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Joe Biden


Perso nal Birthdate: November 20, 1942 (Scranton, Pa.) Hometown: New Castle, Del. Spouse: Neila Hunter (died in 1972); Jill Tracy Jacobs Children: Joseph R. "Beau" Biden III, Robert Hunter Biden, Amy Biden (died in 1972), Ashley Biden (with Jill Tracy Jacobs) Religion: Catholic Educat ion Syracuse University College of Law, J.D., 1968 University of Delaware, B.A., 1965 St. Helena's School and Archmere Academy Exp er ie nce Businesses Owned, Past Careers, Board Memberships, Etc.: Adjunct Professor, Widener University School of Law, 1991-present Attorney, Private Practice, 1968-1972 Pu blic Servi ce / Ele ct ed Of fic es : Senator, United States Senate, 1972-present [one of the youngest people ever elected to the Senate]

Chair, Committee on Foreign Relations, current, 2001-2003 Chair, Committee on the Judiciary, 1987-1995

Issu es :
A Fiv e Poi nt Pla n for Iraq 1. Establish One Iraq, with Three Regions * Federalize Iraq in accordance with its constitution by establishing three largely autonomous regions - Shiite, Sunni and Kurd -- with a strong but limited central government in Baghdad * Put the central government in charge of truly common interests: border defense, foreign policy, oil production and revenues * Form regional governments -- Kurd, Sunni and Shiite -- responsible for administering their own regions 2. Share Oil Revenues * Gain agreement for the federal solution from the Sunni Arabs by guaranteeing them 20 percent of all present and future oil revenues -- an amount roughly proportional to their size -- which would make their region economically viable * Empower the central government to set national oil policy and distribute the revenues, which would attract needed foreign investment and reinforce each community's interest in keeping Iraq intact and protecting the oil infrastructure 3. Convene International Conference, Enforce Regional Non-Aggression Pact * Convene with the U.N. a regional security conference where Iraq's neighbors, including Iran, pledge to support Iraq's power sharing agreement and respect Iraq's borders * Engage Iraq's neighbors directly to overcome their suspicions and focus their efforts on stabilizing Iraq, not undermining it * Create a standing Contact Group, to include the major powers, that would engage Iraq's neighbors and enforce their commitments 4. Responsibly Drawdown US Troops * Direct U.S. military commanders to develop a plan to withdraw and re-deploy almost all U.S. forces from Iraq by the summer of 2008 * Maintain in or near Iraq a small residual force -- perhaps 20,000 troops -- to strike any concentration of terrorists, help keep Iraq's neighbors honest and train its security forces 5. Increase Reconstruction Assistance and Create a Jobs Program * Provide more reconstruction assistance, conditioned on the protection of minority and women's rights and the establishment of a jobs program to give Iraqi youth an alternative to the militia and criminal gangs * Insist that other countries take the lead in funding reconstruction by making good on old commitments and providing new ones -- especially the oil-rich Arab Gulf countries

Healt hc ar e
Step One: Cover All Children The path to universal health care starts with making sure that the most vulnerable, our children, have health insurance. Today 9 million children are uninsured. Joe Biden would cover all kids by: * Expanding the State Children’s Health Insurance Program to at least 300 percent of the federal poverty level ($61,950 for a family of four). o More than 80 percent of uninsured children are in families below 300 percent of the poverty level: + Under 100 Percent of FPL ($20,000) – 2.9 million or 31.8 percent + Between 100 and 199 percent of FPL ($40,000) – 2.9 million or 32.1 percent + Between 200 and 299 percent of FPL ($60,000) – 1.7 million or 18.4 percent + Over 300 percent of FPL ($60,000+) – 1.6 million or 17.6 percent * Allowing all families to buy into SCHIP with sliding scale premiums and co-payments based on family income. * Extending coverage to at least age 21 (as states can choose to do in Medicaid) * Emphasizing wellness and prevention by eliminating co-payments for physicals, vaccinations, vision and hearing screenings and preventive dental check-ups for children of any income level. * Automatically enrolling eligible uninsured children at birth, school registration or through other income-tested programs like WIC, reduced price school lunch or Head Start. * Expanding Medicaid eligibility for some parents of low-income children. Step Two: Access for Adults While insuring all children must be our top priority, it is also important to offer uninsured adults access to health care. Building on the existing system, Joe Biden would open the doors to insurance for adults in three ways: 1. Federal Employee Health Benefit Plan Buy-In * Senator Biden would allow uninsured Americans to buy into an insurance program that mirrors the Federal Employee Health Benefit Plan (FEHBP) – the program that provides health insurance to members of Congress, their staff, and federal employees. * While the program will contain the same carriers and the same plan offerings, the new program will have its own insurance pool. Carriers in the FEHBP program would have to offer plans in the universal buy-in plan, but would have access to reinsurance to help with catastrophic costs for enrollees with greater than usual health costs. The buy-in program could also have an age-adjusted “payment” or “bonus” for plans that enroll older and less healthy people to help carriers avoid the effects of adverse selection. * People would be permitted to buy-in on a sliding scale based on income. * Small businesses would be allowed to participate in the program to help provide insurance for their employees. For companies that buy into the plan, employers, employees and the government

would share the cost of the premium. Firms with a high proportion of low-wage workers would get a larger subsidy from the federal government than would firms with higher-wage workers. 2. Medicare Buy-In For People Aged 55-64 * There are 29.5 million people between the ages of 55 and 64. Of those, an estimated 4.8 million are uninsured, 1.5 million purchase insurance through the individual market, and 2.7 million are early retirees that get insurance through their employers. Many people in this age group who are uninsured simply cannot afford to purchase insurance in the individual insurance market because of high premium costs due to their age and health history. * Joe Biden will allow people between 55 and 64 to buy in to the Medicare program. Like the FEHBP buy-in proposal, the federal government will provide a subsidy for low-income individuals in this age group to afford to purchase early coverage in the Medicare program. * While the federal government would invest money now to allow uninsured individuals between 55 and 64 to buy into Medicare, this proposal could save money for the Medicare program in the long run. By the time people become eligible for Medicare at age 65, many are already dealing with numerous chronic health conditions. Providing an earlier window to participate in Medicare can allow treatment of chronic diseases to start at an earlier age that can save Medicare costs in the long run. Only 59.3 percent of uninsured near-elderly manage to be able to see a doctor, compared to 87.7 percent and 84.2 percent of privately and publicly insured near-elderly respectively. Giving the uninsured near-elderly the opportunity to enroll in Medicare at an earlier age can improve the number of people able to see a doctor and treat any medical conditions they have that would be more expensive to treat if they had to wait until they were 65 to enroll. 3. Reform The Insurance Industry Insurance companies often discriminate against people who need insurance the most –those with preexisting conditions and those with high-risk factors for certain diseases. For individuals who do not have access to employer-sponsored insurance, the high cost of individual insurance policies simply forces them to go without health insurance. To help people afford health insurance, Joe Biden would: * Allow insurers that offer individual policies to access the reinsurance pool if they agree not to turn people away because of pre-existing conditions or risk of them. * Protect against genetic discrimination by prohibiting employers and insurance companies from collecting or using genetic information when making decisions about hiring, providing health coverage, or discriminating in the pricing of an insurance policy. Step Three: Reinsurance For Catastrophic Cases Most Americans, 60 percent, receive health insurance through their employers. But employers are scaling back benefits as the cost of health insurance and health care rises. Millions of workers no longer receive insurance from employers – 70 percent of the uninsured are employed. Around 5 percent of people with the greatest health care costs account for half of health care spending in this country. Just one employee with high medical expenses can push premiums up for all and make insurance unaffordable.

By creating a federal reinsurance system for catastrophic costs, the risk and burden of covering these patients are spread among the general population, instead of smaller subgroups of employees. In addition to helping families and business avoid financial disasters, a catastrophic coverage plan (often times called a stop-loss plan) can help lower administrative costs and reduce the variation in health care costs. Ken Thorpe, a professor at Emory University, has estimated that a stop-loss plan that pays 75 percent of claims above a catastrophic threshold would, on average, reduce the variance in claims costs by more than 50 percent. Reducing the risk factor for health plans would translate into lower health insurance premiums. Providing this type of coverage is not a new role for the federal government in the private insurance market. Indeed, the federal government currently assumes the risk for high-cost cases in several other private markets. For instance, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) plays a key role in providing financial assistance for the private sector (households and businesses) facing catastrophic losses. Joe Biden would stop the race to the bottom in providing health care benefits by: * Establishing a federal reinsurance pool to reimburse employers, insurers or associations (including voluntary employee benefit associations) for 75 percent of catastrophic health costs (those exceeding $50,000 per individual) for active and retired employees and their families. o To participate in the rebate program, employers would have to cover all employees and apply best practices to chronic disease management. o Private insurers in the individual market would have to demonstrate that they operate an effective high cost case management system. Step Four: Encouraging Prevention and Modernization Too often the debate over health care centers around whether we’re spending enough on health care in this country – when the reality is that the US spends more on medical services than any other developed nation, including those countries that provide health insurance for all. We can afford to provide universal health care in this country – and we can help pay for it with a national agenda of sensible steps to get skyrocketing health care costs under control. * Focusing on Prevention: According to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), approximately 108 million people in the United States have at least one chronic disease. Including such diseases as heart disease, diabetes, asthma, hypertension, or osteoarthritis, these conditions have severe impact upon the quality of peoples' lives and health care costs. Obesity, which increases risk for these conditions, has doubled among adults over the last two decades. It is estimated that 75 cents of every dollar spent on care in the United States is spent on patients with chronic diseases. Treating chronic illnesses accounts for approximately 74 percent of private insurance spending and 83 percent of government spending. But many adults and children don’t receive adequate preventive care to manage these conditions before they result in costly complications. For example, according to AHRQ: * Approximately 1.7 million hospitalizations occur annually for a heart attack or congestive heart failure, and over 600,000 people die each year of heart disease. * Nearly 50,000 people die each year as a result of diabetes, making it the sixth leading cause of death. * Health care costs for asthma patients rose dramatically from $4.5 billion in the 1980's to $10.7 billion in the 1990's.

* Over 50 million people suffer from high blood pressure (hypertension), which contributes to the incidence of stroke and heart disease. * More than half of people age 65 and over have evidence of osteoarthritis; it is the major cause of disability in this age group. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 80 percent of type 2 diabetes, 80 percent of heart disease and strokes and 40 percent of cancer could be prevented if the American public would stop smoking, eat more nutritious foods and make physical exercise part of their daily routine. Simply put, no health reform plan will be able to work without addressing the high costs associated with chronic disease. In order to contain health care costs associated with chronic diseases, Joe Biden would: * Increase funding for existing programs that promote awareness and prevention of chronic diseases and obesity. * Require insurers participating in federal programs to cover preventive care. * Establish chronic disease treatment programs in Medicare and other federal programs to better manage care, especially when a patient has multiple conditions. * Support research on the best approaches to coordinate chronic disease care. * Waive copayment requirements under Medicare for screenings for cervical, breast and colon cancer, as well as other high cost chronic diseases. To take advantage of this potential, Joe Biden will: * Establish a Comparative Effectiveness Panel to: evaluate treatment protocols, medical devices and new technology and establish best practices for management of chronic diseases. Joe Biden’s home state, Delaware, is a leader in adopting new health information technology. The Delaware Health Information Network (DHIN) is a state-wide health information and electronic data interchange network for public and private use. With funding from both the federal and state government, DHIN is building a Clinical Information Exchange Utility to provide secure, fast, and reliable exchange of health information among the many health care providers treating patients throughout Delaware. The potential for a significant improvement in the delivery of health care when healthcare providers and consumers have access to complete health and treatment histories is enormous: * Improved quality of care: When a health provider or hospital has information about a patient's prescription medications, medical history, treatment history and allergies, he/she can make better clinical decisions, which result in better health outcomes for the patient. * Improved patient-provider communication: When a patient has access to more information, he/she is more likely to engage his/her health care providers in communication about treatment options and wellness opportunities. As a result, the patient is more involved in treatment decisions, improving compliance and overall health outcomes. * Reduced duplication of services and treatments: Two of the most significant cost drivers in the health care industry are prescription drugs and high technology diagnostic and testing services, such as MRIs and CT scans. Compounding these costs is the potential for duplication of these treatments or

tests. A quick check of an electronic medical record can show a provider the results of tests already performed and stop duplicative tests and procedures from being performed. The potential savings to the health care industry from full adoption of electronic medical records is substantial. In fact, researchers at the RAND Corporation estimated that full adoption of electronic medical records could save $77 billion annually. RAND also determined that by 2004, 15 to 20 percent of U.S. physician offices had adopted electronic medical records systems. To get to 100 percent Joe Biden would: 1. Invest at least $1 billion dollars per year in moving to electronic health records systems. 2. Provide grants to states to develop electronic medical records and other health IT systems. 3. Assist hospitals, medical facilities and doctors in upgrading to electronic record systems and implementing them in their practice.. To support the movement to a uniform billing system, Joe Biden will: * Provide federal funding to support state initiatives to adopt Utah-like insurer agreements to create one claim form used by all insurers with a goal of moving to a uniform system on a national level. * Require insurers participating in federal programs to shift to “paperless” uniform billing and claims forms. Negotiating For Prescription Drugs The Medicare Part D prescription drug program was created in the Medicare Modernization Act of 2003. Medicare covers more than 40 million seniors and disabled Americans who are projected to consume $1.8 trillion worth of prescription drugs over the next decade. However, instead of using the purchasing power of 40 million Americans to get the best prices possible for prescription drugs, the Medicare and Modernization Act of 2003 expressly forbids the federal government from interfering in drug negotiations between pharmaceutical companies and the numerous private insurers spread out across the country that offer Part D coverage. Simply put, this “noninterference clause” dilutes Medicare’s bargaining position. The federal government successfully uses its bulk purchasing power to keep costs low in the Veterans Administration health system—why not allow it to do the same for our nation’s seniors who rely on Medicare? In order lower prescription drug prices in the Medicare Part D program, Joe Biden will: * Remove the prohibition against the federal government negotiating prices for prescription drugs for enrollees in Medicare Part D to allow the federal government to use its bulk purchasing power to reduce costs for Medicare beneficiaries. Meeting the Need For New Health Professionals Nurses Nurses play a critical role in this nation’s health care system – they make the difference in the quality of care patients receive. With an estimated 2.9 million licensed registered and advanced practice registered nurses (RNs and APRNs), nurses represent the largest occupational group of health care workers and provide patient care in virtually all locations in which health care is delivered. Unfortunately, the US is in the midst of a nursing shortage that is expected to intensify as baby boomers age and the need for health care grows. Even the VA, the largest sole employer of RNs in the

US, has a nursing vacancy rate of 10 percent. In the January/February 2007 issue of Health Affairs, Dr. David I. Auerbach and colleagues estimated that the U.S. shortage of RNs will increase to 340,000 by the year 2020 – three times larger than the size of the current shortage when it was at its peak. There are several reasons for the nursing shortage. First, the nursing workforce is rapidly aging. The average age of the RN population in March 2004 was 47 years old. Second, the population of RNs is growing at a slower rate. Third, many nurses feel burdened by heavy patient loads, stressful working conditions and long hours and subsequently leave the nursing profession. Fourth, nursing schools are unable to educate more RNs at the rate they are needed. According to the American Association of Colleges of Nursing’s (AACN), U.S. nursing schools turned away 42,866 qualified applicants in 2006 due to an insufficient number of faculty, clinical sites, classroom space, clinical preceptors, and budget constraints. Joe Biden will help train and put 100,000 new nurses in the workforce in the next five years by: * Increasing yearly loan amounts available in the Nurse Student Loan Program. * Explicitly including accelerated degree nursing students—those who already have an undergraduate degree in another field who have gone back to school to get a degree in nursing—in the Nursing Student Loan Program. * Providing funds for academic institutions to establish doctoral nursing degree programs in states that currently lack even one such program. * Establishing doctoral nursing consortia pilot projects to allow academic institutions to share faculty and other resources to better teach nursing students. * Establishing pilot projects between health facilities and academic institutions to allow nurses to stay in their jobs while also attending school to earn a graduate degree and eventually teach. Public Health Workers Public health officials are crucial in reacting to public health emergencies and they are critical to the safety of our communities. Joe Biden will help train the next generation of public health workers by: * Establishing the Public Health Workforce Scholarship Program to provide eligible students with scholarships to study public health. * Establishing the Public Health Workforce Loan Repayment program. * Creating a catalogue to publish federal health employment opportunities. Physicians Physicians are the backbone of our health care system, and Joe Biden will continue to support the training of physicians by: * Continuing support for Graduate Medical Education. * Supporting initiatives to prepare physicians to practice in specialties to meet impending needs of Americans, especially geriatrics, family medicine and emergency care. Joe Biden’s Priorities: Restore Fairness to the Budget

Fis cal Re sp ons ibiliti es :
Common Sense Budget and Responsible Spending: Joe Biden grew up in a middle-class nieghborhood and learned that if something is really important, you have to find a way to pay for it. That’s why he wants the government to adopt a Pay-As-You-Go budget. If you want to spend money in one area, you have to pay for it by reducing spending elsewhere or rasing new revenue. It just makes sense. New Priorities: The war in Iraq is costing this nation over $100 billion a year. Tax cuts for the wealthiest one percent – those who make an average of $1.4 million a year – are costing more than $85 billion a year. Joe Biden believes it is time for new priorities. By ending the war and repealing the George Bush’s tax cuts for the top one percent of Americans, we will gain an additional $185 billion a year in revenue that Joe Biden would put to better uses by investing in education and making preschool available to all, improving health care, extending tax breaks for college tuition, doubling investments in alternative energy technology, upgrading neglected infrastructure and improving homeland security. Joe Biden: Working for Responsible Budgets Kicking Deficit Spending: Joe Biden fought against George Bush’s tax cuts that have resulted in turning a record budget into record deficits. Building a Surplus and Jobs: Joe Biden worked with President Clinton to help eradicate the deficit and create 20 million new jobs. Fighting Social Security Privatization: Joe Biden believes that we must protect Social Security and he has fought against irresponsible and risky attempts by Republicans to privatize Social Security. Supporting Tax Laws that Make Sense: Joe Biden voted for tax reforms that: * Helped millions escape poverty with the Earned Income Tax Credit. * Would fix the Alternative Minimum Tax providing relief to millions of middle-income Americans. * Encouraged innovation and competition in research and development, making America more competitive in the global economy. Repealing the Oil Company Tax Breaks: Joe Biden confronted oil executives at a 2006 Senate hearing, asking them if they needed the billions in tax breaks George Bush and the Republicans gave them in 2005. Joe Biden then worked to repeal those special subsidies that even the oil executives acknowledged that they did not need.

Hom elan d Se curi ty
More than a year ago the 9/11 Commissioners graded homeland security improvements since September 11th; their report card was riddled with D's and F's. Since then, several events have reminded us that we cannot afford to ignore these failing grades. A

proposal to sell our ports to a Dubai company called attention to the fact that we do not screen all cargo on ships and commercial airlines. Terrorist attacks on rail systems in Mumbai, following similar attacks in London and Madrid, killed hundreds of innocent civilians. Our British allies disrupted a plot to blow up airliners bound to the United States underscoring our vulnerability in the sky. Yet the Department of Homeland Security cut by forty percent funds for known terrorist targets like Washington, DC and New York City. Our ports, chemical plants, railways and other critical infrastructure are not secure. Our local police agencies are stretched too thin, and our first responders still cannot talk to each other in the event of an emergency of natural disaster. This Administration and the Republican led Congress have refused to make the necessary investment. Homeland Security Secretary Michael Chertoff has even argued that shortchanging homeland defense is justified because Al Qaeda's strategy is to weaken America by forcing us to invest in futile homeland security efforts. The real question we should be asking is: what does it take to make all of America safer? The 9/11 Commission gave us a blue print. To be sure, implementing it will cost more. But we can easily afford it - if we change our priorities. This year, the budget for the Department of Homeland Security is $35 billion; at $60 billion, the tax cut for millionaires is nearly double that amount. Senator Biden would take back one year of the tax cuts for Americans who make over a million dollars a year, and put this money in a dedicated Homeland Security and Public Safety Trust Fund to implement the 9/11 Commission recommendations and invest in law enforcement. For $10 billion a year over the next five years we could: * screen 100 percent of cargo containers coming into our ports, * better protect our chemical facilities, * improve air cargo screening, * make sure that our first responders can talk to one another in emergencies, * hire 1,000 more FBI agents, * hire 50,000 more local cops, and * create local counter-terrorism units in our large cities to stop home-grown plots Precedent proves this can work. In the early 1990s, Senator Biden established the Violent Crime Reduction Trust Fund to address the growing crime problem. It put more than 100,000 cops on the street and increased investment in crime prevention programs. Violent crime rates went down. The Bush administration slashed billions in federal assistance for state and local law enforcement and completely eliminated the COPS hiring program -- and crime rates went up. The most recent reports from the Federal Bureau of Investigation show a continuation in the upward swing in violent crimes first reported last year when after years of steady declines, violent crime jumped 2.5 percent --- the largest increase in 15 years. If these statistics show one thing, it is that we need to re-order our homeland and domestic security priorities - now - before the crime rates get worse.

