseName tableId

Message table root name which does not include locale information. Table ID that can be used to create a SCAResult value.

SCAResult Status of request which should always be a SCASuccess In order to use a message table, the table must be first registered with the MessageDispatcher service. Normally, a service will do this registration in its constructor and save the message table ID for later use. To register the message table you use the portion of the filename for the table which does not include the language information. In our example the complete name of the message table names were FileReaderMsgTable_en.xml and FileReaderMsgTable_de.xml so the name for addTable call would be FileReaderMsgTable. The following code shows how the message table is registered using this interface. C++ #include "SCA/Framework/SCAIMsgTableManager.h" // Register our message table SCA::Framework::SCAIMsgTableManager spManager; spManager = getService("SCA.Framework.MessageDispatcher"); spManager->addTable(L"FileReaderMsgTable",m_msgTableID); The addTable method returns an integer message table ID, m_msgTableID in this example, which should be saved. It is required when creating SCAResult instances which reference messages defined in this table. Once a table has been registered the table ID will be valid for the duration of the current execution.

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It is also important to understand that the addTable method will always return a SCASuccess value. This is true even if there are no message tables available that match the name provided. This is because the registering of a table does not trigger the processing of the actual XML file for the message table. At the time of registration it is not known what language will actually be used to format any of its messages and there may be multiple message tables available. The actual language is not determined until a message is formatted so the processing of the XML file must be delayed until that time. If the message table cannot be found or there are errors reading it at this time, the formatting operation will instead return a message indicating why the desired message could not be formatted. It will also include the message number and table name so you can still determine what the original error was. The following is an example of what one of these messages would look like. Error formatting message 101 in table FileReaderMsgTable XML file for message table FileReaderMsgTable for locale "en_US.1252" or "en" does not exist.

SCA::Framework::SCAIMsgListenerManager Interface
The SCAIMsgListenerManager interface allows a client service to add and remove message listeners. Inherits SCA::SCAIService. Member Functions SCAResult SCAResult addListener (in SCAIMessageListener msgListener, in SCAString locale) removeListener (in SCAIMessageListener msgListener)

Member Function Documentation

SCAResult addListener

( in SCAIMessageListener in SCAString )

msgListener, locale

Method to add a message listener to the Messaging service. Parameters:

[in] [in]

msgListener locale

Interface to the listener that is to be added. Locale string for this message listener. All messages dispatched to this listener will be formatted in this locale. The value can be an empty string which means the listener uses the current default locale.

Returns:

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SCAResult Status of request which should always be SCASuccess

SCAResult removeListener

( in SCAIMessageListener

msgListener

)

Method to remove a message listener from the Messaging service. Parameters:

[in] Returns:

msgListener

Interface to the listener that is to be removed.

SCAResult Status of request which should always be SCASuccess The SCAIMsgListenerManager allows clients to add and remove message listeners. Each message listener can specify the language that it wants the messages formatted in. It is not required for all registered listeners to use the same locale. The following example shows how message listeners can be added and removed. In this case we will request that the messages received by the listener be formatted in German. C++ // Get instance of message listener SCAIMessageListener spListener = . . .; // Register our message listener using the German locale SCA::Framework::SCAIMsgListenerManager spManager; spManager = getSCAService("SCA.Framework.MessageDispatcher"); spManager->addListener(spListener,"de"); // Application does its thing // Remove our message listener spManager->removeListener(spListener); This example does not show how the message listener was actually implemented. Later in this section a number of examples of this will be provided.

SCA::Framework::SCAIMessageDispatcher Interface
The SCAIMessageDispatcher interface is used to format messages. The formatted messages can either be dispatched to the registered message listeners or returned to the caller.

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Inherits SCA::SCAIService. Member Functions SCAResult SCAResult SCAResult setDefaultLocale (in SCAString locale) dispatchMessage (in SCAResult rStat, in SCAInt32 severity) getMessage (in SCAResult rStat, in SCAString locale, out SCAWString outString)

Member Function Documentation

SCAResult dispatchMessage

( in SCAResult in SCAInt32 )

rStat, severity

Method to format a message described by a SCAResult value and dispatch it to all registered listeners. The message may need to be formatted several times if multiple message listeners have been added which requested different locales.
Parameters:

[in] [in]

rStat severity

The SCAResult value to format The severity code for the message. This value is passed directly to the message listeners.

Returns:

SCAResult Status of request

SCAResult getMessage

( in SCAResult in SCAString out SCAWString )

rStat, locale, outString

Method to format a message described by a SCAResult value and return it to the caller.

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Parameters:

[in] [in] [out]
Returns:

rStat locale outString

The SCAResult value to format The locale string that the message will be formatted in. The value can be an empty string which means the current default locale is used. Formatted message value

SCAResult Status of request

SCAResult setDefaultLocale

( in SCAString

locale )

Method to set the default locale for all message listeners that are added with a blank locale specified. Calls to this routine will affect message listeners that were previously added as well as those that are added in the future.
Parameters:

[in]
Returns:

locale

Locale string

SCAResult Status of request The SCAIMessageDispatcher interface is used by the client to request the formatting of a message. The message can be either returned directly to the caller or can be dispatched to all registered message listeners. The first example shows how the message can be formatted and returned to the caller. In this example the current default locale is used for the message translation. C++ SCAResult rstat = sp->someMethod() if ( rstat ) { SCA::Framework::SCAIMessageDispatcher spDispatcher; spDispatcher = getSCAService("SCA.Framework.MessageDispatcher"); SCAWString wstr; spDispatcher->getMessage(rstat,"",wstr); wcout << wstr << endl; return 1; } It is also possible to dispatch the message to all register message listeners using the dispatchMessage method. The second parameter in this call is the message severity. The severity value is passed directly to the message listeners and not used by the MessageDispatcher itself. Each application can define its own mechanism of interpreting the severity code or it can choose to ignore it altogether. One common

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way of handling the severity value is to use an IDL enum definition to contain the valid values. In the FileReader example we have used the following values for the severity of a message. IDL enum SeverityType { SDK_INFORMATION, SDK_WARNING, SDK_ERROR } These values can be used in the call to the dispatchMessage method. C++ SCAResult rstat = sp->someMethod() if ( rstat ) { SCA::Framework::SCAIMessageDispatcher spDispatcher; spDispatcher = getSCAService("SCA.Framework.MessageDispatcher"); spDispatcher->dispatchMessage(rstat,SDK_ERROR); return 1; } The dispatchMessage call may result in the requested message being formatted more than once. This could happen if multiple message listeners are registered and they require different languages. The SCAIMessageDispatcher interface can also be used to change the default locale setting. C++ SCA::Framework::SCAIMessageDispatcher spDispatcher; spDispatcher = getSCAService("SCA.Framework.MessageDispatcher"); spDispatcher->setDefaultLocale("de"); It is important to remember that this default setting will affect all message listeners that are currently registered which requested the default locale as well as any added in the future. Message listeners currently registered that requested a specific locale are not affected.

SCA::Framework::SCAIMessageListener Interface
The SCAIMessageListener interface is used to implement message listeners that can be used with the MessageDispatcher service. Inherits SCA::SCAIService. Member Functions SCAResult doPublishMessage (in SCAWString str, in SCAInt32 severity)

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Member Function Documentation

SCAResult doPublishMessage

( in SCAWString in SCAInt32 )

str, severity

Method used by the MessageDispatcher to dispatch messages to the listeners that have been registered with it.
Parameters:

[in] [in]

str severity

Message to be dispatched. The severity level that was provided by the code that requested the message to be dispatched.

Returns:

SCAResult Status of request The SCAIMessageListener interface is used in the implementation of the message listeners that the MessageDispatcher uses to dispatch messages. It must be implemented by the client application that is using the MessageDispatcher service. Once an application has obtained an instance of the SCA object that implements this interface, it must then register it with the MessageDispatcher service. Once a message listener has been added then all messages dispatched through the MessageDispatcher will be sent to the message listener until it is removed. There are a number of different techniques that can be used to implement the SCAIMessageListener interface.
• The interface can be implemented in a normal SCA service. • The interface can be implemented in a SCA service contained in an embedded component. • The interface can be implemented using techniques provided by the individual language

mappings. For example in C++ the SCAServiceObjectImpl templates could be used and in Python the SCAIServiceBase class could be used. Examples of the first and last of these methods are provided later in this section. For more details on using embedded components and the SCAServiceObjectImpl templates see the SCA SDK Advanced Features manual. The SCAIServiceBase class is described in the Python Mapping chapter of this manual. The SCAIMessageListener interface has a single method. doPublishMessage ( in SCAWString str, in SCAInt32 severity ); When implementing the SCAIMessageListener interface, the doPublishMessage method must be implemented. This method will be called by the MessageDispatcher when there is a message to process. The first argument is the formatted text string for the message in the language specified when the listener

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was registered. The second input is the severity code that is provided by the call that originally dispatched the message. Each application can define its own mechanism of interpreting the severity code or it can choose to ignore it altogether.

Message Listener example using SCAServiceObjectImpl template
The first example of using a message listener will implement it directly in the client application program. This implementation will use one of the SCAServiceObjectImpl templates provided by the SCA Framework to create a class which implements the SCAIMessageListener interface. For complete details on using these templates see the SCA SDK Advanced Features manual. Client.cpp #include <iostream> using namespace std; #include <SCA/SCAKernel.h> #include <SCA/Framework/ServiceObjectImpl.h> #include "SCA/Framework/SCAIMessageDispatcher.h" #include "SCA/Framework/SCAIMsgListenerManager.h" #include "SCA/Framework/SCAIMessageListener.h" #include <SDK/ErrorHandling/SCAResult/SCAIReader.h> #include <SDK/ErrorHandling/SCAResult/FileReaderTypes.h> using namespace SCA; using namespace SCA::Framework; using namespace SDK::ErrorHandling::SCAResult; // // Implementation of SCAIMessageListener interface // char ImplName[] = "ExampleListener"; class Listener : SCAServiceObjectImpl1 <SCAIMessageListener,ImplName> { public: // Constructors and Destructor Listener() { } ~Listener() { } // Methods for interface SCA.Framework.SCAIMessageListener SCAResult doPublishMessage(const SCAWString str, const SCAInt32 severity) { cout << "Error published with severity of " << severity << endl; wcout << str << endl; return SCASuccess; }

};

int main() {

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try { cout << "Test using local listener to format messages" << endl; // Initialize the SCA Kernel initializeSCAKernel(1); // Get instance of message listener Listener* pListener = new Listener(); SCAIMessageListener spListener = (SCAIMessageListener)pListener; // Register our message listener SCAIMsgListenerManager spManager; spManager = getSCAService("SCA.Framework.MessageDispatcher"); spManager->addListener(spListener,""); // Load the FileReader service SCAString svcName = "SDK.ErrorHandling.SCAResult.FileReader"; SCAIReader spReader = getSCAService(svcName); // Read the model SCAResult rstat = spReader->readModel("Test.Model"); if ( rstat ) { SCAIMessageDispatcher spDispatcher = spManager; spDispatcher->dispatchMessage(rstat,SDK_ERROR); } // Clean up spReader = NULLSP; spManager = NULLSP; // Terminate the SCA Kernel terminateSCAKernel(); } catch (SCAException& e) { cout << e.what() << endl; } return 0;

}

Message Listener example using a Logger Service Example
The next example of implementing a message listener will use a separate SCA service that provides basic logging functionality. The logging service implements the SCAILogger interface which provides methods to open and close the log file. It also implements the SCAIMessageListener interface so it can function as a message listener and log any messages it receives. The following is the complete definition of the logging service. Logger.idl #ifndef SDK_ERRORHANDLING_LOGGER_IDL_INCLUDED #define SDK_ERRORHANDLING_LOGGER_IDL_INCLUDED #include "SCA/Service.idl"

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module SDK { module ErrorHandling { interface SCAILogger : SCA::SCAIService { SCA::SCAResult openLog( in SCA::SCAString fileName, in SCA::SCABool append ); SCA::SCAResult writeLog( in SCA::SCAString msg ); SCA::SCAResult closeLog( ); }; }; }; #endif Logger.sdl #ifndef LOGGER_SDL_INCLUDED #define LOGGER_SDL_INCLUDED #include "SDK/ErrorHandling/Logger.idl" #include "SCA/Framework/MessageListener.idl" module SDK { module ErrorHandling { service SDK.ErrorHandling.Logger { interface SCA::Framework::SCAIMessageListener; interface SCAILogger; }; }; }; #endif Logger.cdl #ifndef LOGGER_CDL_INCLUDED #define LOGGER_CDL_INCLUDED #include "Logger.sdl" component SDK.ErrorHandling.Logger { service Logger; }; #endif The implementation for the logging service is as follows. To make the example code smaller and easier to understand, the detailed error checking that would normally be part of the implementation has been omitted.

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Logger.h #ifndef SDK_ERRORHANDLING_LOGGER_H_INCLUDED #define SDK_ERRORHANDLING_LOGGER_H_INCLUDED #include "LoggerBase.h" #include <iostream> #include <fstream> namespace SDK { namespace ErrorHandling { class Logger : public LoggerBase { public: // Constructor and Destructor Logger(SCAILoggerFactoryAccess* factoryAccess); virtual ~Logger(); // Methods for interface SCA.Framework.SCAIMessageListener SCA::SCAResult doPublishMessage(const SCA::SCAWString str, const SCA::SCAInt32 severity); // Methods for interface SDK.ErrorHandling.SCAILogger SCA::SCAResult openLog(const SCA::SCAString fileName, const SCA::SCABool append); SCA::SCAResult writeLog(const SCA::SCAString msg); virtal SCA::SCAResult closeLog(); private: std::ofstream m_file; }; } } #endif Logger.cpp #include "Logger.h" #include <SCA/StringUtility.h> #include <time.h> using namespace std; using namespace SCA; namespace SDK { namespace ErrorHandling { // Constructor Logger::Logger(SCAILoggerFactoryAccess* factoryAccess) : LoggerBase(factoryAccess) { } // Destructor Logger::~Logger() {

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} SCA::SCAResult Logger::doPublishMessage(const SCA::SCAWString str, const SCA::SCAInt32 severity) { SCAString msg = StringUtility::stringFromWString(str); m_file << "Error dispatched with severity of " << severity << endl; m_file << msg << endl; return SCASuccess; } SCA::SCAResult Logger::openLog(const SCA::SCAString fileName, const SCA::SCABool append) { // Open the log file if ( fileName.empty() ) { return SCAError; } else { if ( append== true ) { m_file.open(fileName.c_str(), ios_base::out| ios_base::app); } else { m_file.open(fileName.c_str(), ios_base::out| ios_base::trunc ); } } // Add the current date and time time_t rawtime; struct tm * timeinfo; time ( &rawtime ); timeinfo = localtime ( &rawtime ); m_file << "Log file opened on " << asctime(timeinfo); } return SCASuccess;

SCA::SCAResult Logger::writeLog(const SCA::SCAString msg) { m_file << msg << endl; return SCASuccess; } SCA::SCAResult Logger::closeLog() { m_file.close(); return SCASuccess; } } } The following is a sample client that uses the logging service to save all error messages in a log file. It is similar to our previous example except it loads and initializes an instance of the logging service and uses

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it for the message listener instead of providing its own implementation. The client will also use the logging feature to save messages indicating the flow of the program. Client.cpp #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include #include using using using using

