authentic assessment authentic assessment: An assessment presenting tasks that reflect the kind of mastery demonstrated by experts.

Authentic assessment of a student's ability to solve problems, for example, would assess how effectively a student solves a real problem. 真實性評量 真實性評量是評量學生對學習事項的精熟度表現,經由學生解決問題的過程來評量其解決真 實問題的能力。 behaviorism behaviorism: A theory suggesting that learning occurs when an environmental stimulus triggers a response or behavior. Based on classical conditioning theory, behaviorism applies to educational practices that reward performance behaviors to encourage repetition of those behaviors. Rote memorization and drill-and-practice instruction are supported by behaviorist theory. 行為主義 行為主義認為學習就是動物對環境的刺激所產生的反應與行為,行為主義認為對正確反應的 增強將有助這些行為的表現,這對教育有相當的貢獻。行為主義支持強記及機械性的練習。 Coaching Observe students as they try to complete tasks and provide hints and helps when needed. The personalized attention that a one-on-one instructor provides is important for learners to pinpoint problems in performance and make needed adjustments. 察覺到學生在完成任務時的困難,並適時提供暗示與協助。這種個別化的協助,對學生在找 出問題癥結及調整需求有很大的幫助。 Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e.g. Luger 1994). Practically every formal introduction to cognitive science stresses that it is a highly interdisciplinary research area in which psychology, neuroscience, linguistics, philosophy, computer science, anthropology, and biology are its principal specialized or applied branches. Therefore we may distinguish cognitive studies of either human or animal brains, mind and intelligence. 認知科學 通常被定義為研究心智或智力的學科。它是一個高度跨學門的研究領域,涵蓋如心理學、神 經學、語言學、哲學、資訊科學、人類學等領域,這些學門提供它們的理論與原則支持認知 科學的研究,並將研究成果應用在其本身的領域。因此我們可以明確的分別,認知科學就是 研究人類或動物的頭腦、心智與智力的科學。 distance learning: Using technology such as two-way, interactive television, teacher and student(s) in different locations may communicate with one another as in a regular classroom setting. 遠距學習 使用科技,如雙向或互動的電視教學,教師和學生雖然在不同的地點,卻能夠像在一般教室 裏的溝通。 heterogeneous grouping: Grouping together students of varying abilities, interests, or ages. 異質性分組 將不同能力、興趣、年齡的學生混合編組。 collaborative learning collaborative learning or cooperative learning: An instructional approach in which students of

varying abilities and interests work together in small groups to solve a problem, complete a project, or achieve a common goal. 合作學習 讓不同能力與興趣學生組成小組去共同解決問題、完成專案、達成目標。 constructivism constructivism: Theory suggesting that students learn by constructing their own knowledge, especially through hands-on exploration. It emphasizes that the context in which an idea is presented, as well as student attitude and behavior, affects learning. Students learn by incorporating new information into what they already know. 建構主義 認為學習是知識建構的過程,而且親身的體驗更能增進學習。它強調表達、態度及行為都會 影響學習。學生的學習是將新的訊息納入已知的知識結構中。 criterion-referenced assessment criterion-referenced assessment: An assessment that measures what a student understands, knows, or can accomplish in relation to specific performance objectives. It is used to identify a student's specific strengths and weaknesses in relation to skills defined as the goals of the instruction, but it does not compare students to other students. 標準參照評量 它是評量學生所瞭解的、知道的或完成某些特定目的的工作,通常是用來判斷學生的能力是 否達到教學目標,但不是跟其它的學生做比較。 critical thinking critical thinking: Logical thinking that draws conclusions from facts and evidence. 批判性思考 從事實與證據中,經由邏輯思考得出結論

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