Joe Bid en ’s P lan t o End 21 st Centu ry Dis cr imina tion

Judging the Judges: The recent Supreme Court term proves that judges and justices can undo decades of progress on civil rights. That’s why Joe Biden has a well-earned reputation of being tough on judging judicial appointments. As chairman of the powerful Senate Judiciary Committee, he kept Robert Bork off the Supreme Court. More recently, as a senior member of the Committee, he strongly opposed putting Bush nominees John Roberts and Samuel Alito on the Supreme Court, fearing what unfortunately has proven true – they want to erase decades of progress for minorities and women. As the Bush Administration continues to try to pack federal courts with judges committed to a narrow view of the Constitution that denies minorities and women equal protection, Senator Biden will remain the voice of opposition. Ending Discrimination Based On Sexual Orientation: Joe Biden believes legal recognition should not be denied same-sex couples. He advocates for reexamining federal laws, including the tax code, to ensure our national laws are not unfair to same-sex couples, and that committed adults who are adopting are not discriminated against because of sexual orientation. He supports letting states determine how to recognize civil unions and define marriage. Ending Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell: Joe Biden supports ending the military’s Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Policy. Twenty-four of the nations serving alongside U.S. forces in Iraq permit open service, and it has no negative impact on their forces or the morale of the soldiers. Joe Biden believes turning away patriotic Americans who volunteer to serve solely because of their sexual orientation is wrong. Equal Work, Equal Paycheck: Today, with women still earning 77 cents for every dollar a man makes doing the same work, Joe Biden is fighting for the Paycheck Fairness Act. It would help prevent pay discrimination by strengthening penalties should it occur. Joe Biden also fought for the federal minimum wage increase to $7.25 an hour from $5.15, where it had been stuck for 10 years, giving 13 million workers a pay raise. Stopping Discrimination at Work: While workplace discrimination is not as obvious as when Joe Biden’s ancestors faced “No Irish Need Apply,” signs, today minorities, women, and gays hear excuses like, “she won’t fit in,” or “he’s too qualified,” as employers pass on them. It may be subtle, but it’s hate in the heart, nevertheless. So Joe Biden supports the Employment Non-Discrimination Act to prohibit job discrimination of any kind. He also supports the Fair Pay Restoration Act to overturn a Supreme Court decision that makes it more difficult for women to bring pay discrimination cases. Punishing Hate Crimes: Joe Biden is a strong supporter of the Local Law Enforcement Hate Crimes Prevention Act to expand federal and state coordination to fight hate crimes. Every year more than 7,000 hate crimes are committed. Joe Biden believes these acts not only hurt victims, they damage the values that are America. The Act would enable the Justice Department to assist local agencies in investigating and prosecuting crimes, and would expand the definition of hate crimes to include offenses based on

sexual orientation, gender, or disability. He also supports the Emmett Till Unsolved Civil Rights Crime Act which would dedicate resources at the Department of Justice and FBI to re-open unsolved murders from the civil rights era. Equal Access at the Ballot Box: Today, there are more than 9,000 black and 6,000 Latino elected officials, largely due to the Voting Rights Act that put an end to literacy tests and poll taxes in the 1960s. In the early 1980s, Joe Biden helped expand the Act, and last year worked hard to get the Act renewed. Joe Biden believes that more must be done to stop misleading voters, and to ensure votes are counted. He would: put a stop to deceptive practices – like passing out fliers telling people to vote on the wrong day; require electronic voting systems to have a paper trail; and make sure states adequately train poll workers. He also supports giving voting representation to the 600,000 residents in the District of Columbia who now have no voting members in Congress. Expanding Educational Opportunities: The importance of a college degree has never been greater, yet over the next decade 2 million students will not attend college because of costs. Joe Biden believes that college should not become a luxury good. His College ACCESS legislation would: provide a $3,000 refundable tax credit that would fully cover the average cost of tuition and fees at a two-year college, or cover more than half the cost of tuition and fees at a public four-year college, and expand Pell Grants to low-income students to $6,300. Protecting Worker Rights to Bargain Collectively: Joe Biden is a co-sponsor of the Employee Free Choice Act, a bill to ensure workers can form, join, or assist labor unions without interference from employers. Ending The Crack-Powder Sentencing Disparity: In 1986, Congress established a draconian sentencing scheme that punished the crack form of cocaine far more severely than the powder form. Currently, mere possession of 5 grams of crack triggers a five-year mandatory minimum sentence, while it takes distribution or manufacture of 500 grams of powder cocaine to trigger that same sentence. The assumptions that led Congress to establish this disparity – that crack is inherently more dangerous and addictive than powder, that crack would devastate communities, and that prenatal exposure to crack was far more damaging than exposure to powder – have proved unfounded. Joe Biden has proposed legislation to implement the US Sentencing Commission’s recommendation to eliminates the 100:1 disparity between the two forms of the drug. He also supports increasing funding for prison- and jail-based drug treatment programs. Senator Biden is opposed to being soft on drug traffickers – he supports stiffer penalties for major drug traffickers and additional resources for the investigation and prosecution of them. Joe Biden’s Record: Three-Decade March Forward Protecting Affirmative Action: Joe Biden has been a strong supporter of affirmative action. He fought Republican attempts to ban affirmative action in federal contracts and to bar funds to administer affirmative action programs.

Helping Americans With Disabilities: Joe Biden always has been a strong supporter of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). He has long championed efforts to allow Medicaid to provide home- and community-based support services needed by disabled individuals to remain out of institutions. He also fought to allow low-income families with disabled children to buy into the Medicaid program. Protecting Against Genetic Discrimination: Joe Biden has fought to prohibit employers and insurance companies from collecting or using genetic information when making decisions about hiring, providing health coverage, or discriminating in the pricing of an insurance policy. Preserving the Privacy of Medical Records: Joe Biden knows how important it is to patients that their personal medical information be kept private. He supports: making sure individuals’ medical information is not used against them or unknowingly sold for commercial profit, and ensuring that as we move toward more efficient, costsaving electronic medical records, privacy interests remain a priority. Celebrating Martin Luther King, Jr: Joe Biden was an original co-sponsor of the bill to designate a national holiday in honor of Martin Luther King, Jr., and helped guide its passage through the Senate.

Jo e Bi de n' s Plan to Mak e Am eri ca Saf er
Hometown and Homeland Security: For more than two decades, Joe Biden has been a strong advocate in the struggle against crime as he believes safe streets and neighborhoods are fundamental to our nation's safety and security. Joe Biden knows that it won't be a marine with night vision goggles who stops the next attack -- it will be a local cop in the right place at the right time. He has worked to restore billions of dollars in funding to state and local law enforcement the Bush administration has cut. As president, Joe Biden would invest $10 billion a year for five years to keep America safe by: Funding 50,000 Cops and 1,000 FBI Agents: In the 1990s, the Biden Crime Bill added 100,000 cops to America's streets. As a result, murder and violent crime rates went down eight years in a row. George Bush's cuts to the program have put America at risk and crime rates are back on the rise. Joe Biden wants to put 50,000 more cops on the street and add 1,000 more FBI agents to address the rise in crime and threats of terrorism. Imposing RealPort Security Measures: Only 5 percent of cargo entering our seaports are screened even though our ports are some the most vulnerable targets to terrorist attacks. Joe Biden supports screening 100 percent of containers entering our ports to prevent radiological and other dangerous materials from being smuggled into America. Implementing the 9/11 Commission Recommendations: Joe Biden supports implementing the 9/11 Commission Recommendations in their entirety; we must work to make our ports, chemical plants, railways, and infrastructure more secure.

Giving Better Tools To First Responders: America's first responders need interoperable communications equipment to allow them to easily communicate with each other and the military in the event of an emergency. Joe Biden supports increasing funding to provide first responders with the communications equipment they need to respond to another Katrina or 9/11. Focusing On Rehabilitation: Offenders reentering our communities lack sufficient monitoring, job skills, and housing. Two-thirds of people released from state prisons are re-arrested for a felony or serious misdemeanor within three years. Joe Biden authored the Second Chance Act to provide ex-offenders with housing, drug and alcohol treatment, job training, and other life skills, providing them with the skills they need to rejoin their families and communities. Joe Biden: A Strong Crime Fighter Ending Violence Against Women: Joe Biden has often said the Violence Against Women Act is his proudest achievement in the Senate. The law strengthened the national network of shelters so that abused women had a place to go and provided funding for a national hotline that has served over 1.5 million women. Domestic violence rates have dropped by 50 percent since the implementation of the Violence Against Women Act, and rape has dropped by 60 percent. Joe Biden continues to be committed to this cause and is now working to provide legal services to women in need. The Biden Crime Law: Joe Biden wrote the legislation that put 100,000 cops on the streets, built drug courts to improve rehabilitation treatment for non-violent offenders and worked with community groups like the Boys and Girls Clubs and Police Athletic Leagues to keep kids off the streets and out of trouble, reducing crime eight years in a row. Protecting Children from Sex Offenders: Joe Biden has been standing up for our kids for years by writing legislation to create a national registry of sex offenders, increasing funding for Child Advocacy Centers, and by authoring the Adam Walsh Act to ensure convicted sex offenders do not slip through the cracks and go after our children. Fighting Drugs: Joe Biden has worked to increase penalties for dealing drugs within 1,000 feet of schools, created the Drug Czar office in the White House, and was an important voice in classifying steroids as drugs and has worked to keep them out of the hands of students. Fighting Corporate Crime: Joe Biden recognizes that corporate criminals at corporations like Enron that wipe out families' savings through fraud and other criminal activity should be subject to stiff penalties. He has sponsored legislation requiring top executives to certify financial statements for public companies and imposing criminal penalties if those certifications are false.

Making Criminals Serve Their Full Terms: Joe Biden has written legislation that provides funds to states for building prisons if they agree to keep their violent offenders behind bars for at least 85 percent of their sentence, currently state prisoners serve only 40 percent of their sentences behind bars on average.

Jo e Bi de n Will R ebuil d Am eri ca 's Stan ding Inte rnati onally
Using Diplomacy to Keep America Safe: Joe Biden knows that the Bush Administration has left the next president with virtually no margin of error diplomatically. With decades of experience on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, and now its chairman, Joe Biden is the most qualified candidate to clean up the mess George Bush has made. Russia is rising on the world stage using oil as a weapon and China is becoming a greater force, both politically and militarily. Democracy is struggling in Latin America and oil has empowered dictators around the world who hold us hostage with their high prices. We need to end the genocide in Darfur as well as check Iran and North Korea’s progress on nuclear weapons and prevent them from increasing their nuclear arsenal. America needs a president with Joe Biden's experience to address these global challenges. As president, Joe Biden's foreign policy will draw upon all of America's strengths, including our ideas and our ideals, as well as our military might. A Biden Administration would: * Rebuild Relationships: Joe Biden knows that the most effective way of fighting radical fundamentalists is working with our allies around the world. Joe Biden will rebuild alliances in international law enforcement, intelligence and financial circles, strengthening our forces in the fight against radical fundamentalism and restoring America’s standing in the world * Secure Weapons: Joe Biden knows loose nuclear weapons in the former Soviet Union and other weapons of mass destruction pose a grave threat to the United States if they fall into the hands of extremist networks. As president, Joe Biden will work to disrupt these extremist networks and improve detection systems to seek out these weapons before they harm the United States or our allies. * Advance Democracy: Joe Biden believes that democracy cannot be forced on any people and he will work to help build the political infrastructure to support democracies and prevent extremists from taking hold of weaker, growing democracies. Joe Biden: A Career in Foreign Relations * Ending Genocide in Darfur: Joe Biden has been a leader in the effort to end the genocide in Darfur and believes we must act now—diplomatically and militarily. Joe Biden was the first Democratic candidate for president to push for a No Fly Zone in Darfur. He has traveled through the region and led a Congressional Delegation to the United Nations to encourage leaders there to step in with an international peacekeeping force. * Securing and Eliminating the Worst Weapons: Joe Biden has dedicated his career to eliminating the threat of nuclear weapons. He pushed for the SALT II treaty, the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, and the convention banning chemical weapons. As president, Joe Biden will continue his efforts to

reduce nuclear arsenals around the world and secure stockpiles of dangerous weapons in the former Soviet Union. * Working for Peace and Justice in the Balkans:When Joe Biden sees atrocities in the world, he acts to put a stop to them. As president, Joe Biden will continue his record of promoting peace and justice as he did when he called for U.S. intervention in the Balkans in the 1990s. Joe Biden’s efforts to bring US intervention helped Bosnians and Kosovars find and keep peace. * Increasing Alliances: When the Cold War ended and new democracies emerged in Eastern Europe, Joe Biden led the effort to expand NATO to include Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic, and he’s been a strong supporter of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. * Fighting Terrorism: Joe Biden knew before 9/11 the threat extremism posed to Americans and urged the Bush Administration to refocus efforts on terrorism he predicted would come “in the belly of a plane.” As president, Joe Biden will continue efforts to secure American ports, rails, chemical plants and infrastructure. * Supporting Funding and Accountability for the United Nations: Joe Biden has been a strong supporter of UN funding and fought to pass groundbreaking legislation providing for payment of U.N. arrears based on organizational reform. * Keeping Drugs out of the United States: Joe Biden has worked hard as both Chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime and Drugs to keep drugs out of the United States and make counter-narcotic efforts a central priority of our foreign policy.

A S ecu re R eti re ment : A Pr om is e to K eep
Download Joe's PlanPreparing for retirement has never been more complicated. Fewer families can count on secure retirement income from defined benefit pension plans. Only 20 percent of private sector workers have pension plans – compared with 83 percent in the 1980s. Those that do have pensions worry about whether they will still be there when they retire. At the same time most families are hard pressed to find money to put aside in savings. Half of our workforce has no employer retirement plan. Families are tapped out after years of flat wage growth and rising costs of living. The personal saving rate is less than 1 percent. This not only threatens financial security of millions of families – it also jeopardizes our entire economy by increasing our need to borrow from foreign countries like China and Japan. Two-thirds of families headed by a worker between the ages of 55 and 64 have under $88,000 in personal retirement savings – scarcely enough to purchase an annuity paying $653 a month. More than half of American workers believe they will have to push back retirement. Security – independence and a decent standard of living – is rapidly becoming a thing few feel confident they will have when they retire. The American promise that no one who works hard their whole life should end up with nothing is in jeopardy. Joe Biden will keep the promise of a secure retirement by: 1. Safeguarding Social Security 2. Expanding Personal Saving 3. Creating Kids Savings Accounts 4. Protecting Pensions 5. Preserving Retirement Investments

1. Safeguarding Social Security Protect Social Security, Not Privatize It. Social Security is the foundation of retirement security for millions of Americans. For a typical worker retiring at age 65, Social Security replaces 40 percent of pre-retirement income. Joe Biden opposes privatization of Social Security. Social Security does not face an immediate crisis. With no changes, Social Security can pay full benefits through 2041. After that it can pay 74 percent of benefits. Joe Biden would bring Democrats and Republicans together to agree on options for keeping Social Security solvent including raising the cap on income subject to the Social Security tax so that the most wealthy shoulder their fair share ($97,500 is the maximum for 2007). This approach worked in1983 when a bipartisan group of senior leaders from both parties put politics aside to fix Social Security. 2. Expanding Personal Saving Make It Easier to Save: Require Employers That Don't Provide Retirement Plans To Allow Employees To Contribute To Individual Retirement Accounts. In 2006, 40 percent of workers did not have any form of pension coverage – that's around 75 million workers who have no access to an employ-provided retirement plan. Joe Biden would require employers who do not adopt a 401(k) or other retirement plan to offer employees the ability contribute to an Individual Retirement Account (IRA) by payroll deposit making it easier to save small amounts on a predictable, regular basis. Expand Automatic Enrollment in 401(k)s. Defined contribution retirement plans do not cover workers unless they sign up. Only about 1 in 4 eligible employees participate in such plans – missing out on tax advantages of saving and employer matching contributions. Automatic enrollment requires employees to opt-out of such plans – instead of requiring them to opt-in. Automatic enrollment has been shown to raise participation rates. Joe Biden would expand automatic enrollment in 401(k)s by increasing automatic enrollment by small and mid-sized employers, by expanding automatic enrollment to existing employees, and by increasing automatic contribution amounts. Make It Easier For Workers to Take Retirement Plans With Them: The average worker can expect to change jobs several times which can result in navigating and managing several different retirement plans and investments. Joe Biden would make rollover of 401(k)s automatic so that accounts follow individuals. Help Low and Moderate Income Families Save: Match Contributions To Retirement Savings By Expanding Saver's Credit. Most retirement contributions are excluded from taxable income until they are distributed. Higher income taxpayers disproportionately benefit from tax deductions that promote savings because the value of tax incentives depends on what bracket the taxpayer is in – the higher the tax rate, the more the subsidies are worth. Those in lower tax brackets who most need to save have less benefit. Joe Biden would extend the Savers' Credit to make it a 50 percent refundable credit of up to $2,000 and index it to inflation to provide incentives to low-income households. Families with incomes below $50,000 that deposited $4,000 into a retirement account would receive a $2,000 match through the refund. End Rules That Penalize Retirement Saving: Many low-income families receive assistance through food stamp programs, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, Medicaid and Supplemental Security Income. To be eligible they must meet an asset

test as well as an income test. Asset tests count savings in 401(k)s or IRAs. Joe Biden would exclude retirement savings accounts from asset tests so that families with incomes low enough to qualify for assistance programs are not disqualified because of retirement savings. 3. Starting Savings At Birth With $500 Kids Accounts Invest $500 In A Kids Account For Every Child Born After December 31, 2008. Joe Biden would create individual Kids Accounts for every child endowed with an initial contribution of $500 from the government. Kids Accounts would be redeemable for education expenses, home ownership or retirement beginning at age 18. Unused funds can be automatically rolled over into Individual Retirement Accounts at age 18. Parents and Grandparents Could Contribute $1,000 A Year. Joe Biden would permit parents and grandparents to make a $1,000 after-tax contribution into Kids Accounts. Earnings in the account would be tax free. Match Contributions For Low-Income Children. To encourage saving and investment Joe Biden would provide a dollar-for-dollar match on the first $500 contributed to the account for children in households earning below the national median income. Kids Account Holders Would Repay Initial Deposit At Age 30. Joe Biden would require children who receive Kids Accounts to repay the government's deposit when they reach 30. 4. Protecting Pensions Strengthen Workers Claims On Retirement Benefits. Executives should not have better pension protections during bankruptcy than workers. Joe Biden would tighten restrictions on "Key Employee Retention Plans" which are used to give executives bonuses while companies walk away from employee pensions. He would make any increases in executive pay and benefits up to two years before bankruptcy subject to special scrutiny by the court. Joe Biden would require that a company's foreign and domestic assets must be considered by the court when it considers voiding employees' contracts. Management should not be able to move assets overseas when they get into financial trouble and renege on their obligations to workers. 5. Preserving Retirement Investments Protect Shareholders Rights. Joe Biden believes that shareholders have a critical role to play in corporate accountability. He would allow shareholders to have a vote in setting executive compensation and he would protect laws requiring executives to attest to the accuracy of a company's financial statements and to the soundness of internal controls. He was proud to fight for those safeguards in the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. A company that cannot or will not institute and maintain the internal controls necessary to meet the high standards of financial integrity and corporate accountability should not go public in the United States. Increase Transparency and Help Workers Understand All Investment Options. Joe Biden would require retirement plan administrators to disclose fees and clearly identify the name, risk and investment objective of investment options. He would direct the Department of Labor to review compliance with these disclosure requirements and refer violations to the SEC and other enforcement agencies.

Hilary Clinton

Bi og rap hy
Perso nal Birthdate: October 26, 1947 (Chicago, Ill. ) Hometown: Park Ridge, Ill. Spouse: Bill Clinton Children: Chelsea Clinton Religion: United Methodist Educa tio n * Yale Law School, J.D., 1973 * Wellesley College, B.A., 1969 * Maine South High School Ex pe ri enc e Businesses Owned, Past Careers, Board Memberships, Etc.: * Attorney, Rose Law Firm, 1976-1992 * Faculty, University of Arkansas Law School, 1975 * Board Member, TCBY Yogurt Company, 1985-1992 * Board Member, Wal-Mart, 1985-1992

* Board Member, Arkansas Children's Hospital * Board Member, Children's Defense Fund * Co-Founder, Arkansas Advocates for Children and Families Publ ic Serv ic e / El ec te d Off ice s: * Senator, United States Senate, 2001-present * First Lady of the United States, 1993-2001 * First Lady of Arkansas, 1979-1981, 1983-1993 * House Judiciary Committee, 1974

Is sue s:
America's middle class is under siege and ready for a change. People are working harder and longer for less and less. Corporate profits are up. CEO pay is up. Wages are lagging. Household debt is soaring. At the same time, health care, energy, and education costs are rising. Last year, more people went bankrupt in our country than graduated from college. For six long years, it's like America's middle class and working families have been invisible to our president. He's looked right through them. If you're a worker who can't organize for fair wages and safe working conditions, you're invisible. If you're a grandmother who has watched this administration try to privatize Social Security and dump piles of debt on your grandchildren, you're invisible. If you're a mother who can't afford child care, a kid who can't afford college, a family that can't afford to get by on the minimum wage, you're invisible. When Hillary is in the White House, no American will be invisible to the president of the United States. As president, she will work from day one to strengthen and grow our middle class and restore the basic bargain: If you work hard and do your part, you can build a better life for yourself and your family. Hillary believes Americans have the right to expect fiscal responsibility, discipline, and honesty from their leaders. As president, Hillary will: * Make health care affordable and accessible to every American. * Reduce the cost of energy and make us energy independent. * Expand access to affordable, high-quality child care. * Make college more affordable. * Protect families from predatory lenders and help them avoid foreclosures. * Increase the minimum wage.

St ren gt henin g th e Mid dl e Clas s:

* Create good jobs with good wages to expand the middle class. * Balance the federal budget so we don't pass today's massive debts to the next generation. * Reward savings, protect pensions, and provide greater retirement security.

Hillary's American Health Choices Plan covers all Americans and improves health care by lowering costs and improving quality. It speaks to American values, American families, and American jobs. It puts the consumer in the driver's seat by offering more choices and lowering costs. If you're one of the tens of million Americans without coverage or if you don't like the coverage you have, you will have a choice of plans to pick from and that coverage will be affordable. Of course, if you like the plan you have, you can keep it. * Affordable: Unlike the current health system where insurance premiums send people into bankruptcy, the plan provides tax credits for working families to help them cover their costs. The tax credits will ensure that working families never have to pay more than a limited percentage of their income for health care. * Available: No discrimination. The insurance companies can't deny you coverage if you have a pre-existing condition. * Reliable: It's portable. If you change or lose your job, you keep your health care.

Healt hc ar e:

En din g t he Wa r in Ir aq
Hillary Clinton has announced her plan to end the war in Iraq and urged President Bush to act immediately. "Our message to the president is clear. It is time to begin ending this war -- not next year, not next month -- but today. "We have heard for years now that as the Iraqis stand up, our troops will stand down. Every year, we hear about how next year they may start coming home. Now we are hearing a new version of that yet again from the president as he has more troops in Iraq than ever and the Iraqi government is more fractured and ineffective than ever.

"Well, the right strategy before the surge and post-escalation is the same: start bringing home America's troops now."
If President Bush does not end the war, when Hillary Clinton is president, she will. Her three-step plan would bring our troops home, work to bring stability to the region, and replace military force with a new diplomatic initiative to engage countries around the world in securing Iraq's future. Hillary has been fighting every day in the Senate to force the president to change course. And today she described how she would bring the war to an end.

Starting Phased Redeployment within Hillary's First Days in Office: The most important part of Hillary's plan is the first: to end our military engagement in Iraq's civil war and immediately start bringing our troops home. As president, one of Hillary's first official actions would be to convene the Joint Chiefs of Staff, her Secretary of Defense, and her National Security Council. She would direct them to draw up a clear, viable plan to bring our troops home starting with the first 60 days of her Administration. She would also direct the Department of Defense and the Department of Veterans Affairs to prepare a comprehensive plan to provide the highest quality health care and benefits to every service member -including every member of the National Guard and Reserves -- and their families. Securing Stability in Iraq as we Bring our Troops Home. As president, Hillary would focus American aid efforts during our redeployment on stabilizing Iraq, not propping up the Iraqi government. She would direct aid to the entities -- whether governmental or nongovernmental -- most likely to get it into the hands of the Iraqi people. She would also support the appointment of a high level U.N. representative -- similar to those appointed in Afghanistan, Bosnia, and Kosovo -- to help broker peace among the parties in Iraq. A New Intensive Diplomatic Initiative in the Region. In her first days in office, Hillary would convene a regional stabilization group composed of key allies, other global powers, and all of the states bordering Iraq. The- mission of this group would be to develop and implement a strategy to create a stable Iraq. It would have three specific goals: * Non-interference. Working with the U.N. representative, the group would work to convince Iraq's neighbors to refrain from getting involved in the civil war. * Mediation. The group would attempt to mediate among the different sectarian groups in Iraq with the goal of attaining compromises on fundamental points of disputes. * Reconstruction funding. The members of the group would hold themselves and other countries to their past pledges to provide funding to Iraq and will encourage additional contributions to meet Iraq's extensive needs. As our forces redeploy out of Iraq, Hillary would also organize a multi-billion dollar international effort -- funded by a wide range of donor states -- under the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees to address the needs of Iraqi refugees. And as we replace military force with diplomacy and global leadership, Hillary will not lose sight of our very real strategic interests in the region. She would devote the resources we need to fight terrorism and will order specialized units to engage in narrow and targeted operations against al Qaeda and other terrorist organizations in the region.