<iostream> <SCA/SCAKernel.h> <SCA/Framework/ServiceObjectImpl.h> "SCA/Framework/SCAIMessageDispatcher.h" "SCA/Framework/SCAIMsgListenerManager.h" "SCA/Framework/SCAIMessageListener.h" <SDK/ErrorHandling/SCAResult/SCAIReader.h> <SDK/ErrorHandling/SCAResult/FileReaderTypes.h> <SDK/ErrorHandling/SCAILogger.h> SCA; SCA::Framework; SDK::ErrorHandling; SDK::ErrorHandling::SCAResult;

namespace namespace namespace namespace

int main() { try { cout << "Test using Logger service to process errors" << endl; // Initialize the SCA Kernel initializeSCAKernel(1); // Get instance of error logger service and open a log file SCAILogger spLogger; spLogger = getSCAService("SDK.ErrorHandling.Logger"); spLogger->openLog("Test.log",false); // Register our message listener SCA::Framework::SCAIMsgListenerManager spManager; spManager = getSCAService("SCA.Framework.MessageDispatcher"); SCAIMessageListener spListener = spLogger; spManager->addListener(spListener,""); // Get SCAIMessageDispatcher interface for future error processing // Load the FileReader service SCAString svcName = "SDK.ErrorHandling.SCAResult.FileReader"; spLogger->writeLog("Getting "+svcName+" service"); SCAIReader spReader = getSCAService(svcName); // Read the model SCAString modelName = "Test.Model"; spLogger->writeLog("Reading model "+modelName); SCAResult rstat = spReader->readModel(modelName); if ( rstat ) { SCAIMessageDispatcher spDispatcher = spManager; spDispatcher->dispatchMessage(rstat,SDK_ERROR); }

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// Clean up spReader = NULLSP; spManager->removeListener(spListener); spManager = NULLSP; spLogger->closeLog(); spLogger = NULLSP; // Terminate the SCA Kernel terminateSCAKernel(); } catch (SCAException& e) { cout << e.what() << endl; } return 0;

}

Chapter 11: Multi-Threaded Applications SCA Framework User’s Guide

11

Multi-Threaded Applications
Introduction Thread Safety 332 333 338 339 341

    

Threading Infrastructure

Testing Multi-Threaded Services Sample Multi-Threaded Application

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Introduction
Multithreading is a widespread programming and execution model that allows multiple threads to exist within a single process. These threads share the process resources but are able to execute independently. The threaded programming model provides developers with a useful abstraction of this concurrent execution. The advantage of a multithreaded program is it allows it to operate faster on computer systems that have multiple CPUs because the threads can execute concurrently. When building multi-threaded applications, there are several different aspects of the problem that need to be addressed.
• The various components of the application that are going to be run concurrently in different

threads must be thread-safe. This means that internal data structures in the components must be protected in such a way that they cannot be corrupted when several different threads are accessing them concurrently. This is usually done by protecting the data with various synchronization primitives such as mutexes to lock data structures against concurrent access and atomic operations.
• The application must be able to create and manage multiple threads. Typically you also want a

way of creating and managing data that is unique for each thread and is not shared. The SCA Framework handles each of these aspects differently which is described in the following sections.

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Thread Safety
The following portions of the SCA Framework are thread-safe.
• Core services like ServiceManager, SharedLibraryManager and TextTranslation • IDL generated support code like the base and factory classes created for services implemented in

C++
• Implementation for framework defined types like SCAAny, SCAResult and SCATypeCode

Utility services like the XML reader and regular expression processor are not thread safe. These services are not singletons and each user typically gets their own instance.

SCA Framework Synchronization Primitives
The SCA Framework provides a set of synchronization primitives that can be used by services implemented in C++. For languages other than C++, you should use the threading primitives provided by those languages. Both Java and the .NET languages have these built into the language. The SCA provided primitives are implemented on top of the Intel Threading Building Blocks, or TBB, package. It is not required that these primitives be used in all SCA applications. Typically the use of threading synchronization primitives from different threading packages in the same application is not a problem. The following is the header file which defines the threading primitives provide by the SCA Framework. It provides the following synchronization primitives.
• Spin lock and mutex • Recursive lock and mutex • Atomic increment and decrement operations • Atomic counter template • Atomic pointer template

SCA/Threading/Threads.h // // Threading support used in SCA Kernel // #ifndef SCA_FRAMEWORK_SCATHREADS_H_INCLUDED #define SCA_FRAMEWORK_SCATHREADS_H_INCLUDED namespace SCA { namespace Threading { // // Single access spin mutex/lock // class SpinLock; class SpinMutex { friend class SpinLock;

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}; class SpinLock { public: SpinLock(); SpinLock(SpinMutex&); ~SpinLock(); void acquire(SpinMutex&); void release(); private: SpinLock(const SpinLock&); SpinLock& operator=(const SpinLock&); }; // // Single access recursive mutex/lock // class RecursiveLock; class RecursiveMutex { friend class RecursiveLock; public: RecursiveMutex(); ~RecursiveMutex(); }; class RecursiveLock { public: RecursiveLock(); RecursiveLock(RecursiveMutex&); ~RecursiveLock(); void acquire(RecursiveMutex&); void release(); private: RecursiveLock(const RecursiveLock&); RecursiveLock& operator=(const RecursiveLock&); }; // // Thread safe atomic increment and decrement operation // inline inline inline inline AtomicAdd(volatile long& value, long addend); AtomicIncrement(volatile long& value); AtomicDecrement(volatile long& value); AtomicCompareExchange(volatile long& value, long exchange, long compare); template <typename T> inline T AtomicLoadAcquire(const volatile T& value); template <typename T, typename V> long long long long

public: SpinMutex(); ~SpinMutex();

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inline void AtomicStoreRelease(volatile T& value, const V rhs); // // Thread safe Atomic counter class // class AtomicCounter { public: typedef long value_type; // Default constructor inline AtomicCounter() : value(0); // Conversion operator inline operator value_type() const; // Assignment operator inline value_type operator=(value_type rhs); // Assignment operator inline AtomicCounter& operator=(const AtomicCounter& rhs); // Addition operator inline value_type operator+=(value_type rhs); // Subtraction operator inline value_type operator-=(value_type rhs); // Prefix increment operator inline value_type operator++(); // Prefix decrement operator inline value_type operator--(); // Postfix increment operator inline value_type operator++(int); // Postfix decrement operator inline value_type operator--(int); // Counter value value_type value; private: // No copy constructor defined inline AtomicCounter(const AtomicCounter&); }; // // Thread safe Atomic pointer class // template <typename T> class AtomicPointer { public: typedef T* value_type; // Default constructor inline AtomicPointer() : pointer(0); // Conversion operator inline operator value_type() const; // Assignment operator inline value_type operator=(value_type rhs); // Indirect access member operator inline value_type operator->() const;

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};

// Pointer value value_type pointer; private: // No copy constructor defined inline AtomicPointer(const AtomicPointer&);

} } #endif The following example shows a simple class that uses a recursive lock and mutex to only allow one thread at a time access to some shared data.

#include <map> #inclued <SCA/SCA.h> class SafeMap { public: // Method to set value in shared data void setMap(string key,int value) { SCA::Threading::RecursiveLock lock(m_mutex); m_mapData[key] = value; } // Method to get data from shared data int getMap(string key) { SCA::Threading::RecursiveLock lock(m_mutex); return m_mapData[key]; } private: // Map data that must be protected std::map<string,int> m_mapData; // Mutex for protecting map data SCA::Threading::RecursiveMutex m_mutex; }; The following example shows the use of an atomic counter to implement reference counting in a class.

class TestClass { public: . . . void addReference() { m_refCount++; } void releaseReference() { if(--m_refCount == 0) delete this;

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} private: SCA::Threading::AtomicCounter m_refCount; };

Kernel Thread Safety Configuration Options
There is a certain level of overhead associated with insuring that various pieces of the SCA Framework are thread-safe. If you are running in a single threaded environment you may wish to disable this feature. The SCA Kernel initialization processing provides the Locking configuration variable that allows you to turn off the thread safety logic. For details on setting SCA configuration variables see the SCA Kernel chapter of this manual.

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Threading Infrastructure

Threading Infrastructure
The SCA Framework leaves the issues relating to the starting and management of individual threads to the application. The reason for this is that only the application itself has the knowledge required to decide how threads should be used and the framework does not want to impose any restrictions relative to this. As a result the SCA Kernel does not provide any infrastructure to create and manage threads. Also internally the SCA Kernel does not use or have any expectation about the availability of multiple threads. Another reason the SCA Framework has chosen not to provide any thread management infrastructure is you typically do not want to use more than one threading management package in a single application. The use of more than one can cause over subscription of threads because the different packages do not know about each other which could cause performance issues. Since many of the applications that may want to use the features of the SCA Framework may already have their own threading support, it could cause problems if the framework used a different package.

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Testing Multi-Threaded Services
The SCA Framework provides the scautil utility program which provides a number of useful options. These are described in detail in the SCA Utility Program chapter of this manual. One of the options discussed in that chapter is the –test option which allows you to test SCA components. The –mtest option is a variant of this which allows you to test the thread safety of services in a multi-threaded environment. The use of the -mtest option is similar to the normal -test option except the service driving the test must implement the SCAIMultiThreadBatchTest interface instead of the SCAIBatchTest interface. The difference in this interface is that the output from the test should be returned as a string argument instead of being directly written to stdout. This way the results of each call can be checked without concern about the output from the various threads being interspersed. To run the test, the scautil application gets a single instance of the test service. A call is then made to the runMultiThreadBatchTest method in the test driver to get a baseline output in a single-threaded environment. It then creates and starts 25 threads. Each thread makes a single call to the runMultiThreadBatchTest method. The result of this is 25 different threads will be exercising the test simultaneously. After all of the threads have finished, the output of each is compared with the baseline output. The following is an example of using the –mtest argument. scautil –mtest SCA.ThreadSafety.TheadTester

SCA::Framework::SCAIMultiThreadBatchTest Interface Reference
SCAIMultiThreadBatchTest is the interface used by the scautil program to run batch tests on any service that implements it. In contrast to SCAIBatchTest, these tests are executed concurrently by multiple threads. To support the running of tests in a multi-threaded environment, all the output from the test service should be returned in the output arguments instead of being directly sending it to stdout. This way the results of the test can be easily tested without concern about the output from the various threads being interspersed with each other. Inherits SCA::SCAIService. Member Functions SCAResult runMultiThreadBatchTest (in SCAStringSequence args, out SCAString output)

Member Function Documentation

SCAResult runMultiThreadBatchTest

( in SCAStringSequence out SCAString )

args, output

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Runs a test on a service.
Parameters:

args

SCASequence of command line arguments

output The test must not write to stdout, instead all output should be appended to a string variable and returned through this parameter.

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Sample Multi-Threaded Application

Sample Multi-Threaded Application
In this section a small application is shown that demonstrates how you can use SCA services in a multithreaded environment. This application is actually a stripped down version the actual scautil code and does the same process as the –mtest option discussed in the previous section. This is the execution flow for the application.
• Loads a single instance of the service that drives the test. • Casts to the SCAIMultiThreadBatchTest interface. • Calls the runMultiThreadBatchTest method in a single threaded mode to establish a baseline set

of output.
• Creates and starts 20 threads with each calling the runMultiThreadBatchTest method. • The output from the test that is run in each thread is compared against the baseline output.

For the threading infrastructure, this sample application uses the Intel TBB library to start and manage threads. For the details on using the library the Intel TBB documentation should be consulted. Client.cpp #include <iostream> using namespace std; #include <SCA/SCAKernel.h> #include "SCA/Framework/SCAIMultiThreadBatchTest.h" #include <SCA/SCAKernel.h> #include <SCA/StringUtility.h> using namespace SCA; using namespace SCA::Framework; #include <tbb/task.h> #include "tbb/task_scheduler_init.h" // // Global variable for counting complete thread tasks // SCA::Threading::AtomicCounter tasksDone; // // Task for driving a thread instance // class TestThread : public tbb::task { public: TestThread(SCAIMultiThreadBatchTest spTest, SCAStringSequence args, SCAString& result) : m_spTest(spTest), m_args(args), m_result(result) { }; ~TestThread()

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};

{ }; tbb::task* execute() { m_spTest->runMultiThreadBatchTest(m_args,m_result); ++tasksDone; return NULL; } private: SCAIMultiThreadBatchTest m_spTest; SCAStringSequence m_args; SCAString& m_result;

int main() { try { cout << "Initializing the SCA Kernel" << endl; initializeSCAKernel(1); // Load test service SCAIMultiThreadBatchTest spTest; spTest = getSCAService("SDK.ThreadSafety.ThreadTester"); // Get baseline results SCAString baseline; SCAStringSequence sqTestArgs; sqTestArgs.push_back("0"); spTest->runMultiThreadBatchTest(sqTestArgs,baseline); cout << "*** Baseline results" << endl << baseline << endl; // Initialize the TBB library const int numThreads = 20; tbb::task_scheduler_init init(numThreads); // Create a list of tasks tbb::task_list tasks; SCAString results[numThreads]; for ( SCAInt32 i=0; i<numThreads; i++ ) { cout << "Allocating task for thread " << i+1 << endl; sqTestArgs[0] = StringUtility::stringFromInt32(i+1); TestThread& test = *new(tbb::task::allocate_root()) TestThread(spTest,sqTestArgs,results[i]); tasks.push_back(test); } // Start all the tasks and wait for them to finish cout << "Starting all threads" << endl << flush; tbb::task::spawn_root_and_wait(tasks); cout << flush; // Make sure all threads finished if ( tasksDone != numThreads )

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cout << "***Error: Only " << tasksDone << " of " << numThreads << " threads finished" << endl; // Check each thread result for ( SCAInt32 i=0; i<numThreads; i++ ) { if ( results[i] != baseline ) { cout << "*** Thread " << i+1 << " results are incorrect" << endl; cout << results[i] << endl; } else { cout << "*** Thread " << i << " results are correct" << endl; } } // Clean up spTest = NULLSP; // Terminate kernel terminateSCAKernel(); } catch( const SCAException& exc ) { cout << "Caught SCAException: " << exc.what() << endl; } } return 0;

We also need to implement a thread-safe SCA service to be tested. In this example it is a simple service that implements the SCAIMultiThreadBatchTest interface. To demonstrate a use of synchronization primitives, the test service will keep a std::map data structure. A single instance of this map will be shared by each thread. The runMultiThreadBatchTest method makes a series of modifications and queries on this data. Since the std::map data structure is not thread safe itself, a locking primitive is used to gain exclusive use of the structure every time it is accessed. The following SDL and CDL files are used to define the service. We do not need to create an IDL file because the only interface the service is implementing is defined in an IDL file that is delivered with the SCA Framework. ThreadTester.sdl #ifndef THREADTESTER_SDL_INCLUDED #define THREADTESTER_SDL_INCLUDED #include "SCA/Framework/BatchTest.idl" module SDK { module ThreadSafety { service SDK.ThreadSafety.ThreadTester { interface SCA::Framework::SCAIMultiThreadBatchTest; }; }; };

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#endif

ThreadTester.cdl

#ifndef THREADTESTER_CDL_INCLUDED #define THREADTESTER_CDL_INCLUDED #include "ThreadTester.sdl" component SDK.ThreadSafety.ThreadTester { service SDK.ThreadSafety.ThreadTester; }; #endif The following is the implementation for the service.

