# TRIGNOMETRY-FORMULA AND CONCEPTS

BY K.H. V.
AN ANGLE: An angle is the amount of rotation of a revolving line w.r.t a fixed straight line (a figure formed
by two rays having common initial point.) The two rays or lines are called the sides of the angle and common
initial point is called the vertex of the angle.
Rotation of the initial arm to the terminal arm generates the angle.
• Rotation can be anti clock wise or clockwise.
• Angle is said to be +ve if rotation is anti clockwise.
• Angle is said to be -ve if rotation is clockwise.
UNITS OF MEASUREMENT OF ANGLES:
a) Sexagesimal system:
In sexagesimal system of measurement,
the units of measurement are degrees, minutes and
seconds.
1 right angle =90 degrees(90
o
);
1 degree = 60 minutes (60')
1 minute = 60 seconds (60'')
b) Centisimal system of angles:
1 right angle =100 grades =100
g
1 grade =100 minutes =100'
1' = 100 seconds =100''
c) RADIAN OR CIRCULAR MEASURE : In this system units of measurement is radian.
A radian is the measure of an angle subtended at the center of a circle by an arc whose length is equal
to the radius of the circle. one radian is denoted by 1
c
0
16
1
22''
A radian is a Constant angle. And
n radians = 180
0
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DEGREES AND RADIANS:
o
c
=
180
o
n

1
c
= 57
0
17' 45''; 1
0
=
n
180
o
(approximately)
n
180
o
x Degree measure i.e. To convert degrees into radians Multiply by
n
180
o
Degree measure=
180
o
n
x Radian measure. i.e. To convert radians into degrees Multiply by
180
o
n
NOTE: 1. Radian is the unit to measure angle 2. It does not means that π stands for 180
0
, π is real number,
where as π
c
stands for 180
0

LENGTH OF ARC OF A CIRCLE:
If an arc of length “s” subtends an angle θ radians at the center of a circle of radius 'r', then
S =r θ i.e. length of arc = radius x angle in radians (subtended by arc)
No of radians in an angle subtended by an arc of circle at the centre =
arc
=
S
r
1
c
arclength of magnitude of r
radius of ˚ r
AREA OF A SECTOR OF A CIRCLE:(sectorial area)
The area of the sector formed by the angle θ at the center of a circle of radius r is
1
2
r
2

RADIAN MEASURE OF SOME COMMON ANGLES:
θ
0
(
Degrees)
15
0
22½
0
30
0
45
0
60
0
75
0
90
0
120
0
135
0
150
0
180
0
210
0
270
0
360
0
θ
c
1
+ve
angle
-ve angle
AB be the Arc, Let the length
of the arc =OA=radius
angle AOB =1 radian
Do You know?
When no unit is mentioned
with an angle, it is
understod to be in radians.
If the radius of the circle is
r and its circumference is
C then C=2πr C/2r =π

for any circle
Circumference/diameter
=π which is constant.
π =3.1416(approximately)
T
e
r
m
i
n
a
l

s
i
d
e
(
a
r
m
)
θ
Initial
side(arm)
θ
----r-----
B
Arc
A
D
3 n
4
5n
6
n 7 n
6
3 n
2
2n n
12
n
8
n
6
n
4
n
3
5n
12
n
2
2n
3
SOME USEFUL FACTS ON CLOCKS:
1. Angle between two consecutive digits of a clock is 30
0
or
n
6
2. Hour hand of the clock rotates by an angle of 30
0
or
n
6
radians in one hour
and
1
2
0
or
n
360
radians in one minute.
3. Minute hand of the clock rotates by an angle of 6
0
or
n
30
radians in one minute.
TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTIONS OR RATIOS AND FUNDAMENTAL RELATIONS.
1. If θ is an acute angle of a right angled triangle OPM
We define Six trigonometric ratios(t-ratios) as
sinθ =
opposite side
hypotenus
; cosθ =
hypotenus
tanθ =
oppositeside
; cosecθ =
hypotenus
opposite side
secθ =
hypotenus
; cotθ =
oppositeside
2. Let θ be an angle in standard position. If P(x,y) is any point on the terminal side of θ and
OP=
.
x
2
+y
2
=r ; then
sinθ =
y
r
cosθ =
x
r
tanθ =
y
x
cosecθ =
r
y
secθ =
r
x
cotθ =
x
y

RELATIONS BETWEEN TRIGNOMETRIC RATIOS
BASIC IDENTITTIES:
a) sin
2
θ + cos
2
θ =1;
b) 1+ tan
2
θ = sec
2
θ ;
c) 1+ cot
2
θ = cosec
2
θ ;
DEDUCTIONS:
cos
2
θ = 1 -sin
2
θ; sin
2
θ = 1- cos
2
θ;
sec
2
θ -1 = tan
2
θ; cosec
2
θ -1 = cot
2
θ;
sec
2
θ - tan
2
θ =1; cosec
2
θ - cot
2
θ =1
RECIPROCAL RELATIONS
cosecθ =
1
sinθ
; secθ =
1
cosθ
cotθ =
1
tanθ
;cosecθ.sinθ =1 ; secθ. cosθ =1 ; cotθ. tanθ =1
QUOTIENT RELATIONS
tanθ =
sinθ
cosθ
; cotθ =
1
tanθ
=
cosθ
sinθ
SIGNS OF TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTIONS :
I II III IV
sinθ + + - -
cosθ + - - +
tanθ + - + -
cosecθ + + - -
secθ + - - +
cotθ + - + -
2
Opposite side
H
y
p
o
t
e
n
u
s
θ
O
P
M
P
O M
0≤θ≤90
0
90
0
≤θ≤180
0
180
0
≤θ≤270
0
270
0
≤θ≤360
0
a) In First quadrant, all
t-ratios are +ve.
b) In Second quadrant
sinθ , cosecθ are +ve.
c) In Third quadrant tanθ and cotθ
are +ve
d) In Fourth quadrant, only cosθ
and secθ are +ve.
The following approximate values are quite helpful:
√2 = 1.41; √3 =1.73;
1/ √2 =0.7; √3 /2 =0.87 ;
1 /√3 =0.58 2/ √3 ==1.154
A
S
C
T
A=All are +ve
S=Sin & cosec are +ve
T=Tan & Cot are +ve
C=Cos & Sec are +ve
Short Cut to remember:
ALL STUDENTS TAKE
COFFE
TO DETERMINE THE VALUES OF OTHER TRIGNOMETRIC RATIOS WHEN ONE
TRIGNOMETRIC RATIO IS GIVEN:
If one of the t-ratio is given , the values of other t-ratios can be obtained by constructing a right angled
triangle and using the trigonometric identities given above
For ex. sinθ=1/3, since sine is +ve in Q
1
and Q
2
(II quadrant), we have
cosθ=
.
1−
1
9
or -
.
1−
1
9
ie.
2
.
2
3
or
−2
.
2
3
according as θ
∈Q
1
or θ
∈Q
2
We can find other ratios by forming a rightangled traingle.
Let tanθ=4/3, n0
3 n
2
, then since in Q
3
, sine and cosine both are negative,
we have sinθ=-
4
5
; cosθ=
−3
5
For acute angled traingle, we can write other t ratios in terms of given ratio:
Let sinθ=s=
perp
hyp
=
s
1

cosθ= =
.
1−sin
2
0 ; tanθ=
sin0
.
1−sin
2
0
; secθ=
1
.
1−sin
2
0
; cosecθ=
1
sin 0
; cotθ=
.
1−sin
2
0
sin0
We can express sinθ in terms of other trigonometric functions by above method:
sinθ=
.
1−cos
2
0 =
tan 0
.
1+tan
2
0
=
1
cosec 0
=
.
sec
2
0−1
sec 0
=
.
1+tan
2
0
tan 0
MAXIMUM AND MININUM VALUES :
1. since sin
2
A+cos
2
A =1, hence each of sinA and cosA is numerically less than or equal to unity, that is
|sinA|≤1 and |cosA|≤1 i.e. -1≤sinA≤1 and -1≤cosA≤1
2. Since secA and cosecA are respectively reciprocals of cosA and sinA, therefore the values of secA and
cosecA are always numerically greater than or equal to unity. That is
secA≥1 or secA≤-1 and cosecA≥1 or cosecA≤-1, In otherwords we never have -1<cosecA<1 and
-1<secA<1
3. tanA and cotA can assume any real value.
For all values of θ, -1≤sin θ≤1 and -1≤cos θ≤1
a)Max . sin θ =1; Min . sin θ =-1
b)Max . (sin θ cos θ)=Max
¦
sin20
2
)
=
1
2
; Min. (sin θ cos θ) =Min
¦
sin20
2
)
= -
1
2
4.If y =a sinx + bcosx +c, then ∀ a , b , c∈R , we can write y=c+
.
a
2
+b
2
sin(x+α)
Where a= r cos α b=r sin α

r=
.
a
2
+b
2
tanα =
b
a
; since -1≤sin (x+α )≤1
∴ c-
.
a
2
+b
2
≤y≤c+
.
a
2
+b
2
Hence Max. (a sinx + bcosx +c) =c+
.
a
2
+b
2
and
Min (a sinx + bcosx +c)= c-
.
a
2
+b
2
5. sin θ >cos θ >0 for
n
4
0
n
2
; 0<sin θ <cos θ for 00
n
4
4.The following formulae of Componedndo and Dividendo must be noted:
If p/q =a/b then by componendo and dividendo we can write
p−q
p+q
=
a−b
a+b
PERIODICITY: sin(2nΠ +α ) =sin α, cos(2nΠ +α )=cos α, tan(nΠ +α )= α ( n being any integer). All
Trigonometrical functions are periodic. The period of sineθ , cosineθ, cosecθ, secθ is 2Π and that of
tangent θ and cotθ is Π.
sinθ is periodic with period 2n
cosθ is periodic with period 2n
tanθ is periodic with period n
sinkθ is periodic with period
2 n
k
tankθ is periodic with period
n
k