Ref or min g Our Im mi gr ation Sy ste m
Our immigration system is in crisis. The laws we currently have on the books are inadequate

and no longer serve our best interests. As a nation, we place a premium on compassion, respect, and policies that help families, but our immigration laws don't reflect that. Hillary has consistently called for comprehensive immigration reform that respects our immigrant heritage and honors the rule of law. She believes comprehensive reform must have as essential ingredients a strengthening of our borders, greater cross-cooperation with our neighbors, strict but fair enforcement of our laws, federal assistance to our state and local governments, strict penalties for those who exploit undocumented workers, and a path to earned legal status for those who are here, working hard, paying taxes, respecting the law, and willing to meet a high bar. Hillary strongly believes we need to do more to know who is in our country by securing our borders and ensuring that employers comply with the law against hiring and exploitating undocumented workers. She supports deploying new technology that can help stop the flow of undocumented immigrants into the country and an employer verification system that is universal, accurate, timely, and does not lead to discrimination and abuse by employers. Along with these changes, Hillary believes we need to repair those broken portions of our immigration system that irrevocably damage families and force citizens and lawful immigrants to choose between their newly adopted country and living with their spouse or children. We have a national interest in fostering strong families. This is why she introduced an amendment during consideration of the immigration reform bill that would have taken steps to protect the sanctity of families. Our American values demand no less. And Hillary understands that our immigration policies have a direct impact on American workers. She opposes a guest worker program that exploits workers and creates a supply of cheap labor that undermines the wages of U.S. workers. Hillary believes all workers deserve safe conditions and decent wages. She supports an Ag Jobs program, which will keep our agricultural industry vibrant while enabling agricultural workers to receive the fair wages and labor protections they ought to receive. When Hillary is president, comprehensive immigration reform will be a top priority.

En er gy I nd epe nd en ce an d G lo bal Warm ing
America is ready for energy independence. Hillary is ready to lead the charge. The choices we make about energy touch nearly every aspect of our lives. Our economy, our national security, our health, and the future of our planet are all at stake as we make a choice between energy independence and dependence on foreign sources of oil. Hillary has championed policies that encourage development of alternative energy technologies and reduce our dependence on foreign oil. She has proposed an Apollo Projectlike program dedicated to achieving energy independence. Hillary recognizes that global climate change is one of the most pressing moral issues of our time. She supports policies to reduce carbon emissions and other pollution that contribute to global warming.

In the White House, Hillary will lead the charge to stop global warming by investing in clean energy technologies, establishing a national market-based program to reduce global warming pollution, increasing our fuel efficiency, and restoring the United States' rightful place as a leader in international efforts to address the problem of climate change.

Wo me n’ s Ri ght s
Hillary's historic statement at the United Nations Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995 that "women's rights are human rights" still echoes worldwide. As a lawyer, advocate, First Lady, and senator, Hillary has fought for issues important to women here at home and around the world for decades. Today, despite the progress women have made, they earn only 77 cents for every dollar men earn -- and women of color earn even less. Hillary is leading the charge in the Senate to strengthen equal pay laws and end pay disparities between men and women. She introduced the Paycheck Fairness Act to strengthen the penalties associated with wage discrimination, to ensure that the federal government sets a higher standard, and to increase oversight of employers. Hillary has also worked to increase access to capital and other support for women-owned businesses. When it comes to each woman's ability to make the most personal of life decisions, Hillary has stood firm as an advocate for a woman's right to choose. She has expanded access to family planning services, including for low-income women. She spoke out forcefully against the Supreme Court's April 2007 decision that -- for the first time in decades -- failed to recognize the importance of women's health. Hillary has worked to empower women throughout the world, especially low-income women. She has advocated for access to microfinance programs that enable women to start their own businesses and spoken out strongly against the tragic practice of sex trafficking. As president, Hillary will continue her lifelong fight to ensure that all Americans are treated with respect and dignity.

Supportin g Pa ren ts and Chil dr en
America is ready for a president who fights for our children. Hillary has spent her lifetime as an effective advocate for parents and children. From her first job out of law school at the Children's Defense Fund to her time as First Lady of Arkansas and of the United States to her service in the Senate, helping children has been at the center of Hillary's public life. In the White House, Hillary will continue her lifelong work to create a world where every child is cherished, loved, and able to fulfill his or her potential. Among the issues she has fought for and will make a priority as president are:

* Attracting and supporting more outstanding teachers and principals, and paying them like the professionals they are. * Reforming the No Child Left Behind Act. This law represented a promise -- more resources for schools in exchange for more accountability -- and that promise has not been kept. * Giving new parents support and training to promote healthy development for their children. * Increasing access to high-quality early education and helping to create Early Head Start. * Passing legislation to provide respite care for caregivers of elderly and disabled Americans. * Helping to pass the Family and Medical Leave Act to enable new parents to take time off without losing their jobs, and expanding it to make it available to more parents and to provide for longer leave. * Advocating for adoption and for abused and neglected children -- as First Lady, Hillary pushed legislation that more than doubled adoptions out of foster care. * Promoting programs, like Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters, that provide new parents with support and guidance in caring for their children. As First Lady of Arkansas, she helped bring HIPPY to the U.S. * Protecting children against violence and sexual content in the media and studying the impact of electronic media on children's cognitive, social, and physical development. * Providing meaningful support to households, called "kinship care" families, where grandparents and other relatives are raising children.

Co mpr eh en si ve G ov er nm ent R ef or m
Americans are ready for a government that puts competency ahead of cronyism. Government certainly isn't the answer to all our problems. But good government -- smart government -- can be a partner for progress. It can help solve problems and accomplish things together we could never accomplish alone. We all know that in order to meet the challenges of our day -- to lift up our middle class and hard working families; to establish universal health care, energy independence, and fiscal responsibility; to end the war in Iraq and restore our leadership around the world -- we need a government that will rise to the occasion. This isn't about big government or small government, it's about smart government. We need a return to transparency and a system of checks and balances, to a president who respects Congress's role of oversight and accountability. We need a 21st century government to meet our 21st century challenges Hillary has proposed a comprehensive, 10-point plan to restore Americans' confidence in

their government by increasing transparency and cutting waste and corruption. Her plan includes: * Banning Cabinet officials from

lobbying a Hillary Clinton administration. * Strengthening whistleblower protections. * Creating a public service academy. * Ending abuse of no-bid government contracts and posting all contracts online. * Cutting 500,000 government contractors. * Restoring the Office of Technology Assessment. * Publishing budgets for every government agency. * Implementing Results America Initiative to track government effectiveness. * Tracking and eliminating corporate welfare. * Expanding voting access and safeguarding voting machines.

Chris Dodd
Bi og rap hy
Perso nal Birthdate: May 27, 1944 (Willimantic, Conn.) Hometown: East Haddam, Conn.

Spouse: Jackie Clegg Dodd Children: Grace Dodd, Christina Dodd Religion: Roman Catholic Education * University of Louisville School of Law, J.D., 1972 * Providence College, B.A., 1966 * Georgetown Preparatory School, 1962 Experience Military Service: * U.S. Army, 1969-1975 * Peace Corps Volunteer in Dominican Republic, 1966-1968 Public Servi ce / Elec ted Offi ces : * Senator, United States Senate, 1981-present * Chair, Committee on Rules and Administration, 2001-2003 * Representative, United States House of Representatives, 1975-1981

Issu es Am er ic an L ea de rsh ip in th e Worl d
From his time in the Peace Corps as a young man to his 25 years on the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Chris Dodd has worked to strengthen America through bold engagement. Dodd understands America must lead to protect our security not only on Iraq, but also on the rise of state-less terrorist organizations around the world, Iran and North Korea’s emerging nuclear capabilities, a resurgent Taliban in Afghanistan, the HIV/AIDS crisis that is decimating whole continents and creating failed states, and the growing threat of global warming. Chris Dodd is ready to lead – to face our challenges abroad with boldness and a proven ability to bring people together. The Dodd Plan To Restore America’s Moral Authority * Strengthen our Alliances. As President, Chris Dodd will work to restore our alliances, rebuild international institutions to better fight the war against terrorism, and enhance America’s security while upholding our common values. * Diplomacy, Not More Troops in Iraq. Chris Dodd is strongly opposed to the Bush-Cheney troop surge strategy. As President, he will advance a surge of diplomacy in the region, not a surge of more troops. * End the War in Iraq Decisively. Chris Dodd understands that ending the war in Iraq makes America safer. He strongly supports the Feingold-Reid proposal – the only responsible

measure in Congress that sets a timetable to end the war in Iraq by March 31, 2008 – and he has urged all the candidates in the presidential race to join him. It is time to stand up to the President’s misguided Iraq policy. * Hold America’s Allies Accountable. As President, Chris Dodd would engage key strategic countries, nations like Saudi Arabia and Russia, and call on them to support freedom and democracy in their own countries and to eliminate the conditions that export terrorism and allow our enemies to thrive. * Enhance and Export Energy Technology to Free America and the World From Reliance On Oil. Chris Dodd believes we need to invest in renewable energy technology that will allow America to achieve energy independence. As President, he would share that technology with our allies to end their alliances of necessity with dictators from oilproducing nations like Venezuela and Iran. A Lifetime of Bold Engagement In the World * Dodd Traveled to the Middle East Four Times Since 2003 to Meet with International Leaders and Assess US Policies. As a senior member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Chris Dodd traveled to the Middle East four times since the outbreak of war in Iraq, visiting Baghdad three times in that period. During his visits, Dodd assessed the impact of U.S. foreign policy on the region, opened up important lines of communications with countries like Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, and Israel, and made sure American troops were being taken care of and protected. * Dodd Served as Chair or Co-Chair of the Delegation to U.S–Mexico Interparliamentary Sessions and Received an Award From the Mexican Government. Since 1987, Chris Dodd has either Chaired or Co-Chaired the Congressional delegation attending the annual U.S.-Mexico Interparliamentary Conference. For this and his other work bolstering U.S.-Mexico relations, Dodd received the Aztec Eagle Award, Mexico's highest award given to a foreign national. * Dodd Was a Leader in Ending U.S. Military Assistance to the Nicaraguan Contras, Which Opened the Door for Successful Elections in 1990. In 1983, Chris Dodd was chosen by party leaders to speak on behalf of Congressional Democrats in response to President Reagan’s address on the situation in Nicaragua. In 1989 Dodd worked with the Bush administration to successfully broker a bipartisan accord on Nicaragua. This finally ended US military assistance to the Nicaraguan Contras and led to successful democratic elections in 1990. * Dodd Led the Senate Central America Negotiations Observer Group. Chris Dodd led the Senate Central America Negotiations Group. This group was created to monitor the progress of the Guatemala City Peace Accord. The accord called for a cease-fire in the Nicaraguan and El Salvador civil wars, reconciliation between those governments and their opposition groups, steps to assure democracy throughout Central America, an end to outside aid to rebel forces and an end to the use of any country’s territory by rebels trying to destabilize another country. * Dodd Worked Closely With President Clinton to Facilitate Peace in Northern Ireland. Chris Dodd, working closely with President Clinton helped facilitate the Good Friday Peace

Accords which were signed on Friday, April 10, 1998. Dodd encouraged American involvement by urging President Clinton to speak directly with the Sinn Fein political leader Gerry Adams. He also participated in a Congressional delegation traveling to Northern Ireland with President Clinton in 1995.

End ing th e Ir aq War Re sp ons ibly and Saf ely
Chris Dodd understands that making America more secure starts with ending the Iraq war responsibly. It’s made us less secure, more vulnerable and more isolated. Our country’s men and women in uniform have performed heroically – but George Bush’s policy has failed. But to end the war, we need clear, bold actions, and leadership that has the experience and judgment to recognize there’s only one way to responsibly end this war: To set a firm deadline tied to funding. It may not be an easy thing to say – but it’s the right thing to do. For our troops. For our security and standing in the world. The Dodd Plan to End the War Chris Dodd believes the time for giving President Bush blank checks is over and that we should begin safely redeploying U.S. combat troops out of Iraq, beginning immediately and completed within one year. Iraq must assume the responsibility of policing and governing itself. There isn’t an Army big enough or Treasury deep enough if Iraqis aren’t willing to fight for that for themselves. Based on the amendment he offered in the Senate with Senators Reid and Feingold, Chris Dodd’s plan would: 1. Begin safely redeploying U.S. combat troops out of Iraq within 120 days, 2. Provide every penny necessary for a safe redeployment of our troops 3. Complete redeployment by April 30, 2008 In addition, Chris Dodd would insist on three narrowly targeted exceptions – the protection of U.S. personnel and infrastructure, specific counterterrorism operations, and assistance with the training and equipping of Iraqi forces. Chris Dodd understands prolonging this war will not make us more secure – ending it will. Beyond Iraq and Into an Era of Bold Engagement Chris Dodd believes we don’t need a surge in troops in Iraq and the Middle East– we need a surge of diplomacy. That’s why as president, Chris Dodd would: 1. Engage in direct negotiation with all the nations in the Middle East 2. Convene a regional summit By ending our military’s participation in Iraq’s civil war, we can begin focusing our attention

on fighting al Qaeda in Afghanistan and elsewhere – boldly engaging friends and foes alike in a robust diplomacy, dedicating more resources and manpower to homeland security and leading the world on energy independence. Hope alone will not wipe away the damage to America’s moral authority these last 6 years. Hope alone will not bring our allies back to our side. And hope alone will not restore America’s leadership. But with conviction and clarity, Chris Dodd believes we can bring an end to the war in Iraq and make America more secure. With the right leadership, America can lead again.

A Bill to Pr ov id e fo r th e Eff ec tiv e P ro se cution of Ter ror is ts an d t o Gu arant ee Due Pr oce ss Ri gh ts .
Restoring Habeas Corpus * It restores the writ of habeas corpus for individuals held in US custody. * It narrows the definition of unlawful enemy combatant to individuals who directly participate in a zone of active combat against the United States, and individuals who participated in attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. * It requires that the United States live up to its Geneva Convention obligations by deleting a prohibition in law that bars detainees from invoking Geneva Conventions as a source of rights at trial. * It permits accused to retain qualified civilian attorneys to represent them at trial, or to choose self representation. * It prevents the use of evidence in court gained through the unreliable and immoral practices of torture and coercion. * It charges the military judge with the responsibility for ensuring that the jury is appraised of sources, methods and activities associated with acquiring out of court statements that if known to the jury would impact on the credibility of the statement, or alternatively that such statements are not introduced at trial. * It empowers military judges to exclude hearsay evidence they deem to be unreliable. * It authorizes the US Court of Appeals for the Armed Forces to review decisions by the military commissions. * It limits the authority of the President to interpret the meaning and application of the Geneva Conventions and makes that authority subject to congressional and judicial oversight. * It clarifies the definition of war crimes in statute to include certain violations of the Geneva Conventions. * Finally, it provides for expedited judicial review of the Military Commissions Act of 2006 to determine the constitutionally of its provisions.

Reti re ment

Chris Dodd understands that security in retirement is one of our most fundamental values as Americans. After a lifetime of hard work and paying taxes, seniors deserve the dignity of a secure retirement – reliable health care, affordable housing and prescription drugs, secure pensions, and a strong Social Security and Medicare. With proven leadership that ensures a promise made is a promise kept, Chris Dodd believes every senior can look forward to their golden years with optimism. As President, Chris Dodd will: * Provide a secure pension to every American worker through a Universal 401K account * Ensure seniors’ financial security by protecting them from scams and financial fraud * Commit $1 billion in his first term to expand the supply of affordable senior housing * Provide affordable, quality health care to every American and drive down the cost of prescription drugs * Provide added resources for affordable home and community based care * Strengthen and secure Social Security and Medicare for generations to come * Provide seniors with everyday supports and opportunities to participate more fully in their communities A Financially Secure Retirement for Every Senior: Universal 401K – Modeled on the Federal government’s Thrift Savings Plan (TSP) for federal employees, every American will have access to a universal pension plan that gives them added financial security in retirement. Employees will have the option to contribute through automatic payroll deduction and a mechanism will be in place for employers to contribute to workers’ accounts. Consumer Protection for Seniors – Chris Dodd will replace the Office of Financial Education at the Treasury Department with an Office of Financial Empowerment at the Assistant Secretary level. The Assistant Secretary will be charged with creating, monitoring and coordinating programs that educate Americans on saving for their future, on managing credit and debt, and on selecting lenders and avoiding predatory lending practices. Funds will be provided for direct consumer counseling and community outreach. The Assistant Secretary will also be charged with educating Americans about financial fraud and scams, monitoring such fraud and scams, and referring criminal and illegal activities that are encountered to the Department of Justice and the SEC. Affordable Housing for Seniors – As President, Chris Dodd will commit an additional $1 billion in his first term to expand the supply of affordable senior housing, protect seniors by putting a stop to predatory home lending practices, and ensure that more seniors can obtain reverse mortgages to draw upon the equity they have in their homes. Strengthening and Securing Social Security – Chris Dodd will ensure that Social Security is

strong not only for this generation of seniors, but for generations to come – not through privatization, but by getting our fiscal house in order. Secure Pensions, Secure Retirements - Chris Dodd will strengthen federal oversight of pension programs to ensure that the dollars invested in them are only available to the workers that have made the contributions. A Healthy Retirement for Every Senior: Affordable, Quality Health Care for Every American – Within 4 years, the Dodd plan will provide universal, affordable health care to every American. He will create a health insurance marketplace called Universal HealthMart based on the Federal Employees Health Benefits Plan (FEHBP) that will be available to every American, regardless of job status, preexisting medical condition or ability to pay. Regular screenings for cancer and heart disease will be covered, incentives will be put in place to encourage personal choices to improve one’s health, models of chronic illness management and coordinated care will be included in every plan, prescription drugs will be covered, and technology will be fully integrated to improve care and reduce costs. Driving Down Prescription Drug Costs - The Dodd plan will ensure that all seniors have access to affordable prescription drugs. As President, Chris Dodd would require Medicare to negotiate lower prescription drug prices, eliminate the so-called “doughnut hole” in Medicare Part D drug plans to ensure that seniors have adequate, continuous prescription drug coverage year round, and legalize the importation of safe prescription drugs from countries like Canada. Strengthening and Securing Medicare – Chris Dodd will maintain America’s commitment to this historic program and work to strengthen it by ensuring that visits to the doctor and prescription drugs are affordable. In addition to allowing Medicare to negotiate for lower prescription drug prices and eliminating the so-called “doughnut hole” in Medicare Part D to ensure coverage year round, Chris Dodd will ensure that Medicare rules are modified so that seniors are allowed to age in place while receiving the care and services that they need. Affordable Home - and Community-Based Care - Chris Dodd will launch an affordable home- and community-based care initiative to ensure that seniors are allowed to maintain their independence at home or in their communities with expanded and affordable options for long-term care. As President, Dodd will launch an “Aging in Place” Initiative that will invest in community-based alternatives for the elderly and disabled. Dignity and Opportunity In Retirement for Every senior: Caregiver Care – Recognizing that there is an entire generation taking care of their elderly parents, a Dodd Administration will provide 8 weeks of paid benefits for people who take

leave for reasons currently allowed under the Family and Medical Leave Act, including the care of a sick parent. Senior Heroes – We can pass on no greater gift to future generations than the lessons of the past. Chris Dodd will encourage retired Americans to volunteer in our nation’s schools and in exchange, provide them the chance to earn a $1,000 education award to further their own education or that of a designated child. Strengthening and Modernizing the Older Americans Act – Chris Dodd will ensure that seniors receive the services that they need to live full and healthy lives by investing additional resources in the delivery of social services to older Americans. This includes further investments in elderly nutrition programs, family caregiver support, one-stop access points for information on long-term care, and funding for elder abuse, neglect and exploitation prevention programs. Energy Assistance For Seniors Who Need It – Chris Dodd believes good and decent societies take care of their most vulnerable. As President, he will ensure older Americans are protected from extreme heat or cold in the summer or winter months by dramatically expanding the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP).

A Ne w Ame ri can Pat rio tis m
Chris Dodd believes that with leadership that inspires a new sense of American community, we can face the challenges of the 21st Century with the boldness and optimism that have always been the hallmark of our nation. That is why he is calling for a new American Community Initiative – a comprehensive national service plan that will draw upon the very best of our character to call Americans to service. The Dodd plan will: * Promote the Corporation for National and Community Service (CNS) to Cabinet level status. * Mandate community service as a requirement for high school graduation. * Double the size of the Peace Corps and create a Rapid Response Reserve Corps made up of all national service alumni, as well as retired military and National Guard personnel, to respond to disasters and emergencies in America, whenever and wherever they occur. * Dramatically increase the number of AmeriCorps members to 1,000,000 and raise the education award to reflect the skyrocketing cost of tuition. * Build corporate-community partnerships by offering tax credits to employers who provide their workers with paid time off to perform community service. * Create a new Senior Heroes Program that will provide older Americans with a $1,000 education award to further their own education or that of a deserving child.