ThreadTester.h #ifndef SDK_THREADSAFETY_THREADTESTER_H_INCLUDED #define SDK_THREADSAFETY_THREADTESTER_H_INCLUDED #include "ThreadTesterBase.h" #include "SCA/Threading/Threads.h" using namespace SCA; using namespace SCA::Threading; #include <map> using namespace std; namespace SDK { namespace ThreadSafety { class ThreadTester : public ThreadTesterBase { public: // Constructor and Destructor ThreadTester(SCAIThreadTesterFactoryAccess* factoryAccess); virtual ~ThreadTester(); // Methods for interface SCA.Framework.SCAIMultiThreadBatchTest SCAResult runMultiThreadBatchTest(const SCAStringSequence& args, SCAString& output); private: // Private methods for manipulating map data void setMap(string,int); int getMap(string);

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// Map data that must be protected map<string,int> m_mapData; // Mutex for protecting map data RecursiveMutex m_mutex;

}; } }

#endif

ThreadTester.cpp #include "ThreadTester.h" #include "SCA/StringUtility.h" namespace SDK { namespace ThreadSafety { // Constructor ThreadTester::ThreadTester(SCAIThreadTesterFactoryAccess* factoryAccess) : ThreadTesterBase(factoryAccess) { } // Destructor ThreadTester::~ThreadTester() { } // Method to test multi-threaded access to shared map data SCAResult ThreadTester::runMultiThreadBatchTest( const SCAStringSequence& args, SCAString& output) { int count = 0; for ( int j=0; j<50; j++ ) { for ( int i=0; i<20; i++ ) { string key = "Key" + args[0] + "_" + StringUtility::stringFromInt32(i+1); setMap(key,(100*j+i+1)); } for ( int i=0; i<20; i++ ) { string key = "Key" + args[0] + "_" + StringUtility::stringFromInt32(i+1); count += getMap(key); } } output = StringUtility::stringFromInt32(count); return SCASuccess; } // Method to set value in map

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void ThreadTester::setMap(string key,int value) { RecursiveLock lock(m_mutex); m_mapData[key] = value; } // Method to get value from map int ThreadTester::getMap(string key) { RecursiveLock lock(m_mutex); return m_mapData[key]; } } } The following is the output from the test. For this test 20 threads were used. The results of the test show that each of the tests generates the same result as the single threaded baseline call. This demonstrates that shared data structures are being correctly synchronized. As a simple test of this you can comment the locking calls in the setMap and getMap methods of the ThreadTester class and rerun the tests. You will probably get incorrect results or even a crash because of corruption in the data structures being modified. Initializing the SCA Kernel SCA Kernel 4.8.0 successfully initialized *** Baseline results 353000 Allocating task for thread 1 Allocating task for thread 2 Allocating task for thread 3 Allocating task for thread 4 Allocating task for thread 5 Allocating task for thread 6 Allocating task for thread 7 Allocating task for thread 8 Allocating task for thread 9 Allocating task for thread 10 Allocating task for thread 11 Allocating task for thread 12 Allocating task for thread 13 Allocating task for thread 14 Allocating task for thread 15 Allocating task for thread 16 Allocating task for thread 17 Allocating task for thread 18 Allocating task for thread 19 Allocating task for thread 20 Starting all threads *** Thread 0 results are correct *** Thread 1 results are correct *** Thread 2 results are correct *** Thread 3 results are correct *** Thread 4 results are correct *** Thread 5 results are correct *** Thread 6 results are correct *** Thread 7 results are correct

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*** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***

Thread Thread Thread Thread Thread Thread Thread Thread Thread Thread Thread Thread

8 results are correct 9 results are correct 10 results are correct 11 results are correct 12 results are correct 13 results are correct 14 results are correct 15 results are correct 16 results are correct 17 results are correct 18 results are correct 19 results are correct

It is important to remember that because of the nondeterministic nature of multi-threaded programs, a single test like this does not guarantee the correctness of the code. A more reliable testing procedure is to use a tool that is specifically designed to analyze the execution flow of a multi-threaded application and detect potential race conditions. This tool can be used in conjunction with the SCA provided test driver to better determine the correctness of the code.

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Chapter 12: Versioning SCA Framework User’s Guide

12

Versioning
Introduction 350 351

 

Component Metadata

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Introduction
The SCA Framework does not currently support a formal versioning policy. Work is currently in progress to do this which will be available in a future release of the framework. The SCASCons build system does currently provide a facility that allows you to attach metadata to SCA components and offers several ways to access this data. This feature can be used to provide version information that users can use to implement their own versioning scheme if desired. Currently the component metadata is only supported in components written in C++.

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Component Metadata

Component Metadata
Each time a C++ SCA component is built; the SCASCons Build System will automatically add build date and build time information to it. This data can be extracted programmatically from inside the component’s code or externally directly from the shared library object. You can also add your own customized metadata to the component. This is done by defining a set of construction variables with special names of BUILDINFO_xxx. These variables can then be set to your desired value like any other construction variable. See the SCASCons Build System chapter of this manual for details on how construction variables are defined and set. The following shows an example of how build metadata can be added to a source tree. First we must update the SConstruct file in the root of the source code to define a new construction variable that will hold each piece of customized metadata. In this example we have defined four pieces of data. SConstruct # # Component metadata # Norm('BUILDINFO_MajorVersion','Major version number',None) Norm('BUILDINFO_MinorVersion','Minor version number',None) Norm('BUILDINFO_BuildVersion','Build version number',None) Norm('BUILDINFO_ComponentName','Component name',None) The values of the construction variables are normally set in the SConopts file in the root of the source tree. It is also possible to set these variables on the scons command line or in the SConscript files in the various directories in the tree. SConopts # # Set component metadata # BUILDINFO_MajorVersion = 4 BUILDINFO_MinorVersion = 8 BUILDINFO_BuildVersion = 0 BUILDINFO_ComponentName = "MessageDispatcher" Each time a component is built the build date, build time and the current values of any user defined metadata construction variables will be stored in its shared library. The easiest way to extract this metadata is with the scautil utility that is provided with the SCA Framework. Using the –buildinfo option and the name of the shared library for the component, it will print the value of each piece of metadata.

Command: cd /Kernel-V4-008/WINNT/bin Command: scautil -buildinfo SCA/Framework/MessageDispatcher.dll Build Information for SCA/Framework/MessageDispatcher.dll Build Date = Sep 3 2009 Build Time = 12:31:14

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MinorVersion MajorVersion BuildVersion ComponentName

= = = =

8 4 0 MessageDispatcher

You can also access the metadata programmatically from code inside the component. Note that this will only work from code inside the component because the symbols used are not exported from the components shared library. The following sample code shows how this can be done for a sample component. #include "MessageDispatcherBuildInfo.h" using namespace SCA::BuildInfo; SCAString SCAString SCAString SCAString SCAString SCAString cout cout cout cout cout cout cout << << << << << << << date = SCA_Framework_MessageDispatcher_BuildDate(); time = SCA_Framework_MessageDispatcher_BuildTime(); minor = SCA_Framework_MessageDispatcher_MinorVersion(); major = SCA_Framework_MessageDispatcher_MajorVersion(); bver = SCA_Framework_MessageDispatcher_BuildVersion(); name = SCA_Framework_MessageDispatcher_ComponentName();

"MessageDispatcher component build metadata" << endl; " Build Date " << date << endl; " Build Time " << time << endl; " Major version " << major << endl; " Minor version " << minor << endl; " Build version " << bver << endl; " Component Name " << name << endl;

One routine is generated for each piece of build information. These routines are always in the SCA::BuildInfo namespace and their names are of the form xxx_getyyy where xxx is the fully qualified component name with the periods replaced with underscore characters and yyy is the name of the BuildInfo variable. In this example, one of the generated routine names is SCA_Framework_MessageDispatcher_getComponentName. This is generated from the fully qualified component name, SCA.Framework.MessageDispatcher, and the BuildInfo variable name, ComponentName. A header file, MessageDispatcherBuildInfo.h, is also generated which declares these routines and should to be included in any routine that is using them. Note that the BuildDate and BuildTime data is always provided by default and does not need to be added by the user. If you want to expose this data to users of the component, you can define and implement an interface with appropriate methods to retrieve it. Currently all BuildInfo construction definitions are global to the source tree they are defined in. This means that every component built in the same source tree will have the same build metadata variables. But, it is possible to define different values to the variables for each component in the SConscript file in the directory where the component is built. Also, the build metadata is currently managed at a component level and not a service level.

Chapter 13: Configuring and Using the SCA Kernel SCA Framework User’s Guide

13

Configuring and Using the SCA Kernel
           

Introduction

354 355

Initializing and Terminating the Kernel Kernel Configuration Variables Kernel Configuration File 361 359

Runtime Access to Configuration Variables

364 365

Changing the Prefix for Environement Variable Names Building Applications using the SCA Kernel Running Applications using the SCA Kernel The SCA Services Catalog Other Configuration Files Service Manager 373 377 370 372 366 367

Shared Library Manager

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Introduction
The SCA Framework provides an infrastructure to facilitate the design, coding and building of applications. All access to these facilities is through a set of common services and interfaces provided by the framework. The SCA Kernel portion of the framework provides the runtime core functionality required by the framework. This includes the loading, unloading and lifecycle management of services and shared libraries and the processing of messages and events. The SCA Kernel is composed of the following services.
• ServiceManager which is responsible for loading and unloading of services. • SharedLibraryManager which is responsible for loading and unloading of shared libraries. • TextTranslation which provides the core message processing functions. • EventManager which provides facilities for event processing.

The TextTranslation service is described in the Messaging and Internationalization chapter in this manual and the EventManager is described in the SCA SDK Advanced Features manual. The rest of these services are discussed in this chapter. The SCA Kernel is delivered in the SCAKernel shared library. There is also a SCAKernelUtil shared library that is part of the kernel. The utility library is statically linked against the SCAKernel shared library and all SCA components.

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Initializing and Terminating the Kernel

Initializing and Terminating the Kernel
The SCA Kernel must be initialized by the application before any services may be loaded. When the kernel is initialized, a set of configuration data is required. This data can come from environment variables or from a XML configuration file. Using configuration file is recommended because there is less chance of conflicting environments between two different applications using the SCA Kernel. This section shows the API that is used for the initialization and termination of the SCA Kernel in all supported languages. Code examples in each language are provided later in this chapter.

SCA Kernel Initialization API
The following API is provided to initialize the SCA Kernel C++ void initializeSCAKernel( SCA::SCAInt32 verbose=0, const SCA::SCAString& configPath="") Java void SCA.SystemProvider.loadSCA() void SCA.SystemProvider.loadSCA(String configPath) C# void SCA.SystemProvider.loadSCA() void SCA.SystemProvider.loadSCA(string configPath) Visual Basic Sub SCA.SystemProvider.loadSCA() Sub SCA.SystemProvider.loadSCA(String configPath) Python import SCA Each of these calls will throw a SCASystemException exception if errors occur trying to initialize the kernel. The configPath argument in each of these calls is the name of the XML configuration file. If it is an empty string, the SCA Kernel is configured with environment variables. For Python the name of the configuration file must be provided on the Python command line which is discussed later in this chapter. The verbose argument controls the amount of the output generated by the initialization routines. If nonzero, the version of the SCA Kernel that is loaded will be printed.

SCA Kernel Termination API
The following API is provided to terminate the SCA Kernel

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C++ SCA::SCAInt32 terminateSCAKernel() SCA::SCAInt32 terminateSCAKernel(SCAStringSequence& orphans) Java void SCA.SystemProvider.unloadSCA() C# void SCA.SystemProvider.unloadSCA () Visual Basic Sub SCA.SystemProvider.unloadSCA() Python None available Each of these calls will throw a SCASystemException exception if errors occur trying to terminate the kernel. It is not required to explicitly terminate the SCA Kernel in your application. The required termination processing will automatically occur when the application terminates. You can explicitly terminate the kernel at an earlier point if you want to release any resources it is using. It is important to understand that the call to terminate of the SCA Kernel does not force the deleting of any SCA service objects instances that may still exist. The fact the instances still exist means that there are active references to them from somewhere else in the application. If the instances were forcibly deleted with active reference to them this could cause the application to crash at a later time. Instead these instances are left alone but they are disconnected from the SCA ServiceManager. This way the ServiceManager and other services in the kernel can still release their resources and terminate. When the active references to the left over service objects are finally remove, then they will automatically delete themselves. This process is called orphaning. Some of languages provide a termination call that will optionally provide a list of any orphaned services.

Examples of Configuring the SCA Kernel
The following simple examples show the use of the API to initialize and terminate the SCA Kernel in each of the supported languages. The examples do no useful work but are just provided to show the use of this API. C++ #include <iostream> #include <SCA/SCAKernel.h> using namespace std; using namespace SCA; int main() { try {

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}

cout << "Initializing the SCA Kernel" << endl; initializeSCAKernel(1); . . . cout << "Terminating the SCA Kernel" << endl; terminateSCAKernel(); } catch(SCAException& e) { cout << "Error: " << e.what() << endl; } return 0;

Java import SCA.*; import SCA.SystemProvider.*; public class Client{ public static void main (String args[]) { try{ System.out.println("Intitialize the SCA Kernel"); SCA.SystemProvider.loadSCA(); . . . System.out.println("Terminate the SCA Kernel"); SCA.SystemProvider.unloadSCA(); } catch (SCASystemException e) { System.out.println("Error: " + e.what()); } } } C# using System; using SCA; class ClientCS { static void Main(string[] args) { try { Console.WriteLine("Initialization the SCA"); SCA.SystemProvider.loadSCA(); . . . Console.WriteLine("Terminate the SCA"); SCA.SystemProvider.unloadSCA(); } catch (SCAException e) { Console.WriteLine("Error: " + e.what()); } } }

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Visual Basic Imports SCA Imports System Module ModuleMain Sub Main(ByVal args As String()) Try System.Console.WriteLine("Initialize the SCA Kernel") SystemProvider.loadSCA() . . . System.Console.WriteLine("Termination the SCA Kernel") SystemProvider.unloadSCA() Catch e As SCAException System.Console.WriteLine("Error: " + e.what()) End Try End Sub End Module

Python try: print "Initializing the SCA Kernel" import SCA except SCA.SCAException, e: print "Error:",e.what() . . .

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Kernel Configuration Variables

Kernel Configuration Variables
The SCA Kernel uses a set of configuration variables to help it locate required resources, libraries and to define other options. The configuration variables can be set using environment variables or from a XML configuration file, but not both. If a configuration file is used, the environment variables have no effect on that kernel. The following configuration variables are currently supported. For each configuration variable the environment variable associated with it is given. Variable Name KernelLibPath Resource Catalog XMLParser JavaPath JVMConfig LibraryPath Debug Locking N/A SCA_RESOURCE_DIR SCA_SERVICE_CATALOG SCA_XML_PARSER_DIR SCA_JAVA_COMP_PATH SCA_JVM_CONFIG SCA_LD_LIBRARY_PATH SCA_KERNEL_DEBUG SCA_KERNEL_LOCKING Environment Variable path List of paths List of paths List of paths List of paths List of options List of paths List of options on or off Value Type

The SCA_ prefix of each environment variable in the above table can be changed by the application. The API for this is discussed in a later section of this chapter. The following table provides the description and default value for each configuration variable. Variable Name KernelLibPath Description and Default Value Defines the path where the SCA Kernel shared library was loaded from. This value is determined internally by the kernel and cannot be set by the application. Defines a set of paths for the location of the SCA resource directories. The default uses the KernelLibPath configuration value and is directory KernelLibPath/../../res. Defines a set of paths for the files or directories where the SCA service catalog information is obtained. The default value is the file SCAServiceCatalog.xml in each of the directories specified in the Resource configuration value. At least one of these must exist.