3
5
3
4
s
1
.
1−s
2
.
1−s
2
TRIGNOMETRIC RATIOS OF STANDARD and QUANDRANTAL ANGLES:
0
n
6
n
4
n
3
n
2
n 3 n
2
2n n
12
5 n
12
Degrees 0 30
0
45
0
60
0
90
0
180
0
270
0
360
0
15
0
75
0
sinθ
0
1
2
1
.
2
.
3
2
1 0 -1 0
.
3−1
2
.
2
.
3+1
2
.
2
cosθ
1
.
3
2
1
.
2
1
2
0 -1 0 1
.
3+1
2
.
2
.
3−1
2
.
2
tanθ
0
1
.
3 1
.
3

0

0
2−
.
3 2+
.
3
VALUES OF T-FUNCTIONS OF SOME FREQUENTY OCCURING ANGLES.
2 n
3
3 n
4
5 n
6
¦2n+1)
n
2
nn
Degrees 120
0
135
0
150
0
(odd )
n
2
(any n )
sinθ
.
3
2
1
.
2
1
2
(-1)
n
0
cosθ

1
2

1
.
2

.
3
2 0
(-1)
n
tanθ

.
3
-1

1
.
3

0
e.g. cos(odd
n
2
)=0; cos( odd n )=-1, cos(even n ) =1
cos
¦2n−1)
n
2
=0, cos( 2n-1)
n
=-1, cos(2n
n
) =1
sin(any n ) =0, tan(any n ) =0 sin n n =tan n n =0 if n=0,1,2
sin
n
2
= sin
5 n
2
=sin
9 n
2
=.......=1
sin(
3 n
2
) = sin
7 n
2
= sin
11 n
2
= ..........=-1
Some interesting results about allied angles:
1)Sin(nП + θ ) =(-1)
n
sin θ; cos(nП + θ )=(-1)
n
cos θ
3) cos(
n n
2
+θ)=(-1)
n+1/2
sinθ if n is odd 4)sin(
n n
2
+θ)=(-1)
n-1/2
cosθ if n is odd
=(-1)n/2 sinθ if n is even =(-1)n/2 cosθ if n is even
DOMAIN AND RANGE OF TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTIONS:
Function Domain Range
sine
cosine
tangent
cotangent
secant
cosecant
R
R
R-{(2n+1)
n
2
}: nε Z
R-{n n }; nεZ
R-{(2n+1)
n
2
}: nε Z
R-{n n }; nεZ
[-1, 1]
[-1, 1]
R
R
(- ∞ ,-1] υ [1, ∞ )
(- ∞ ,-1] υ [1, ∞ )
4
The trignometric ratios of allied angles
can be easily remembred from the following clues:
1. First decide the sign +ve or -ve depending upon the quandrant in
which the angle lies using QUADRANT RULE.
2. a) When the angle is 90+θ or 270-θ, the trignometric ratio changes
from sine→cosine, cosine→sine, tan→cot, cot→tan, sec→cosec, cosec→sec.
Hence the sine and cosine, tan &cot, sec & cosec are called co - ratios.
b) When the angle is 180+θ or 360 θ , -θ, the trignometrc ratio is remains
the same. i.e
sin →sine, cosine→cosine , tan→tan, cot→cot, sec→sec, cosec→cosec.
The above may be summed up as follows:
Any angle can be expressed as n.90+θ where n is any integer and θ is an acute angle . To get any t.
ratios of this angle
a) observe the quandrant in which n.90+θ lies and determine the sign (+ve or -ve).
b) If n is odd the function will change into its co function ( i.e sine↔cosine; tan↔cot; sec↔cosec)
If n is even , t-ratios remains the same.(i.e sin↔sin, cos↔cos etc)
ILLUSTRATIONS:
1. To determine sin(540-θ), we note that 540
0
-θ =6 x 90
0
-θ is a second quadrant angle if 0<θ<90
0
. In this
quadrant , sine is positive and since the given angle contains an even multiple of
n
2
, the sine function
is retained . Hence sin(540- θ ) =sin θ.
2. To determine cos(630
0
- θ ), we note 630
0
- θ =7 x 90
0
- θ is a third quadrant angle if 0< θ <90
0
. In
this quadrant cosine is negative and, since the given angle contains an odd multiple of
n
2
, cosine is
replaced by sine. Hence cos(630
0
- θ ) = -sin θ.
SHORT CUT: Supposing we have to find the value of t- ratio of the angle θ
Step1: Find the sign of the t-ratio of θ , by finding in which quadrant the angle θ lies. This can be done
by applying the quadrant rule, i.e. ASTC Rule.
Step 2: Find the numerical value of the t-ratio of θ using the following method:
t-ratios of θ=
t- ratio of (180
0-
θ ) with proper sign if θ lies in the second quandrant
e.g.: cos120
0
= -cos60
0
= -1/2
t-ratio of ( θ -180) with proper sign if θ lies in the third quandrant
e.g: sin210
0
= -sin30
0
= -1/2
t-ratio of (360- θ ) with proper sign if θ lies in the fourth quandrant
e.g: cosec300
0
= -cosec60
0
= −
2
.
3
t-ratio of θ-n (360
0
) if θ>360
0

d) If θ is greater than 360
0
i.e. θ =n.360
0
+α , then remove the multiples of 360
0
(i.e. go on subtracting
from 360
0
till you get the angle less than 360
0
) and find the t-ratio of the remaining angle by applying the
above method. e.g: tan1035
0
=tan675
0
(1035-360) =tan315
0
= -tan45
0
=-1
COMPLIMENTARY AND SUPPLIMENTARY ANGLES:
If θ is any angle then the angle
n
2
- θ is its complement angle and the angle n - θ is its
supplement angle.
a) trigonometric ratio of any angle = Co-trigonometric ratio of its complement
sin θ = cos(90- θ ), cos θ = sin(90- θ ), tan θ = cot(90- θ ) e.g. sin60
0
=cos30
0
, tan60
0
=cot30
0
.
b) sin of(any angle) = sin of its supplement ; cos of ( any angle) = -cos of its supplement
tan of any angle = - tan of its supplement i.e. sin 30
0
=sin 150
0
, cos 60
0
=-cos 120
0

5
S
A
T C
90-θ
n.360 + θ
90+θ
180-θ
180+θ
270-θ
360-θ
270+θ

CO-TERMINAL ANGLES: Two angles are said to be co terminal angles , if their terminal sides
are one and the same. e.g. θ and 360+ θ or θ and n.360+ θ ; - θ and 360- θ or - θ and n.360- θ
are co terminal angles : a) Trig functions of θ and n.360+ θ are same b) Trig functions of -θ and
n.360- θ are same .
TRIGNOMETRIC RATIOS OF NEGETIVE ANGLES:
For negative angles always use the following relations:
c) sin(- θ ) = -sin θ cos(- θ ) = cos θ, tan(- θ )= -tan θ , cosec(- θ )= -cosec θ ; se(- θ ) =sec θ ;
ci) cot(- θ) =cot θ (V.IMP)
TRIGNOMETRICAL RATIOS FOR SUM AND DIFFERENCE:
COMPOUND ANGLE FORMULAE: (Addition and Subtraction formulae)
1. Sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B
2. sin (A – B) = sin A cos B – cos A sin B
3. Cos (A + B) = cos A cos B – sin A sin B
4. cos (A – B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B
5. tan (A + B) =
¦tan A+tan B)
¦1– tan AtanB)