Edu cati on
Chris Dodd understands that meeting today’s challenges will require the most educated generation in this country’s history – that in today’s increasingly global economy, America’s leadership, economy, and national security all rest on our commitment to educating and preparing our people for success. With the stakes so high, Chris Dodd has spent a lifetime strengthening America’s schools and is now offering the most ambitious and comprehensive education plan by any Presidential candidate, from preschool to college. * The Dodd plan will reduce the cost of college student loans, raise the Pell Grant and provide an opportunity for free community college to every American. * The Dodd plan will ensure that all Americans have access to a world-class public education. * Chris Dodd will reform No Child Left Behind to realize the promise of strengthening and supporting every public school. * The Dodd plan will ensure that every American graduates from high school college- and workforce-ready. The Dodd Plan: Making College Affordable and Accessible * Ending Corporate Welfare on Student Loans: The Dodd Plan will end the outdated corporate subsidies for banks and increase competition for lower interest rates on student loans by requiring banks to compete in a federally run auction to offer federal student loans. Student loans would become cheaper for taxpayers as lenders auction down the amount of federal subsidy they require to do business. The auction will be regionalized with each auction including a mix of national lenders, regional lenders and nonprofits. The federal auction will generate a minimum of $18 billion in government savings over four years. Savings will be used to provide additional financial aid for students and improve collegereadiness. * Community College for All: The Dodd plan will partner with states to subsidize in-state tuition at public community colleges for students earning credit towards an associate’s degree. The Dodd plan will match dollar for dollar any tuition reduction offered by the state up to 50% of the cost of tuition. The one to one match will be based on current tuition levels indexed to a tuition inflation index or the rate of inflation, depending on which is available. To receive the match, states must maintain their level of state appropriations for public community colleges from the year before. If a state agrees to pay half the cost of a community college student’s tuition, community college will become free for that student. The federal government will also provide low-cost bonds to community colleges as a means to accommodate more students by expanding their infrastructure. * Raising the Pell Grant. The Dodd plan will increase the Pell Grant by $100 each year to ensure that qualified, hard working low- and moderate-income students can afford college

without taking out an exorbitant amount of student loans. In a Dodd Administration, students will not be shut out of college because of cost. * Putting a Spotlight on the Skyrocketing Cost of Tuition: A Dodd Administration will use the power of the Presidency to bring to light schools whose tuition unreasonably outpaces inflation. By annually publishing a tuition inflation index and a list of colleges and universities whose tuition exceeds it, Chris Dodd believes we can provide students and families with a better idea of how much they can expect to pay for higher education while encouraging schools to act responsibly. * Protecting Students from Unscrupulous Lenders: President Dodd would extend new protections to private student loans in order to improve transparency, prevent unfair and deceptive private lending practices and eliminate conflicts of interest. Lenders would be prohibited from using data in their underwriting that may have a disparate impact on the loan products, terms, or conditions available to student borrowers based on race, age, and other personal factors, or the institution they attend. Lenders would be required to provide a clear and concise disclosure of the rate, terms and conditions of a private loan prior to their signing the promissory note. Truth in Lending Act (TILA) provisions would be made applicable to all private student loans. The Federal Reserve would be authorized to implement rules requiring private lenders to report student loan data aggregated by the race, gender, and age of the borrower as well as by type of institution. Federal banking regulators would be given authority to give financial institutions credit under the Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) for making “low-cost” private loans to low-income student borrowers. And, private student loans would be dischargeable upon bankruptcy. The Dodd Plan: High Quality Schools that Prepare Every Child * Universal Preschool: The Dodd plan will ensure that every parent has access to highquality, affordable preschool by creating a Pre-K Incentive Fund that matches state funds -dollar for dollar-- in providing free, high-quality preschool to 4-year-olds from families with incomes below $50,000 and matches state dollars on a sliding scale thereafter. To receive grants, states would have to adopt developmentally appropriate school-readiness standards and require that lead teachers have a bachelor’s degree and training, education, and/or experience in child development or early childhood education within six years. Priority will be given to applications that ensure lead teacher salaries are comparable to K-12 teachers and to applications that assist lead teachers in meeting the bachelor’s degree requirement. States will have considerable flexibility to build on their existing preschool programs and use a variety of providers to deliver preschool, including Head Start and child care programs. Federal funds must supplement, not supplant, existing programs. In addition to his preschool initiative, Dodd will increase funding for Head Start and invest in infant and toddler programs. * Reforming No Child Left Behind: The Dodd plan will reform No Child Left Behind by easing burdens on students, teachers and administrators. Dodd will provide states with the flexibility to use multiple measures to assess student learning-- measures like student

improvement over time. The Dodd plan will allow schools to target resources such as tutoring to the students who need them most. Dodd will introduce more common sense into the teacher certification process. And, instead of penalizing public schools that need help, Chris Dodd will invest in them. * Quality, Experienced Teachers In Every School: The Dodd plan will double the number of nationally board certified teachers and incentivize them to go where they are needed most – low performing, high poverty schools. By paying for the cost of national board certification for any teacher who commits to teach in a high need school for five years and providing them with a salary supplement of $10,000 a year, the Dodd plan will ensure that every school has experienced teachers. * World-Class Standards: Currently, there are 50 different sets of academic standards in America. As a result of varied standards, America’s highly mobile student-aged population moves through the nation’s schools gaining widely varying levels of knowledge, skills and preparedness. And yet, in order for the United States to compete in a global economy, we must compete as one nation. World-class K-12 American education standards in math, science and language arts are a first step in maintaining America’s economic edge. The Dodd plan would fund the creation of a set of model K-12 American education standards to be adopted voluntarily by states in exchange for additional resources and increased flexibility under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). It is time American students reclaim their position as world leaders in academic excellence. * Extended Learning: The Dodd plan provides additional dollars to schools that wish to lengthen their school day to extend student learning opportunities. Extended learning will allow schools to spend more time on core academics, and provide additional time to provide a fuller curriculum and enrichment activities in areas such as the arts, technology and service learning. Through a competitive grant program, the Dodd plan will match local or state funds dollar for dollar up to $1300. Participating schools will be required to extend the school day by 30% as a means to add increased core academic instruction, more individualized instruction, enrichment programming for all students especially those at risk, and more planning and professional development time for teachers. Extended time will provide additional opportunities for student learning and benefit working parents. * Modernizing Schools, Reducing Class Size: To produce high performing students, we need safe and cutting-edge schools. By making $25 billion available for the construction of new schools and the modernization of existing schools, the Dodd plan will ensure that every child goes to school in a state-of-the-art learning environment. The federal government will provide tax credits to bond holders in lieu of interest payments, and the state or school district will only be responsible for paying the principal. Priority will be given to districts that have a greater number or percentage of low-income children, have an immediate need to address safety concerns, are working to reduce class size, or demonstrate a commitment to green technologies. * Keeping Kids on Track: The Dodd plan will ensure that every 9th grader in America has a graduation plan in place to ensure that they are on-track for college and the workforce from

the moment they enter high school. Dodd will provide funds to implement individualized graduation plans for every student, including funds to hire additional guidance counselors and advisors to monitor students’ progress throughout high school. Teachers and parents will work with counselors/advisors to develop and carry out each child’s plan. As President, Senator Dodd will also call upon every Governor to raise the age of compulsory attendance to 18. * Virtual Learning: The Dodd Plan offers all public schools a chance to supplement their current course load with advanced or specialized courses online. A Virtual Learning Innovation Fund will grant funds to school districts, states, nonprofits and universities to create and make these courses available. Virtual courses will offer all students, regardless of geographic location, a chance to connect with highly qualified teachers and supplemental course materials while providing a more personalized learning experience. The fund will also set aside dollars for research into how students learn using new technologies via the internet. * Focusing Philanthropic Efforts: As much as $6 billion is donated every year to public schools by private foundations. President Dodd will create a Council on Education Philanthropy to strategize how private and public dollars can best be leveraged to ensure that American students graduate from high school ready to compete in the global economy. By making the process more efficient, American students and families will reap greater benefits out of every dollar spent.

Healt hc ar e
There is no more important issue this election than getting health care right. Skyrocketing health care premiums have made health insurance unaffordable for too many families and American businesses. Preventable illnesses, fragmented care for people with chronic diseases, and uneven quality needlessly add costs and suffering to our healthcare experience. America deserves a health care system that provides universal, affordable coverage through responsibility shared by employers, individuals, insurance companies and the government while improving care. Chris Dodd's Plan * Ensures all Americans will have quality, affordable health coverage in place during Chris Dodd's first term. * The Dodd plan will create a health insurance marketplace called Universal HealthMart that is based on, and parallel to, the Federal Employees Health Benefits Plan (FEHBP). Every American will have access to the same plans that members of Congress have. Alternatively, people and businesses can keep their existing insurance arrangements if they want to. * Universal coverage will be achieved through a shared mandate on individuals and businesses: universal coverage through universal responsibility. * People and businesses will participate based on their ability to pay, a plan based on

fairness first. * Premiums will be affordable based on leveraged negotiating power, spreading risk, reduced administrative costs, and incentives for adoption of information technology and savings from better care. * Coverage will be portable -- insurance purchased in Universal HealthMart will follow individuals regardless of their employment situation. * Insurance company discrimination based on medical condition will be ended.

St ren gt henin g Our Mi dd le Cla ss
Chris Dodd believes it’s time we had a President who can break the deadlock between workers and employers in this country – who can bring people together to create an environment and an economy that respects work and builds wealth. For 32 years, he’s fought to protect collective bargaining rights, secure pensions, and fair wages. And he has worked to curb the outsourcing of American jobs. As President, Chris Dodd will bring the values and aspirations of working people into the White House. The Dodd Plan to Create Economic Opportunity * Restore Workers’ Freedom to Form Unions. Chris Dodd believes the freedom to form a union is one of our most fundamental rights. He will use the power of the presidency to ensure that the right to organize is upheld and to pass the Employee Free Choice Act. * Enhance the Family Medical Leave Act to Include Paid Leave. Chris Dodd knows that far too many workers who need the protections of the FMLA cannot afford to take the time off. He will guarantee at least six weeks of paid leave for the birth or adoption of a child, an elderly parent or sick family member, or one’s own serious illness. * Increase Child Care and Elder Care Assistance. Chris Dodd will help working parents balance their commitments to work and family by making child care programs more affordable and flexible. He will also increase assistance to working Americans who care for their elderly relatives. * Safeguard Pension Plans from Corporate Raiding and Protect Overtime Pay. Chris Dodd will enhance federal oversight of pensions. Employees should never have to forfeit their retirement security to pay for corporations’ mistakes. Chris Dodd will also fight to guarantee workers are always compensated time-and-a-half for overtime work and prevent employers from avoiding their obligations through unfair pay period calculations. * Create Jobs and Bolster Training Programs in Conjunction with Implementing a Comprehensive Energy Policy. Chris Dodd will create a technical education curriculum that trains a new generation of automobile mechanics, electricians and construction workers to maintain energy-efficient goods, from cars to homes. His energy plan will create jobs at every stage, from production to maintenance. * Make Workplaces Safer: Chris Dodd will promote efforts to enhance safety in the workplace that all businesses can understand and comply with. He will also protect workers

who have been injured on the job from unfair retaliation or loss of benefits of any kind. * Enforce Trade Laws at Home and Abroad. Chris Dodd will insist that every trade agreement America enters into is fair, by ensuring that workers in those countries are guaranteed fair wages, fair working conditions, and strong environmental protections. Above all, Dodd will insist U.S. trading partners open their markets to American products. A Longtime Commitment to Working Families * Dodd Worked to Protect Families. Chris Dodd authored and fought for seven years to pass the Family and Medical Leave Act, which has allowed an estimated 50 million workers to take up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave to care for a new child or a sick family member. In addition, he has been a leader in the effort to ensure children receive the best child care. As the author of the Child Care and Development Block Grant, he has fought for safe, nurturing child care facilities run by qualified providers. Dodd has also been a strong supporter of increasing the minimum wage. * Dodd Worked to Protect Collective Bargaining Rights. Chris Dodd authored the RESPECT Act, which would reverse a series of decisions from the National Labor Relations Board that unfairly expanded the definition of a “supervisor” so that many workers would be denied the right to join a union. Dodd has also cosponsored the Employee Free Choice Act, also known as the “Card Check” bill, which will remove obstacles to joining a union, such as the cumbersome election process that can be delayed by employers to intimidate or discourage workers. * Dodd Fought to Protect American Jobs. Chris Dodd authored legislation – the U.S. Worker Protection Act – that sought to prevent most federal agencies from outsourcing jobs to overseas contractors. Dodd also sponsored legislation that required the Bush Administration to track and discourage the use of so-called “offset contracts” – agreements where a foreign government purchases defense-related systems from U.S. companies, but only if those companies buy goods or services from that country.

John Edwards

Bi og rap hy
Personal Birthdate: June 10, 1953 (Seneca, S.C.) Hometown: Robbins, N.C. Spouse: Elizabeth Edwards Children: Wade Edwards (died in 1996), Cate Edwards, Emma Claire Edwards, Jack Edwards Religion: Methodist Education * University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill, J.D., 1977 * North Carolina State University, B.A., 1974 * North Moore High School Experien ce Public Service / Elected Offices: * Senator, United States Senate, 1998-2005 * Democratic presidential candidate, 2004

Issu es

John Edwards has a bold plan to transform America's health care system and provide universal health care for every man, woman and child in America. Under the Edwards Plan: * Families without insurance will get coverage at an affordable price. * Families with insurance will pay less and get more security and choices. * Businesses and other employers will find it cheaper and easier to insure their workers. The Edwards Plan achieves universal coverage by: * Requiring businesses and other employers to either cover their employees or help finance their health insurance. * Making insurance affordable by creating new tax credits, expanding Medicaid and

Hea lth ca re

SCHIP, reforming insurance laws, and taking innovative steps to contain health care costs. * Creating regional "Health Care Markets" to let every American share the bargaining power to purchase an affordable, high-quality health plan, increase choices among insurance plans, and cut costs for businesses offering insurance. * Once these steps have been taken, requiring all American residents to get insurance. Securing universal healthcare for every American will require the active involvement of millions of Americans.

Gov er nm ent R ef or m
When special interests have seized control over Washington, it is no coincidence that regular families face stagnant wages, longer hours at work, and higher costs for health care, energy, and college. Insurance and drug companies block efforts to make health care universal and more affordable. Energy and power companies block efforts to develop renewable energy and improve energy efficiency. Financial institutions block efforts to crack down on predatory lending. Businesses block efforts to give workers a real choice to join a union. Wealthy taxpayers and corporations lobby for special tax breaks while the 37 million Americans living in poverty are not even on the agenda. John Edwards believes that we can not go on as two Americas with two political systems— one for the insiders who can buy unlimited access to our leaders, and another for the rest of us. Today, he outlined his One Democracy Initiative, which will return the power in Washington to regular Americans by strengthening voting and campaign finance laws and taking on the special influence of lobbyists. Strengthen The Voice Of Ordinary Citizens Voting is perhaps our most important right and the defining right of an American citizen, but only about 55 percent of eligible Americans vote. There are 32 million Americans who are eligible to vote but not registered. No wonder that only 10 percent of Americans believe that people like themselves consistently have a say in their government. [Washington Post, 10/29/2006; Demos, 2005; CBS/N.Y. Times, 2000] * Create a Citizen Congress: Most Americans can only exert significant influence on Washington by voting every two or four years. Despite the growth of communications technology, most voters are no closer to Washington policymakers than they were hundreds of years ago. Edwards believes in the wisdom of the American people and the power of deliberation. Every two years, he will ask 1 million citizens nationwide to participate in Citizen Congresses combining local town halls with the latest technology to create true national discussions, unfiltered by interest groups. Americans will discuss the challenges and trade-offs facing our country and offer advisory opinions to leaders. Part of an emerging movement to continue the democratic process between elections, citizen-centered projects have given ordinary people a voice in designs for the World Trade Center memorial, the

redevelopment of New Orleans, health care reform in California and local issues in Portsmouth, New Hampshire. [Ackerman and Fishkin, 2004; November 5th Coalition, 2007; AmericaSpeaks, 2007] * Reform Election Laws: America ought to set an example with the most trustworthy, inclusive and secure election system in the world. But recent elections have exposed major flaws, from insecure voting machines to laws and practices that disenfranchise citizens. Edwards will reform election laws to increase voter participation, promote fair elections, and enfranchise more Americans by: o Protecting the vote: Edwards will secure Americans' voting rights by requiring the use of paper ballots verified by voters. Voting machines will ensure access for people with disabilities and foreign-language speakers, use transparent and publicly accountable opensource software, and be verified by mandatory audits. o Expanding voting rights and participation: Because election-day registration is a proven way to raise voter turnout, Edwards will require it for federal elections and encourage states to offer no-excuse absentee voting. He will support the right of Washington, D.C. residents to have voting representation in Congress and expand the rights of exprisoners who have served their time to vote in federal elections. Ending voter intimidation and suppression: Edwards will enact a new law making intentional interference with the right to vote a federal offense and providing tough penalties for political parties, officials and individuals. He will establish a Department of Justice task force to investigate patterns of dirty election tricks nationwide. He will also eliminate concerns over the partisan administration of elections by prohibiting chief state election officials from publicly supporting federal candidates. [Demos, 2006; Brennan Center and the Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, 2007] * Promote Open and Democratic Media: The media is essential to democratic engagement, but it is now dominated by a few powerful corporate interests, and two-thirds of all independently-owned newspapers have shut down since 1975. Eight business conglomerates control the majority of media content in America. The result is a poorer democracy, with a few loud corporate voices drowning out independent perspectives and local participation. Edwards will strengthen rules against highly concentrated media ownership and define robust public interest obligations for digital broadcasters, a task 12 years overdue. He will promote citizens' full democratic participation online by achieving univeral broadband access by 2010 and protecting the net neutrality rules that prohibit the selective degradation or blocking of access to certain web sites or services. [Free Press, 2006] Reform Campaign Finance To Strengthen Small Donors The system for financing American elections is rigged to amplify the influence of powerful and wealthy individuals as both donors and candidates. Facing increasingly expensive campaigns, politicians have become dependent on wealthy supporters. Even while governing, they must raise thousands of dollars a day. The average cost of successful congressional races has doubled since 1990 to $1 million for House races and $8 million for

Senate races. The best-financed candidates won in over 90 percent of races in 2004. [CRP, 2004 and 2007] John Edwards believes that the first step toward getting the policies we want is to put regular people back in charge of Washington. As president, he will: * Reform Presidential Campaign Finance Laws to Empower Small Donors: Analysts believe that we are on track to spend a $1 billion on the 2008 presidential election. Few top-tier presidential candidates accept public financing, and candidates rely on wealthy, wellconnected "bundlers" to help them raise tens of millions of dollars. The Internet has enabled a boom in small donations from regular people, but wealthy donors and bundlers still supplied nearly 80 percent of dollars contributed to candidates in the first quarter of 2007. Edwards will create a new Grassroots Presidential Financing System to empower regular Americans in a potentially universal public financing system. It will match small donations under $100 by eight to one, making two $100 donations as valuable to a campaign as a single $1,000 donation. (Each $100 donation would receive an $800 match, making them worth $900 each. The $1,000 donation would also receive an $800 match and be worth $1,800.) Edwards will also reduce the maximum contribution from $2,300 to $1,000 per person to better reflect the incomes of most Americans and update the campaign spending limits to attract all candidates into the system. [N.Y. Times, 1/23/07; CFI, 2007] * Provide Full Public Financing in Congressional Campaigns: There is no public financing for congressional races, favoring candidates who are incumbents, have personal wealth, or have strong support from the wealthy and their corporate interests. Edwards will create full public financing for House and Senate races. Candidates who raise a certain number of $5 contributions will receive equal public financing and air time, while additional "fair fight" funds will help candidates facing self-financed campaigns and independent expenditures. States with these models—like Maine and Arizona—have reported more political accountability and candidates from more diverse backgrounds. [Brennan Center et al, 2007] * Make Corporations Accountable: Corporations cannot give to federal campaigns, but can and do donate anonymously to independent 527 groups, politically active trade associations, state and local candidates, and state parties. The costs are often passed on to shareholders, workers, and customers. Edwards will require corporations to disclose all political spending and activity. [CPA, 2007] End The Undue Power Of Lobbyists Over the past few administrations, influencing our government has grown into a big business that employs a mass of lobbyists and lawyers. Lobbying expenditures totaled $5.1 billion during the last Congress. The number of Washington lobbyists has tripled in the past 10 years to almost 36,000—more than 60 for every member of Congress. The greed and corruption possible under the new regime of lobbyist influence was brought home by the

short, corrupt, and very lucrative career of Jack Abramoff. Regular families are outnumbered: between 1998 and 2005, for example, the Chamber of Commerce spent more than $200 million on lobbying, eight times more than the AFL-CIO. As corporate influence in Washington has grown, so has government spending, driving some of the highest economic growth in the nation around the nation's capital. [CRP, 2007; Senate Office of Public Records, 2006; Washington Post, 3/29/06; CPI, 2005; Galbraith and Hale, 2006] John Edwards will take the power out of the hands of lobbyists. He will: * Take on the Lobbyists' Power with a Constitutional Line-Item Veto: Winning earmarks for their clients – transferring government money directly to certain institutions and interests – is the bread and butter of Washington lobbyists. The lobbyist who pioneered the use of earmarks, Gerald Cassidy, earned a fortune that exceeds $125 million. His earmarks helped start what the Washington Post called "the lobbying boom" and establish "a system of interdependence between lobbyists and Congress that thrives today." To put an end to the rampant abuse of earmarks, Edwards will enact a new form of line-item veto – "expedited rescission" – that would allow the president to single out pork spending provisions in bills and send them back to Congress for required up or down votes. Congress could earmark money only by going on the record in support of each special-interest provision, one by one. Edwards will minimize the risk that the president will abuse the process by allowing only one package of rescissions per bill and requiring the president to spend the funds if Congress reaffirms them. [Washington Post, 4/8/2007] * Prohibit Lobbyists from Giving or Raising Campaign Cash: Today, lobbyists approach politicians with campaign checks in one hand and wish lists in the other. Federally registered lobbyists gave over $23 million in the 2006 campaign. Edwards has never taken a dime from federal lobbyists or PACs. He will sever the connection between money and lobbyist influence by: o Ending lobbyist campaign contributions: Lobbyists should be able to make their cases on the merits, not by influencing politicians with donations. Edwards will prohibit all federal candidates from accepting campaign contributions from federal lobbyists. o Stopping lobbyists from bundling: Lobbyists solicit donations from others and direct them towards candidates to maximize their impact, a practice known as bundling. Edwards has never allowed any lobbyists to bundle donations for him. As president he will ban federal lobbyists from bundling for federal candidates. [CRP, 2007] * Close the Lobbyist Revolving Door: Cashing in on government connections has become a new retirement plan for Washington politicians. Nearly 250 former members of Congress and agency heads registered as federal lobbyists between 1998 and 2004. Edwards will close the lobbyist revolving door by: o Banning top government officials from becoming lobbyists: Edwards will restore the Clinton-era executive order barring appointees from lobbying their former colleagues for five years, created by President Clinton but rescinded in his last days. He will also enact it by statute so that no president can revoke it and expand the definition of prohibited lobbying to

include directing strategy on lobbying campaigns, not just making direct contact with officials. o Banning lobbyists from taking top government jobs: In today's Washington, corporate lobbyists don't just lobby public officials, they often become them. Edwards will bar individuals who acted as federal lobbyists in the preceding two years from taking senior executive jobs with responsibility for the subject areas on which they lobbied. [Center for Public Integrity, 2006; Washington Post, 12/29/00] * Expose Lobbyist Contacts to Sunlight: Recent legislation expands disclosures of lobbying activity, but still delays information by three months and doesn't provide enough detail to expose the real chains of influence. John Edwards will require lobbyists to disclose within 48 hours which federal office candidates, members, staff and executive officials they met with, which legislative or regulatory items they discussed, and any contributions made or raised for that official. Lobbyists will also have to disclose prior employment by the government or a contractor and any close relationship to a current member of Congress, staff member, or executive branch employee. * Prohibit Executive Branch Employees from Accepting Corporate Gifts: From March 2006 to April 2007, corporations and trade groups paid for more than 200 trips for executives of agencies that regulated or did business with them. Edwards will prohibit all executive branch officials and staff from accepting gifts and travel from lobbyists or their employers. [USA Today, 8/23/07]

"We don't need debate; we don't need non-binding resolutions; we need to end this war. In order to get the Iraqi people to take responsibility for their country, we must show them that we are serious about leaving, and the best way to do that is to actually start leaving." -John Edwards There is no military solution to the chaos in Iraq. Instead, the Iraqi people must solve the problem politically by taking responsibility for their country. By leaving Iraq, America will prompt the Iraqi people, regional powers, and the entire international community to find the political solution that will end the sectarian violence and create a stable Iraq. We must show the Iraqis that we are serious about leaving by actually starting to leave, with an immediate withdrawal of 40,000-50,000 troops and a complete withdrawal within nine to ten months. We should leave behind in Iraq only a brigade of 3,500 to 5,000 troops to protect the embassy and possibly a few hundred troops to guard humanitarian workers. We can only achieve these steps through legislative action. Edwards strongly supports the supplemental spending bill passed by both Houses of Congress and vetoed by President Bush that funds the troops with a timetable for withdrawal. He has called for Congress to respond to the President's veto by sending back the same bill—and doing this as many times as it takes for the President to end the war. Edwards supports the following specific steps:

Jo hn Ed war ds ' Pl an T o En d Th e Wa r In Ir aq

Stop the Escalation and Immediately Start the Drawdown Edwards opposed President Bush's "surge" and supports immediately drawing down 40,000 to 50,000 combat troops. Require Troops to be Ready We should prohibit funding for any new troops that do not meet real readiness standards and that have not been properly trained and equipped. American tax dollars should be used to train and equip our troops, not to escalate the war. Clarify the Lack of Legal Foundation for the War The 2002 authorization did not give President Bush the power to use U.S. troops to police a civil war. Edwards believes that Congress should make it clear that President Bush exceeded his authority long ago. The president now needs to end the war and ask Congress for new authority to manage the withdrawal of the U.S. military presence and to help Iraq achieve stability. Withdraw Combat Troops within Nine to Ten Months Edwards believes we should completely withdraw all combat troops from Iraq within nine to ten months and prohibit permanent U.S. military bases in Iraq. After withdrawal, we should retain sufficient forces in Quick Reaction Forces located outside Iraq, in friendly countries like Kuwait, to prevent an Al Qaeda safe haven, a genocide, or regional spillover of a civil war. Take Additional Steps to Stabilize Iraq Edwards believes we should intensify U.S. efforts to train the Iraqi security forces. He would also step up U.S. diplomatic efforts by engaging in direct talks with all the nations in the region, including Iran and Syria, to bring a political solution to the sectarian violence inside Iraq, including through a peace conference.