Resource

Catalog

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Variable Name XMLParser

Description and Default Value Defines a set of paths for the directories the XML parser service will search for XML files. The search order used by the XML parser is to first look in the directories defined by this value and then to look in the directories defined by the Resource configuration value. If the requested XML file is not in any of these directories it looks in the current directory. Defines a set of paths for the root locations for loading Java components. The default value is the directory RESOURCE/../lib/java where RESOURCE is each of the directories specified in the Resource configuration value. Defines a set of configuration options for the Java virtual machine. Multiple options are separated by commas. See the Java Mapping chapter of this manual for a discussion of when this value is used and what its default is. Defines a set of paths for the root locations of C++ and .NET components. The default value is taken from the appropriate system environment library variable on the current platform (for example, PATH on WINDOWS and LD_LIBRARY_PATH on Linux). Defines a set of debug output options. Multiple options are separated by commas. The default is to generate no debug output. Specifies if thread safety is required for SCA Kernel. The default value is on.

JavaPath

JVMConfig

LibraryPath

Debug Locking

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Kernel Configuration File
An example XML configuration file is shown below. SCAConfig.xml <?xml version="1.0"?> <SCA> <session os="win32"> <tmp name="%APPSYS%" value="%SCAKERNEL_LIBPATH%/../.."/> <env name="%APPLOC%” value="MY_APPS_LOCAL"/> <var name="Resource" value="%APPLOC%/res;%APPSYS%/res"/> <tmp name="%TYPEJAR%" value="%APPLOC%/lib/java/IDLTypes.jar"/> <var name="JVMConfig" value="-Djava.class.path=%TYPEJAR%"/> <var name="Locking" value="off"/> </session> <session os="linux32"> <tmp name="%APPSYS%" value="%SCAKERNEL_LIBPATH%/../.."/> <env name="%APPLOC%” value="MY_APPS_LOCAL"/> <var name="Resource" value="%APPLOC%/res:%APPSYS%/res"/> <tmp name="%TYPEJAR%" value="%APPLOC%/lib/java/IDLTypes.jar"/> <var name="JVMConfig" value="-Djava.class.path=%TYPEJAR%"/> <var name="Locking" value="off"/> </session> </SCA> The configuration files following the following rules.
• The root tag must be <SCA> • The options for each platform should be grouped inside a <session> tag. A session must exist

for the platform you are running on.
• If the value type is a list of paths, the paths must be separated by either a colon or semicolon

depending on the current platform.
• If the value type is list of options, the options are separated by commas. • The syntax <var name=”X” value=”Y”> sets the configuration variable X = Y • The syntax <tmp name=”T” value=”S”> specifies a temporary variable T = S • The syntax <env name=”E” value=”N”> specifies a temporary variable whose value is set to

the value of the specified environment variable. E = NVAL where NVAL is the value of environment variable N. A configuration error will occur if the specified environment variable is not set.
• While not required, the convention is for all temporary variable names to be enclosed in percent

signs such as %T% so they are easily distinguished from real configuration values. The value of these variables will be substituted verbatim for all occurrences of the name in the remaining entries in the current session.
• The temporary variable %SCAKERNEL_LIBPATH% is a reserved name that stands for the

directory where the shared library for the SCA Kernel was loaded from. It is determined by the SCA Kernel at runtime.

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The following are the supported platform names.

win32 win64 aix alpha hpux irix hpuxipf solaris linux64 linux32 linuxipf The following is an example of a simple setting of a configuration variable. This example sets the value of the Locking variable to off. <var name="Locking" value="off"/> The configuration process supports the concept of temporary variables. Temporary variables can be used to create a value that can subsequently be used in the setting of several configuration values. This way the logic does not need to be repeated in more than one configuration entry. Temporary variables may also be used to include the settings for system environment variables in the configuration settings. The convention for temporary variable names is to enclose them in percent signs like %APPLOC%. While this is not a requirement, it is a good practice because it reduces the chance that the name of the temporary variable will appear elsewhere in a configuration value which could cause undesired substitutions. Every occurrence of the temporary variable name in all of the entries in the current session will be substituted with its value. Note that this substitution occurs in every entry, even those that appear before the definition of the temporary variable in the configuration file. To include the setting of a system environment variable in the configuration you must first set a temporary variable with its value. Only temporary variable names can be set to the value of an environment variable. You cannot directly set an actual configuration variable. The following is a sample configuration file entry that sets the temporary variable %APPLOC% to the current value of the environment variable MY_APPS_LOCAL. <env name=”%APPLOC%” value="MY_APPS_LOCAL” > Temporary variable names can also be set in the configuration file. In this example the %TYPEJAR% temporary variable is set to a string value. In this case the string value used contains an instance of another temporary variable and its value will be substituted during the process. <tmp name="%TYPEJAR%" value="%APPLOC%/lib/java/IDLTypes.jar"/>

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Kernel Configuration File

The special reserved temporary variable of %SCAKERNEL_LIBPATH% is set by the SCA Kernel to the directory where the actual SCA Kernel shared library was loaded from. This value can then be used to set other values in the configuration file. <tmp name="%APPSYS%" value="%SCAKERNEL_LIBPATH%/../.."/>

Default Configuration File Location
The SCA Kernel provides a set of default locations for the XML configuration file. If a special string, auto, is specified as the configuration path, the SCA Kernel will look for the following files and use the first one it finds. All of these locations are relative to the value of the KernelLibPath configuration value. KernelLibPath/SCAConfig.xml KernelLibPath/../bin/SCAConfig.xml KernelLibPath/../../res/SCAConfig.xml The following is an example of using this feature. C++ initializeSCAKernel(1,"auto");

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Runtime Access to Configuration Variables

Runtime Access to Configuration Variables
The following API is provided to access the configuration variables at runtime. These functions are currently only available in C++. SCAStringSequence SCA::getSCAEnv( const SCAString variable ) SCAString SCA::getSCAEnvValue( const SCAString variable ) The definition of these symbols is in the SCA/KernelConfiguration.h include file delivered with the SCA Framework. The first routine returns a sequence of strings containing paths or options that were set for the requested variable. The second routine returns a single string value of the configuration variable. The function should only be used for single value options, such as Locking. For multi-value options it will only return the first value.

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Changing the Prefix for Environement Variable Names

Changing the Prefix for Environement Variable Names
When using environment variables to configure the SCA Kernel, the default name of each environment variable starts with SCA_. There may be cases where this may cause conflicts with other requirements of your application. The following API is provided which allows you to change this prefix. SCA_EXPORT SCAVoid setSCAEnvPrefix( const SCAString prefix ); SCA_EXPORT SCAString getSCAEnvPrefix( ); The following example call will change the configuration process so each of the configuration values will use an environment variable with a name like MYAPP_RESOURCE_DIR instead of SCA_RESOURCE_DIR. setSCAEnvPrefix("MYAPP"); Current these functions are only available in C+.

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Building Applications using the SCA Kernel

Building Applications using the SCA Kernel
The only special requirement when building an application using the SCA Framework is the executable or shared library that does the actual initialization of the SCA Kernel needs to be linked with the SCAKernel and SCAKernelUtil shared libraries. These libraries are provided with the SCA Framework. The following SCASCons SConscript file can be used to build the executable for a simple application that uses the SCA Framework. Import("env_base") env = env_base.Copy() #============== Perform local customization here ================= env.Append(LIBS=["SCAKernel","SCAKernelUtil"]) env.BuildProgram("Client") #================================================================== retval = env.ProcessDir(env_base) Return('retval') For more information on the use of the SConscript files, see the SCASCons Build System chapter in this manual.

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Running Applications using the SCA Kernel

Running Applications using the SCA Kernel
The following example CSH scripts show what is required to run an application using the SCA Framework written in each of the supported languages. In this case a very simple configuration is used and the required values are set using environment variables. The Resource configuration value is the only value that is set. C++ #! /bin/csh # set ILOCAL = D:/Builds/Initialization/Apps set DLOCAL = $ILOCAL/WINNT # set ISYSTEM = D:/Kernel-WINNT/Apps-Opt set DSYSTEM = $ISYSTEM/WINNT # set path = ( $DLOCAL/bin $DLOCAL/lib $DSYSTEM/bin $DSYSTEM/lib $path ) # setenv SCA_RESOURCE_DIR "$ISYSTEM/res" # $DLOCAL/bin/ClientCPP.exe Java #! /bin/csh # set ILOCAL = D:/Builds/Initialization/Apps set DLOCAL = $ILOCAL/WINNT # set ISYSTEM = D:/Kernel-WINNT/Apps-Opt set DSYSTEM = $ISYSTEM/WINNT # set path = ( $DLOCAL/bin $DLOCAL/lib $DSYSTEM/bin $DSYSTEM/lib $path ) # setenv JRE /ThirdParty/jdk/1.6.0/WINNT set JAVALIB = $ILOCAL/lib/java set path = ( $path $JRE/jre/bin/client ) # setenv SCA_RESOURCE_DIR "$ISYSTEM/res" # $JRE/bin/java -Xms256m -Xmx512m –cp \ "$JAVALIB;$JAVALIB\IDLTypes.jar;$JAVALIB\ClientJava.jar" Client C# or Visual Basic #! /bin/csh # set ILOCAL = D:/Builds/Initialization/Apps set DLOCAL = $ILOCAL/WINNT # set ISYSTEM = D:/Kernel-WINNT/Apps-Opt

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set DSYSTEM = $ISYSTEM/WINNT # set path = ( $DLOCAL/bin $DLOCAL/lib $DSYSTEM/bin $DSYSTEM/lib $path ) # setenv SCA_RESOURCE_DIR "$ISYSTEM/res" # $DLOCAL/bin/ClientCS.exe Python #! /bin/csh # set ILOCAL = D:/Builds/Initialization/Apps set DLOCAL = $ILOCAL/WINNT # set ISYSTEM = D:/Kernel-WINNT/Apps-Opt set DSYSTEM = $ISYSTEM/WINNT # setenv PYTHONPATH "$ISYSTEM/lib/python;$DSYSTEM/bin" setenv PYTHONHOME /ThirdParty/Python/2.5.0-1/WINNT # set path = ( $DLOCAL/bin $DLOCAL/lib $DSYSTEM/bin $DSYSTEM/lib $path ) set path = ( $PYTHONHOME/libs $path ) # setenv SCA_RESOURCE_DIR "$ISYSTEM/res" # $PYTHONHOME/python ClientPy/Client.py With the exception of Python, the only change to these scripts to use a XML configuration files would be to remove the setting of the SCA_RESOURCE_DIR environment variable. The initialization for the SCA Kernel in the source code for the application would also have to be changed to include the name of the XML configuration file. For this simple example, the following XML configuration file is equivalent to the previous environment variable examples. SCAConfig.xml <?xml version="1.0"?> <SCA> <session os="win32"> <var name="Resource" </session> <session os="win64"> <var name="Resource" </session> <session os="linux32"> <var name="Resource" </session> <session os="linux64"> <var name="Resource" </session> </SCA>

value="%SCAKERNEL_LIBPATH%/../../res"/> value="%SCAKERNEL_LIBPATH%/../../res"/> value="%SCAKERNEL_LIBPATH%/../../res"/> value="%SCAKERNEL_LIBPATH%/../../res"/>

An example of a modified initialization call follows.

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initializeSCAKernel(1,"SCAConfig.xml"); The API to initialize the SCA Kernel in Python does not provide the ability to specify the name of a XML configuration file. In Python, you must include this information on the command line that runs the Python interpreter. In the above sample script for Python we would use the following line to accomplish this.

$PYTHONHOME /python ClientPy/Client.py -SCAConfig="SCAConfig.xml"

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The SCA Services Catalog

The SCA Services Catalog
The SCA service catalogs are XML files used by the SCA Kernel to determine which services are available and in which component they are contained. These catalog files are created by the SCASCons build system when you build your components and normally they should not be manually changed.

SCASCons Build options for catalog processing
The SCASCons build system can create either a single XML service catalog with entries for all the components it builds in the current source tree or it can create a separate XML file for each component. The use of separate XML files can make the delivery of SCA components to other users easier if more than one component is built in the same source tree. With this option it is easier to package up and install the files for a component because all of its information is in files unique to the component. If the single XML file option is used, then the installation procedure has to update an existing catalog file or create a new one for each component installed which complicates the process. If you are not delivering the components separately you may wish to use a single XML catalog file because it is slightly more efficient. The following examples shows how the construction variables for the SCASCons build system are used to control these options. Single Catalog File: SCACATALOGDIR = ‘$APPS_LOCAL/res’ SCACATALOG = ‘SCAServiceCatalog.xml’ Separate catalog file for each SCA component: SCACATALOGDIR = ‘$APPS_LOCAL/res/catalog’ SCACATALOG = ‘split_by_component’ For more information on the setting of build system construction variables, see the SCASCons Build System chapter in this manual.

Catalog Configuration Options
The Catalog configuration variable is used to specify the locations of the SCA service catalogs. It contains a list of path entries where each one can point to either a single catalog file or to a directory. If the entry is a directory then every XML file in that directory will be read and each one must be a valid catalog file. If the Catalog configuration value is not defined the kernel will look for the file SCAServiceCatalog.xml in each directory included in the Resource configuration value.

Service Catalog Precedence Rule for Duplicate Entries
If the same service is defined in more than one catalog file, the first one found will be used. Any subsequent entries will be ignored.

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The SCA Services Catalog

Sample Service Catalog File
The following is a sample SCA service catalog file.

<?xml version="1.0" ?> <SCA> <component language="C++" library="SCAKernel" name="SCAKernel"> <service name="SCA.Framework.EventManager" /> <service name="SCA.Framework.ServiceManager" /> <service name="SCA.Framework.SharedLibraryManager" /> <service name="SCA.Framework.ResourceManager" /> <service name="SCA.Framework.TextTranslation" /> </component> <component language="C++" library="SCA/Framework/MessageDispatcher" name="SCA.Framework.MessageDispatcher"> <service name="SCA.Framework.MessageDispatcher" /> </component> </SCA>

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Other Configuration Files

Other Configuration Files
The SCA Kernel also requires several other types of configuration files.

IDL Type Definitions Files
To support the various dynamic features of the SCA Framework like scripting and the SCAAny data type, the SCA Kernel needs to know information about the various interfaces and types that are defined in IDL files. For details on these features see the IDL Language chapter in this manual and SCA SDK Advanced Features manual. The SCA Kernel gets this type information from a set of XML files generated by the IDL compiler. These files are stored in the directory RESOURCE/types where RESOURCE is each of the directories specified in the Resource configuration value.

Message Files
Application defined messages are stored in XML files that are installed as part of the build process. These XML files are stored in the directories specified by the Resource configuration value or in a subdirectory of them. See the Messages and Internationalization chapter of this manual for complete details on these XML files and how they are located.