6. tan (A – B) =
¦tan A–tan B)
¦1+tan Atan B)
DEDUCTIONS:
7. sin(A-B)sin(A-B) =sin
2
A-sin
2
B
=cos
2
B -cos
2
A
8. cos(A+B)cos(A-B) =cos
2
A-sin
2
B
=cos
2
B -sin
2
A
9. tan(A+B)tan(A-B)=
tan
2
A−tan
2
B
1−tan
2
A . tan
2
B
10.Cot(A+B) =
cotAcotB−1
cotA+cotB
(A#nπ, B#mπ, A+B#kπ)
11.Cot(A-B) =
cotAcotB−1
cotB−cotA
(A#nπ, B#mπ, A-B#kπ)
12.
tanA+tanB
tanA−tanB
=
sin¦ A+B)
sin¦ A−B)
13. 1+tanA tanB=
cos¦ A−B)
cosAcosB
1-tanA tanB=
cos¦ A+B)
cosAcosB
14. tanA+tanB=tan(A+B)(1-tanA.tanB)
=
sin¦ A+B)
cosA. cosB
tanA-tanB=tan(A-B)(1-tanA.tanB)=
sin¦ A+B)
cosA. cosB
15.tan(Π/4 + A) =
1+tanA
1−tanA
16.tan(Π/4 - A) =
1−tanA
1+tanA
17.cot( Π/4 + A )=
cotA−1
cotA+1
18.cot( Π/4 - A )=
cotA+1
cotA−1
19. tan(A+B+C)
=
tanA+tanB+tanC−tanA.tanB.tanC
1−¦ tanAtanB+tanB.tanC+tanC.tanA)
=
S
1
−S
3
1−S
2
If S1 = tanA + tanB +tanC /m
rekloidddddddddddz S3 =tanA.tanB.tanC
S2 =tanAtanB +tanB.tanC +tanC.tanA
21.The cot(A+B+C) =
cotA.cotB.cotC−cotA−cotB−cotC
¦ cotAcotB+cotB.cotC+cotC.cotA−1)
22. sinA+cosA=
.
2sin¦
n
4
+A)
sinA-cosA=
.
2sin¦
n
4
−A)
cosA+sinA=
.
2cos¦
n
4
−A)
cosA-sinA=
.
2cos¦
n
4
+A)
MULTIPLE ANGLE FORMULAE: T ratios of multiple angles
1.Sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A =
2tanA
1−tan
2
A

2.cos 2A = cos
2
A – sin
2
A
= 1 – 2 sin
2
A
= 2cos
2
A – 1 =
3. tan 2A =
2 tan A
1 –tan
2
A
DEDUCTIONS:
1+cos2A =2cos
2
A; cos
2
A =
1
2
¦1+cos2A)
1-cos2A =2sin
2
A; cos
2
A =
1
2
¦1−cos2A)

1−cos2A
1+cos2A
=tan
2
A;
1+cos2A
1−cos2A
=cot
2
A
1+sin2A =(sinA +cosA)
2

1-sin2A =(sinA -cosA)
2
cotA -tanA = 2 cot2A
tanA+cotA=2 cosec2A
6
TRIPLE ANGLES: T - ratios of 3 θ in terms of those of θ
Sin 3A = 3 sin A – 4 sin
3
A ;
cos 3A = 4 cos
3
A – 3 cos A ;
tan3A =
3tanA−tan
3
A
1−3tan
2
A
;
DEDUCTIONS:
4 sin
3
A =3 sin A -Sin 3A ;
sin
3
A =
1
4
( 3 sin A -Sin 3A ).
4 cos
3
A =3 cos A +cos 3A;
cos
3
A =
1
4
( 3 cos A +cos 3A )
TRIGNOMETRC RATIOS OF HALF
ANGLES-t ratios of sub multiple angles
a) sinθ =2sin
0
2
cos
0
2
=
2tan
0
2
1+tan
2
0
2
b) cosθ=cos
2
0
2
-sin
2
0
2
=2cos
2
0
2
-1
=1-2sin
2
0
2
=
1−tan
2
0
2
1+tan
2
0
2
c)tanθ=
2tan
0
2
1−tan
2
0
2
DEDUCTIONS:
1+cosθ=2cos
2
0
2
; 1-cosθ=2sin
2
0
2
1−cos 0
1+cos 0
=tan
2

0
2
;
1+cos 0
1−cos 0
=cot
2

0
2

1−sin 0
1+sin 0
= tan
2
¦
n
4

0
2
)
;

1+sin 0
1−sin 0
= cot
2
¦
n
4
+
0
2
)

sin0
1+cos 0
=tan
0
2
;
sin0
1−cos 0
=cot
0
2

cos 0
1+sin 0
= tan
¦
n
4

0
2
)
;
cos 0
1−sin 0
= cot
¦
n
4
+
0
2
)
Transformation formulae:
a) SUMS AND DIFFERENCE TO PRODUCT FORMULAE:
Formula that express sum or difference into products
Sin C + sin D = 2sin
¦C+D)
2
cos
C–D
2
Sin C – sin D = 2cos
¦C+D)
2
sin
C–D
2
Cos C + cos D = 2cos
C+D
2
cos
C–D
2
Cos C – cos D = 2sin
C+D
2
sin
D−C
2

or −2sin
C+D
2
sin
C−D
2
b) PRODUCT-TO-SUM OR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE :formula which express
products as sum or Difference of sines and cosines.
2 sin A cos B = sin (sum) + sin (diff) i.e 2 sinA cosB = sin(A+B) + sin(A-B)
2 cos A sin B = sin (sum) – sin (diff) i.e 2 cosA sinB = sin(A+B) - sin(A-B)
2 cos A cos B = cos (sum) + cos (diff) i.e. 2 cosA.cosB = cos(A+B)+cos(A-B)
2 sin A sin B = cos (diff) – cos (sum) i.e. -2 sinA.sin B = cos(A+B)-cos(A-B)
OR 2 sinA.sin B = cos(A-B)-cos(A+B)
EXPRESSION FOR Sin(A/2) and cos(A/2) in terms of sinA:
¦
sin
A
2
+cos
A
2
)
2
=1+sinA so that sin
A
2
+cos
A
2
= !
.
1+sinA
¦
sin
A
2
−cos
A
2
)
2
=1-sinA so that sin
A
2
−cos
A
2
= !
.
1−sinA
By addition and subtraction, we have
2 sin
A
2
= !
.
1+sinA ± !
.
1−sinA ; 2 cos
A
2
= !
.
1+sinA

!
.
1−sinA
Using suitable signs , we can find
sin
A
2
,
cos
A
2
7
VALUES OF TRIGNOMETRICAL RATIOS OF SOME IMPORTANT ANGLES :
Angle

Ratio

7
1
2
0

15
0
18
0

22
1
2
0
36
0
75
0

sin
.
8−2
.
6−2
.
2
4
or
.
4−
.
6−
.
2
2
.
2
.
3−1
2
.
2
.
5−1
4
1
2
.
2−
.
2
1
4
¦
.
10−2
.
5)
.
3+1
2
.
2
cos
.
8+2
.
6−2
.
2
4
or
.
4+
.
6+
.
2
2
.
2
.
3+1
2
.
2
1
4
¦
.
10+2
.
5)
1
2
.
2+
.
2
1
4
¦
.
5+1)
.
3−1
2
.
2
tan
.
6−
.
4−
.
3+
.
2
or
¦
.
3−
.
2)¦
.
2−1)
2-
.
3
.
25−10
.
5
5
.
2−1
.
5−2
.
5
2+
.
3
cot
.
6!
.
4!
.
3+
.
2
or
¦
.
3+
.
2)¦
.
2+1)
2+
.
3
.
¦5+2
.
5) .
2+1
.
¦
1+
2
.
5
)
2-
.
3
sec
.
16−10
.
2+8
.
3−6
.
6
(
.
6−
.
2 )
.
¦2−
2
.
5
)
.
4−2
.
2 .
5−1
.
6+
.
2
sin22½
0
=
1
2
.
2−
.
2 ;
cos22½
0
=
1
2
.
2+
.
2 ;
tan22½
0
=
.
2−1 ;cot22½
0
=
.
2+1
sin18
0
=
1
4
¦
.
5−1) =cos72
0
;
cos18
0
=
1
4
¦
.
10+2
.
5) =sin72
0
;
sin36
0
=
1
4
¦
.
10−2
.
5) =cos54
0
;
cos36
0
=
1
4
¦
.
5+1) =sin54
0

tan7 ½
0=
.
6−
.
4−
.
3+
.
2
cot7½
0
=
.
6!
.
4!
.
3+
.
2
sin9
0
=
.
3+
.
5−
.
3−
.
5
4
cos9
0
=
.
3+
.
5+
.
3−
.
5
4

IDENTITTIES CONNECTED WITH TRAINGLE:
If A,B,C are angles of a traingle,
sin(sum of any two) =sin(third); e.g.:sin(B+C) =sinA;
cos(sum of any two)= -cos(third); e.g.: cos(A+B)= -cosC]
tan(sum of ny two) = -tan(third) e.g. : tan(A+B) =-tanC
sin
1
2
(sum of any two) = cos
1
2
(third); e.g sin
A+C
2
=cos
B
2
)
cos
1
2
(sum of any two) = sin
1
2
(third), e.g: cos
B+C
2
=sin
A
2
)
If A is any angle of traingle and α lies between 0
0
and 180
0
, then
sinA=sin α ⇒A = α or 180
0
- α ; cosA=cos α ⇒Α= α; tanA=tan α ⇒Α= α
SOME IMPORTANT IDENTITTIES:
If A+B+C =180
0
, then
1) sin2A +sin2B+sin2C=4sinAsinBsinC i.e.