"There is nothing more important to our future than our country's schools. We all pay a price when young people who could someday find the cure for AIDS or make a fuel cell work are sitting on a stoop because they didn't get the education they needed." -- John Edwards As the product of public schools in a small rural town and the father of four children who attended public schools, John Edwards understands the importance of education. He believes every child should have the same chance to get a great education—a commitment that is at the core of his plan to build One America where everyone has a chance to succeed. But more

Ed uc ation

than 50 years after Brown v. Board of Education, we still have two school systems that are separate and unequal. No longer legally separated by race, our children are divided by economics, often with a racial or ethnic dimension. Edwards' vision for excellent American schools is based on three principles: Preparing Every Child to Succeed Quality preschool education should be as common as kindergarten. As president, Edwards will lead the way toward universal preschool by providing resources to states to help them offer "Great Promise" universal high-quality programs for four-year-olds. Great Promise programs will develop early academic skills, as well as helping emotional and healthy development, through parental involvement and lead teachers with four-year college degrees. He will also help other states duplicate North Carolina's innovative Smart Start program that links together health care, child care, education, and family support services for children under five, prioritizing children who are not served by other pre-K programs. An Excellent Teacher in Every Classroom Nothing is more important in a school than the relationship between a teacher and a child. Edwards will raise pay for teachers in successful high-poverty schools by as much as $15,000 more a year, including up $5,000 for all teachers in successful high-poverty schools, $5,000 for teachers with a national certification for excellence, and $5,000 for veteran teachers who serve as mentors. He will create a national teachers' university—a West Point for teachers— to train excellent teachers for our worst schools. He will also improve working conditions and increase time for teacher collaboration and planning, address barriers for teachers moving between states, help teachers with extra support in their early years and dedicate federal resources to reducing class sizes. Make Every School an Outstanding School Every child in America should have the chance to attend an outstanding public school that has high expectations for every child. Edwards will radically overhaul No Child Left Behind to live up to its goal of helping all children learn at high levels. The law today judges children based on cheap standardized tests, forces schools to narrow the curriculum, fails to accurately identify struggling schools, and imposes unproven cookie-cutter reforms. Edwards supports better tests, broader measures of school success such as measuring students' progress, and giving states more resources and flexibility to identify and reform underperforming schools. To build on current successes, he will help 1,000 'great' schools a year expand or start new branches. Edwards will also invest more resources for low-income children, put us on a path to fully funding special education, and raise graduation rates by creating multiple paths to graduation such as Second Chance schools for former dropouts.

Peo ple w ith Di sabiliti es
One of the untold stories in America is the relationship between poverty and disability. Working-age Americans with moderate disabilities are almost 30 percent more likely to live in poverty than Americans without disabilities. Americans with significant disabilities are 225 percent more likely to live in poverty. The barriers that separate people with disabilities from economic opportunity are some of the same barriers that divide the Two Americas. John Edwards believes in One America, where every person has the chance to live up to his or her potential. Edwards has announced a series of proposals to break down the barriers to opportunity at school, at work and at home. [Census Bureau, 2007] Including Every Child in One School System Education is America's sturdiest ladder of opportunity, but for many of the more than 5 million school-age children with disabilities, that ladder is missing several rungs. Edwards supports a steady path toward fully funding the federal share of special education costs and will enforce the right to receive a free and appropriate education in schools that are fully accessible – starting with quality early childhood education that is inclusive of all children, regardless of disability or their learning style, and continuing with individualized education programs when requested and classroom materials and technology that are accessible to all students. [Census Bureau, 2007] Breaking Down Transition Barriers Edwards' Breaking Down Barriers initiative will help high school and college students with disabilities find internships and mentors so they can gain work experience and skills, and receive educational guidance while obtaining valuable skills and contacts for finding a job after graduation. Ramping Up Accessible Transportation Only 69 percent of people with disabilities say they have an adequate way to get to a job. Edwards will invest in accessible mass transit and improve mobility for people with disabilities in rural areas by encouraging automakers to make an affordable vehicle that meets the needs of people who use mobility devices like wheelchairs, increasing funding for and oversight of paratransit services and working with states to waive fees for electronic toll collection passes (e.g., EZ-PASS) for low-income Americans with disabilities. [NOD, 2004] Opening up the Workplace, Starting with the Federal Government Three out of four working-age Americans with disabilities don't have a full-time job and those with jobs face too many discriminatory obstacles in the workplace. The percentage of federal employees with disabilities has not increased in 20 years. The government should lead the way to full inclusion in the workplace by meeting the goal of Executive Order 13163 – 100,000 qualified individuals with disabilities in the federal workforce. Edwards will

actively recruit people with disabilities and support telecommuting and flexible work schedules. He will also partner with the business community to combat attitudes that operate as barriers to employment. Finally, Edwards' initiative to create one million stepping stone jobs to help individuals move into permanent work will provide new employment opportunities for people with disabilities. [EEOC, 2004] Supporting Independent Living with Dignity Securing the rights of people with disabilities to live independently with the services and supports they need is essential to guaranteeing equal opportunity. Edwards has proposed a Living with Dignity initiative to reform Medicaid and Medicare to enable people to choose home-based care in their own communities, including rural areas. His initiative to create 1 million new Section 8 affordable housing vouchers will enable thousands of people with disabilities to live in accessible, integrated housing – with a portion of the vouchers benefiting people making the transition from institutional care to independent living.

"LGBT Americans are entitled to equal respect and dignity under our laws. Discrimination is morally wrong. All Americans should have the same freedoms and the same responsibilities." -- John Edwards Equal Rights for Same-Sex Couples Edwards believes that all couples in committed, long-term relationships should have the same rights, benefits, and responsibilities, whether they are straight couples or same-sex couples. He supports civil unions to guarantee gay and lesbian couples the same rights as straight couples, including inheritance rights, hospital visitation rights, equal pension and health care benefits, and all of the 1,100 other legal protections government affords married couples. Edwards supports the full repeal of the Defense of Marriage Act. He also believes same-sex families should be treated in the same manner as other families by our immigration laws. Edwards believes the right president could lead the country toward consensus around equal rights and benefits for all couples in committed, long-term relationships and he opposes divisive Constitutional amendments to ban same-sex marriages. Workplace Discrimination Workers should be judged by the quality of their performance, not their sexual orientation or gender identity. While in the Senate, Edwards cosponsored the Employment NonDiscrimination Act. He also believes that stronger enforcement is necessary to prevent employment discrimination by federal agencies. Military Service

The Ri ght s Of Le sb ian, Gay , Bis ex ual & T ran sg en de r Am er ic ans

Edwards opposes the current "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy on gays and lesbians serving in our military. The military ought to treat all service members equally and in a way that promotes national security, without regard to their sexual orientation. Adoption Edwards believes that gay and lesbian parents should be able to adopt children just like any other parents. There are over 120,000 children waiting for homes in our nation's foster care system. Adoption placements should be decided by judges and adoption agencies based upon the best interests of the children. Both members of a same-sex couple raising children together should be able to form a legal relationship with their children. Hate Crimes Everyone is entitled to live in dignity without fear of violence. We should strengthen the ability of law enforcement to investigate and prosecute hate crimes based on race, gender, religion, national origin, sexual orientation, disability or gender identity. While in the Senate, Edwards cosponsored legislation to give law enforcement agencies the tools they need to investigate and prosecute hate crimes. HIV and AIDS The loss from HIV/AIDS is almost beyond understanding. Edwards believes we have a moral imperative to do much more, and do it much better. He is the first presidential candidate -Democratic or Republican -- to propose a comprehensive strategy this year to stop the HIV/AIDS epidemic at home and around the world, building on his plan for true universal health care with specific proposals to expand Medicaid to cover HIV-positive individuals before they reach later stages of disabilities and AIDS and increase support for the Ryan White CARE Act and HOPWA programs. He will also fight the disease in the AfricanAmerican and Latino communities where the harm is now greatest and employ sciencebased prevention strategies -- including comprehensive, age-appropriate sex education and harm-reduction programs that provide high-risk individuals with access to clean syringes.

A N ew En er gy E co no my
Edwards believes that with American ingenuity and resolve we can turn the crisis of global warming into an opportunity—ending our dependence on foreign oil and creating a new energy economy that embraces innovation, brings rural communities back to life and creates new, good-paying jobs. The Edwards Plan halts global warming, achieves energy independence and jumpstarts a new energy economy by:

* Capping greenhouse gas pollution starting in 2010 with a cap-and-trade system, and reducing it by 15 percent by 2020 and 80 percent by 2050, as the latest science says is needed to avoid the worst impacts of global warming. * Leading the world to a new climate treaty that commits other countries—including developing nations—to reduce their pollution. Edwards will insist that developing countries join us in this effort, offering to share new clean energy technology and, if necessary, using trade agreements to require binding greenhouse reductions. * Creating a New Energy Economy Fund by auctioning off $10 billion in greenhouse pollution permits and repealing subsidies for big oil companies. The fund will support U.S. research and development in energy technology, help entrepreneurs start new businesses, invest in new carbon-capture and efficient automobile technology and help Americans conserve energy. * Meeting the demand for more electricity through efficiency for the next decade, instead of producing more electricity.

Mike Gravel

Bi og rap hy

Personal Birthdate: May 30, 1930 (Springfield, Mass.) Hometown: Springfield, Mass. Spouse: Whitney Stewart Gravel Children: Martin Gravel, Lynne Gravel Mosier Religion: Unitarian Education * Columbia Universiy, B.S. Experien ce Military Service: * United States Army Counter Intelligence Corps, 1951-1955 Businesses Owned, Past Careers, Board Memberships, Etc.: * President, Direct Democracy * President, The Democracy Foundation * President, Philadelphia II * New York City cab driver Public Service / Elected Offices: * Senator, United States Senate, 1969-1981 * Speaker, Alaska House of Representatives, 1965-1966 * Representative, Alaska House of Representatives, 1963-1966

Is sue s

Th e N ational I nitiati ve
One of the most important contributions to good governance since our nation's founding, the National Initiative grants citizens the power to put measures on national ballots.

Senator Gravel advocates an immediate and orderly withdrawal of all U.S. troops. His current plan, if enacted, would have all U.S. soldiers home by Christmas 2007.

Th e I ra q War

Iran and Sy ria
Senator Gravel opposes a military confrontation with Iran and Syria and advocates a diplomatic solution to the current situation.

Senator Gravel believes that global climate change is a matter of national security and survivability of the planet. As President, he will act swiftly to reduce America's carbon footprint in the world by initiating legislation to tax carbon at the source and cap carbon emissions. He will also initiate a massive scientific effort, integrating the world's scientific and engineering community, to end energy dependence on oil and integrate the world's scientific community in this task.

Gl ob al Wa rmin g—Cli mat e Chang e

Pro gr essi ve Fair T ax —A G re en T ax
Senator Gravel's Progressive Fair Tax proposal calls for eliminating the IRS and the income tax and replacing it with a national sales tax on new products and services. To compensate for the tax on necessities, such as food, lodging, transportation and clothing, there would be a "rebate" to reimburse taxpayers. This would be paid in a monthly check from the government to all citizens.

Senator Gravel advocates a universal healthcare system that provides equal medical services to all citizens, paid for by a retail sales tax (a portion of the Progressive Fair tax). Citizens would pay nothing for health benefits.

Unive rsal H ealt hc ar e Vou ch er s

Rep ro duc tiv e Ri gh ts
Senator Gravel supports a woman's right to decide if and when to have children and to make the difficult decision about abortion without interference by government.

Imm ig rati on

While Senator Gravel supports protecting our borders, he also advocates a guest worker

program and naturalization procedures that fairly bring immigrants into legal status. He would also address the root cause of illegal immigration: NAFTA.

LGB T R ig hts
Senator Gravel supports same-sex marriage and opposes the Defense of Marriage Act. He also strongly opposes the military's "Don't Ask Don't Tell" legislation on the grounds that it is unconstitutional.

Socia l S ecu rity —St op t he R ip-off

Senator Gravel wants to put real money, rather than borrowed money, in the Social Security Trust Fund. He advocates investing it properly and identifying the interests of individual beneficiaries so they can know what their retirement fund is and leave surplus funds to heirs.

Edu cati on
Senator Gravel supports re-ordering national budget priorities in order to improve the American education system. He supports government funding of education from prekindergarten to higher education.

Vete ran s Affair s

As President, Senator Gravel would ensure that veterans receive full and unambiguous funding for their most important needs, including treatment for post traumatic stress disorder.

Wa r on D rugs Failure
The War on Drugs has been a failure. It is time to end prohibition and start treating addiction as a public health problem.

Net N eutr ality

Senator Gravel supports a free and open Internet with unlimited access to all sites regardless of content. He will do this by supporting legislation and regulation that keeps you in control of your internet usage and promotes free speech.

Dennis Kucinich

Bio gr aph y

Perso nal Birthdate: October 8, 1946 (Cleveland, Ohio) Hometown: Cleveland, Ohio Spouse: Elizabeth Kucinich Children: Jackie Kucinich Educa tion * Case Western Reserve University, M.A., 1974 * Case Western Reserve University, B.A. Experience Public Service / Elected Offices: * Democratic presidential candidate, 2004 * Representative, United States House of Representatives, 1997-present * Senator, Ohio State Senate, 1994-1996 * Cleveland Mayor, 1977-1979 * Cleveland City Council, 1970-1975, 1981-1982 * Clerk, Cleveland Municipal Courts, 1976-1977

Issu es

St ren gt h Th ro ug h Pe ac e
Dennis Kucinich is the only democrat running for President who has voted against authorizing the war in Iraq and against funding its continuation. He has proposed a bold, new policy to re-establish America's place in the world. Diplomacy and a return to statesmanship as the path to strong international leadership. A new policy of investing in our communities and our infrastructure. A new policy of Strength through Peace. The Cold War belief that peace comes through strength is as obsolete as the Edsel. In an interconnected world of trading partners afloat with nuclear weapons, war is unthinkable. The Europeans have turned away from the catastrophic wars of the last century which took over 100 million lives to embrace a new understanding of diplomacy and dialogue as well as a new understanding of patriotism. So must the United States. The world depends on it. Strength Through PeaceDoes anyone in the world deny that the United States military is the strongest the planet has ever seen? Does anyone seriously believe that any country on earth can remain on the battlefield against the United States more than a half hour? The United States must now embrace strength through peace. Because we spend more than the rest of the world combined we will clearly remain the world’s most powerful nation. But with that power comes a great responsibility. We must use our unrivaled power to lead, not to bully, the rest of the world. War must truly become the last desperate measure of self defense, not the handy policy tool it is now used for. We are the planet’s first superpower able to destroy any society within an hour either conventionally or atomically. The fact that we can slice through any army on earth in hours has not prevented: 1) Growing antipathy and distrust towards the U.S. across the globe 2) Escalating bloodshed in Iraq 3) Looming wars in Iran and Syria. 4) Increasing terrorist acts against U.S. interests 5) Spiraling U.S. military spending 6) Spreading weapons of mass destruction 7) Growing conflicts and tension across the world 8) Ongoing arms race By abandoning the arrogant “my way or the highway” attitude we can reengage the world in productive discussion on our common goals of universal peace and prosperity. Maintaining our current course of action will only end with a world in flames and economic ruin.

Healt hc ar e

Health care in the US is too expensive and leaves 46 million Americans without insurance and millions more underinsured. Dennis Kucinich is the only candidate for President with a plan for a Universal, Single-Payer, Not-for-Profit health care system. America's patchwork of for-profit, private insurers waste billions of dollars on spending that has nothing to do with paying for care. Elaborate underwriting, billing, sales and marketing divert huge amounts of money away from delivering health care. Huge profits and staggering compensation for the insurance companies' top executives and CEO's. To cope with the endless bureaucracy of private insurers, health care providers maintain huge administrative staffs. The administration of the health care system today consumes approximately 31% of the money spent for health care. The potential savings, as much as $350 billion per year, are enough to provide comprehensive coverage to every American without paying any more than we already do. In Congress, Representative Dennis Kucinich has co-authored HR 676, legislation which would establish Medicare for All - a universal, single-payer, not-for-profit health care system that leaves no American behind.

Sur vival o f t he M id dl e Clas s
For most American families, the loss of a job or one serious illness spells catastrophe. Stagnant wages, expensive health care and rising education costs are vital issues being ignored by the Congress and White House. A champion of working families, Dennis Kucinich will lead America into expanding opportunities, universal health care, restore our schools and strengthen Social Security and protections for private pensions. Saving the Middle Class: A Real – not Rhetorical - Plan It is a shocking - and dangerous - trend in the United States over the last three decades: the plummeting rewards and respect for hard work. As a result the middle class who has produced this magnificent American engine of economic growth is under intense pressure from the governing elites – of both parties. Risk envelopes the life of the average American employee while the casino capitalists at the top prosper. Global elites scour the globe in search of slave labor while some of them earn 36,000 times the wages of the average American worker and 580,000 times the average Chinese worker. The middle class has watched as their jobs are being exported, health care costs are soaring, wages are being depressed, tuition costs are rising and retirement savings and pensions are disappearing. All while wars which damage their family’s economic health and security are being waged in their name. This U. S. slide towards banana-republic disparities in wealth and income threatens our very political and economic lives. Democracy and capitalism are at risk in a system where casino capitalists earn a billion dollars or more in a year while wages and savings wither for the middle class. America’s consumer-driven capitalism will die if these Great Depression era trends are allowed to continue.

Fortunately, the American Dream and the middle class have been resuscitated before. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) knew that it was his job to secure “Freedom from want” and “Freedom from fear” for the American people. So must the next president help America resume its glorious journey. To correct our current detour towards fear and greed. The next president must end our eight year nightmare by placing people before profits, his country before corporations. Corporate Democrats will not restore the middle class and our economy with the bold changes necessary. The reason corporate Democrats will fail is simple: There is little difference between them and the Bush administration. In The Global Class War: How America’s Bipartisan Elite Lost Our Future – and What It Will Take to Win It Back author Jeff Faux is correct when he observes: “But the difference between the Clinton neo-liberals and the Bush neoconservatives over America’s fundamental role in the world is quite small. The leadership of the two parties is in accord with notion that the American governing class has the authority and the obligation to police the world. They only differ on the question of tactics.” The middle class must look to someone other than the corporate fed and bred Democrats to initiate changes like those of FDR. We suggest that Dennis Kucinich will be at the end of your search. Dennis Kucinich will: 1) Double the tax refunds and credits for Americans earning $80,000 and less by shifting the tax burden to where it belongs: on the financial assets and windfall gains of those who have benefited most from our economic and legal system. 2) Deliver the only practical, proven plan to secure health care for all Americans. H.R. 676 co-authored by Dennis is endorsed by tens of thousands of doctors and nurses because they know the employer-based, for-profit system that comes between doctors and their patients must be retired alongside the Model-T. 3) Produce millions of middle class jobs with a new public works program combining the infrastructure and energy needs of our country. A Works Green Administration (WGA) will come from joining a Works Program Administration with the Environmental Protection Agency. 4) Save American jobs by withdrawing from job-killing trade deals like the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA) and organizations like the World Trade Organization (WTO) and return to bilateral trade agreements based on securing workers’ rights and the environment. 5) Provide universal education to all Americans from pre-school through college. 6) Restore robust, effective collective bargaining by repealing the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947, rewriting the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) to remove the severely anti-labor sections and restaffing the National Labor Relations Board with pro-labor appointees. 7) Reward patriotic companies and employers who keep jobs and capital in the United States with tax incentives. 8) Pay for all these programs by eliminating waste from our bloated, inefficient military

budget, shift the tax burden to those who can most afford it and saving hundreds of billions in health care costs by the money spent by the insurance industry excluding people from coverage and paying for profits and exorbitant salaries.

Pov erty
Half the world's population lives on less than two dollars a day. In 2003, 10.6 million children died before they reached the age of five. Without hope and stricken by the AIDS pandemic, religious strife and no opportunity for an education; desperate poverty is a fact of everyday life for the majority of the world's people. It manifests itself in war, terror and genocide over scarce resources, hopelessness and intolerance. Dennis Kucinich will make it a national priority to fight poverty worldwide. He understands that the path to a safe, strong America is through peace, tolerance and committing our nation to eradicating the root causes of global poverty. Dennis Kucinich delivered these words in November of 2006. “America is losing its way at home and in the world. We have no money to rebuild America's cities, but we have money to blow up cities in Iraq. No money to feed the hungry, to clothe the naked, to shelter the homeless in America, but money to rain death, destruction, and starvation on Iraq.

Once again, the hopes of people of two nations are being smashed by weapons in the name of eliminating weapons. Let us abolish weapons of mass destruction at home. I am from the inner city. I have inspected these weapons. * Joblessness is a weapon of mass destruction. * Poverty is a weapon of mass destruction. * Hunger is a weapon of mass destruction. * Poor health care is a weapon of mass destruction. * Poor education is a weapon of mass destruction. * Discrimination is a weapon of mass destruction. Let us abolish such weapons of mass destruction here at home. Eight and a half million Americans are unemployed. Bankruptcies are up. The number of uninsured without health care is up. The price of prescription drugs is up. Poverty is up. Crime is up. Homelessness is up. Hopelessness is up. Fear is up. Let us use the trillion dollars which some would cast upon Iraq in bombs and warring troops, instead for the restoration of the American dream, to rebuild our economy, to rebuild our cities and to expand opportunities for all.