Language Support Files
The SCA Kernel requires several XML configuration files which define the supported languages and country codes available to internationalize messages. These files must be stored in one of the directories specified by the Resource configuration value. 1. LocaleLanguagesMap.xml 2. LocaleCountriesMap.xml The language support files are discussed in detail in the Messages and Internationalization chapter of this manual.

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Service Manager

Service Manager
The ServiceManager service provides important interfaces for managing the available services. These interfaces expose methods to load services and to query kernel information and available services. This section describes these interfaces and provides examples to illustrate their usage.

SCA::Framework::SCAIServiceProvider Interface Reference
Interface used to load SCA services. Inherits SCA::SCAIService. Member Functions SCAResult getService (in SCAString sName, in SCAString sAttr, out SCAIService spService)

Member Function Documentation

SCAResult getService

( in SCAString in SCAString out SCAIService )

sName, sAttr, spService

Loads a SCA service.
Parameters:

[in] [in] [out]

sName sAttr

Fully qualified name of the service to load Additional keyword=value attributes to specify additional information about the service to be loaded

spService SCAIService interface to the loaded service

Return values:

SCAResult

Status of the request

The SCAIServiceProvider interface implemented in the ServiceManager is the only way to load a SCA service. The various language bridges and mappings provide different APIs to load services. For example the C++ language mappings provides the routine m_serviceAccess.getService()for loading services when

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inside other SCA services or the routine getSCAService when external to a SCA service. But all of these APIs eventual use the SCAIServiceProvider interface to do the actual loading of the service.

SCA::Framework::SCAIKernelInfo Interface
SCAIKernelInfo is used to query the Kernel version and other information

Member Functions SCAResult SCAResult SCAResult getMajorVersion (out SCAString sMajorVersion) getMinorVersion (out SCAString sMinorVersion) getBuildVersion (out SCAString sBuildVersion)

Member Function Documentation

SCAResult getBuildVersion ( out SCAString sBuildVersion ) Returns the build version.
Parameters:

sBuildVersion
Returns:

Build version

Returns SCASuccess on success, else returns an error. SCAResult getMajorVersion ( out SCAString sMajorVersion ) Returns the major version .
Parameters:

sMajorVersion
Returns:

Major version

Returns SCASuccess on success, else returns an error. SCAResult getMinorVersion ( out SCAString sMinorVersion ) Returns the minor version.
Parameters:

sMinorVersion

Minor version

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Returns:

Returns SCASuccess on success, else returns an error. The following example demonstrates how to get the Kernel version and build date using the SCAIKernelInfo interface.

#include <SCA/Framework/SCAIKernelInfo.h> #include <SCA/StringUtility.h> namespace std; using namespace SCA; using namespace SCA::Framework; // Get Kernel Version and build date SCAIKernelInfo spInfo; spInfo = getSCAService("SCA.Framework.ServiceManager"); SCAString sMajor,sMinor,sBuild; spInfo->getMajorVersion(sMajor); spInfo->getMinorVersion(sMinor); spInfo->getBuildVersion(sBuild); cout << "SCA Kernel version is " << sMajor << "." << sMinor << "." << sBuild << endl; SCAString sDate,sTime; spInfo->getBuildDate(sDate); spInfo->getBuildTime(sTime); cout << "SCA Kernel was built on " << sDate << " at " << sTime << endl; spInfo = NULLSP;

SCA::Framework::SCAIServiceCatalog Interface
SCAIServiceCatalog is used to manage the service catalog

Member Functions SCAResult SCAResult getAvailableServices (out SCAStringSequence sqServices) getServiceInfo (in SCAString sName, out ServiceInfo info)

Member Function Documentation

SCAResult getAvailableServices ( out SCAStringSequence sqServices ) Gets the list of available services.
Parameters:

sqServices

Available services

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Returns:

Returns SCASuccess on success, else returns an error. SCAResult getServiceInfo ( in SCAString sName, out ServiceInfo info ) Gets the service information.
Parameters:

sName info Returns:

Service name Service information

Returns SCASuccess on success, else returns an error. This example demonstrates how to get the list of services and query information on them using the SCAIServiceCatalog interface. #include #include #include #include <iostream> <SCA/Framework/SCAIKernelInfo.h> <SCA/Framework/SCAIServiceCatalog.h> <SCA/StringUtility.h>

using namespace std; using namespace SCA; using namespace SCA::Framework; // Query the available services and get service information SCAIServiceCatalog spCatalog; spCatalog = getSCAService("SCA.Framework.ServiceManager"); SCAStringSequence services; spCatalog->getAvailableServices(services); for ( size_t i=0; i<services.size(); i++ ) { SCAString name = services.r_at(i); ServiceInfo info; SCAResult rstat = spCatalog->getServiceInfo(name,info); SCAStringSequence parts; parts = StringUtility::split(info.genericName,"/"); cout << setiosflags(ios::left) << setw(50) << name << setw(25) << parts.r_at(parts.size()-1) << setw(8) << info.language << setw(5) << info.loadCount << endl; }; spCatalog = NULLSP;

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Shared Library Manager

Shared Library Manager
The SharedLibraryManager service provides an interface for the loading and unloading of shared libraries.

SCA::Framework::SCAISharedLibraryManager Interface Reference
The SCAISharedLibraryManager interface provides the methods for processing shared libraries. Inherits SCA::SCAIService. Member Functions SCAResult SCAResult SCAResult SCAResult SCAVoid loadLibrary (in SCAString sName, out SCAInt32 iHandle) releaseLibrary (in SCAInt32 iHandle) findFunction (in SCAInt32 iHandle, in SCAString sFuncName, out SCAVoidPtr pSym) getLibraryInfo (in SCAInt32 iHandle, out SCAString sGenericName, out SCAString sRealName) setReleaseQueueSize (in SCA::SCAUInt32 size)

Member Function Documentation

SCAResult findFunction

( in SCAInt32 in SCAString out SCAVoidPtr )

iHandle, sFuncName, pSym

findFunction returns the pointer to a requested function if it exists. Parameters:

iHandle sName pSym Returns:

handle to the library (obtained via loadLibrary) name of the function whose pointer is requested pointer to symbol

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status of request 0 if the symbol was found

SCAResult getLibraryInfo

( in SCAInt32 out SCAString out SCAString )

iHandle, sGenericName, sRealName

getLibraryInfo returns the generic library name and the real shared library object name Parameters:

iHandle sGenericName sRealName Returns:

handle to the library (obtained via loadLibrary) generic library name real shared object name

status of request 0 if the name was returned

SCAResult loadLibrary

( in SCAString out SCAInt32 )

sName, iHandle

loadLibrary opens the shared library Parameters:

sName SCAIHandle Returns:

name of the library handle to the opened library

status of request 0 if the library was loaded correctly

SCAResult releaseLibrary

( in SCAInt32

iHandle

)

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releaseLibrary decrements the reference count on the shared library. The library may be unloaded if there are no other references to it Parameters:

iHandle Returns:

handle to the library (obtained via load)

status of request

SCAVoid setReleaseQueueSize

( in SCA::SCAUInt32

size

)

setReleaseQueueSize change the release buffer size to the given size Parameters:

size

real shared object name

Library loading logic
The procedure the SharedLibraryManager uses to locate the shared library to load depends on whether the name passed to the loadLibrary method is an absolute or relative name. If the input name is an absolute path of the form of /.../libname or C:/.../libname then the library is loaded directly from the path given. The libname portion of the name is also modified to include the appropriate prefix and suffix required for shared libraries on the current platform. This is the only attempt made for an absolute path. If the input name is a relative name meaning it contains an embedded path separator character but not a leading one, like dir/libname, or if only the library name is supplied, like libname, then the following logic is used. The libname portion of the name is first modified to include the appropriate prefix and suffix required for shared libraries on the current platform. The LibraryPath configuration variable is

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then used to find the list of paths to search for the library. If LibraryPath is not set then the following platform specific environment variables are used. Platform Windows AIX IRIX Environment Variable LIB LIBPATH LD_LIBRARY64_PATH LD_LIBRARY_PATH Other Linux/Unix LD_LIBRARY_PATH

The relative or library only name is then appended to each search path. If the search path entry is a relative directory name, it is made absolute by adding the current working directory to the name. Internally the SharedLibraryManager always uses absolute paths when loading libraries. This is done for several reasons.
• This keeps the number of directories that must be tried to load the shared library to a minimum.

Since most shared libraries for SCA components are in subdirectories and not the root directory, you would have to include each subdirectory in the system search path list. But since the SharedLibraryManager assembles the absolute directories itself, you can give it a name relative to the root directory and it will only need to try to load from the single subdirectory required.
• The operating system rules for how the system search path for loading shared libraries is used is

different on the various platforms supported by SCA. By bypassing the Operating System's processing of the system search path it is possible to provide a consistent loading behavior across all platforms.

Library Release Queue
The life cycle control logic provided by the ServiceManager will unload the shared libraries for SCA components when all references to the services in the component have been released. To avoid unnecessary load and unload requests should one of the services in the component be immediately loaded again, the SharedLibraryManager does not immediately unload shared libraries when requested. Instead it keeps a queue of unload requests and will only unload the actual library when the queue is full. At this point the shared library for the oldest queue entry is unloaded. The default size of the queue is 10 entries but this can be changed with the setReleaseQueueSize interface member. Setting the size of the release queue to zero will disable this feature.

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Shared Library Manager

SharedLibraryManager example
The following example shows using the SharedLibraryManager to load and call a function in a shared library. In this example we will be calling the SCA_CompInfo entry in the SCA Kernel shared library to extract all the build information that is stored in the library.

#include #include #include #include #include

<iostream> <SCA/SCAKernel.h> <SCA/KernelConfiguration.h> <SCA/Framework/SCAISharedLibraryManager.h> <SCA/StringUtility.h>

using namespace std; using namespace SCA; using namespace SCA::Framework; // Load the SharedLibraryManager Service SCAISharedLibraryManager spLib; spLib = getSCAService("SCA.Framework.SharedLibraryManager"); // Load the SCA Kernel shared library SCAString kernelLibPath = getSCAEnvValue("KernelLibPath"); SCAString kernelLib = kernelLibPath + "/SCAKernel"; SCAInt32 iHandle; SCAResult rStatus = spLib->loadLibrary(kernelLib,iHandle); if( rStatus ) { cout << "Error: Could not load library " << kernelLib << endl; return 1; } // Get the address of the "SCA_CompInfo" symbol SCAVoid* pSym; rStatus = spLib->findFunction(iHandle,"SCA_Comp_Info",&pSym); if( !rStatus ) { SCAString sValue; SCAString (*pfunc)(SCAString) = (SCAString(*)(SCAString))pSym; cout << "Build Information for " << kernelLib << endl << endl; // Get the build date sValue = pfunc("BuildDate"); if ( sValue.length() > 0 ) cout << " Build Date = " << sValue << endl; // Get the build time sValue = pfunc("BuildTime"); if ( sValue.length() > 0 ) cout << " Build Time = " << sValue << endl; // Get the other build information entries sValue = pfunc("?"); SCAStringSequence varNames = StringUtility::split(sValue,","); for ( size_t iLoc=0; iLoc<varNames.size(); iLoc++ ) { sValue = pfunc(varNames[iLoc]); if ( sValue.length() > 0 ) cout << " " << left << setw(17)

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} } else { cout << "No build information was available library" << kernelLib << endl; } spLib->releaseLibrary(iHandle); spLib = NULLSP;

<< varNames.r_at(iLoc) << " = " << sValue << endl;

Chapter 14: Utility Services SCA Framework User’s Guide

14

Utility Services
Introduction XML Parser 384 385

 

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Introduction
This chapter discusses the following utility services that are provided as part of the SCA Framework.
• XML Parser • • •

Regular Expression Facility System Utilities Stream I/O Utilities

Chapter 14: Utility Services 385
XML Parser

XML Parser
The XML Parser is an efficient and high performance SCA compliant XML reader/writer utility component. It is provides a set of services and interfaces to facilitate the parsing, generating, manipulating, and validating of XML documents. It consolidates various features of different XML Parsers by using a standard set of interfaces in a uniform manner across different products within the Simulation enterprise umbrella. XML Parser is implemented as a wrapper around libxml2, which is a third party XML library. The XML Parser supports the following parsing mechanisms. 1. Tree based parsing - Document Object Model (DOM) This mechanism provides access to the information stored in the XML document as ahierarchical object model. The DOM parser creates a tree of nodes based on the structure and information in the XML document. Once the document is loaded, the user can manipulate the data by traversing the tree. 2. Event driven parsing - Simple API for XML (SAX) This mechanism provides access to the information stored in the XML document through a set of predefined events. The parser fires a sequence of these events depending on the tags encountered while reading an XML document. The user needs to provide event handlers to intercept and process the events. 3. XSLT style sheet processor XSLT is a declarative XML language that allows you to translate XML files into arbitrary text output using a style sheet. The XSLT processor provides the functions to perform the required transformation. The XML parser is composed of the following services.
• • •

SCA.MXP.MXPDOMParser –The DOM parser SCA.MXP.MXPSAXParser –The SAX parser SCA.MXP.MXPXSLT – The XSLT style sheet processor

In the following sections we will discuss the interfaces supported by the XML Parser and provide some usage examples. DOM Parser Interfaces

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Chapter 15: SCA Utility Program and Testing Components SCA Framework User’s Guide

15

SCA Utility Program and Testing Components
  

Introduction

388 389 393

The SCA Utility Program

Testing of SCA components

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Introduction
This chapter describes the functionality available in the SCA Framework for testing of services and components. In particular it discusses the SCA utility program scautil and the TestRun environment routine of the SCA SCons build system. The combination of these two can be used to test loading of components, query information and run tests. The tests could be run either manually or as part of the build process.

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The SCA Utility Program

The SCA Utility Program
The SCA utility program scautil is used to perform the following tasks.
• Test Kernel initialization • Run a test service • Run a script • Test loading of a shared library • Query the Kernel information • Query the shared library build information

There is no script provided with the SCA Framework to run the scautil program because it would be difficult to provide one that was general enough to be helpful. But, the scautil is just a normal SCA application and it requires the same configuration as any SCA application. The details of this are discussed in SCA Kernel chapter of this manual. As an example, the following simple C shell script could be used to run the delivered version of the Framework. #! /bin/csh # set ISYSTEM = D:/SCAKernel-V4-007 set DSYSTEM = $ISYSTEM/WINNT # set path = ( $DSYSTEM/lib $DSYSTEM/bin $path ) # setenv SCA_SERVICE_CATALOG "$ISYSTEM/res/SCAServiceCatalog.xml" # setenv SCA_RESOURCE_DIR "$ISYSTEM/res" # $DSYSTEM/bin/scautil.exe $* Typically, you would need to modify this to also point to the APPS directory for the components you have built. The syntax for running scautil is a follows. Syntax: scautil [arg1] [arg2] [arg3] . . . The rest of this section describes the usage of the scautil program.