sin2A
= 4sinAsinBsinC
2)cos2A+cos2B+cos2C=-1-4cosAcosBcosC i.e.

cos2A =-1-4cosAcosBcosC
3)sinA+sinB+sinC=4cos
A
2
cos
B
2
cos
C
2
8
i.e.

sinA =4cos
A
2
cos
B
2
cos
C
2
4)cosA+cosB+cosC=1+4sin
A
2
sin
B
2
sin
C
2
i.e

cosA
=1+4sin
A
2
sin
B
2
sin
C
2
5)tanA+tanB+tanC=tanA.tanB.tanC i.e.

tanA
= tanA.tanB.tanC
6)cotB.cotC+cotC.cotA+cotA.cotB =1 i.e.

cotA.cotB
=1
7)cot
A
2
+cot
B
2
+cot
C
2
=cot
A
2
cot
B
2
cot
C
2
i.e. ∑
cot
A
2
=cot
A
2
cot
B
2
cot
C
2
8)tan
A
2
tan
B
2
+tan
B
2
tan
C
2
+tan
C
2
tan
A
2
=1 i.e. ∑
tan
A
2
tan
B
2
=1
Note: If A, B, C are the angles of a traingle , then
sin(A+B+C) =sinП=0, cos(A+B+C) =cos П= -1 and tan(A+B+C) =0;
GRAPHS OF TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
sinθ increases
from 0 to 1
decreases
from
1 to 0
decreses from
0 to -1
increases from
-1 to 0
cosθ decreases from
1 to 0
decreases
from
0 to -1
increases from
-1 to 0
increases from
0 to 1
tanθ increases from
0 to ∞
increases from
−∞ to 0
increases from
0 to ∞
increases from
−∞ to 0
cotθ decreases from
∞ to 0
decreases
from
0 to −∞
decreases from
∞ to 0
decreases from
0 to ∞
secθ increses from
1 to ∞
increases from
−∞ to -1
decreases from
-1 to −∞
decreases from
∞ to 1
cosecθ decreases from
∞ to 1
increases from
1 to ∞
increases from
−∞ to -1
decreases from
-1 to -infinity
Graph of sinx Graph of cosecx
9
Graph of cosx Graph of secx
Graph of tanx Graph of cotx
RELATION BETWEEN THE SIDES & ANGLES OF A TRIANGLE:
A traingle consists of 6 elements, three angles and three sides. The angles of traingle ABC are
denoted by A,B, and C. a,b, and c are respectively the sides opposite to the angles A,B and C.
In any traingle ABC , the following results or rule hold good.
1 Sine rule’: a = 2R sin A, b = 2R sin B, c = 2R sin C ie
a
sinA
=
b
sinB
=
c
sinC
=2R Where R is
the circum radius of circum circle that passes through the vertices of the traingle.
2.‘Cosine rule’: a
2
=b
2
+c
2
-2bc cosA or cos A =
¦ b
2
+c
2
– a
2
)
2bc
b
2
=a
2
+c
2
-2ac cosB or cos B =
¦ c
2
+a
2
– b
2
)
2ca
c
2
=a
2
+b
2
-2ab cosC or cos C =
¦ a
2
+b
2
– c
2
)
2ab
3.Projection rule’:
a = b cos C + c cos B; b = c cos A + a cos C; c = a cos B + b cos A
4.Napier's formula or ‘Law of Tangents’:
tan
¦ B–C)
2
=|
¦b –c)
¦b+c)
¦cot
A
2
or
¦
b−c
b+c
)
=
tan
B−C
2
tan
B+C
2
tan
¦ A–B)
2
=|
¦a –b)
¦ a+b)
¦cot
C
2
or
¦
a−b
a+b
)
=
tan
A−B
2
tan
A+B
2
etc.
5.‘Half-angle rule’: In any traingle ABC, a+b+c =2s, where 2s is the perimeter of the
traingle. sin
A
2
=
.
¦s –b)¦s –c)
bc
cos
A
2
=
.
s ¦s –a)
bc

tan
A
2
=
.
¦ s−b)¦ s−c)
s¦s−a)
10
f(x)=cot (x)
-8 -6 -4 -2 2 4 6 8
-8
-6
-4
-2
2
4
6
8
x
y

sin
B
2
=
.
¦s –a)¦s –c)
ac
cos
B
2
=
.
s¦s –b)
ac

tan
B
2
=
.
¦ s−a)¦ s−c)
s¦s−b)

sin
C
2
=
.
¦s –a)¦s –b)
ab
cos
C
2
=
.
s¦s –c)
ab

tan
C
2
=
.
¦ s−a)¦s−b)
s¦s−c)
6. Formula that involve the Perimeter: If S=
a+b+c
2
, where a+b+c is the perimeter of
a traingle, R the radius of the circumcircle, and r the radius of the inscribed circle, then
6. Area of traingle: ∆=
.
s¦ s−a)¦s−b)¦s−c)
;(HERO'S FORMULA)
∆=
1
2
a.b.SinC =
1
2
b.c. sinA =
1
2
c.a.sinB=
abc
4R
∆=
1
2
a
2
sinB. sinC
sinA
=
1
2
b
2
sin.CsinA
sinB
=
1
2
c
2
sinA. sinB
sinC
=
1
2
a
2
sinB. sinC
sin¦B+C)
DEDUCTIONS:
sinA=
2 
bc
=
2
bc
.
s¦s−a)¦s−b)¦ s−c) sinB=
2 
ca
SinC=
2 
ab
tan
A
2
tan
B
2
=
s−c
s
; tan
B
2
tan
C
2
=
s−a
s
; tan
C
2
tan
A
2
=
s−b
s
.
tan
A
2
tan
B
2
=

s
cot
C
2
; tan
B
2
tan
C
2
=

s
cot
A
2
;
tan
C
2
tan
A
2
=

s
cot
B
2
.
NOTE WORTHY POINTS: In a traingle ABC
• If cotA +cotB +cotC=
.
3 then traingle
is equilateral
• If sin
2
A +sin
2
B + sin
2
C =2 then traingle
is equilateral
• If cosA + cosB +cosC =3/2 then traingle
is equilateral
• If cotA cotB cotC>0 then traingle is
acute angled traingle
• If cos
2
A+cos
2
B +cos
2
C =1 then traingle
is rightangled traingle
• If in a traingle
a
cosA
=
b
cosB
=
c
cosC
then traingle is equilateral
• In a traingle a sinA =b sinB, then
traingle is isosceles
• If a cosA = bcosB then traingle is
isosceles or rightangled
• If in atraingle 8R
2
=a
2
+b
2
+c
2
then
traingle is rightangled.
SOLUTION OF TRIANGLES
To solve a triangle a) when all the 3 sides are given :
GIVEN REQUIRED
a,b, c i) Area of ∆=
. s¦ s−a)¦s−b)¦ s−c) , 2s = a+b+c
sinA=
2A
bc
, sinB=
2A
ac
, sin C=
2A
ab
OR
iii) First, find two of the three angles by cosine formula, then the third angle is
determined by using the relation A+B+C=180
0
. It is advisable to find the smallest
angle first. (angle opposite to the smallest side).
b) When two sides and an included angle is given:
GIVEN REQUIRED
a , b and C
i)Area of traingle=∆=
1
2
a.b.SinC ; tan
¦ A–B)
2
=|
¦a –b)
¦ a+b)
¦cot
C
2

A+B
2
=90
0
-
C
2
; c=
asinC
sinA
ii) Use cosine rule to find the third side. then find the smaller of the two angles
by cosine formula. Use A+B+C=180
0
to find the third angle
iii)Use Napier's formula and find two angles, then the third side can be
determined sine rule or cosine rule or by projection rule.
c)when one side and two angles A and B are given:
11
GIVEN REQUIRED
a A and B
i) C =180-(A+B) ; b=
asinB
sinA
;c=
asinC
sinA
d) When two sides and an angle opposite to one of them is given.
Let us assume that a,b, and A are given. Now we are required to find c,B and C. We just
cannot find c or C directly before finding B. There exist only one relation with which we can
find B i.e. by using sine Rule. sinB =
b sinA
a
; C=180-(A+B); c=
asinC
sinA
CASES:i)When A is acute angle and a<bsinA; In this relation sinB=
b sinA
a
gives us that
sinB>1, which is impossible. then there exists no solution or no traingle.
ii)When A is acute angle and a=bsinA: In this case only one traingle is possible
which is rightangled at B. If a=bsinA , sinB =1, then B=90
0
there exist only one
solution or one traingle since A is given, we can find C using A+B+C=180
0
. we can
find 'c' by any one of the rules.
iii)When A is acute angle and a>bsinA, sinB<1, then there exist two sub cases.
a) If a≥b, then A≥B, B must be acute. Thus there exists only one solution.
b) if b≥a, then B≥A., there exist two values to B for which this can be true .
one being acute and the other being obtuse.
When B is determined, we can find C using A+B+C =180
0
, then c by any one of the rules. this case is called
an ambiguous case since there exist no solution, one solution or two solutions depending on the cases.
Note: It is not advisable to use sine rule to find the angle in all other cases. since it always gives an ambiguous result.
Use sine rule to find the angle only when it is inevitable.
SUMMERY:
A unique traingle exists if I)three sides are given (b+c>a etc)
ii)one side and two angles are given
iii)two sides and included angle are given
iv)But two sides and angle opposite to one of these sides are given , the following
cases arise: a, b, A given
i)a<b sinA
ii)a=b sinA
iii)b>a>bsinA
iv)a>b
No triangle
Right angled triangle
Two triangles
one triangle
OTHER IMPORTANT FORMULA AND CONCEPTS:
1.To find the greatest and least values of the expression asin θ +bcos θ :
Let a=rcosα. b=rsinα , then a
2
+b
2
=r
2
or r=
.
a
2
+b
2