Those who say we can have guns and butter do not know the cost of guns and do not know the bread you would put your butter on is being stolen. America may spend over a trillion dollars for war in Iraq. America can give a trillion dollar tax cut to the rich, spend a trillion dollars to put weapons in space, but not a dime more for temporary assistance to needy families. I believe the American people are people of strength, wisdom, and courage. They have a right to expect their government to be truly representative! It is time to say stop this war. It is time to recognize that the terror we visit on the people of Iraq will bring terror to our own people. Bring our troops home. Come home, America. Come home and fix your broken streets and mend your broken dreams. Come home and rebuild your cities and create full employment, put millions who are unemployed back to work. Come home and establish a living wage, let workers share the wealth they create. Come home and provide affordable housing. Come home and provide single-payer, guaranteed health care for the 41 million Americans who suffer illness with no relief. Come home, America. Come home and provide free public college for all who aspire to attend. Come home and act affirmatively to make sure that all opportunities are afforded to all Americans.”
Only Dennis Kucinich has actually cut money from the federal budget in areas like military and war spending and added taxes for the most privileged to actually carry out his U.S. and world plans to end poverty. Those who do not fund money to act on their rhetoric are offering empty promises.

Barack Obama
Bi og rap hy
Perso nal Birthdate: August 4, 1961 (Honolulu, Hawaii) Hometown: Jakarta, Indonesia; Honolulu, Hawaii Spouse: Michelle Robinson Obama Children: Malia Ann Obama, Sasha Obama Religion: United Church of Christ Education * Harvard Law School, J.D., 1991 * Occidential College/Columbia University, B.A. * Punahou School Experience Businesses Owned, Past Careers, Board Memberships, Etc.: * Center for Neighborhood and Technology * Chicago Annenberg Challenge

* Cook County Bar * Cook County Bar Association Community Law Project * Board Member, Joyce Foundation * Lawyer's Committee for Civil Rights Under the Law * Leadership for Quality Education * Member, Trinity United Church of Christ * Board Member, Woods Fund of Chicago Public Service / Elected Offices: * Senator, United States Senate, 2005-present * Senator, Illinois State Senate, 1997-2004

Issu es St ren gt henin g Ame ri can Se curi ty in th e 21s t Centur y
On April 23, 2007, Barack Obama laid out his vision of American leadership in the world. Obama rejects the notion that the American moment has passed and believes that America must neither retreat from the world nor try to bully it into submission. Obama believes that America must lead the world, by deed and example, and that America cannot meet the threats of the century alone and that the world cannot meet them without America. Under his leadership America will lead in five specific ways: First, we will bring a responsible end to the war in Iraq and refocus on the critical challenges in the broader region. Second, we will rebuild and transform the military to meet 21st-century threats. Third, we will marshal a global effort to secure, destroy, and stop the spread of weapons of mass destruction. Fourth, we will renew the alliances and partnerships necessary to meet common challenges, such as terrorism and climate change. And fifth, we will strengthen impoverished, weak and ungoverned countries that have become the most fertile breeding grounds for transnational threats like terror and pandemic disease and the smuggling of deadly weapons. Learn more about Obama's vision for American security. Taking Weapons Out of Terrorists' Hands Today, 80 percent of the world's spending on armaments is on conventional weapons not nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. These conventional weapons are a threat to our security. Since the 1970s, more than 40 civilian aircraft have been hit by shoulder-launched surface-to-air missiles, and in recent conflicts around the world, small arms have caused four out of every five casualties. There are countless caches of mortars, landmines and other weapons spread across the globe. Insurgents in Iraq have used these caches against our troops by converting older munitions into roadside bombs. In 2005, Senator Obama traveled to the former Soviet Union with Senator Richard Lugar (RIN) to investigate the dangers posed by unsecured weapons. The two senators returned from the trip and introduced legislation to establish the next generation of the Nunn-Lugar

initiative. Senator Obama helped shepherd this legislation through Congress and it was signed into law in January 2007. The Lugar-Obama initiative cracks down on conventional weapon caches by building on the Nunn-Lugar program, which has secured nearly 7,000 Soviet nuclear warheads, in order to find and destroy conventional arms.

Stopping Nuclear Terrorism The greatest threat our nation faces is a nuclear weapon falling into terrorists' hands. The International Atomic Energy Agency confirmed 650 cases of illicit trafficking in nuclear and radiological materials worldwide between 1993 and 2004. As little as four kilograms of plutonium - about the size of a soda can - can potentially be enough for a fissile nuclear bomb. Senator Obama passed legislation with Senator Lugar to prevent weapons of mass destruction from being smuggled across the globe. Signed into law in January 2007, the Lugar-Obama initiative will help other nations detect and secure weapons of mass destruction before they ever leave their borders. Senator Obama also worked with Senator Lugar to successfully restore $8 million in budget cuts to the original Nunn-Lugar Initiative. Preventing an Avian Flu Pandemic Senator Obama was one of the first legislators to recognize the dangers of a potential avian influenza pandemic, and was successful in securing $25 million that U.S. agencies in Southeast Asia are currently using to combat and contain widespread outbreaks of avian flu. He also worked with other Senators to provide $4 billion in funding to the Centers for Disease Control to combat avian flu which included more than $3 billion to build a stockpile of antiviral drugs that had been in short supply. Ending the Conflict in Congo An estimated 3.9 million people have died from war-related causes since the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo began. Nearly 80 percent of Congo's 56 million people live in extreme poverty and more than 70 percent are undernourished. The United Nations has its largest peacekeeping force in the world in the Congo, and in the summer of 2006, the country held competitive national elections for the first time in more than 40 years. Senator Obama wrote and passed legislation to build on this historic election and promote stability in the country. Senator Obama revamped U.S. policy in the Congo to include a commitment to help rebuild the country, develop lasting political structures, hold accountable destabilizing foreign governments, crack down on corrupt politicians, and professionalize the military. The bill also authorizes $52 million in U.S. assistance for the Congo, calls for a Special U.S. Envoy to resolve ongoing violence, and urges the administration to strengthen the U.N. peacekeeping force. Stopping the Genocide in Darfur

Plan to end t he Wa r in Ir aq

Senator Obama has been a leading voice in Washington urging the end of genocide in Sudan. He worked with Senator Sam Brownback (R-KS) on the Darfur Peace and Accountability Act, a version of which was signed into law. Obama has traveled to the UN to meet with Sudanese officials and visited refugee camps on the Chad-Sudan border to raise international awareness of the ongoing humanitarian disaster there. He also worked with Senator Harry Reid (D-NV) to secure $20 million for the African Union peacekeeping mission.

Barack Obama opposed the war in Iraq from the beginning. In 2002, as the conventional thinking in Washington lined up for war, Obama had the judgment and courage to speak out against the war. He said the war would lead to "an occupation of undetermined length, with undetermined costs and undetermined consequences." In January 2007, Obama introduced legislation to responsibly end the war in Iraq, with a phased withdrawal of troops engaged in combat operations. As the nation debates how to move forward in Iraq, Obama laid out his plan to end the war, as well as his vision for what America can achieve once we turn the page in Iraq. Obama would immediately begin to pull out troops engaged in combat operations at a pace of one or two brigades every month, to be completed by the end of next year. He would call for a new constitutional convention in Iraq, convened with the United Nations, which would not adjourn until Iraq’s leaders reach a new accord on reconciliation. He would use presidential leadership to surge our diplomacy with all of the nations of the region on behalf of a new regional security compact. And he would take immediate steps to confront the humanitarian disaster in Iraq, and to hold accountable any perpetrators of potential war crimes. The Surge is not Working Iraqi Government Not Stepping Up: The goal of the troop surge was to create space for Iraq’s political leaders to reach agreement to end Iraq’s civil war. In January 2007, President Bush said the goal of the surge was to contain violence so that "Iraqis will gain confidence in their leaders, and the government will have the breathing space it needs to make progress in other critical areas." Since then, more than 700 American troops have died, but the Iraqi government has not stepped up. In early September, the United States Government Accountability Office found the Iraqi government has not enacted legislation to meet critical benchmarks on de-Ba'athification, oil revenue sharing, provincial elections, amnesty, and militia disarmament that are key to beginning national reconciliation. Uneven Gains Not Sustainable Without Iraqi Action: At great cost, our troops have helped reduce violence in some areas of Baghdad, but only when measured against the record levels of violence in late 2006 and early 2007. As The New York Times reported in a wide-ranging investigation, violence has decreased in certain neighborhoods only because they have become more ethnically homogenous as minority groups have fled. Most importantly, as a commission headed by General Jim Jones reported, the Iraqi Security Forces must take

responsibility for holding the security gains created by the surge, but they are not doing so. Anbar Province Success Not Related to Surge: The reduced violence in Anbar Province is the result of cooperation between American forces and Sunni tribes, which started more than 18 months ago, long before the surge. The province is overwhelmingly Sunni, and the tribal leaders there made a political decision to turn against al Qaeda. This does not demonstrate the success of the surge; it demonstrates that the solutions in Iraq are political, not military. American Military Cannot Sustain Current Strategy in Iraq Military Stretched Thin: The military is being severely strained by repeated and lengthy deployments. 1.4 million servicemen and women have served in Iraq or Afghanistan; more than 420,000 troops have deployed more than once. Army Chief of Staff General George W. Casey Jr. recently warned, ''We're consumed with meeting the current demands and we're unable to provide ready forces as rapidly as we would like for other contingencies." According to General Peter Pace, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 40 percent of Army and Marine Corps equipment is either in Iraq or being repaired. In addition, the Army National Guard has just a third of its required equipment on hand today in non-deployed units due to war losses and wear and tear. A Substantial, Immediate Redeployment of American Troops All Combat Troops Redeployed by 2009: Barack Obama would immediately begin redeploying American troops from Iraq. The withdrawal would be strategic and phased, directed by military commanders on the ground and done in consultation with the Iraqi government. Troops would be removed from secure areas first, with troops remaining longer in more volatile areas. The drawdown would begin immediately with one to two combat brigades redeploying each month and all troops engaged in combat operations out by the end of next year. Residual Force to Remain: Under the Obama plan, American troops may remain in Iraq or the region. These American troops will protect American diplomatic and military personnel in Iraq, and continue striking at al Qaeda in Iraq. If Iraq makes political progress and their security forces are not sectarian, we would also continue training othe Iraqi Security Forces. In the event of an outbreak of genocide, we would reserve the right to intervene, with the international community, if that intervention was needed to provide civilians with a safehaven. Withdrawal is the Best Way to Pressure Iraqi Government: Iraq’s leaders have put off reconciling and taking on greater security responsibility despite our efforts to pressure them to act. Drawing down our troop presence is the best way to finally apply real pressure on the Iraqi government to make the political accommodations necessary to heal the nation's sectarian rifts, and to take on more responsibility for providing security to their people. Afghanistan: Barack Obama believes that we need to begin to end the war in order to finish the fight in Afghanistan. He would redeploy at least two combat brigades (7,000 personnel)

of rested, trained American troops to Afghanistan to reinforce our counter-terrorism operations and support NATO’s efforts to fight the Taliban. A New Effort Towards Iraqi National Reconciliation A United Nations-Led Constitutional Convention: Iraq's constitution, approved in an October 2005 referendum, is the product of a Kurdish–Shiite deal. Iraq's government was supposed to immediately revise the constitution to be more inclusive of Sunnis and to develop a more sustainable balance between Baghdad's centralized authority and provincial governments. They never did. Barack Obama would have the United Nations convene a constitutional convention in Iraq that would include representatives from all levels of Iraqi society. The convention would not adjourn until national reconciliation is reached and contentious questions such as federalism, oil revenue sharing, and de-Ba'athification are resolved. Refuse to Provide U.S. Assistance to Sectarian Actors: The Obama plan would encourage the Iraqi government to adopt policies that give regional and local groups a sufficient stake in the center so they are deterred from attempting to overthrow the central government or completely break away. He would work to ensure local communities can protect themselves without threatening other groups. He would fight for greater transparency in local security efforts to reduce anxieties among all sects that America intends to support one sect over another. Obama also would crack down on the use of American foreign assistance to sectarian ends or by sectarian actors. This problem was made clear by two recent studies, one of which concluded the United States cannot account for 190,000 weapons provided to Iraqi Security Forces and another which found weapons issued by the United States to Iraqi Security Forces among Kurdish militants in Turkey. A Diplomatic Surge in the Middle East Support for Iraqi Stability: Barack Obama would work with Kurdish leaders to come to an accommodation with Turkish leaders who see the Kurdish ascendance as a threat. He would press Sunni Arab states like Saudi Arabia to use their influence to encourage Iraqi Sunnis to reconcile. To combat terrorism, Obama would press Iran, Syria, and Saudi Arabia to stem the flow of foreign fighters, arms, and financial resources into Iraq. Obama also would be a tough negotiator with Syria and Iran, sending a clear message that they need to stop meddling in Iraq’s affairs. Prevent the War's Spread Beyond Iraq: To prevent spillover -- in particular, Turkish or Iranian adventurism -- the Obama plan would promote a regional compact that would ensure commitments by Iraq's neighbors to non-intervention and to Iraq's territorial integrity. A New Cooperative Security Framework in the Gulf: As we disengage from Iraq's civil war, America needs to support regional sources of stability. This is particularly important given recent claims from Iranian President

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad that Iran will fill any vacuum created by American withdrawal. Barack Obama would work to develop a long-term strategy of regional cooperation. This will not only improve Iraq's stabilization and regional integration, but also serve as a check against Iran's regional ambitions.

Address Iraq’s Humanitarian Crisis Iraq is Facing a Humanitarian Crisis Right Now: There are two million Iraqis displaced in their own country. There are another two million Iraqi refugees living beyond Iraq's borders. More than 1,000 Iraqi civilians die every month. Sectarian death squads roam Baghdad. The humanitarian crisis that President Bush says would accompany American troop withdrawals is occurring right now. Take Care of Refugees: Barack Obama would establish an international working group dedicated to addressing the Iraqi refugee crisis. He would increase American investments in Iraq's refugees and internally displaced people and to the neighboring countries that house them to at least $2 billion. He would work with Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Egypt to dramatically increase access to social services for refugees. He also would work to create safehavens for Iraqis who remain in Iraq, but are displaced from their homes by violence. Secure International Assistance: To improve conditions in Iraq, Barack Obama would secure greater regional contributions to humanitarian relief, refugee care and integration, and economic assistance. Obama would build on the United Nations' new willingness to expand its mission in Iraq, encouraging the European Union, the Arab League, and other regional groupings to expand their relief and assistance efforts. Prevent Genocide: Barack Obama would work with the international community to hold the perpetrators of potential war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide accountable for their crimes. If necessary, he would work with the United Nations to establish an independent war crimes commission or a special investigator who can gather testimonies of survivors and investigate war crimes. Obama would supply armed escorts to civilians who voluntarily choose to move from religiously heterogeneous areas to communities where they feel they will be more secure. He would reserve the right to intervene militarily, with our international partners, to suppress genocidal violence within Iraq. Fulfill America's Obligation to Accept Refugees: The State Department pledged to allow 7,000 Iraqi refugees into America, but has only let 190 into the United States. Obama would expedite the Department of Homeland Security's review of Iraqi asylum applicants. Obama also would appeal to the Coalition's original partners to expand their refugee quotas. Coalition partners such as Great Britain, Australia, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands, Denmark, and Japan have done woefully little to meet the refugee crisis, and must be encouraged to do more. Arab governments, especially American allies such as Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, should also be enlisted.

Healt hc ar e
The U.S. spends $2 trillion on health care every year, and offers the best medical technology and scientific research in the world. Yet, the benefits of the American health care system come at a price that an increasing number of individuals and families, employers and employees, and public and private providers cannot afford. 47 million Americans - including nearly 9 million children - lack health insurance. Health care costs are skyrocketing. Health insurance premiums have risen four times faster than wages over the past six years. Lack of affordable health care is compounded by serious flaws in our health care delivery system. About 100,000 Americans die from medical errors in hospitals every year. Too little is spent on prevention and public health. The nation faces epidemics of obesity and chronic diseases as well as new threats of pandemic flu and bioterrorism. Yet, despite all of this, less than four cents of every health care dollar is spent on prevention and public health. Barack Obama's Plan for a Healthy America: Lowering health care costs and ensuring affordable, high-quality health care for all. Barack Obama believes we live in the greatest country in the world and that when it comes to health care, America can and must do better. The Obama plan will save a typical American family up to $2,500 every year on premiums by: 1. Providing affordable, comprehensive and portable health coverage for every American; 2. Modernizing the U.S. health care system to contain spiraling health care costs and improve the quality of patient care; and 3. Promoting prevention and strengthening public health to prevent disease and protect against natural and man-made disasters. Quality, Affordable & Portable Health Coverage for All The Obama plan both builds upon and improves our current insurance system, upon which most Americans continue to rely, and leaves Medicare intact for older and disabled Americans. 1. Obama's Plan to Cover the Uninsured. Obama will create a new national health plan to allow individuals without access to affordable insurance coverage to buy coverage similar to that available to members of Congress. The Obama plan will have: * Guaranteed eligibility. No American will be turned away from any insurance plan because of illness or pre-existing conditions. * Comprehensive benefits. The benefit package will be similar to the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program (FEHBP), and cover all essential medical services, including preventive, maternity and mental health care.

* Affordable premiums, co-pays and deductibles. * Subsidies. Individuals who do not qualify for Medicaid or SCHIP but still need assistance will receive an income-related federal subsidy to buy into the new public plan or purchase a private health care plan. * Simplifying paperwork and reining in health costs. * Easy enrollment. The new public plan will be simple to enroll in and provide ready access to coverage. * Portability and choice. Participants in the new public plan and the National Health Insurance Exchange (see below) will be able to move from job to job without changing their health care coverage. * Quality and efficiency. Participating insurance companies will be required to collect and report data to ensure that standards for quality, health information technology and administration are being met. 2. National Health Insurance Exchange. Obama will create a National Health Insurance Exchange to help individuals who wish to purchase private insurance. The Exchange will act as a watchdog group and help reform the private insurance market by creating rules and standards for participating insurance plans to ensure fairness and to make individual coverage more affordable and accessible. Insurers would have to issue every applicant a policy, and charge fair and stable premiums. The Exchange will require benefits comparable to those offered in the new public plan. Insurers would be required to justify an aboveaverage premium increase. The Exchange would evaluate plans and provide information about differences between them. 3. Employer Contribution. Employers that do not offer or make a meaningful contribution to the cost of quality health coverage for their employees will be required to contribute a percentage of payroll toward the costs of the national plan. Small employers that meet certain revenue thresholds will be exempt. 4. Mandatory Coverage of Children. Obama will require that all children have health care coverage. 5. Expansion of Medicaid and SCHIP. Obama will expand eligibility for Medicaid and the State Children's Health Insurance Program. 6. Flexibility for State Plans. Obama's plan allows states to continue innovating on health care reform. Modernizing the U.S. Health Care System to Lower Costs and Improve Quality 1. Reducing Costs of Catastrophic Illnesses for Employers and their Employees. Catastrophic health expenditures account for a high percentage of medical expenses for private insurers.

The Obama plan would reimburse employer health plans for a portion of the catastrophic costs they incur above a threshold if they guarantee such savings are used to reduce the cost of workers' premiums. 2. Lowering Costs by Ensuring Patients Receive and Providers Deliver Quality Care.

Helping Patients * Support disease management programs. Seventy five percent of total health care dollars are spent on patients with one or more chronic conditions, such as diabetes, heart disease, and high blood pressure. Obama will require that providers that participate in the new public plan, Medicare or the Federal Employee Health Benefits Program (FEHBP) utilize proven disease management programs. * Coordinate and integrate care. Over 133 million Americans have at least one chronic disease and these chronic conditions cost a staggering $1.7 trillion yearly. More than half of Americans with serious chronic conditions have multiple physicians, leading to duplicate testing and conflicting treatments. Obama will support greater integration and coordination of care for those with chronic conditions. * Require full transparency about quality and costs. Obama will build on his efforts in the U.S. Senate and Illinois State Senate to ensure that patients receive accurate information about hospital and provider quality. Obama will require hospitals and providers to collect and publicly report measures of health care costs and quality, including data on preventable medical errors, nurse staffing ratios, hospital-acquired infections, and disparities in care. Ensuring Providers Deliver Quality Care * Promoting patient safety. Obama will require providers to report preventable medical errors, and support hospital and physician practice improvement to prevent future occurrences. * Aligning incentives for excellence. Both public and private insurers tend to pay providers based on the volume of services provided, rather than the quality or effectiveness of care. Providers who see patients enrolled in the new public plan, the National Health Insurance Exchange, Medicare and FEHBP will be rewarded for achieving performance thresholds on outcome measures. * Comparative effectiveness research. Obama will establish an independent institute to guide reviews and research on comparative effectiveness, so that Americans and their doctors will have the accurate and objective information they need to make the best decisions for their health and well-being. * Harnessing the power of genetic medicine. Genomics has the potential to revolutionize the practice of medicine, but despite significant scientific advances, very few genomics-based tests or treatments have reached consumers. As President, Obama has a plan to overcome the

scientific barriers, adverse market pressures, and outdated federal regulations that have stood in the way of better medicine. * Tackling disparities in health care. As a United States Senator, Barack Obama has fought to maintain funding for the Centers of Excellence in Women's Health at the Department of Health and Human Services and helped spearhead legislative efforts to address gender and ethnic health disparities. As President, Obama will continue to challenge the medical system to eliminate inequities in health care through quality measurement and reporting, implementation of effective interventions such as patient navigation programs, and diversification of the health workforce. * Reforming medical malpractice. Obama will strengthen antitrust laws to prevent insurers from overcharging physicians for their malpractice insurance, and will promote new models for addressing physician errors that improve patient safety, strengthen the doctor-patient relationship, and reduce the need for malpractice suits. 3. Lowering Costs through Investment in Electronic Health Information Technology Systems. Obama will invest $10 billion over five years to move the U.S. health care system to broad adoption of standards-based electronic health information systems. Obama will ensure that patients' privacy is protected. 4. Lowering Costs by Increasing Competition in the Insurance and Drug Markets. * Increasing competition. The insurance business today is dominated by a small group of large companies that has been gobbling up their rivals. Obama will prevent companies from abusing their monopoly power through unjustified price increases and force insurers to spend more funds on patient care instead of keeping exorbitant amounts for profits and administration. * Lowering prescription drug costs. Pharmaceutical companies are selling the exact same drugs in Europe and Canada but charging Americans more than double the price. Obama will allow Americans to buy cheaper medicines from other developed countries if the drugs are safe. Obama will also repeal the ban that prevents the government from negotiating with drug companies for the Medicare prescription drug benefit, which could result in savings as high as $30 billion. Finally, Obama will work to increase the use of generic drugs in federal benefits programs and prohibit drug companies from keeping generics out of markets. Promoting Prevention and Strengthening Public Health Barack Obama believes that protecting and promoting health and wellness in this nation is a shared responsibility among individuals and families, school systems, employers, the medical and public health workforce, and federal, state, and local governments. 1. Employers. An increasing number of employers are offering worksite health promotion programs and insurance plans that cover preventive services. Obama will support and expand these important efforts.