Print the help message
The –h argument can be used to generate a listing of all the available options that the scautil program supports. scautil -h

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Testing Kernel Initialization
If no arguments are provided to the command, the program initializes the SCA Kernel and then exits. This can be used to test for the proper configuration of the Kernel. Usage: scautil Output: SCA Kernel 4.7.0 successfully initialized SCAUtil: No arguments were specified SCAUtil: Kernel loaded successfully and is now cleaning up

Running a Batch Test
One of the most commonly used options of the scautil utility is to use it to run component tests. To do this you must code a test service which implements the SCAIBatchTest interface. The requested service is loaded and the runBatchTest method is called. Any additionally arguments supplied on the command line are passed to the service in a sequence of strings. Usage: scautil -test servicename [optional arguments...] Examples: scautil -test Test.Kernel.Test BaseImpl SmartPointer The complete details of this feature are described later in this chapter.

Run a Script
The –script option can be used to run a script using the runScript method of the ScriptBroker service. Usage: scautil -script file Example: scautil -script test.py

Test Loading of a Shared Library
The –testload option can be used to test if the specified library exists and can be loaded correctly. If the loading of the library fails, a detailed error message is provided which can be helpful to determine why the load failed.

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Usage: scautil -testload [-noinfo] library_name This option also checks if any of the known symbols that a SCA component might export from a library exist and outputs this information. If the optional argument –noinfo is specified as the second argument, the library is loaded but no information will printed except for the appropriate errors if the load is unsuccessful. Example: scautil -testload SCAKernel.dll Output: SCA Kernel 4.7.0 successfully initialized Symbol SCA_Comp_Info was found at address 008869D0

Library generic name is SCAKernel Library full name is /SCA/SCAKernel-V4-007/WINNT/bin/SCAKernel.dll

Query SCA Kernel Information
The –kernelinfo command can be used to show the information about the SCA Kernel that is being used. Usage: scautil -kernelinfo

Output: SCA Kernel 4.7.0 successfully initialized Kernel Build Information Build Date Build Time Major Version Minor Version Source Label = = = = = Jul 28 2009 18:16:09 4 7 V4-007

Query Shared Library Build Information
To print the build and product information for the specified SCA component, you can use the -buildinfo option. Usage: scautil -buildinfo library_name

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Example: scautil -buildinfo C:/SCAKernel-V4-007/WINNT/bin/SCAKernel.dll Output: Build Information for SCAKernel.dll Build Date Build Time MajorVersion MinorVersion BuildVersion BuildLabel ProductName ProductLabel = = = = = = = = Jul 28 2009 18:16:09 4 7 0 V4-007 SCA Kernel SCA

Every SCA component will have information with the date and time of the build. See the SCA Build System Guide for the details on how you can add other build information to a component.

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Testing of SCA components

Testing of SCA components
The scautil command provides the –test option which can be used for testing components. To use this option, you normally write a separate service that is used to drive the test. This test service must implement the SCAIBatchTest interface.

SCA::Framework::SCAIBatchTest Interface Reference
SCAIBatchTest is interface used by the scautil program to run batch tests on any service that implements it. Inherits SCA::SCAIService.

Member Functions SCAResult runBatchTest (in SCAStringSequence args)

Member Function Documentation

SCAResult runBatchTest Runs test on a service.
Parameters:

( in SCAStringSequence

args )

args

SCASequence of command line arguments

Running Tests Manual
Tests can be run manually using the scautil program. scautil -test servicename [optional arguments...] For example the following command will test the base class implementation and smart pointers. scautil -test Test.Kernel.Test BaseImpl SmartPointer When manually running tests, the output you get is what is directly produced by the service you use to run the test. In order to check if the test was successful, you either have to have self checking built into the testing service or you need to compare the output against a baseline that you know is correct. Because of this, the preferable way is to run the tests using the SCA build system and the TestRun environment command which provides much more flexibility and power.

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Running Tests with the Build System
The TestRun environment command is used to run tests as part of the build process. This feature is primarily designed for cases where the tests can be run in a batch mode and is generally not appropriate for testing interactive applications. The basic idea is to run the test whenever the test component is built. The output from the run can then be compared to the baseline data contained in a text file to find any regressions. Syntax: Def TestRun ( program=None, component=None, baseline=None, command=None, args=None, aliases=None, fixup=None, nocatalog=None, loadpaths=None, setup=None, cleanup=None, title=None, dependfiles=None, dependaliases=None, preprocess=None, addtodefaults=None) The following are the arguments that are available for the TestRun routine. Argument program component Description Programs(s) that this test is dependent on. They must be built in the current build run. Components(s) that this test is dependent on. They must be built in the current build run. Non C++ components can be specified by prefacing them with the language and a virtical slash. (java|X.Y.Z) The baseline results file for the test. If this argument is omitted, then no check is performed on the test output. The actual command that will run the test. If this argument is omitted, then the first entry in the program argument is used. This argument may be a python function or an executable program in the Apps Local or Apps System bin directory. Any additional arguments to be passed to the command running the tests. Aliases that can be used as targets on the scons command to request the running of this test.

baseline command

args aliases

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Argument fixup nocatalog

Description Python script that is used to modify each line of output from the test run before it is compared to the baseline output. Normally the test is also made dependent on the Service catalog to make sure any catalog updates are done before the test is run. If this argument is set true, then this dependency is not established. Any extra paths for loading libraries to be used when running the test. These paths may be absolute or relative to the bin or lib subdirectory, depending on the current platform, in the APPS_LOCAL_MACH and APPS_SYSTEM_MACH directories. Python script that will be run before the actual test is run. It can be used to do any special setup processing that the run requires. Python script that will be run after the actual test is run. It can be used to do any required clean up processing after the test. Title which is printed out for test File or list of files that the test is dependent on Alias or list of aliases that the test is dependent on The baseline file is run through a macro preprocessor before it is used. The value of this option is a Python dictionary that contains the variables and their values which are referenced in the preprocessor commands. For example: env = {} env['VAR1'] = True env['VAR2'] = False env.TestRun(...,preprocess=env)

loadpaths

setup cleanup title dependfiles dependaliases preprocess

addtodefaults

If true, the targets of the test are added to the list of default targets. This way the test will run if no command line targets are provided. The normal behavior is the test will only run if it is requested by a target on the command line.

Setting up Test Aliases
Normally the env.TestRun command in your SConscript file should define an alias for the test. This makes it much easier to request which test you want to run on the scons command. The following shows an example of how this is done. env.TestRun(program="KernelUse", baseline="KernelUse.txt", aliases="KernelUseTest") env.TestRun(program="MemManager", baseline="MemManager.txt",

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aliases="MemManagerTest") To select the test you want to run, you use the alias name on the build command. scons KernelUseTest scons KernelUseTest MemManagerTest

Specifying when Tests run by Default
By default, the targets from the TestRun command are not added to the list of targets that SCons will build if you do not request any on the command line. This means if you use a build command similar to the following, the test will not be run. scons You can change this behavior by adding the addtodefaults argument on the TestRun command. Now the tests will be run when no targets are given on the command line. env.TestRun(program="MemManager", baseline="MemManager.txt", aliases="MemManagerTest" addtodefaults=True)

Running Test Using a SCA Test Component
A typical test scenario is to have a separate SCA component that is used to test your production components. Normally the component to do the testing is built in the same directory where the TestRun routine is issued. The following is an example of how this type of test is run. env.TestRun(component="Test.CatalogTest", command="scautil", args="-test Test.CatalogTest.Test", baseline="CatalogTest.txt", aliases="CatalogTest") In this case, the test component, Test.CatalogTest, is built in the current directory. The scautil command with the -test option is used to load and run the test service it contains. The output from the run is compared to the baseline data contained in the file CatalogTest.txt which is also in the current directory. This test will be run when the CatalogTest alias is specified on the scons command as follows. scons CatalogTest

Testing Using a Program
A similar test could have been done using a program instead of a SCA component as the test driver. This is shown in the following example. # Build a main program that depends on a shared library env.ProgDependsOnAlias("UtilTest","Utilities") env.BuildProgram("UtilTest")

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# Run the test and check the results env.TestRun(program="UtilTest", baseline="UtilitiesTest.txt", loadpaths="File/Utilities", alias=”UtilitiesTest”) In this example we are using a program, UtilTest, built in the current directory to run the tests on a nonSCA shared library, Utilities. The shared library is built in a different directory so we set up a dependency between the program and the shared library to make sure it will be built when needed. The TestRun routine specifies that we are using a program to run our tests. In this case, it is not necessary to specify the command to run since it is the same as was specified in the program argument. We have also used the loadpaths argument so the loader can find the shared library. This is required since the File/Utilities directory, where the shared library is built, is not in the default load path.

Testing Using Python Script
You can also use a Python script as the driver for the test. The following is an example of how this can be done. # Set Python's path to the current directory and import the script import sys sys.path.insert(0,env.AbsDirPathInSou(".")) import TestScript # Run the test env.TestRun( command=TestScript.test, baseline=”TestRun.txt”, aliases="TestRunTest") In this example, the TestRun routine executes the test function in the TestScript.py Python script. If you want to use the feature to compare the test results to a baseline, then the script should return a Python list containing the lines of output to be compared. The following is an example of what the Python script could look like. # Python script to drive test import SCA def test(env,args): output = [] spService = SCA.getService(‘Test.CatalogTest.Test’) if not spService: output.append(‘Error loading service’) return output (ret,inf) = spService.getInterface(‘SCA.Catalog.SCAICatalog’) if ret: output.append(str(ret)) return output entry = inf.getCatalogEntry(‘TestEntry’) output.append(‘Catalog entry = ’ + entry) return output

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Using a fixup Routine
Sometimes it is difficult to use the baseline compare feature because some lines of output change from run to run and these will always trigger an error. A simple example of this could be if the output contained the date of the run. To handle these situations, you can provide a Python script to the TestRun routine that is used to process each line of output before it is compared to the baseline. The following is an example of doing this. # Set Python's path to the current directory and import fixup script import sys sys.path.insert(0,env.AbsDirPathInSou(".")) import CatalogTestFixUp # Run the test env.TestRun(component="Test.CatalogTest", command="scautil", args="-test Test.CatalogTest.Test", baseline="CatalogTest.txt", fixup=CatalogTestFixUp.fixup, aliases="CatalogTest") In this example the fixup routine in the Python script CatalogTestFixUp.py is used to process each line of output. It looks for any occurrences of a date with the form dd/mm/yyyy and replaces it with a generic xx/xx/xxxx so the compare can be successful. import re def fixup(env,line): line = re.sub(" [0-9]{2}/[0-9]{2}/[0-9]{4} "," xx/xx/xxxx ",line) return line The fixup routine is called with two arguments. The first argument is the current SCons environment that the test is running in and the second argument is the line of output to be processed. The fixup routine can also specify that the output line should completely be deleted from the comparison as follows. def fixup(env,line): if line.find(“Sting to trigger line deletion”) > 0: return [] return line Or it can replace one line with several lines. def fixup(env,line): if line.find(“Line to be replace with several lines”) > 0: line = [] line.append(“new line 1”) line.append(“new line 2”) return line return line In general, the return value from the fixup routine should be one of the following.
• The original string value of the line

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• A new string value for the line • A list of string values to replace the original one. This list may be empty.

Using the Preprocessor on the Baseline Text
The fixup routine provides a convenient way to handle simple changes in the output which only affect a single line. If the changes that need to be made involve processing a block of lines as a unit then it can be difficult to do with the fixup feature. To handle these cases, the TestRun command provides a simple preprocessor that can be used to customize the baseline text before it is used to test the result. To use this feature you add a preprocessor argument to the TestRun command. The value of the argument is a Python dictionary which contains the preprocessor variable names and their values. The following example shows the use of this feature for the case where a particular test is only run the Windows platform. # Setup the preprocessor arguments vars = {} if env[‘MACHINE’] == “WINNT”: vars[‘WINNT’] = True else vars[‘WINNT’] = False # Run the test env.TestRun(component="Test.CatalogTest", command="scautil", args="-test Test.CatalogTest.Test", baseline="CatalogTest.txt", preprocess=vars, aliases="CatalogTest") The baseline text file, CatalogTest.txt, would then include the appropriate preprocessor command to skip the relative lines if the test is not being run on Windows. Line for all machine #if WINNT Line for Windows only #endif Line for all machines

Performing Setup and Clean Operations
There may be cases when you need to do some special setup processing before the test is run and related clean up processing after the test. An example of this may be the creation of special input files and the deleting of temporary files created during the test. It is important to remember that these types of operations should not be performed directly in the SConscript file for a number of reasons.
• Any setup type operations executed directly in the SConscript file will be performed every time

the build is run, even so the actual test may not be executed during the current build.

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• The SConscript file is always completely executed before any targets are built which means in

this case before any tests are run. As a result there is no way to perform any cleanup operations in SConscript file. The proper way to perform these types of operations is to use the setup and cleanup arguments in the TestRun command. Each of these should point to a Python routine which takes a single argument which is the SCons environment for the test. The setup routine, if provided, will be run immediately before the test is run and the cleanup routine will be run immediately after the test is run. The following shows an example of how these can be used. import os # Setup routine SetupFunc(env): # Create a test input file try: file = open(‘Test.data’, 'w') for i in range(1024): file.write(" ") file.close() except: pass # Cleanup routine CleanupFunc(env): try: os.remove(‘Test.data’) except: pass # Run the test env.TestRun(component="Test.CatalogTest", command="scautil", args="-test Test.CatalogTest.Test", baseline="CatalogTest.txt", setup=SetupFunc, cleanup=CleanupFunc, aliases="CatalogTest")

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Special Construction Variables used by the TestRun Command
The TestRun command also looks for several special construction variables in the build environment to provide additional control on the test. These are shown in the following table. Variable TESTRUN_DEBUG TESTRUN_ENV Meaning SCA Kernel debug parameters which are normally set with the system environment variable SCA_KERNEL_DEBUG. Python dictionary with values to be added to the operating system environment for the test.

TESTRUN_LOADPATH Replacements to the default Apps Local and Apps System locations that are added for the test command. These are in addition to any paths that are specified using the loadpaths argument to the TestRun command. The following example shows how these can be used. # Setup special environment for the test env['TESTRUN_DEBUG'] = "ShrLibLoad=all" pylib = os.path.join(env['APPS_LOCAL'],"lib","python") scripts = os.path.join(env['APPS_LOCAL'],"res","scripts") env['TESTRUN_ENV'] = { "PYTHONHOME":env['PYTHON_SYSTEM'], "PYTHONPATH":pylib+os.pathsep+scripts } # Run the test env.TestRun(component="Test.PythonTest", command="scautil", args="-test Test.PythonTest.Test", baseline="PythonTest.txt", aliases="PythonTest")

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Chapter 16: SCASCons Build System SCA Framework User’s Guide

16

SCASCons Build System

  

Introduction

404 405

Configuring the Build System Running the Build 418

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Introduction
The SCA Build System is used to build SCA Framework components. Together, the build system and the SCA IDL compiler make the development of SCA components easier for the programmer by automating many of the required steps in the coding and build process. The SCA build system utilizes the SCons utility to do the builds. SCons is an open source software build tool that is an improved cross-platform replacement for the classic Make utility. SCons is implemented as a Python script and set of modules. Because SCons configuration files are actually executed as Python scripts, build customization can be done using the Python language. The SCons system has been customized for the SCA environment and provides the following functionality.
• Automatic traversal of the source tree processing all directories containing a SConscript file • Setting up appropriate processing for every file in a directory with a supported file type • Automating the building and management of SCA components

This section provides a basic overview of the SCA build system and describes the steps for building a SCA service. For a complete description of the build system, see the document SCA Build System Guide.