asinθ +bcosθ = r(sinθ cos α +cosθ sin α) = rsin(θ + α )
But -1≤sin(θ + α )≤1 so that -r ≤rsin(θ + α )≤r. Hence -
.
a
2
+b
2
≤ asinθ +bcosθ ≤
.
a
2
+b
2
Thus the greatest and least values of asinθ +bcosθ are respectively
.
a
2
+b
2
and -
.
a
2
+b
2
.
Similarly maximum value of asinθ -bcosθ is
.
a
2
+b
2
For 00n , minimum value of a sinθ + bcosecθ is 2
.
ab
For
−n
2
0
n
2
, minimum value of acosθ +bsecθ is 2
.
ab
For 00
n
2
or n0
3 n
2
, minimum value of a tanθ +bcotθ is 2
.
ab
by K. H. VASUDEVA
LECTURER IN MATHS
2. cosA.cos2A.cos4A.cos8A............cos2
n-1
A =
1
2
n
sinA
sin¦2
n
A)
(Remember)
12
OR cos θ.cos2 θ.cos2
2
θ.cos2
3
θ............cos2
n
θ =
sin¦2
n+1
A)
2
n
sinA
(Each angle being double of preceding)
3. SUM OF THE SIN AND COSINE SERIES WHEN THE ANGLES ARE IN AP:
sinα +sin(α+β) +sin(α +2 β) +..........n terms
cosα +cos(α+β) +cos(α +2 β) +..........n terms
=
sin n.
diff
2
sin
diff
2
. sin or cos
|
1st angle+last angle
2
¦
(Remember the rule)
=
sin
n ß
2
sin
ß
2
.sin or cos
|
o+o+¦n−1)ß
2
¦
=
sin
n ß
2
sin
ß
2
.sin or cos
|
o+¦n−1)
ß
2
¦
Note: β is not an even multiple of Π i.e. β #2n Π because in that case sum will take the form 0/0. Particular
case: Both the sum will be zero if sin

2
=0 i.e.
n ß
2
=r Π or β =
2r n
n
or β = even multiple of
n
n
then S=0
4. SOME RESULTS IN PRODUCT FORM:
sinθ sin(60+θ)sin(60-θ) =
1
4
sin3θ
cosθ cos(60+θ) cos(60-θ)
=
1
4
cos3 θ
cosθ cos(120+θ) cos(120-θ)
tanθ tan(60+θ )tan(60-θ ) =tan3θ
sin(60
0
-A) sin(60
0
+A) =
sin3A
4sinA
cos(60
0
-A) cos(60
0
+A)=
cos3A
4cosA
tan(60
0
-A) tan(60
0
+A) =
tan3A
tanA
tan2A tan3A tan5A=tan5A-tan3A-tan2A
tanx tan2x tan3x =tan3x-tan2x-tanx
(Use the above formula at time of integration)
tan(x-α). tan(x+ α ) tan 2x= tan2x-tan(x+ α )-tan(x-
α )

5. tan θ + tan¦0+
n
3
) + tan¦0+
2 n
3
) =3tan3 θ ; tan θ + tan¦0+
n
3
) + tan¦0−
n
3
) =3tan3 θ
6.
.
2+
.
2+
.
2+
.
2+............+
.
2+2cos2
n
0
=2cos θ ∀n∈N
HEIGHTS AND DISTANCES
ANGLE OF ELEVATION AND ANGLE OF DEPRESSION
Suppose a st.line OX is drawn in the horizontal direction.
Then the angle XOP where P is a point (or the position
of the object to be observed from the point O of observation )
above OX is called Angle of Elevation of P as seen from O.
Similarly, Angle XOQ where Q is below OX, is called
angle of depression of Q as seen from O.
OX is the horizontal line and OP and OQ are called
line of sights
2.To express one side of a right angled triangle in terms of the other side.
Explanation: Let ABC =Ө, Where ABC is right angled
triangle in which C = 90
0
. The side opposite to right angle C
will be denoted by H(Hypotenus), the side opposite (opposite side) to angle θ
is denoted by O, the side containing angle θ (other than H)(Adjacent side)
will be denoted by A
Then from the figure it is clear that
O=A(tanθ ) or A = O(cotθ ) i.e. Opposite = Adj(tanθ ) or Adj=opposite (cotθ ).
Also O=H(sinθ ) or A =H(cosθ ) i.e opposite =Hyp( sinθ ) or Adjacent =Hyp(cosθ )
13
O
X
α
β
α= Angle of
elevation of P
β=Angle of
Depression of Q
U
H
A
O
θ

(a sinx + bcosx +c) =c+ Min (a sinx + bcosx +c)= c-  a b  a b 2 2 2 and 2 5. therefore the values of secA and cosecA are always numerically greater than or equal to unity. sin θ >cos θ >0 for     . since sine is +ve in Q1 and Q2(II quadrant). cos(2nΠ +α )=cos α. tan(nΠ +α )= α ( n being any integer). cosθ= 5 5 For acute angled traingle. we have cosθ= We can find other ratios by forming a rightangled traingle.TO DETERMINE THE VALUES OF OTHER TRIGNOMETRIC RATIOS WHEN ONE TRIGNOMETRIC RATIO IS GIVEN: If one of the t-ratio is given . -1≤sinA≤1 and -1≤cosA≤1 2. we have sinθ= 3 . cosineθ. since -1≤sin (x+α )≤1  a b 2 2 ≤y≤c+  a b Hence Max.e. then Where a= r cos α b=r sin α ∴ ctan   sec −1 2 sec  =  1tan tan     sin2  2 ∀ ⇒ r= 2 2 = 1 . cosecθ. then since in Q3. sin θ =1. The period of sineθ . (sin θ cos θ) =Min 2 2   sin2  2 2 =- 1 2 a . hence each of sinA and cosA is numerically less than or equal to unity. Min. we can write other t ratios in terms of given ratio: Let 1−s2 sinθ=s= 2 perp s = hyp 1 1−s 2 2 cosθ= = 1−sin  . In otherwords we never have -1<cosecA<1 and -1<secA<1 3. since sin2A+cos2A =1. sin θ =-1 b)Max . 0<sin θ <cos θ for 0 4 2 4 4.The following formulae of Componedndo and Dividendo must be noted: If p/q =a/b then by componendo and dividendo we can write p−q a−b = pq ab PERIODICITY: sin(2nΠ +α ) =sin α. tanθ= 2 sin   1−sin  . That is secA≥1 or secA≤-1 and cosecA≥1 or cosecA≤-1. -1≤sin θ≤1 and -1≤cos θ≤1 a)Max . cosecθ= 1 . secθ= 1  1−sin  2 . sinθ=1/3. b . Let tanθ=4/3. secθ is 2Π and that of tangent θ and cotθ is Π. we can write y=c+  a b sin(x+α)  a b 2 2 tanα = b a . 2 s 1  1− 1 or 9  1− 1 9 ie. sine and cosine both are negative. that is |sinA|≤1 and |cosA|≤1 i. the values of other t-ratios can be obtained by constructing a right angled triangle and using the trigonometric identities given above For ex. Since secA and cosecA are respectively reciprocals of cosA and sinA.If y =a sinx + bcosx +c. For all values of θ. cotθ= sin  2  1−sin  2 sin  We can express sinθ in terms of other trigonometric functions by above method: 1 sinθ= 1−cos  = = = 2  1tan  cosec  MAXIMUM AND MININUM VALUES : 1. tanA and cotA can assume any real value. All Trigonometrical functions are periodic. Min . 2 2 3 or −2  2 according as θ ∈Q1 or θ ∈Q2 3 4 3 5 4 −3 . (sin θ cos θ)=Max 4. c∈R . sinθ is periodic with period 2  cosθ is periodic with period 2  tanθ is periodic with period  sinkθ is periodic with period tankθ is periodic with period 2 k  k 3 .