2. School Systems. Obama will work with schools to create more healthful environments for children. He will work to get junk food out of vending machines in schools and improve nutritional content of lunches through financial incentives, increase grant support for physical education, expand federal reimbursement for school-based health services, and provide grants for health educational programs for students. 3. Workforce. Obama will expand funding - including loan repayment, adequate reimbursement, grants for training curricula, and infrastructure support to improve working conditions - to ensure a strong workforce that will champion prevention and public health activities. 4. Individuals and Families. The way Americans live, eat, work, and play have real implications for their health and wellness. The Obama health plan will require coverage of essential clinical preventive services such as cancer screenings and smoking cessation programs in all federally supported health plans. Obama will also increase funding to expand proven community-based preventive interventions. 5. Federal, State and Local Governments. Governments at all levels should develop a national and regional strategy for public health that includes funding mechanisms for implementation. Senator Obama also supports greater organization of the 3,000 health departments in this nation and supports collaborative arrangements between government and the private sector. The Obama plan will also force government to examine its own policies, including agricultural, educational, and environmental policies, to assess and improve their effect on public health in this nation. As president, Barack Obama will prioritize these activities to strengthen prevention and public health, as well as fight for the following initiatives: * Fight AIDS Worldwide. There are 40 million people across the planet infected with HIV/AIDS. As president, Obama will continue to be a global leader in the fight against AIDS. Obama believes in working across party lines to combat this epidemic and recently joined Senator Sam Brownback (R-KS) at a large California evangelical church to promote greater investment in the global AIDS battle. * Improve Mental Health Care. Mental illness affects approximately one in five American families. The National Alliance on Mental Illness estimates that untreated mental illnesses cost the U.S. more than $100 billion per year. As president, Obama will support mental health parity so that coverage for serious mental illnesses are provided on the same terms and conditions as other illnesses and diseases. * Protect Our Children from Lead Poisoning. More than 430,000 American children have dangerously high levels of lead in their blood. Lead can cause irreversible brain damage, learning disabilities, behavioral problems, and, at very high levels, seizures, coma and death.

As president, Obama will protect children from lead poisoning by requiring that child care facilities be lead-safe within five years. * Reduce Risks of Mercury Pollution. More than five million women of childbearing age have high levels of toxic mercury in their blood, and approximately 630,000 newborns are born at risk every year. Barack Obama has a plan to significantly reduce the amount of mercury that is deposited in oceans, lakes, and rivers, which in turn would reduce the amount of mercury in fish. * Support Americans with Autism. More than one million Americans have autism, a complex neurobiological condition that has a range of impacts on thinking, feeling, language, and the ability to relate to others. As diagnostic criteria broaden and awareness increases, more cases of autism have been recognized across the country. Barack Obama believes that we can do more to help autistic Americans and their families understand and live with autism. He has been a strong supporter of more than $1 billion in federal funding for autism research on the root causes and treatments, and he believes that we should increase funding for the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act to truly ensure that no child is left behind. More than anything, autism remains a profound mystery with a broad spectrum of effects on autistic individuals, their families, loved ones, the community, and education and health care systems. Obama believes that the government and our communities should work together to provide a helping hand to autistic individuals and their families.

Env ir onm ent
Reduce Carbon Emissions 80 percent by 2050: Barack Obama is a champion of the national effort to cut greenhouse gas emissions. Obama supports implementation of a market-based cap-and-trade system to reduce carbon emissions by the amount scientists say is necessary: 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050. Obama will start reducing emissions immediately in his administration by establishing strong annual reduction targets, and he'll also implement a mandate of reducing emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. In contrast to other approaches like a carbon tax, cap-and-trade programs provide maximum assurances that emissions will decline to desired levels by the targeted dates. A cap-and-trade program draws on the power of the marketplace to reduce emissions in a cost-effective and flexible manner. Under the program, an overall cap on carbon emissions is established. The emissions allowed under the cap are divided up into individual allowances that represent the permission to emit that amount. Because the emissions cap restricts the amount of pollution allowed, allowances that give a company the ability to pollute take on financial value. Companies are free to buy and sell allowances in order to continue operating in the most profitable manner available to them. Those that are able to reduce pollution at a low cost can sell their extra allowances to companies facing high costs. Each year the number of allowances will decline to match the required annual reduction targets.

100% Allowance Auction: Without a profit motive or incentive to innovate, corporations do not spend time or money to develop new clean ways of doing business. Obama's cap-andtrade system will require all pollution credits to be auctioned. A 100% auction ensures that all polluters pay for every ton of emissions they release, rather than giving these emission rights away for free to coal and oil companies. Invest Revenue for a Clean Energy Future: Some of the revenue generated by auctioning allowances will be used to support the development and deployment of clean energy, invest in energy efficiency improvements and address transition costs, including helping American workers affected by this economic transition and helping lower-income Americans afford their energy bills by expanding the Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program, expanding weatherization grants for low-income individuals to make their homes more energy efficient, and establishing a dedicated fund to assist low-income Americans afford higher electricity and energy bills. Invest in a Clean Energy Economy and Create American Jobs Barack Obama will use some of the revenue generated from the cap-and-trade permit auction to invest in climate-friendly energy development and development. This will transform the economy and create millions of new jobs. Obama will invest $150 billion over 10 years to advance the next generation of biofuels and fuel infrastructure, accelerate the commercialization of plug-in hybrids, promote development of commercial scale renewable energy, invest in low emissions coal plants, and begin transition to a new digital electricity grid. A principal focus of this fund will be devoted to ensuring that technologies that are developed in the U.S. are rapidly commercialized in the U.S. and deployed around the globe. There are three critical steps in achieving the necessary revolution toward low carbon energy production: 1) Basic Research; 2) Technology Demonstration and 3) Aggressive Commercial Deployment and Clean Market Creation. Obama has specific plans to enhance each of these critical steps in the technology development process: 1) Increase Investment in Basic Research and Human Capital Invest in Basic Research: Obama will federal double science and research funding for clean energy projects including those that make use of our biomass, solar and wind resources. At present, the federal government spends over $3 billion per year on all energy innovation efforts. While this may seems like a significant sum, it is much less than what we spent in the late 1970's when adjusted for inflation, and is less than the pet food industry invests in its own products. We must do better. Obama will double our nation's commitment to energy R&D and rely more heavily on the tremendous resources and ability of our national

laboratories, universities and land grant colleges which have significant expertise in rural sources of renewable energy. Invest in a Skilled Clean Technologies Workforce: Transitioning to a clean energy economy represents a tremendous opportunity for American workers. Barack Obama will use proceeds from the cap-and-trade auction program to invest in job training and transition programs to help workers and industries adapt to clean technology development and production. Obama will increase funding for federal workforce training programs and direct these programs to incorporate green technologies training, such as advanced manufacturing and weatherization training, into their efforts to help Americans find and retain stable jobs. Barack Obama also believes the transition to a clean energy economy holds special promise for low-income communities and families, which are poised to shoulder a disproportionate share of the burden of global climate change. To combat this problem, Obama will create an energy-focused youth jobs program to invest in disconnected and disadvantaged youth. This program will provide youth participants with energy efficiency and environmental service opportunities to improve the energy efficiency of homes and buildings in their communities, while also providing them with practical skills and experience in important career fields of expected high-growth employment. The program will engage private sector employers and unions to provide apprenticeship opportunities. Participants will not only be able to use their training to find new jobs, but also build skills that will help them move up the career ladder over time. 2) Invest in Key Technology Development Develop the Next Generation of Biofuels: Barack Obama will work to ensure that advanced biofuels, including cellulosic ethanol, are developed and incorporated into our national supply as soon as possible. Corn ethanol is the most successful alternative fuel commercially available in the U.S. today, and we should fight the efforts of big oil and big agri-business to undermine this emerging industry. But it represents only a drop in the bucket of our energy demands and making ethanol from corn has some significant limitations. Today we produce about 5 billion gallons of corn-based ethanol per year while we use about 140 billion gallons of gasoline. Even if we are able to double - or even triple - production of ethanol from corn this will still offset only about 10 percent of our gasoline demand. There are also real concerns about bringing set aside lands into corn production as well as concerns about an increase in the use of pesticides, water use and upward pressure on the cost of food for people and livestock alike. These constraints reveal the scope and scale of our energy and environmental challenges. Obama will invest federal resources, including tax incentives, cash prizes and government contracts into developing the most promising technologies with the goal of getting the first two billion gallons of cellulosic ethanol into the system by 2013. Obama will also work to improve the national supply of advanced biodiesel. From here the Clean Technologies Deployment Venture Fund will speed the deployment of multiple

facilities. Expand Locally-Owned Biofuel Refineries: Less than 10 percent of new ethanol production today is from farmer owned refineries. New ethanol refineries help jumpstart rural economies. For example, it has been estimated that a 40 million gallon ethanol refinery will add up to 120 jobs, expand a local tax base by $70 million per year and boost local household income by $6.7 million annually. The economic development opportunities for advanced cellulosc ethanol technologies hold potential to revitalize rural communities across the country. Barack Obama believes we must ensure that local investment continues to play a significant role as the biofuels industry continues to expand and evolve. Obama will create a number of incentives for local communities to invest in their biofuels refineries, including expanding federal tax credit programs and providing technical advice to rural communities that are in a strong position to open their own refineries. Obama will also provide an additional subsidy per gallon of ethanol produced from new facilities that have a minimum of 25 percent local capital, and he will provide additional loan guarantees for advanced ethanol facilities with local investment. Develop and Deploy Clean Coal Technology: Coal is our nation's most abundant energy source and is a critical component of economic development in China, India and other growing economies. Obama believes that the imperative to confront climate change requires that we prevent a new wave of traditional coal facilities in the U.S. and work aggressively to transfer low-carbon coal technologies around the world. In the U.S. Senate, Obama successfully increased funding by $200 million for carbon storage in the fiscal year 2008 budget resolution. As president Obama will significantly increase the resources devoted to the commercialization and deployment of low carbon coal technologies. Implementing these technologies as soon as possible is vital to the transition to a clean energy economy and will help other nations dependent on coal reduce their emissions as well. In addition to addressing new facilities, Obama will work to ensure that existing coal facilities are retrofitted with carbon capture and sequestration technology as soon as it is commercially available. Obama will use whatever policy tools are necessary, including standards that ban new traditional coal facilities, to ensure that we move quickly to commercialize and deploy low carbon coal technology. Obama's stringent cap on carbon will also make it uneconomic to site traditional coal facilities and discourage the use of existing inefficient coal facilities. Safe and Secure Nuclear Energy: Nuclear power represents more than 70 percent of our noncarbon generated electricity. It is unlikely that we can meet our aggressive climate goals if we eliminate nuclear power from the table. However, there is no future for expanded nuclear without first addressing four key issues: public right-to-know, security of nuclear fuel and waste, waste storage, and proliferation. Barack Obama introduced legislation in the U.S. Senate to establish guidelines for tracking, controlling and accounting for spent fuel at nuclear power plants. To prevent international nuclear material from falling into terrorist hands abroad, Obama worked closely with Sen. Dick Lugar (R - IN) to strengthen international efforts to identify

and stop the smuggling of weapons of mass destruction. As president, Obama will make safeguarding nuclear material both abroad and in the U.S. a top anti-terrorism priority. Obama will also lead federal efforts to look for a safe, long-term disposal solution based on objective, scientific analysis. In the meantime, Obama will develop requirements to ensure that the waste stored at current reactor sites is contained using the most advanced dry-cask storage technology available. Barack Obama believes that Yucca Mountain is not an option. Our government has spent billions of dollars on Yucca Mountain, and yet there are still significant questions about whether nuclear waste can be safely stored there. 3) Invest in Key Technology Deployment Clean Technologies Deployment Venture Capital Fund: Barack Obama will create a Clean Technologies Deployment Venture Capital Fund to fill a critical gap in U.S. technology development. This Fund will partner with existing investment funds and our National Laboratories to ensure that promising technologies move beyond the lab and are commercialized in the U.S. The risks and associated costs of commercializing a new energy technology often prevent critically important technologies from ever seeing the light of day. The gap between the lab and the marketplace is sometimes referred to as the âⓊ̃Valley of Death,' because many technologies enter but few ever make it out the other side because of the prohibitive costs of building the first commercial-scale facility that processes that energy source. Currently, U.S. venture capital funding is doing an effective job promoting research and development stage, but far too often, technologies invented here in the U.S. such as wind turbines, solar panels, and compact fluorescent bulbs are commercialized overseas and then sold back to American consumers. The Clean Technologies Deployment Venture Capital Fund will be modeled on the highlysuccessful Central Intelligence Agency In-Q-Tel program. In-Q-Tel is a non-profit, independently-managed venture capital fund led by seasoned venture capital professionals to develop new intelligence technologies for the CIA. The first five years of In-Q-Tel funding led to 22 new technologies being used in 40 government programs. Coupled with an Obama Administration's increased investment in renewable energy research and development, this Fund's efforts to quickly deploy new technologies like cellulosic ethanol, carbon capture and sequestration, and other clean technologies like biobased plastics will help ensure that the American economy and environment benefit from clean technologies in the next few years, as opposed to the next several decades. Obama will invest $10 billion in this fund for five years, and reinvest profits back into the fund. Production Tax Credit: Obama will also extend the federal Production Tax Credit (PTC) for 5 years to encourage the production of renewable energy. Convert our Manufacturing Centers into Clean Technology Leaders: America boasts the highest-skilled manufacturing workforce in the world and advanced manufacturing facilities that have powered economic growth in America for decades. Barack Obama believes that America is at a competitive advantage when it comes to building the high-demand technologies of the future, and he will help nurture America's success in clean technology

manufacturing by establishing a federal investment program to help manufacturing centers modernize and help Americans learn the new skills they may need to produce green products. Along with the increased federal investment in the research, development and deployment of advanced technologies, this investment will help spur sustainable economic growth in communities across the country. 4) Set Standards to Allow the Market to Invest and Innovate Obama will also establish new national standards to ensure less carbon intensive energy is used in our energy supply. He will: Establish a National Low Carbon Fuel Standard: Barack Obama will establish a National Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) to speed the introduction of low-carbon non-petroleum fuels. The standard, which Obama introduced in the U.S. Senate with Tom Harkin (D-IA), requires fuels suppliers to reduce the carbon their fuel emits by ten percent by 2020. The Obama plan will help incentivize increased private sector investment in advanced biofuels and has a sustainability provision to ensure that this boom in U.S. biofuels production does not come at the expense of environmental conservation. The standard will reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions 10 percent by 2020. The LCFS is an important mechanism in ensuring that our efforts to reduce our oil dependence also reduce carbon emissions. Require 25 Percent of Electricity to Come from Renewable Sources by 2025: Barack Obama will establish a 25 percent federal Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) to require that 25 percent of electricity consumed in the U.S. is derived from clean, sustainable energy sources, like solar, wind and geothermal by 2025. This requirement will spur significant private sector investment in renewable sources of energy and create thousands of new American jobs, especially in rural areas. As an Illinois state senator, Obama cosponsored a measure to create an RPS in Illinois. And recently, Illinois signed into law a 25 percent RPS by 2025 measure modeled on Obama's state senate RPS efforts. Ensure the Federal Government Uses Renewable Sources of Electricity: Currently, there is a federal goal to obtain 7.5 percent of federal government electricity demands from renewable sources by 2013. Barack Obama believes that the federal government, the nation's largest consumer of energy, must do better. As president, Obama will ensure that at least 30 percent of the federal government's electricity comes from renewable sources by 2020. This effort will help create a reliable demand for renewable energy production, thereby incentivizing the private sector to increase its investment in renewable energy production. Invest in the Fastest, Cheapest way to Reduce Emissions; Energy Efficiency Improving energy efficiency is the fastest, cheapest most cost-effective method to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and it results in significant savings for our government, economy and consumers. For example, since DuPont implemented an energy efficiency program in 1990, it has cut its energy bills by $3 billion, reduced pollution by 72 percent and increased production activities by over 30 percent. Barack Obama will set a bold national goal of reducing the energy intensity of our economy 50% by 2030.

Make the Federal Government the Leader in Saving Electricity: As the nation's largest consumer of electricity, Barack Obama believes that the federal government should take the lead in reducing its energy consumption. Obama will: Make Federal Buildings More Efficient: Obama will ensure that all new federal buildings are zero-emissions by 2025, and to help reach that goal, he will ensure that all new federal buildings are 40 percent more efficient within the next five years. Obama will also place retrofitting existing federal buildings at a top priority, and seek to improve their efficiency by 25 percent within 5 years. Overhaul Federal Efficiency Codes: The current Department of Energy has missed 34 deadlines for setting updated appliance efficiency standards, which has cost American consumers millions of dollars in unrealized energy savings. Obama will overhaul this process for appliances and provide more resources to his Department of Energy so it implements regular updates for efficiency standards. He will also work with Congress to ensure that it continues to play a key role in improving our national efficiency codes. Use Innovative Measures to Dramatically Improve Efficiency of Buildings: Buildings account for nearly 40 percent of carbon emissions in the United States today and carbon emissions from buildings are expected to grow faster than emissions from other major parts of our economy. It is expected that 15 million new buildings will be constructed between today and 2015. Barack Obama believes that we have both an opportunity and a responsibility to make our new and existing buildings more efficient consumers of electricity. Set Building Efficiency Goals: Barack Obama will establish a goal of making all new buildings carbon neutral, or produce zero emissions, by 2030. He'll also establish a national goal of improving new building efficiency by 50 percent and existing building efficiency by 25 percent over the next decade to help us meet the 2030 goal. Establish a Grant Program for Early Adopters: Obama will create a competitive grant program to award those states and localities that take the first steps in implementing new building codes that prioritize energy efficiency, and provide a federal match for those states with leading-edge public benefits funds that support energy efficiency retrofits of existing buildings. Flip Incentives to Energy Utilities: Obama will work to "flip" incentives to state and local utilities by ensuring companies get increased profits for improving energy efficiency, rather than higher energy consumption. Currently, utilities make profits when consumers purchase more energy, and when consumers purchase energy at peak times when energy prices are higher because of greater demands on the system. This decoupling of profits from increased energy usage will incentivize utilities to partner with consumers and the federal government to reduce monthly energy bills for families and businesses. Obama will provide early adopter grants and other financial assistance from the federal government to states that implement this energy efficient policy. Expand Federal Efficiency Grants: Obama will also expand federal grant programs to help states and localities build more efficient public buildings, including libraries, schools and

police stations that adopt aggressive green building provisions like those provided by the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program of the U.S. Green Buildings Council. Obama will also partner with the private sector to ensure that more companies and building contractors are aware of the short-term and long-term benefits of building "green." Phase out Traditional Inefficient Light Bulbs: For over 125 years, Americans have used the same incandescent light bulb technology, which consumes much more energy for the same results as newer lighting technologies. Barack Obama supports the effort led by Senate Energy and Natural Resources Chairman Jeff Bingaman (D-NM) to update federal lighting efficiency standards to ensure that new lighting technologies are phased into the marketplace. As president, Obama will implement legislation that phases out traditional incandescent light bulbs by 2014. This measure alone will save American consumers $6 billion per year on monthly electricity bills and will save 88 billion kilowatt hours of electricity per year. By 2030, this change will result in greenhouse gas reductions of nearly 28 million tons of carbon. Invest in a Digital Smart Grid: Like other pieces of infrastructure, such as roads and bridges our energy grid is outdated and inefficient, resulting in $50-100 billion dollar losses to the U.S. economy each year. The 2003 East Coast blackout alone resulted in a $10 billion economic loss. Like President Eisenhower did with the interstate highway system, Barack Obama will pursue a major investment in our national utility grid to enable a tremendous increase in renewable generation and accommodate 21st century energy requirements, such as reliability, smart metering, and distributed storage. Obama will invest federal money to leverage additional state and private sector funds to help create a digitally connected power grid. Creating a smart grid will also help insulate against terrorism concerns because our grid today is virtually unprotected from terrorists. Installing a smart grid will help consumers produce electricity at home through solar panels or wind turbines, and be able to sell electricity back through the grid for other consumers, and help consumers reduce their energy use during peak hours when electricity is more expensive. Obama will direct federal resources to the most vulnerable and congested areas and rural areas where significant renewable energy sources are located, as well as work toward national transformation of our energy grid in partnership with states and utilities. Strengthen our Oil Security and Energy Independence Not since the 1970s has America's national security been so threatened by its energy insecurity, and, as we have learned the hard way over the past seven years, achieving energy security in the 21st century requires far more than simply expending our economic and political resources to keep oil flowing steadily out of unstable and even hostile countries and regions. Rather, energy security requires stemming the flow of money to oil rich regimes that are hostile to America and its allies; it requires combating climate change and preparing for its impacts both at home and abroad; it requires making international energy markets work for

us and not against us; it requires standing up to the oil companies that spend hundreds of millions of dollars on lobbying and political contributions; it requires that we address nuclear safety, waste, and proliferation challenges around the world; and more. Obama will halt this dangerous trend, and take the necessary steps to achieving energy independence. Obama will make it a top priority of his climate change and energy independence agenda to reduce oil consumption by at least 35%, or 10 million barrels per day, by 2030. This will more than offset the equivalent of oil we are expected to import from OPEC nations in 2030. To meet this goal, the Obama plan will establish a National Low Carbon Fuel Standard, deploy advanced biofuels, repeal tax breaks for the oil and gas industry, and implement the following policies: Increase Fuel Economy Standards: Obama has developed an innovative approach to double fuel economy standards within 18 years while protecting the financial future of domestic automakers. His plan, which will save nearly a half trillion gallons of gasoline and 6 billion metric tons of greenhouse gases by 2028, will establish concrete targets for annual CAFE increases while giving industry the flexibility to meet those targets. Obama's innovative approach broke through a 20 year deadlock in Congress and is the basis for bipartisan legislation that passed the Senate this year. Provide Support for Domestic Automakers: Obama's plan to raise fuel efficiency standards will also provide retooling tax credits and loan guarantees for domestic auto plants and parts manufacturers, so that the new fuel-efficient cars can be built in the U.S. rather than overseas. This measure will strengthen the U.S. manufacturing sector and help ensure that American workers will build the high-demand cars of the future. Invest in Developing Advanced Vehicles: As a U.S. senator, Barack Obama has led efforts to jumpstart federal investment in advanced vehicles, including combined plug-in hybrid/flexible fuel vehicles, which have the capability of getting well over 250 miles per gallon of gasoline. As president, Obama will continue this leadership by investing in advanced vehicle technology that utilizes advanced lightweight materials and new engines. The increased federal funding will leverage private sector funds to bring plug-in hybrids and other advanced vehicles to American consumers. Obama will also expand consumer tax incentives by lifting the 60,000-per-manufacturer cap on buyer tax credits to allow more Americans to buy ultra-efficient vehicles. Build Biofuel Distribution Infrastructure: As the percent of biofuels in gasoline increases over 10 percent, conventional fueling equipment will need to be replaced with pumps and tanks capable of handling higher biofuel blends. Barack Obama has been one of the strongest proponents in Congress for increasing the national supply of home-grown American ethanol and biodiesel. Obama is the only Democratic presidential candidate to cosponsor and actively campaign to establish the nation's first federal Renewable Fuel Standard, which is now law. Obama also led the successful effort to make gas stations eligible for a tax credit to cover 30 percent of the costs of installing E85 ethanol refueling pumps. Obama will build on those efforts to improve the production, supply and distribution of advanced biofuels like cellulosic ethanol and biodiesel.