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Configuring the Build System
The build system has to be configured before it can run successfully. The main parts of configuring the build are as follows: 1. Create the source tree, which contains all the code files to build. 2. Create the configuration files in the source tree with proper construction variables. 3. Install the SCA Build System (if it is not already installed). 4. Install any required third party software. 5. Set the system environment variables.

Construction Variables
The SCA build system uses construction variables containing string values that are substituted into command lines or used by the builder functions. The construction variables may contain paths, compiler flags and other build options. The following places can be used to specify the construction variables. 1. The SConscript files in each directory 2. Using command line arguments 3. The SConopts.user option file in the users home directory 4. The SConopts option file in the root directory of the source tree Examples: APPS_DIR = "MyComponent-015" SCA_OBJECT = “C:/Builds/HelloWorld” APPS_SYSTEM = “C:/SCA/SCAKernel-V4-007” APPS_LOCAL = “C:/Builds/HelloWorld/Apps” Note that these examples show the setting of configuration variables on the command line and the SConopts files. The syntax for setting configuration variables in the SConscript file is discussed later.

Directory Trees Processed by the Build System
The SCA build systems processes several different directory trees including the source tree, the object tree, and two delivery trees. Depending on the options the user has set, these directory trees may overlay each other or be completely separate. Source The source tree contains the source code for the SCA components you are developing. The source tree is normally stored in source control so any changes can be controlled and tracked. As far as the build system is concerned, it is a directory tree containing the source and has no dependency on any source control software.

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The source tree is also where you must run the build command. The root of the source tree is determined by the presence of a file named SConstruct. If you start the build in a subdirectory within the source tree with the –D option, the build system will traverse up the directory tree until it finds a SConstruct file to determine where the root of the source tree is located. Object The object directory contains transitory files created during the build that can be deleted afterwards if desired. Each build run will only rebuild files that are out of date in the object directory. The location for the object directory is defined by the SCA_OBJECT construction variable, and it has the same directory structure as the source tree. Apps System The Apps System directory contains all of the components that make up the release of the product on which your component is based. This is where the SCA Framework is located as well as any other components that your component uses. It does not contain your component. The tree is organized in a structure optimized for running the application. The types of files listed below are stored in both the Apps System and Apps Local directory trees.
• IDL files • C++ header files generated from the IDL files • Dynamically linked shared library for the component • Resource files that are required by the component

The location of the Apps System directory is defined by the APPS_SYSTEM (absolute path) construction variable or the APPS_DIR (relative path) construction variable. Apps Local The Apps Local tree has the same structure as the Apps System and only contains the components that you have built. This is where you will find the build results for your component. Some of the files in this directory are copied from the source tree, some from the object tree and some are generated directly in the tree. The location of the Apps Local directory is defined by the APPS_LOCAL (absolute path) construction variable. If APPS_LOCAL variable is not defined, then the default location is used which is under the object directory. Third Party tree The build system provides facilities for including support for third party packages. Third party packages are non-SCA components that are required to build and run an application. Support for Mozilla, Qt, and Python packages is supplied by default. Support for additional libraries can be added. This support requires that the third party package be installed in a directory structure that is understood by the build system.

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The basic directory hierarchy for the third party tree is: ThirdParty/Package/Version/Platform

This structure allows support for multiple versions of each package on each platform type. The version identifiers in the above tree are just directory names and can be numeric, alphabetic or any combination of both. Multiple packages can be installed under the same third party tree or they may be installed in different trees. Depending on how the version of the package is located at run time, the ThirdParty, PackageX or VersionX directory levels many not be required in the directory tree. Tools Directory The Tools tree contains the SCA Build System and the other tools required for building SCA Components. These are some of the utilities included.
• genskeleton - Generate skeletons for service implementations • idl - SCA IDL Compiler • scons - SCA Build system

This location could be added to the operating system’s path environment variable to make it easy to run the tools. Rules for locating Apps System and Third Party Trees There is a common set of rules that are used to locate the Apps System and third party directory trees. These rules allow you to specify the full path to the directory or only the directory name and the build

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system will determine its full path. The table below shows what construction variables can be used. The X field in the variable names can be APPS or a third party package name. Variable X_SYSTEM X_DIR X_BASE Description Full path to the location of the X directory tree. Directory name of the X tree. Name of the base directory for locating the X_DIR directory for package X.

SCA_THIRDPARTY_BASE Name of the base directory for locating X_DIR directories for third party packages only. SCA_BASE Name of the base directory for locating X_DIR directories for the APPS and third party packages.

To locate APPS_SYSTEM, either the APPS_SYSTEM or the APPS_DIR variable must be specified. If the APPS_SYSTEM variable is used, it already contains the full path to the desired directory and the search is done. However, if the APPS_DIR variable is used, the following locations are searched to determine the full path.
• If APPS_BASE is defined: APPS_BASE/APPS_DIR. • If SCA_BASE is defined: SCA_BASE/APPS_DIR. • ../APPS_DIR relative to the location of the SCons script running.

Locating third party directories follows the same general rule except the third party directory tree structure is used. For the third party package X, either the X_SYSTEM or the X_DIR variable must be specified. If the X_SYSTEM variable is used, it already contains the full path to the desired directory and the search is done. In this case it should point to the specific platform specific directory for the desired version of the package. For example, the Qt package on Windows could be located using the following value. QT_SYSTEM = “C:/SCA/ThirdParty/Qt/3.3.2/WINNT” If the X_DIR variable is used, the following locations are searched to determine the full path. The MACH value in these rules is substituted with the appropriate value for the platform you are building for.
• If X_BASE is defined: X_BASE/X_DIR/MACH. • If SCA_THIRDPARTY_BASE is defined: SCA_THIRDPARTY_BASE/X/X_DIR/MACH. • If SCA_BASE is defined: SCA_BASE/ThirdParty/X/X_DIR/MACH. • ../ThirdParty/X/X_DIR/MACH relative to the location of the scons script running.

Rules for locating Apps Local and object trees The location of the Apps Local and Object directory trees is controlled by the construction variables SCA_OBJECT and APPS_LOCAL.

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The following table shows the possible combinations for SCA_OBJECT and APPS_LOCAL and how they affect the location of these trees. SCA_OBJECT Not set APPS_LOCAL Not set Location of Apps Local Tree Source/Apps Location of Object Tree Source/ObjectSubTree e.g. /source/WINNT_SRC_DEBUG Set Not set Set Not set Set Set SCA_OBJECT/Apps APPS_LOCAL APPS_LOCAL SCA_OBJECT/ObjectSubTree Source/ObjectSubTree SCA_OBJECT/ObjectSubTree

The ObjectSubTree could be MACH_SOURCE_DEBUG or MACH_SOURCE_OPT depending on debug or optimized build. For example on Windows if the Source directory is TestComp, then ObjectSubTree could be WINNT_TESTCOMP_DEBUG or WINNT_TESTCOMP_OPT. The APPS_LOCAL construction variable is not normally set in the users SConopts.user options file. Normally its location is set using the SCA_OBJECT construction variable.

Configuration files
There are four main types of configuration files that control the configuration of the build which are described below. The build system uses a directory hierarchy model so the appropriate configuration files must be present at the appropriate places in the source tree for the whole directory structure to be processed. An important point to remember is that the build system uses these files to create the build environment. The build system only propagates the HOME environment variable into the build environment from the list of environment variables defined for the user. None of the other environment variables set by the user are propagated. The reason for this is to maintain a standard build environment independent of the user settings. There are also some operating system environment variables that individual system commands required that are also automatically propagated into the build environment. An example of this is the TMP variable that is required by the Windows linker. SConstruct This is the master configuration file and must exist in the root of the source tree. It is used to initiate build processing by identifying the root of the source tree and specifying any special build system configuration options for it. The SConstruct file provides customizations and extensions to the build system itself. Examples of these types of customizations might be adding user specific construction variables, environment routines and third party packages. Because the SConstruct file is run at an early stage of the build process, the rules for coding this file are different than the two options files. Setting values for construction variables

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should not be done in this file. Only new construction variable names and their default values can be declared. Customized values for these variables should be set in the normal manner in the SConopts or SConopts.user files or on the command line. After the initial setup, this file only needs to be updated when new build configuration options are needed, such as adding a third party software dependency. An example SConstruct file with one third party software configuration is provided below.

# Main SCons configuration file for the SCA build system. from SCASCons.Configure import * #================== Perform local customization here ================== # # Set up for LibXML processing # def IncludeLibXML2(env, compile=True,extraincs=[], link=True,extralibs=[]): # Set compilation related values if compile: libXMLInc = os.path.join("$LIBXML_SYSTEM", "include") env.Append( CPPPATH = libXMLInc ) for inc in env.Split(extraincs): env.Append( CPPPath = os.path.join( libXMLInc, inc )) # Set link related values if link: if env["MACHINE"] == "LX8664": env.Append( LINKFLAGS=os.path.join("$LIBXML_SYSTEM", "lib", "libxml2.so.2") ) else: env.Append(LIBPATH=os.path.join("$LIBXML_SYSTEM", "lib")) env.Append(LIBS="libxml2") for lib in env.Split(extralibs): env.Append(LIBS=lib) # Initialize the package ThirdPartyPackage('libxml', 'libxml2 support', IncludeLibXML2) #==================================================================== == import SCASCons.Setup SCASCons.Setup.Setup() There is a sample SConstruct file, in the Runtime/lib/python/SCASCons subdirectory of the Tools tree, with a list of all the available commands.

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SConopts This file is in the root of the source tree and contains build options, i.e. construction variable settings, unique to this source tree. The file should only set options that are specific to the source tree as they will be treated as default values for every user working in the tree. Examples of this type of information might be SCA Framework version, build information, and third party versions. After the initial setup, this file only needs to be updated when new build configuration options are needed, such as using different version of the SCA Framework. The SConopts.user file, which is described next, contains options that are unique to users but not to the source tree. The same types of items can go into either of the files, but they are separated for the reasons described. An example of the SConopts file is provided below. # Source tree specific build options file import SCASCons # Apps System directory location relative to APPS_BASE. APPS_DIR = "SCAKernel-V4-007" # Third party option for LibXML. if SCASCons.MACHINE == 'WINNT': LIBXML_DIR = "2-2.6.27-2" else: LIBXML_DIR = "2-2.6.27" SConscript One of these configuration files must exist in each directory that is to be processed. If a directory does not have a SConscript file, then processing will stop at that point and the directory and all of its subdirectories will be skipped. This small file can also contain special build instructions for the files in its directory. If there are no special requirements, as in this example, then the default version of this file still needs to be present. Import("env_base") env = env_base.Copy() #================= Perform local customization here ================= #==================================================================== retval = env.ProcessDir(env_base) Return('retval') SConopts.user This optional file exists in the user’s home directory and contains user-specific build options used for any builds that they perform. Options in this file have precedence over options in the SConopts file, and unlike the SConopts file, this file may change often depending on the user’s environment.

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User specific options should be put in each user’s SConopts.user file. Examples of this information might be temporary object locations and output requests. You can also override any of the settings in the SConopts file. You may wish to do this if you want to build against a different version of a third party package for example. Be careful about the settings you put in this file because they will affect every build you as a specific user run no matter which source tree you are processing. Before using the SCA build system, you need to make sure your personal build options file is setup correctly. The file is a Python script that is run at the start of the build process. An example of the SConopts.user file is provided below. import sys import os # Set location for object tree root = os.path.basename(os.getcwd()) if sys.platform == “win32”: SCA_OBJECT = “C:/Builds/” + root else: SCA_OBJECT = “/tmp/rich/Builds/” + root # Set reduced command output COMMANDPRINT = ‘short’ Normally you should only define the locations of the SCA_OBJECT and optionally the APPS_LOCAL directory trees in your SConopts.user file. The APPS_SYSTEM directory is defined in the SConopts file, which resides in the root of the source tree. If APPS_LOCAL directory is not defined, then the default location is used and is under the object directory.

Setting up the Build System in a New Source Tree
Setting up the SCA Build System in a new source tree is a relatively simple task. In the root of source tree, you need to copy the following configuration files.
• Copy SConstruct.example to SConstruct • Copy SConscript.example to SConscript • Copy SConopts.example to SConopts

The example configuration files can be found in the SCASCons directory which is located in the Runtime/lib/python/SCASCons subdirectory of the Tools tree. These configuration files should be modified as required for the source tree. In particular, the SConopts file should be modified to specify the correct version of the SCA Framework that will be used. Next, you need to create a SConscript file in each directory in the source tree that needs to be processed. If required you may modify these files to do special processing in their directory. For details on the available customization options for these files, see the document SCA Build System Guide.

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Setting up your Runtime Environment for the Build System
There are a couple of settings in your runtime environment that you will usually want to set up when using the SCA build system 1. Add the Tools System directory to the user’s path environment variable. This is not required, but if it isn’t in the path, the scons command will require a fully qualified path name each time it is executed. The path used in the example configuration files is C:\SCA\Tools-V5-003. 2. Your home directory must be defined with the HOME environment variable. This is standard for Linux and UNIX, but Windows users may have to add it manually if they want to use the SConopts.user file. 3. Create the TMP environment variable on Windows to define a directory for temporary files if it has not already been defined. This is required by the Windows Linker for temporary storage.

The SCons Construction Environment
The construction environment is a special Python object which is usually referenced with the Python variable named env. This object is used by SCons to store the current values for each construction variable. It also contains the API that is used in the SConscript files to manipulate it. The construction environment and its construction variables contain all of the knowledge required to create the actual commands that will be run during the build. When SCons starts up, the first thing it does is initialize the base construction environment. For example, on Linux it initializes the processing for C and C++ files. The builder defines a construction variable, CCCOM, which contains the actual command used to compile the files. CCCOM = $CC $CCFLAGS $CPPFLAGS $CPPDEFFLAGS $CPPINCFLAGS -c -o $TARGET $SOURCES Notice that the compilation command definition is mostly composed of other construction variables. By modifying any of the variables, or the CCCOM variable itself, you have complete control over the actual commands used by the build system to build the various types of targets. After SCons creates the base construction environment, the SConopts and SConopts.user option files are executed. They can modify any construction variables as required for this build. The complete order of precedence, starting with the highest, for setting construction variables is as follows. SConscript Command line SConopts.user SConopts Defaults Options in this directory only Options for this run only Options for this user only Options for the source tree only Default options provided by SCons

As the SCA Build System processes the source tree, the SConscript file in each directory is executed. The first two lines of each SConscript file should be the following.

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Import("env_base") env = env_base.Copy() These two lines make a copy of the base construction environment that will be used in this directory. A copy of the construction environment is made in each directory so any changes made to it in the current directory will not affect processing in any other directory. You should not make any changes to the base construction variable, env_base, directly. If you wish to have change you make in the current directory be propagated down to all of its subdirectories you should use the env.Propagate command.