cos(even cos 2n−1   =0.. nεZ R-{(2n+1) ∞ ) ∞ ) R-{n  }... 1] R R (.2  5 = sin =sin 2 2 3 ) = sin 2 9 =. tan(any  ) =0 sin n  =tan n  =0 if n=0. cos(odd )=-1..TRIGNOMETRIC RATIOS OF STANDARD and QUANDRANTAL ANGLES: Radians 0 Degrees sinθ 0 cosθ 1 tanθ 0  6 1 2  4 450 600  3  2 900 1 0 ∞  3 2 2700 0 -1 0 ∞ 0 2  12 150 750 5 12 0 300 1800 3600 0 1 0 1 2 1 2 1 3 2 1 2 3 2 1 3 -1 3  3−1 2 2  31 2 2 2−3  31 2 2  3−1 2 2 23 VALUES OF T-FUNCTIONS OF SOME FREQUENTY OCCURING ANGLES. Range R-{n  }.. (..∞ ..g....=1 2 7 11  = sin = .-1] υ [1. 3) cos( n +θ)=(-1)n+1/2 sinθ if n is odd 2 =(-1)n/2 sinθ if n is even =(-1)n/2 cosθ if n is even DOMAIN AND RANGE OF TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTIONS: Function sine cosine tangent cotangent secant cosecant R R R-{(2n+1)  }: nε Z 2  }: nε Z 2 Domain [-1.1.=-1 2 2 cos(nП + θ )=(-1)n cos θ 4)sin( n +θ)=(-1)n-1/2 cosθ if n is odd 2 Some interesting results about allied angles: 1)Sin(nП + θ ) =(-1)n sin θ.. 1] [-1.∞ .. cos( 2n-1)  =-1.. 2 cos( odd e. cos(2n  ) =1 2 sin(any sin sin(  ) =0. nεZ 4 ..-1] υ [1.. Radians 0 Degrees sinθ cosθ tanθ 2 3 1200 3 4 1350 5 6 1500 1 2 2n1  (odd )  2  2 n (any  ) 3 2 − 1 2 1 2 − 1 2 -1  (-1)n 0 (-1)n 0 ∞ 0  ) =1 3 − 2 − 1 3 −3  )=0.

cos 600 =-cos 1200  .e. θ =n. 270-θ 360-θ 270+θ -θ Any angle can be expressed as n. First decide the sign +ve or -ve depending upon the quandrant in which the angle lies using QUADRANT RULE.3600 +α . a) When the angle is 90+θ or 270-θ. go on subtracting from 3600 till you get the angle less than 3600 ) and find the t-ratio of the remaining angle by applying the above method.θ ). cosec→sec. tan &cot. a) trigonometric ratio of any angle = Co-trigonometric ratio of its complement sin θ = cos(90.e sin →sine. 2. we note 6300 .θ ) with proper sign if θ lies in the second quandrant e. i.θ is its complement angle and the angle 2  . sec & cosec are called co . since the given angle contains an odd multiple of . -θ.e. cot→tan.θ ) e. In this  quadrant . the trignometric ratio changes S T A C 90-θ n.tan of its supplement i.θ ). ASTC Rule.g: cosec3000= -cosec600 = − t-ratio of θ-n (3600 ) if θ>3600 d) If θ is greater than 3600 i.e sin↔sin. SHORT CUT: Supposing we have to find the value of t.360 + θ from sine→cosine. sec→sec.ratio of (1800.(i.g: sin2100 = -sin300 = -1/2 t-ratio of (360. e. 2.θ ) =sin θ. cot→cot. b) If n is odd the function will change into its co function ( i. tan600 =cot300 . tan→cot. cosine→cosine . cosine is 2 replaced by sine. To get any t.θ is a third quadrant angle if 0< θ <900.θ is its 5 . the trignometrc ratio is remains the same. by finding in which quadrant the angle θ lies. Hence the sine and cosine. sin 300 =sin 1500 . tan θ = cot(90. then remove the multiples of 3600 (i. To determine sin(540-θ).e. t-ratios remains the same.θ ) = -sin θ.g.θ ) with proper sign if θ lies in the fourth quandrant e. cosine→sine.ratios.g: tan10350 =tan6750 (1035-360) =tan3150 = -tan450 =-1 2 3 COMPLIMENTARY AND SUPPLIMENTARY ANGLES: If θ is any angle then the angle supplement angle. cos↔cos etc) ILLUSTRATIONS: 1.e. This can be done by applying the quadrant rule. Hence cos(6300 .The trignometric ratios of allied angles can be easily remembred from the following clues: 1. sin600 =cos300 .θ ). tan↔cot. Hence sin(540. sec↔cosec) If n is even . ratios of this angle a) observe the quandrant in which n. cos of ( any angle) = -cos of its supplement tan of any angle = . b) When the angle is 180+θ or 360 θ .90+θ where n is any integer and θ is an acute angle . sec→cosec. To determine cos(6300 . the sine function 2 is retained . In  this quadrant cosine is negative and. we note that 5400 -θ =6 x 900 -θ is a second quadrant angle if 0<θ<900.g. tan→tan. sine is positive and since the given angle contains an even multiple of .θ =7 x 900 . Step 2: Find the numerical value of the t-ratio of θ using the following method: t-ratios of θ= t.e sine↔cosine. i.90+θ lies and determine the sign (+ve or -ve). b) sin of(any angle) = sin of its supplement . cos θ = sin(90.: cos1200 = -cos600 = -1/2 t-ratio of ( θ -180) with proper sign if θ lies in the third quandrant e.ratio of the angle θ Step1: Find the sign of the t-ratio of θ . The above may be summed up as follows: 90+θ 180-θ 180+θ cosec→cosec.

A+B#kπ) tanA tanB tanC −tanA. cosec(.tanCtanC.tanA 12. .θ) =cot θ (V. e.θ and n.tanA  S 1 −S 3 1−S 2 If S1 = tanA + tanB +tanC /m 11.A )= 19. sin (A – B) = sin A cos B – cos A sin B 3. Sin (A + B) = sin A cos B + cos A sin B 2.Cot(A-B) = cotAcotB−1 cotB−cotA (A#nπ.cotC−cotA−cotB−cotC  cotAcotBcotB.θ )= -cosec θ . cos(A+B)cos(A-B) =cos2A-sin2B =cos B -sin A 2 2 9.θ and 360.θ )= -tan θ .tanB. tanA tanB sin  AB = tanA −tanB sin  A−B cos  A−B cosA cosB cos  AB cosA cosB sin  AB cosA.θ are co terminal angles : a) Trig functions of θ and n. tan 2A = 2 tan A 1 – tan2 A 1 −cos2A =tan2A.tanC S2 =tanAtanB +tanB. B#mπ. 1 cos2A 1 cos2A =cot2A 1 −cos2A 1+sin2A =(sinA +cosA)2 1-sin2A =(sinA -cosA)2 cotA -tanA = 2 cot2A tanA+cotA=2 cosec2A DEDUCTIONS: 6 .360. tanA+tanB=tan(A+B)(1-tanA.A) = 17. Cos (A + B) = cos A cos B – sin A sin B 4. 1-cos2A =2sin2A.θ ) =sec θ .cotCcotC. tan(A+B+C) = = 8.CO-TERMINAL ANGLES: Two angles are said to be co terminal angles . tan (A + B) = 6.360.1+tanA tanB= 1-tanA tanB= cotA.cot( Π/4 .tanB)= 15. tan(A+B)tan(A-B)= 10. if their terminal sides are one and the same. tan 2 B cotAcotB−1 cotAcotB (A#nπ.IMP) TRIGNOMETRICAL RATIOS FOR SUM AND DIFFERENCE: COMPOUND ANGLE FORMULAE: (Addition and Subtraction formulae) 1.tan(Π/4 . tan(.g. tan (A – B) = tan Atan B  1 – tan A tan B tan A – tan B  1tan A tan B 1 −tanA 1 tanA cotA −1 cotA 1 cotA 1 cotA −1 DEDUCTIONS: 7. θ and 360+ θ or θ and n. cos2A = cos2A = 1 1cos2A  2 1 1−cos2A  2 A – sin 2 A 1 – 2 sin2A = 2cos2A – 1 = 3.tanB) = tanA-tanB=tan(A-B)(1-tanA.tanB. cosB 21. B#mπ. se(.θ ) = -sin θ cos(. A-B#kπ) rekloidddddddddddz S3 =tanA.cotA−1  22.Cot(A+B) = tan 2 A−tan 2 B 1 −tan 2 A .360+ θ . sin(A-B)sin(A-B) =sin2A-sin2B =cos B -cos A 2 2 16.The cot(A+B+C) = 13.tan(Π/4 + A) = sin  AB cosA.360+ θ are same b) Trig functions of -θ and n.θ ) = cos θ.cot( Π/4 + A )= 18.Sin 2A = 2 sin A cos A = 2.θ or . TRIGNOMETRIC RATIOS OF NEGETIVE ANGLES: For negative angles always use the following relations: c) sin(. cosB cosA-sinA= 1 tanA 1 −tanA 2tanA 2 1 −tan A MULTIPLE ANGLE FORMULAE: T ratios of multiple angles 1.cotB. sinA+cosA= sinA-cosA= cosA+sinA= 2 sin 4 A 2 sin 4 −A 2 cos 4 −A  2 cos 4 A      14.tanC +tanC.cos 2A = cos = 2 1+cos2A =2cos2A. ci) cot(.tanC 1 − tanAtanBtanB.θ are same . cos (A – B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B 5.