Modifying Construction Variables in the SConscript File
The SConscript configuration files are run as part of the actual build operations, so they must follow some rules that are different from the options files discussed previously. Instead of setting construction variables using normal Python global variables, they must be accessed in the actual SCons construction environment. if env[‘MACHINE’] == ‘LX86’: env.Append(CCFLAGS=["-wd810"]) When the actual build commands are run, the current working directory is in the root of the source tree. This means that when build options include paths arguments, they should normally be coded as absolute paths or paths relative to the root of the source tree and not paths relative to the directory containing the SConscript file. env.Append(CCFLAGS=["-IFramework/include"]) There is a common exception to the rule. Construction variable names, which end with PATH, are treated differently. The path names in these variables are relative to the directory that contains the SConscript file. If you want these values to be relative to the root of the source tree, you can use the special syntax of #/… to indicate this. You can also code these as absolute paths if you wish but this is not normally a good practice because it makes relocating the source tree more difficult. In the following examples, all of the paths are equivalent assuming the SConscript file is in directory /scasystem/Framework/Kernel. env.Append(CPPPATH="#/Framework/KernelUtil") env.Append(CPPPATH="/scasystem/Framework/KernelUtil") env.Append(CPPPATH="../KernelUtil") If you have platform specific construction variables in the SConscript files, you should use the construction variable MACHINE to test for the current platform. if env["MACHINE"] == "LX86": . . . elif env["MACHINE"] == "WINNT": . . . Special processing for CPPPATH construction variable The CPPPATH construction variable has two functions.

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• Adds directories to the list of include paths searched by the C preprocessor just like -I arguments

in the CCFLAGS variable.
• Triggers dependency processing between all of these header files located in these directories.

If the directory contains header files in which you want to include all dependency scanning and testing then they should be added with the CPPATH construction variable. Notice how the -I preprocessor argument is not used in this case. It will be added automatically when the values are added to the CCFLAGS variable by SCons. env.Append(CPPPATH=["$QT_SYSTEM/include"]) If the directory contains packages that change very seldom and you do not wish to do any dependency scanning or testing then they should be added directly to the CCFLAGS construction variable. In this case, the -I flag is now required because these arguments are sent directly to the compiler. env.Append(CCFLAGS=["-I$QT_SYSTEM/include"]) Available construction variables The following are some of the commonly used construction variables that you might set in the SConscript files. CCFLAGS CPPDEFINES CPPFLAGS CPPPATH CXXFLAGS FORTRANFLAGS LIBPATH LIBS LINKFLAGS BUILDTYPE COMMANDPRINT C and C++ compiler options C preprocessor defines C preprocessor options C preprocessor include paths C++ compiler options FORTRAN compiler options Link library paths Link libraries Link program options Optimized or debug build selection Level of build output desired

For a complete list of the available construction variables you can run the following command from inside any SCons source tree. scons –h

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Commonly Used Environment Routines
The following are some common environment routines that are used in the SConscript files. For details on all of the available routines, see the document SCA Build System Guide. Modifying construction variables To replace the value of a variable with a new value you can use either of the following commands. env.Replace(VARIABLE=value) env[“VARIABLE”] = value For example, the following command specifies the additional libraries to link. env.Replace(LIBS=["comdlg32",”wsock32",”advapi32.lib"]) To append a new value to an existing variable you use the following command. env.Append(VARIABLE=[value]) To prepend a new value to an existing variable you use the following command. env.Prepend(VARIABLE=[value]) Building programs and libraries When the SCA Build system finds a SDL or a CDL file in a directory, it will automatically trigger the building of a static object library or a dynamically linked shared library. The building of a program or a non-SCA shared object or shared library must be explicitly requested in the SConscript file. The object files used to build each of these will include all of the objects files generated in the current directory and the any objects files from its subdirectories that were not previously used in the building of a different library or program. The following routines are available in the SConscript file to trigger the build. # Build a main program in the current directory env.BuildProgram(progname,aliases=None) # Build a shared library in the current directory env.BuildSharedLibrary(shlibname,aliases=None) # Build an object library in the current directory env.BuildObjectLibrary(objlibname,aliases=None) Adding libraries and objects to a link Sometime you may need to add extra shared libraries or object files to a link. The following routines allow you to do this. env.AddLinkSharedLibrary(names,appendend=None) env.AddLinkSource(names)

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Installing files The SCons will automatically install certain file types into the APPS_LOCAL directory when they are found in the source tree. Examples of these include IDL files and any XML files. The following routine can be used to explicitly install other files that are not supported. env.InstallFile(files,installdir,aliases=None,newname=None) Propagating commands to subdirectories As discussed before, changes made to the values of construction variables are local to the directory they are made in. Sometimes you may wish for these changes to apply for the current directory and all of it subdirectories. The env.Propagate routine allows you to do this. env.Propagate(routine,*args,**keywords) The arguments to this routine are the name of any other environment routine and its arguments. For example, the following will change the C compiler flags in the current directory and all subdirectories. # Change only in current directory env.Append(CCFLAGS=["-wd810"]) # Change in current directory and all subdirectores env.Propagate(env.Append,CCFLAGS=["-wd810"]) Skipping files and directories A number of routines are provided which allow you to skip files or directories that the build system would normally process. env.SkipFiles(names) env.SkipSubDirs(dirs) env.SkipThisDir()

Microsoft Visual Studio Projects
SCons automatically builds Visual Studio project files using its complete knowledge of the build tree. There is one project file generated for each SCA component, main program, static object library and shared library. There is also a global solution file that is generated in the root of the source tree that can be used to reference all of the project files contained in the source tree. When you do a build from within Visual Studio, the project files will invoke SCons to do the actual build. This causes the same build procedure to be used whether you are running from the command line for from within the Visual Studio IDE and you will get the same build behavior and results. The Visual Studio project files can also be generated by executing the following command from the root directory of the source tree. scons msvs For more details on Visual Studio projects, see the document SCA Build System Guide.

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Running the Build
Build Tasks
When building SCA components, the build system will take care of most of required tasks. This processing is triggered by the presence of the appropriate files in the directory being processed. The following are some of the tasks that are automatically performed. 1. The IDL compiler processes the IDL file, generates header files for each interface, and stores them in the APPS_LOCAL tree. 2. The IDL compiler processes the SDL file and generates the required base class files for the service and each sub-service defined. These will be stored in the object directory. 3. The IDL compiler processes the CDL file and generates the required initialization function for the component. This file will also be stored in object directory. 4. The build system compiles and links all of the code created in the previous steps as well as the source in the source directory; it then stores the object files in the object directory. The component’s dynamically linked shared library and any other files that come out of the linking procedure will be copied into the APPS_LOCAL directory for future use. 5. The build system adds an entry to the Service catalog for each service that is contained in the component. The service catalog’s path is APPS_LOCAL/res/SCAServiceCatalog.xml in the Apps Local directory.

SCons Command
The simplest way to run SCons is from the root of the source tree. The following command will cause the entire tree to be built. scons Or to build only selected components you simply add the name of the component. scons HelloWorldCPP

Running SCons from a Subdirectory
By default, SCons requires a SConstruct file to be in the current directory when you run the command. If you are working in a subdirectory of the source tree, you must use one of the following options to cause SCons to search up the directory tree to find the SConstruct file, which defines the root of the entire source tree. Search up directory tree for SConstruct and build all default targets. scons –D

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You can also use other targets on this command. A common example would be if you are working in the source directory for a component, for example HelloWorldCPP, and you wanted to rebuild the HelloWorldCPP shared library. You can use the following command to accomplish this. scons –D HelloWorldCPP

Phases of the Build Process
The build is performed in three phases: configuration file processing, dependency processing, and executing build commands. These phases are described below. Configuration file processing The first phase of the build process is to process all of the configuration files. The system traverses the source tree and performs the steps below in each directory.
• The build executes the SConscript file. The build skips the directory if it does not contain a

SConscript file.
• The build processes each file in the directory and creates build actions for it if the file type is

supported. The file is ignored if the type is not supported. As the build actions are created, they are linked together into a global dependency tree containing all of the relationships of the files in the source tree and the targets that they generate. As each directory is processed, a list of object files created is maintained. If the build system determines that an object library, shared library or main program is to be built, this list of object files is used. If none of these is built in the directory, then the list of object files is passed back to the parent directory to be added to its list of object files. This way, whenever an object library, shared library or main program is built, it will contain all of the object files from the current directory and any unused objects from its subdirectories. Dependency processing SCons automatically scans the source files for any implicit dependencies they have and adds them to the global dependency tree. Examples of these are the include files a C++ source file references. Executing build commands After all of the dependencies have been determined, SCons checks if any of the dependencies are out of date. By default, MD5 checksums are used to determine when a dependency has changed instead of file timestamps. This is so clock differences between file servers do not affect the build process and allow SCons to rebuild only the minimal files required. It is important to note that no targets are built during configuration file and dependency processing phases. The build commands such as env.BuildProgram and env.BuildSharedLibrary found in SConscript files are only used to create entries in the global dependency tree. The actual targets are not built until the final phase of the build, using the information in the dependency tree. This is important because any Python code you add to SConscript file will be executed before any actual targets are built.

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There is no way to control the exact order in which these targets are built. The only thing that can be assured is that all dependencies for a target will be built before the target.

Removing Files Created by the Build
SCons has a clean option that allows you to remove all the targets it has built. This is requested with the -c argument. If you include a target on the command then only that target and all of the targets required to build it will be removed. scons -c scons -c HelloWorldCPP scons -D -c HelloWorldCPP You should take care using the clean command without any targets because it may delete things you don’t expect. If you want to do a clean build, the easiest and fastest thing to do is to just delete the entire object tree.

SCons Debugging Options
There are several SCons command line options available to help debug any build problems. debugprint=x --debug=tree --debug=explain Prints debugging information for level “x”. For a list of the available levels use debugprint=’?’ Print tree of dependencies generated by SCons. This option can generate a large amount of output for big source trees. Give an explanation why each target is being built.

It is also sometimes desirable to see the actual values of various construction variables that will be used for the build. This can be done by using the name of the construction variable as the target on the SCons command line. scons CPPATH This command will not perform a build, but will instead traverse the source tree and show the default value for the CPPATH construction variable and any directory that has a different value. The printing of construction variables values is only triggered when all of the targets on the command line are upper case. If any of them contain lower case characters then they are assumed normal build targets and a normal build is performed.

Selecting Debug and Optimize builds
The SCA Build System supports both debug and optimized builds. The appropriate compiler options are provided for each of these. These are controlled with the BUILDTYPE variable, which accepts a value

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of debug or opt. This variable can be specified on the command line but is normally only used in the SConopts or SConopts.user options file. BUILDTYPE=debug BUILDTYPE=opt For convenience, special command line only options are supported to control the type of build. scons scons scons scons debug=yes debug=no opt=yes opt=no

There is no difference between specifying debug=yes or opt=no, on the command line. They will both generate a debug compile. Similarly, debug=no and opt=yes will both generate an optimized compile. It should also be noted that the debug and optimize compile options only change the compiler options that are used. No special preprocessor defines are generated to indicate which is being used. If these are desired, you need to add them yourself. This was done because large amounts of undesired debug output can be generated if all programmers are triggering off the same preprocessor values

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MSC.Fatigue Quick Start Guide

Index
SCA Framework User’s Guide (DEV)

A
IN DE X Index

Aliases to other types, 67

I

B

Basic IDL types, 58 Build tasks, 418 Building component, 34

C

CDL, 49 CDL Specifications, 89 Code skeletons, 28 Component metadata, 351 Configuration files, 409 Constant expressions, 55 Constants, 70 Creating client, 35

D

Define, interface, 21 Defining component, 26 Directory trees, 405 Dynamic arrays, 111

IDL, 49 IDL compiler command, 96 IDL Langauage, 11 IDL specification, 57 IDL to .Net mapping for arrays, 201 mapping for basic types, 196 mapping for constants, 215 mapping for enumerated types, 199 mapping for exceptions, 217 mapping for Identifiers, 194 mapping for interfaces, 216 mapping for modules, 195 mapping for SCA Components, 227 mapping for SCAAny, 206 mapping for SCAResult, 211 mapping for SCATypeCode, 205 mapping for sequences, 203 mapping for string types, 198 mapping for structures, 200 mapping for type aliases, 204

E

Embedded components, 150 Environment routines, 416 Exceptions, 85

F

Fixed size array, 110 Forward declarations, 81

G

Genskeleton command, 28

424 SCA Framework User’s Guide (DEV)

IDL to C++ mapping for arrays, 110 mapping for basic types, 106 mapping for constants, 130 mapping for enumerated types, 108 mapping for exceptions, 137 mapping for identifiers, 104 mapping for interfaces, 131 mapping for modules, 105 mapping for SCA components, 150 mapping for SCA services, 141 mapping for SCAAny, 121 mapping for SCAResult, 127 mapping for SCATypeCode, 120 mapping for sequences, 116 mapping for string types, 107 mapping for structures, 109 mapping for type aliases, 119 IDL to Java mapping for arrays, 161 mapping for Basic Types, 156 mapping for constants, 177 mapping for enumerated types, 159 mapping for exceptions, 180 mapping for identifiers, 154 mapping for interfaces, 178 mapping for modules, 155 mapping for SCA components, 189 mapping for SCA services, 184 mapping for SCAAny, 168 mapping for SCAResult, 173 mapping for SCATypeCode, 167 mapping for sequences, 164 mapping for string types, 158 mapping for structures, 160 mapping for type aliases, 166 mapping for unsigned data types, 157

IDL to Python mapping for arrays, 240 mapping for basic types, 234 mapping for constants, 252 mapping for enumerated types, 237 mapping for exceptions, 258 mapping for identifiers, 232 mapping for interfaces, 253 mapping for modules, 233 mapping for SCA components, 262 mapping for SCA services, 261 mapping for SCAAny, 244 mapping for SCAResult, 248 mapping for sequences, 241 mapping for structures, 238 mapping for type aliases, 242 mapping for TypeCode, 243 SCA module, 263 IDL type definitions from Python, 264 IDLTypes.jar, 190 Interface body, 79 Interface header, 78 Interface inheritance, 79 Interface, programming, 7 Interfaces and operations, 78 Interfaces, define, 21

J

Java virtual machine, 190

K

Kernal initialization, 355 terminating, 355 Kernel configuration variables, 359

L

Language support, 15 Lexical rules, 51 Library manager, 377 Literals, 52

M

Mapping for identifiers, 104 Mapping for SCA services, 220

INDEX 425

Message files, 271 MessageDispatcher, 316 Metadata, 351 Multi-Threaded application, 341 Multi-Threaded services, 339

N

Name lookup rules, 74

O P

Operation declaration, 79

Platform support, 16 Prefix changing, 365 Preprocessing, 56 Programming, 7 Python scripts, 267

SCA-IDL compiler, 96 SCAIService interface, 83 SCAResult for error handling, 305 SCASequence, 66 SCAString, 66 SCAWString, 67 SCons, 418 SConscript, 414 Scoping rules, 76 ScriptBroker, 267 SDL, 24, 49 SDL Specifications, 86 Sequences versus arrays, 68 Service manager, 373 Service options, 92 Source files, 49

T

Q R

Qualified names, 75

Running SCA kernel, 367 Running the build, 418

Template types, 66 Testing SCA components, 393 Text translation service, 278 Thread safety, 333 Threading infrastructure, 338 Types, 158 IDL, 58

U

S

SCA component, 13 SCA component declaration, 94 SCA exceptions for error handling, 294 SCA framework, 14 language support, 15 platform support, 16 SCA framework / JVM interaction, 190 SCA interfaces, IDL language, 11 SCA kernal, 366 SCA kernal using, 366 SCA kernel, 13 SCA overview, 5 SCA services, 12 SCA services catalog, 370 SCA utility program, 389 SCAAny class, 121

User defined types, 62 Using SCA kernel, 366

X

XML parser, 385

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