=cot2 2 1 −cos   2 1 −cos  =tan2 1 cos     -sin2 =2cos2 -1 2 2 2  1 −tan 2  =  2 1 tan2 2 2 1 −sin   2  = tan − 1 sin  4 2 1 sin   2  = cot  1 −sin  4 2 sin   =tan . 2 1 cos        .e 2 sinA cosB = sin(A+B) + sin(A-B) 2 cos A sin B = sin (sum) – sin (diff) i. 3 DEDUCTIONS: 4 sin3A =3 sin A -Sin 3A . 2 cosA. cos 2 2 =1-sinA so that By addition and subtraction. we can find 7 . =1-2sin2 sin   =cot 2 1 −cos  .cosB = cos(A+B)+cos(A-B) 2 sin A sin B = cos (diff) – cos (sum) i.sin B = cos(A-B)-cos(A+B) EXPRESSION FOR Sin(A/2) and cos(A/2) in terms of sinA:   sin sin A A cos 2 2 A A −cos 2 2   2 =1+sinA 2 so that sin sin A A cos = ±1 sinA 2 2 A A −cos = ±1 −sinA 2 2 A = ±1 sinA 2 A A sin .TRIPLE ANGLES: T . -2 sinA. 1-cosθ=2sin2 2 2 1 cos   . we have 2 sin A = ±1 sinA ± ±1 −sinA . sin3A = tan3A = 3tanA −tan 3 A . 4 1 ( 3 cos A +cos 3A ) 4 4 cos3A =3 cos A +cos 3A. 2 sin A cos B = sin (sum) + sin (diff) i.e. cos 3A = 4 cos A – 3 cos A . cos3A = TRIGNOMETRC RATIOS OF HALF ANGLES-t ratios of sub multiple angles  2   a) sinθ =2sin cos =  2 2 1 tan 2 2 2 tan b) cosθ=cos2 DEDUCTIONS: 1+cosθ=2cos2   .e 2 cosA sinB = sin(A+B) .ratios of 3θ in terms of those of θ Sin 3A = 3 sin A – 4 sin3A .  2 c)tanθ=  1 −tan2 2 2 tan cos    = tan − 1 sin  4 2 cos     = cot 1 −sin  4 2   Transformation formulae: a) SUMS AND DIFFERENCE TO PRODUCT FORMULAE: Formula that express sum or difference into products Sin C + sin D = Cos C + cos D = 2sin CD C–D cos 2 2 CD C–D cos 2 2 Sin C – sin D = Cos C – cos D = or 2cos 2sin CD C–D sin 2 2 CD D−C sin 2 2 CD C−D sin 2 2 2cos −2sin b) PRODUCT-TO-SUM OR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE :formula which express products as sum or Difference of sines and cosines. 1−3tan 2 A 1 ( 3 sin A -Sin 3A ).e.sin B = cos(A+B)-cos(A-B) OR 2 sinA.sin(A-B) 2 cos A cos B = cos (sum) + cos (diff) i. 2 2 cos ∓ ±1 −sinA Using suitable signs .

e.:sin(B+C) =sinA. e. sin(sum of any two) =sin(third). tanA=tan α ⇒Α= α SOME IMPORTANT IDENTITTIES: If A+B+C =1800 . e. cosA=cos α ⇒Α= α.g: cos =sin ) 2 2 2 2 If A is any angle of traingle and α lies between 00 and 1800 .g. 2  2 − 2  5  4−2  2 5−1 62 sin22½0 = cos22½0 = tan22½0 = sin180 = 0 sin360 = cos360 = 1  10−2  5 =cos540 .g. then 1) sin2A +sin2B+sin2C=4sinAsinBsinC i. 4 1  51  4 =sin540 2−1 . cos(sum of any two)= -cos(third). then sinA=sin α ⇒A = α or 1800.: cos(A+B)= -cosC] tan(sum of ny two) = -tan(third) e. : tan(A+B) =-tanC sin cos AC 1 1 B (sum of any two) = cos (third).B. cos18 = 4 6± 4±32  3 5−3−5  3 53−5 4 IDENTITTIES CONNECTED WITH TRAINGLE: If A. 4 1  102  5 =sin720 .α . ∑ sin2A = 4sinAsinBsinC =-1-4cosAcosBcosC 2)cos2A+cos2B+cos2C=-1-4cosAcosBcosC i.e. 3)sinA+sinB+sinC=4cos ∑ cos2A B A C cos cos 2 2 2 8 .C are angles of a traingle. e.VALUES OF TRIGNOMETRICAL RATIOS OF SOME IMPORTANT ANGLES: Angle → Ratio ↓ sin 7 1 2 0 150 180 22 1 2 0 360 750  8−2 6−2 2 4 or  3−1 2 2  5−1 4 1  2−2 2 1  10−2  5 4  31 2 2  4− 6− 2 2 2 4 or cos  82 6−2 2  4 6 2 2 2  31 2 2 1 1  102  5  22 4 2 1  51  4  3−1 2 2 tan or cot 6− 4−32 2- 3  25−10 5 5 2−1 5−2  5 2+ 3   3− 2 2−1  or sec 6± 4±32 2+ 3 5 2 5  ) 21   3 2 21   1 2 5  2- 3 16−10  28  3−6 (6 6−2 1  2−2 .cot22½0= 21 tan7 ½0= cot7½0= sin90 = cos90 = 6− 4−32 4 1  5−1  =cos720 .e.g sin =cos ) 2 2 2 2 BC 1 1 A (sum of any two) = sin (third). 2 1  22 .g.

then sin(A+B+C) =sinП=0. 2 2 2 2 2 2 ∑ tan 2 tan 2 A B =1 Note: If A. B.e.cotB =1 5)tanA+tanB+tanC=tanA. ∑ cotA.cotC+cotC.e.tanB.i.tanB.cotB =1 i. ∑ sinA ∑ cosA =4cos B A C cos cos 2 2 2 A B C sin sin 2 2 2 4)cosA+cosB+cosC=1+4sin i.e.cotA+cotA. 7)cot A B C A B C +cot +cot =cot cot cot 2 2 2 2 2 2 i.tanC i.e. ∑ cot 2 A =cot B A C cot cot 2 2 2 8)tan A B B C C A tan +tan tan +tan tan =1 i. C are the angles of a traingle .e =1+4sin A B C sin sin 2 2 2 ∑ tanA = tanA.e. cos(A+B+C) =cos П= -1 and tan(A+B+C) =0.tanC 6)cotB. II quadrant decreases from 1 to 0 III quadrant decreses from 0 to -1 IV quadrant increases from -1 to 0 GRAPHS OF TRIGNOMETRIC FUNCTIONS I quadrant sinθ increases from 0 to 1 cosθ decreases from decreases from 1 to 0 0 to -1 increases from increases from -1 to 0 0 to 1 tanθ cotθ increases from increases from increases from increases from 0 to ∞ −∞ to 0 0 to ∞ −∞ to 0 0 to ∞ decreases from decreases from ∞ to 0 0 to −∞ increses from 1 to ∞ decreases from decreases from ∞ to 0 secθ cosecθ increases from decreases from decreases from ∞ to 1 −∞ to -1 -1 to −∞ 1 to ∞ −∞ to -1 -1 to -infinity decreases from increases from increases from decreases from ∞ to 1 Graph of sinx Graph of cosecx 9 .

Projection rule’: a = b cos C + c cos B. three angles and three sides. b = c cos A + a cos C.B.Napier's formula or ‘Law of Tangents’: tan  B –C  b – c  A =[ ]cot 2 bc 2 or   B−C b−c 2 = bc BC tan 2 tan A−B a−b 2 = ab AB tan 2 tan etc.Graph of cosx Graph of secx Graph of tanx Graph of cotx y 8 6 4 2 f(x)=cot(x) x -8 -6 -4 -2 -2 -4 -6 -8 2 4 6 8 RELATION BETWEEN THE SIDES & ANGLES OF A TRIANGLE: A traingle consists of 6 elements. c = 2R sin C ie 2 a b c = = =2R Where R is sinA sinB sinC 2 2 the circum radius of circum circle that passes through the vertices of the traingle. 2. and C. b = 2R sin B. where 2s is the perimeter of the traingle.‘Half-angle rule’: In any traingle ABC. sin A s – b s – c  = 2 bc  A s s – a  = 2 bc  tan A  s−b s−c = 2 s s−a   10 .‘Cosine rule’: a2 =b2 +c2 -2bc cosA or b2 =a2 +c2 -2ac cosB or c2 =a2 +b2 -2ab cosC or 3. 1 Sine rule’: a = 2R sin A. In any traingle ABC .B and C. a+b+c =2s.b. a. The angles of traingle ABC are denoted by A. the following results or rule hold good. and c are respectively the sides opposite to the angles A. tan  A – B a – b  C =[ ]cot or 2  ab 2   cos 5. c = a cos B + b cos A cos A = cos B = cos C =  b c – a  2bc  c a – b  2ca  a b – c  2ab 2 2 2 2 2 2 4.

Area of traingle: ∆= ∆= ∆= DEDUCTIONS: sinA= tan tan tan  s s−a s−b s −c  . b) When two sides and an included angle is given: GIVEN a .b. Use A+B+C=1800 to find the third angle iii)Use Napier's formula and find two angles. 2 NOTE WORTHY POINTS: In a traingle ABC If cotA +cotB +cotC= is equilateral 3 then traingle • If in a traingle a b c = = cosA cosB cosC If sin2 A +sin2B + sin2 C =2 then traingle is equilateral If cosA + cosB +cosC =3/2 then traingle is equilateral If cotA cotB cotC>0 then traingle is acute angled traingle If cos2 A+cos2 B +cos2C =1 then traingle is rightangled traingle then traingle is equilateral • • • In a traingle a sinA =b sinB. 2 2 2 2 2 2 s s C A  tan = cot 2 2 s • • • • • B . b and C i)Area of traingle=∆= REQUIRED 1 a. tan tan = . sin C= OR bc ac ab iii) First. c)when one side and two angles A and B are given: 11 . then the third angle is determined by using the relation A+B+C=1800.SinC . sinC 1 a 2 sinB. c i) Area of ∆= sinA= REQUIRED  s s−a s−b s−c . sinA = c. then traingle is isosceles If a cosA = bcosB then traingle is isosceles or rightangled If in atraingle 8R2 =a2 +b2 +c2 then traingle is rightangled. tan tan = cot . where a+b+c is the perimeter of 2   a traingle. c= 2 sinA 2 ii) Use cosine rule to find the third side.b.C sinA 1 c 2 sinA. It is advisable to find the smallest angle first.b. Formula that involve the Perimeter: If S= C  s−as−b  = 2 s s−c  abc . find two of the three angles by cosine formula. 2 tan  A – B a – b  C =[ ]cot 2  ab 2 AB C asinC =900 . SOLUTION OF TRIANGLES To solve a triangle a) when all the 3 sides are given : GIVEN a. and r the radius of the inscribed circle. tan tan = . R the radius of the circumcircle. sinB = = = 2 sinA 2 sinB 2 sinC 2 sinBC  2 ca 2 ab 2 2 =  s s−a s −b  s−c bc bc sinB= SinC= s −c s −a s −b A B B C C A tan = . then find the smaller of the two angles by cosine formula. 2s = a+b+c 2 2 2 .(HERO'S FORMULA) 1 1 1 abc a.sinB= 2 2 2 4R 2 1 a sinB. 2 2 2 2 2 2 s s s A B C B C A   tan = cot . then 6.sin sin B s – a s – c  = 2 ac C s – a s – b  = 2 ab   cos cos B s s – b  = 2 ac C s s – c  = 2 ab   tan tan B  s−a s−c = 2 s s−b  6. sinC 1 b 2 sin.SinC = b. sinB= . then the third side can be determined sine rule or cosine rule or by projection rule.c. (angle opposite to the smallest side).a.

If a=bsinA ..c= sinA sinA d) When two sides and an angle opposite to one of them is given. we can find 'c' by any one of the rules.. H. iii)When A is acute angle and a>bsinA. sinB<1. one being acute and the other being obtuse. minimum value of a tanθ +bcotθ is 2 2  ab by K. Use sine rule to find the angle only when it is inevitable.cos8A.  a b 2 For 0 . since it always gives an ambiguous result.. this case is called an ambiguous case since there exist no solution. Hence -  a b 2 2 2 ≤ asinθ +bcosθ ≤ Thus the greatest and least values of asinθ +bcosθ are respectively Similarly maximum value of asinθ -bcosθ is  a b 2 2 and -  a b  a b 2 2 2 2 .cos4A. a) If a≥b. Let us assume that a.. We just cannot find c or C directly before finding B. ii)When A is acute angle and a=bsinA: In this case only one traingle is possible which is rightangled at B. then there exist two sub cases. which is impossible. Note: It is not advisable to use sine rule to find the angle in all other cases. Now we are required to find c. b= REQUIRED asinB asinC . then there exists no solution or no traingle.. by using sine Rule. then B≥A.GIVEN a A and B i) C =180-(A+B) . then a2 +b2 =r2 or r=  a b 2 2 asinθ +bcosθ = r(sinθ cos α +cosθ sin α) = rsin(θ + α ) But -1≤sin(θ + α )≤1 so that -r ≤rsin(θ + α )≤r... When B is determined. SUMMERY: A unique traingle exists if I)three sides are given (b+c>a etc) ii)one side and two angles are given iii)two sides and included angle are given iv)But two sides and angle opposite to one of these sides are given .cos2 n-1 A= 1 sin 2n A 2 sinA n (Remember) 12 . one solution or two solutions depending on the cases.B and C. we can find C using A+B+C=1800 . there exist two values to B for which this can be true . b. minimum value of a sinθ + bcosecθ is 2 For For  ab  ab −   . minimum value of acosθ +bsecθ is 2 2 2 0  or 2  3 .b.. In this relation sinB= b sinA gives us that a sinB>1. the following cases arise: a.cos2A.... c= a sinA CASES:i)When A is acute angle and a<bsinA. There exist only one relation with which we can find B i. b=rsinα . b) if b≥a. cosA. B must be acute. we can find C using A+B+C =1800 .e. then B=900 there exist only one solution or one traingle since A is given. then c by any one of the rules. then A≥B. sinB = b sinA asinC .To find the greatest and least values of the expression asinθ +bcosθ : Let a=rcosα. C=180-(A+B). and A are given. sinB =1. A given i)a<b sinA ii)a=b sinA iii)b>a>bsinA iv)a>b No triangle Right angled triangle Two triangles one triangle OTHER IMPORTANT FORMULA AND CONCEPTS: 1. Thus there exists only one solution. VASUDEVA LECTURER IN MATHS 2..

.cos23 θ..line OX is drawn in the horizontal direction. is called β=Angle of angle of depression of Q as seen from O.e...cos2n θ = sin 2 A  (Each angle being double of preceding) 2 n sinA n1 3...n terms sin n. Explanation: Let ABC =Ө.....e..... Angle XOQ where Q is below OX....... Opposite = Adj(tanθ ) or Adj=opposite (cotθ ). the side containing angle θ (other than H)(Adjacent side) will be denoted by A Then from the figure it is clear that O=A(tanθ ) or A = O(cotθ ) i. β #2n Π because in that case sum will take the form 0/0.e. Also O=H(sinθ ) or A =H(cosθ ) i.e opposite =Hyp( sinθ ) or Adjacent =Hyp(cosθ ) H θ A O α β X 13 . O Similarly. the side opposite (opposite side) to angle θ is denoted by O.. Depression of Q OX is the horizontal line and OP and OQ are called line of sights 2.n terms cosα +cos(α+β) +cos(α +2 β) +..  22cos2    =2cos θ ∀ n∈N HEIGHTS AND DISTANCES ANGLE OF ELEVATION AND ANGLE OF DEPRESSION Suppose a st. tan θ + tan   + tan −  =3tan3 θ 3 3 3 3 n   2 2 2 2..cos2 θ.sin or cos  sin 2 sin [  n−1  2 ] sin = n 2 . Particular case: Both the sum will be zero if then S=0 4.. SOME RESULTS IN PRODUCT FORM: sinθ sin(60+θ)sin(60-θ) = cosθ cos(60+θ) cos(60-θ) = cosθ cos(120+θ) cos(120-θ) tanθ tan(60+θ )tan(60-θ ) =tan3θ sin(600 -A) sin(600 +A) = n =0 i.To express one side of a right angled triangle in terms of the other side.cos22 θ.OR cos θ. tan θ + 6. SUM OF THE SIN AND COSINE SERIES WHEN THE ANGLES ARE IN AP: sinα +sin(α+β) +sin(α +2 β) +.... The side opposite to right angle  C will be denoted by H(Hypotenus). 2 n 2r  =r Π or β = or β = even multiple of 2 n  n 1 sin3θ 4 1 cos3 θ 4 cos(600 -A) cos(600 +A)= tan(600 -A) tan(600 +A) = cos3A 4cosA tan3A tanA tan2A tan3A tan5A=tan5A-tan3A-tan2A tanx tan2x tan3x =tan3x-tan2x-tanx (Use the above formula at time of integration) tan(x-α). Where ABC is right angled triangle in which C = 900 .. tan(x+ α ) tan 2x= tan2x-tan(x+ α )-tan(xα) sin3A 4sinA 5.. sin or cos [ 1st anglelast angle 2 ] (Remember the rule) sin = n 2 ...sin or cos  sin 2 [  n−1   2 ] Note: β is not an even multiple of Π i..... = diff 2 diff sin 2 .. Then the angle XOP where P is a point (or the position α= Angle of of the object to be observed from the point O of observation ) elevation of P above OX is called Angle of Elevation of P as seen from O.... tan   2    + tan  =3tan3 θ ..

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