Mandate All New Vehicles are Flexible Fuel Vehicles: Barack Obama believes that all new vehicles sold in the U.S. should be flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs), which means they can run on biofuel blends like E85. Obama will work with Congress and auto companies to ensure that all new vehicles have FFV capability by the end of his first term in office. Increase Renewable Fuel Standard: As a leader in the effort to establish the nation's first Renewable Fuel Standard, Obama understands firsthand the importance of continuing to increase the supply of biofuels in our national fuel supply. Obama believes it is imperative that Congress adopt the Senate-passed proposal to increase the RFS to 36 billion gallons by 2022. As president, Obama will seek to surpass these targets and establish a requirement to produce at least 60 billion gallons of biofuels, including cellulosic ethanol and biodiesel, by 2030. Build More Livable and Sustainable Communities: Over the longer term, we know that the amount of fuel we will use is directly related to our land use decisions and development patterns, much of which have been organized around the principle of cheap gasoline. Barack Obama believes that we must move beyond our simple fixation of investing so many of our transportation dollars in serving drivers and that we must make more investments that make it easier for us to walk, bicycle and access other transportation alternatives. Reform Federal Transportation Funding: As president, Barack Obama will re-evaluate the transportation funding process to ensure that smart growth considerations are taken into account. Obama will build upon his efforts in the Senate to ensure that more Metropolitan Planning Organizations create policies to incentivize greater bicycle and pedestrian usage of roads and sidewalks, and he will also re-commit federal resources to public mass transportation projects across the country. Building more livable and sustainable communities will not only reduce the amount of time individuals spent commuting, but will also have significant benefits to air quality, public health and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Require States to Plan for Energy Conservation: Current law simply asks governors and their state Departments of Transportation to "consider" energy conservation as a condition of receiving federal transportation dollars. As president, Obama will require governors and local leaders in our metropolitan areas to make "energy conservation" a required part of their planning for the expenditure of federal transportation funds. Level Employer Incentives for Driving and Public Transit: The federal tax code rewards driving to work by allowing employers to provide parking benefits of $205 per month tax free to their employees. The tax code provides employers with commuting benefits for transit, carpooling or vanpooling capped at $105 per month. This gives divers a nearly 2:1 advantage over transit users. Obama will reform the tax code to make benefits for driving and public transit or ridesharing equal. Make the U.S. a Leader in Combating Climate Change Around the World The United States has historically been the largest emitter of greenhouse gases in the world accounting for about one-fifth of the global total - but emissions are growing fastest among

the rapidly developing countries. Just this year, China may have passed the US as the world's largest greenhouse gas emitting nation. Unfortunately, the Bush administration has failed to engage the developing world just as it has failed to adopt a meaningful policy at home. Making the U.S. a leader in combating climate change will require the United States to get its own house in order; re-engage and re-energize international agreements to reduce greenhouse gas pollution; and most importantly do so with the urgency this brewing crisis demands. Re-Engage with the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC): As the world prepares for the post-2012 phase of the UNFCCC, the United States must regain its leadership role in multiple forums to negotiate effective climate agreements. This requires re-engagement with the diplomatic efforts under the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change . The UNFCCC process is the main international forum dedicated to addressing the climate problem and an Obama administration will work constructively within it. Create New Forum of Largest Greenhouse Gas Emitters: President Bush recently invited world leaders of the 15 largest emitters of greenhouse gases to a two-day conference, yet he failed to show up with any binding domestic commitments or funding for international efforts to combat climate change. Not surprisingly, these world leaders criticized the U.S. commitment to climate change and we missed an opportunity to join other countries with a serious plan to tackle this challenge. Barack Obama will take seriously the U.S.'s leadership role in combating climate change. Obama will signal to the world the U.S. commitment to climate change leadership by implementing an aggressive domestic cap-and-trade program coupled with increased investments in clean energy development and deployment. Obama will build on our domestic commitments by creating a negotiating process that involves a smaller number of countries than the nearly 200 countries in the current Kyoto system. Obama will create a Global Energy Forum - based on the G8+5, which included all G-8 members plus Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa - of the world's largest emitters to focus exclusively on global energy and environmental issues. Maintaining a standing international body focused on these issues will give a forum for all of the major emitters - past, present and future - to discuss efforts to combat climate change. In addition, it will give the U.S. and its allies regular opportunities to exert maximum pressure on China and India to do their part and make real commitments of their own. Obama believes it is important to make clear that the current Bush voluntary approach allows the biggest emitters to escape all international pressure to be a "responsible stakeholder" in the global environment. This Global Energy Forum will complement - and ultimately merge with - the much larger negotiation process underway at the UN to develop a post-Kyoto framework. On a technical level, it will also allow facilitate technology transfer, joint international research, and, importantly, the numerous large scale international demonstration projects that must be embarked upon immediately in order to make these technologies economically appealing

alternatives. Transfer American Technology to the Developing World to Fight Climate Change: As nations around the world come together to combat global warming, the market for lowcarbon energy products will grow significantly. Obama will create a Technology Transfer program within the Department of Energy dedicated to exporting climate-friendly technologies, including green buildings, clean coal and advanced automobiles, to developing counties to help them combat climate change. Obama will allow U.S. emitters subject to the cap-and-trade mandates to offset some of their emissions by investing in low carbon energy projects in the developing world. This will help ensure that emissions in both the U.S. and the developing world are reduced. Cooperate with Oil Importers to Reduce Demand. As new large oil importers come on the market, the United States is at the mercy of an ever more volatile oil market. Obama believes we should use existing organizations, like NATO, to make energy security a shared global goal. We should take steps to engage the largest new consumers, China and India, including by inviting them to join the International Energy Agency. Though they are not OECD countries, a formalized relationship - where we work together on common analysis and emergency response mechanisms - for them with the International Energy Agency (IEA) is imperative. China has completed the first stage of its strategic petroleum reserves and it is in our interest to see them complete that process so that they no longer can freeload on the strategic reserves of IEA members in times of tight oil markets, as was the case after Hurricane Katrina. Ensure the United States Works with Developing Countries on Climate Change. The world's poorest countries are already suffering the impact of climate change through drought, famine and water scarcity, even though they are not responsible for the greenhouse gas pollution causing the climate to change. The Obama Administration will permit international offsets under the carbon cap to promote the transfer of low carbon energy to developing countries. An Obama administration will also ensure that U.S. foreign assistance is wisely invested in projects designed to help developing countries adapt to a changing climate. Confront Deforestation and Promote Carbon Sequestration: A comprehensive strategy to combat global warming must address tropical deforestation which accounts for approximately 20 percent of global greenhouse gas emissions. As forests are cut down, burned and converted to other uses, carbon stored in wood, leaves, and soils are released into the atmosphere. Reducing rates of tropical deforestation will not only slow greenhouse gas emissions but will also protect the livelihoods of local people and the abundance of biodiversity inextricably linked to those forests. By offering incentives to maintain forests and manage them sustainably, the United States can play a leadership role in dealing with climate change. In addition we must develop domestic incentives that reward forest owners, farmers, and ranchers when they plant trees, restore grasslands, or undertake farming practices that capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Encouraging these efforts will also provide improve water quality and restore natural areas for wildlife and recreation. Clean Air

Air pollution causes thousands of deaths each year and even reduces school attendance rates. Barack Obama has a record of successfully fighting for cleaner air. As a former member of the Senate Environment and Public Works Committee, he helped stop President Bush's attempt to undermine the Clean Air Act, which would have increased industrial emissions into the atmosphere of mercury and sulfur, and he helped block attempts to roll back environmental regulations on oil refineries. As president, Barack Obama will restore the strength of the Clean Air Act. He will protect American families from smog and soot, which harm lung function and may aggravate asthma. And he will continue his leadership in combating toxins into the environment that contribute to air pollution. Clean Water Clean water is key to public health, recreation, and a variety of industries. As a senator, Barack Obama has been a strong leader on clean water issues. He voted against offshore drilling and has supported full funding for the Clean Water State Revolving Fund, which funds water quality protection projects for wastewater treatment, nonpoint source pollution control, and watershed and estuary management. As president, he will establish policies to improve the quality of our nation's lakes, rivers, and drinking water. Clean up our Water. Barack Obama will reinvigorate the drinking water standards that have been weakened under the Bush administration and update them to address new threats. He will help communities by restoring better federal financing for water and wastewater treatment infrastructure, and he will continue his leadership in protecting national treasures such as the Great Lakes from threats such as industrial pollution, water diversion, and invasive species. Obama will establish policies to help high-growth regions with the challenges of managing their water supply. Regulate Factory Farms. Between 1992 and 2004, there were more than 450 manure spills from Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) in Iowa. These spills have killed millions of fish and have jeopardized public health by contaminating surface and ground drinking water. Barack Obama is committed to working for tougher regulations on CAFOs to preserve Iowa's environment. He has supported legislation to set tough pollution limits for livestock operations, including limits on nitrogen, phosphorus, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and other pollutants. He opposes the Bush administration's program of giving large industrial livestock operations immunity from the Clean Air Act and Superfund in exchange for simply reporting air emissions. Finally, since communities near CAFOs face the full brunt of pollution, odor, and health problems, Barack Obama supports efforts to set stricter local requirements and ensure meaningful local choice about the placement, expansion, and regulation of CAFOs. Preserve the Great Lakes. The Great Lakes store one-fifth of the world's surface fresh water, and Lake Michigan alone provides drinking water for an estimated six million Illinoisans. The Great Lakes are also important for recreation, transportation, and economic development. To preserve this national treasure, Barack Obama has been a strong supporter of the Great Lakes Regional Collaboration and cosponsored the Great Lakes Environmental

Restoration Act. He has secured funding to protect the Great Lakes from invasive species of Asian carp that could destroy their ecosystem. He pushed the Senate to improve its oversight of the Great Lakes Restoration Process. As a member of the Illinois State Senate, he was the chief co-sponsor of a bill to prevent sludge treatment facilities from being built near sensitive parts of Lake Michigan. Water in the West. Barack Obama understands that the American West is facing a serious crisis. He believes we need a commitment at the federal level to a problem-solving initiative that will help manage scarce water resources and develop partnerships to nourish a healthy environment and sustain a vibrant economy. In addition, federal policies are needed to encourage voluntary water banks, wastewater treatment and other market-based measures; improve technology for water conservation and efficiency; and remove institutional barriers to increase cooperation and collaboration among federal, state, tribal, and private organizations. The "cash for grass" program, in which people are paid to remove grass and put in desert landscaping, is an excellent model. Healthier Communities As president, Barack Obama will continue his fight, begun as a community organizer, to protect our children from health hazards and developmental disabilities caused by environmental toxins, such as lead, mercury, particulate matter, and industrial land waste. He will fight to clean brownfields, restore abandoned industrial riverfront sites, and give communities the tools they need to expand livable, walkable neighborhoods. Reduce Health Risks Due to Mercury Pollution. More than five million women of childbearing age have high levels of toxic mercury in their blood and approximately 630,000 newborns are born every year at risk. The EPA estimates that every year, more than one child in six could be at risk for developmental disorders because of mercury exposure in the mother's womb. The primary sources of mercury in fish are power plant emissions, and coal-fired electric power plants are the largest source of human-caused mercury air emissions in the country. Barack Obama introduced two pieces of legislation in 2006 to significantly reduce the amount of mercury that is deposited in oceans, lakes, and rivers, which in turn would reduce the amount of mercury in fish. He also successfully pressured the U.S. Department of Energy to stop its proposed sale of large quantities of mercury to companies overseas. Protect Children and Families from Lead Poisoning. Lead is a neurotoxin and especially harmful to developing nervous systems of fetuses and young children. There are currently 400,000 children suffering from lead poisoning in the U.S. Barack Obama has fought to get the Environmental Protection Agency to publish long-overdue rules for how contractors involved in the renovation and remodeling of homes should deal with lead-paint hazards. He introduced the Lead-Free Toys Act to require the Consumer Product Safety Commission to ban any children's product containing lead. Senator Obama also introduced legislation that would help protect children from lead poisoning by requiring all non-home-based child care facilities, including Head Start programs and kindergartens, to be lead-safe within five years. The legislation would also establish a $42.6 million grant program to help local

communities pay to make these facilities safe. The Environmental Protection Agency recently announced support for his proposal to remove toxic lead from childcare, pre-school, and kindergarten facilities. Control Superfund Sites and Data. Barack Obama demanded that the Environmental Protection Agency report on what it is doing to reduce and control human exposure to hazardous contaminants at more than 100 Superfund sites nationwide. As a state senator, he voted to create the Brownfields Rehabilitation and Redevelopment Program, which encourages private sector voluntary remediation of environmentally-distressed and underutilized sites. As president, he will restore the strength of the Superfund program by requiring polluters to pay for the cleanup of contaminated sites they created. Build Healthy Communities. Barack Obama believes we need to make a real commitment and investment in building healthy communities. He sponsored legislation to address environmental health concerns for disadvantaged populations. Senator Obama also sponsored the Healthy Places Act of 2006 and the Healthy Communities Act of 2005 to identify and address problems in communities that are at high risk from environmental contaminants and to assess and support improvements to the environment. Preserving our Forests and other National Treasures Barack Obama believes that we have a responsibility to our children to leave this Earth better than we found it. All Americans have an interest in the protection and proper maintenance of our irreplaceable national treasures. In 2006, more than 272 million people visited a national park. Conservation is also vitally important to providing clean drinking water, cleaning our air, and reducing greenhouse gas pollution. As president, Barack Obama will prioritize the stewardship of our forests, wetlands, and other natural treasures. Protect National Parks and Forests. Barack Obama supports a true preservation and protection policy for our nation's parks and forests. Obama fought efforts to drill in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). He also voted to prohibit the use of funds to construct new roads in the Tongass National Forest in Alaska for the purpose of harvesting timber by private entities or individuals. As president, he will repair the damage done to our national parks by poor funding. Conserve New Lands. Barack Obama supported legislation to restore $2 billion in cuts to conservation programs, including the conservation reserve and wetland reserve programs. He is a long-time supporter of increased funding for the Land and Water Conservation Fund, which federal and state governments use to purchase and protect new land and keep our parks in good condition. As president, Obama will also do more to encourage private citizens to protect the open spaces and forests they own and the endangered species that live there. He will set aside new wilderness areas, establish stronger policies to deter international deforestation and improve domestic timberlands, and encourage communities to enhance local greenspace, wildlife and conservation areas.

Bill Richardson
Bi og rap hy
Personal Birthdate: November 15, 1947 (Pasadena, Calif.) Hometown: Pasadena, Calif.; Mexico City, Mexico Spouse: Barbara Richardson Religion: Catholic Education * Tufts Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, M.A. * Tufts University, B.A. * Middlesex School

Experien ce Businesses Owned, Past Careers, Board Memberships, Etc.: * Chair, Democratic Governors' Association * Former Chair, Border Governors' Association * Former Chair, Western Governors' Association * Chair, Freedom House * Big Brother/Big Sister of Santa Fe * G.I. Forum * Hispanic Council on Foreign Affairs * Santa Fe Chamber of Commerce * Santa Fe Hispanic Chamber of Commerce * Santa Fe Jaycees Public Service / Elected Offices: * Governor of New Mexico, 2003-present * U.S. Secretary of Energy, 1998-2001 * U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations, 1997-1998 * Representative, United States House of Representatives, 1983-1997

Is sue s
I have a one-point plan on the Iraq War -- END IT. We must get all of our troops out quickly and safely so that a new political process can begin. Our military presence in Iraq is prolonging the violence, costing us more than $10 billion a month, and distracting us from the war against Al Qaeda. George Bush's "surge" has failed: this summer was the bloodiest yet, and there's no end in sight. Our troops have done everything we've asked them to do -- but they cannot win someone else's civil war. We need to get them out so that a new political process can begin. There are seven components to my plan to end the war and stabilize Iraq, but the most important step, upon which all others depend, is to remove ALL of our troops quickly. What we need to do: * Remove ALL Troops: Only when the Iraqis know we are leaving will they start seeing us as partners, instead of occupiers. A complete withdrawal gives us the leverage we now lack to get the warring factions to compromise, while our presence fuels the insurgency. The Iraqis must take responsibility for their country, and only a complete withdrawal gives them the incentive to kick out al Qaeda and heal their country. Any plan that leaves troops behind will allow the war to drag on, and will cost more American lives. * Withdraw as Quickly as Possible: We should start redeploying now. The longer we stay,

The Ri ch ar ds on Pl an f or En ding th e War

the more people die, the further the situation deteriorates, and the more damage we do both to our military and to our reputation. Only when we are out of this quagmire can we refocus on the real war against Al Qaeda -- the terrorists who attacked us on 9-11, and who are still headquartered along the Pakistan-Afghanistan border -- not in Iraq. * A Diplomatic Surge: Iraq's crisis is a political crisis. It cannot be solved militarily. We need a surge of diplomacy to bring Iraq's factions together, to engage all of Iraq's neighbors in stabilization, and to put together a coalition of donor nations to aid reconstruction. How We Do It: * De-authorize the War and Fund Redeployment: Last November, the American people voted for the Democrats because they expected them to end the war. Congress should do what it was elected to do, by passing a resolution that de-authorizes the war under Article 1 of the Constitution and the War Powers Act. And they should pass funding only to safely redeploy our troops, not to leave them endlessly in the middle of a civil war. Congress can and should act now to end this war. * Remove ALL the troops from Iraq: We must get our troops out of Iraq as quickly and safely as possible. Since the war began, we have rotated up to 240,000 troops into and out of Iraq in as few as 3 months. The logistics and details of a withdrawal must come from our military commanders on the ground. I hope Congress will force President Bush to end this war, but if Congress fails, I will instruct our military leaders to get our troops out as quickly as possible. Steps should include: o Identify the units we can phase out quickly. Support units and their large bases should go first and combat units next. o Identify the equipment we can leave to the Iraqis and the equipment we must bring home. o Move troops and equipment into Kuwait, and to regional bases where we are welcome such as in Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Turkey. o Redeploy troops from these regional bases to Afghanistan and other locations where they can fight actual threats to America. In addition, we should bring as many troops as possible home to start rejoining their families. * Lead a Regional and Global Diplomacy: The hard political work begins as our troops start to leave. o We must use the leverage of our withdrawal to bring the factions to the negotiating table. o The United States must lead this effort and involve all of Iraq's neighbors, including Syria and Iran, in a regional conference modeled on the Dayton conference which ended the war in Bosnia. Key objectives of the conference should be assurances of non-interference and the creation of a multilateral, UN-led Muslim peacekeeping force. o We must also convene a donor conference of wealthy Arab states to fund Iraqi reconstruction. All of Iraq's neighbors have an interest in preventing Iraq's civil war from spiraling even further out of control, and they should all play a part in stopping the violence.

En er gy
We must "Act Boldly and Act Now" in order to make America a Clean Energy Nation like I made New Mexico a Clean Energy State. Consider this a call to action, for Congress, the energy industry, and the public. I am calling for a New American Revolution -- an energy and climate revolution. Cut Oil Demand: 50% by 2020 That means reducing oil imports from around 65% to 10-15%. We can do this in part by getting the 100 mile per gallon (mpg) car into the marketplace. We must work to double the Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards, or CAFE, to 50 mpg by 2020. And we will set a life-cycle low-carbon fuel standard that reduces the carbon impact of our liquid fuels by 30% by 2020. Create New Efficiencies And Energy Sources in the Electrical Sector: 50% by 2040 I am calling for a national renewable portfolio standard of 30% by 2020 that will rise to 50% by 2040. This is aggressive, but necessary as we start using more electricity for automobiles. I will push for an energy productivity law requiring a 20% improvement in energy productivity by 2020. We could save customers $21 billion a year by 2020. Dramatically Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 90% by 2050 20% by 2020, 80% by 2040 -- ten years faster than scientists say is necessary because we must lead the world, and we can't afford the possibility of backsliding and inaction. We will start with a market-based cap and trade system for greenhouse gas emissions to create incentives for the electric and industrial sectors to make significant reductions in their carbon emissions. Economists say the world can protect itself from drastic climate change at a cost of 1-3% of our economic activity. We can afford to protect the climate. Given the risks of catastrophic climate change, we can't afford not to do it. Lead By Example and Restore America as the World's Leader We must return to the international negotiating table and support mandatory world-wide limits on global warming pollution. We will work closely with fast-growing nations. I will cooperate with the European Union, the World Bank, and other allies to help finance the incremental cost of "doing it right." I will create a North American Energy Council with Mexico and Canada, which supply about 20% of our oil, and make sure our relations with these neighbors are firm and friendly. As we reduce our demand for foreign oil, we should work with the Persian Gulf nations, and our partners at the UN, to create a multilateral system for protecting the Persian Gulf so that within ten years, the U.S. presence there could be sharply and safely reduced.

Get It All Done Without Breaking the Bank We will raise some revenue, from the sales of carbon permits, for example. Further, I will get out the "green scissors" to cut back on wrongly-placed tax subsidies. Over time, this program will yield huge productivity increases in our economy, as well as significant budget savings and revenues. We will create more than ten times as much value in the American economy by reducing our oil imports as we spend to make this program happen. Invite the Oil Companies to Become Energy Companies I know people love to hate the oil companies. They have been raking in huge profits. But I want to invite them to become energy companies, and invest in our thriving new energy economy. They are invited to the table, but they aren't going to run the table the way they have for the last six years. The Bottom Line Americans need energy to get to work, we need heat and electricity in our homes, schools and workplaces. We are hurt by unpredictable energy price cycles, and by our nation's energy policy failures. The way out of the cycle is to create competition, to support energy productivity, new technologies and alternative fuels. And everyone -- every American -must make an effort to make us energy independent and combat global warming. Our national security and our planet depend on it. It's about creating a new energy economy here in the United States, and doing it quickly, with broad, bold strokes. It's the way to a bright, strong, prosperous future for the United States -- and for the world. I called for an energy revolution -- and now, today, I call on you to join it.

Healt hc ar e
Governor Richardson's health care plan uses new ways to expand proven sources of affordable coverage to all Americans. It guarantees that all Americans will have choices of high quality, affordable care by giving every American the choice to keep their current coverage or obtain coverage through an existing, well-established program. My plan can be paid for without raising taxes. When some do not have access to affordable care, all Americans end up paying the price. Covering Every American Working families and small businesses will be able to purchase coverage through the same plan that members of Congress enjoy. Americans 55 and older will be able to purchase coverage through Medicare. Veterans will get access to the high-quality care they deserve, when they need it, without bureaucratic hassles. Keeping costs under control for families and businesses Everyone who needs coverage will get an advance refundable tax credit based on income. Like auto insurance, all Americans will have to have health coverage and employers will pay

their fair share of employee health care costs. Eliminating High Interest Rates for Medical Expenses Richardson will clamp down on banks and credit card companies that charge outrageous interest rates for medical care debt. Lenders need to do their fair share. Investing in Prevention and Healthy Lifestyles Richardson will invest in prevention, streamline administration, and support healthier lifestyle choices. In New Mexico, he got junk food out of schools, increased physical education, doubled the number of school based health centers and enacted a statewide public smoking ban.

Providing a "Heroes Health Card" to all of our Veterans The conditions at Walter Reed and so many VA facilities are a disgrace. Richardson's plan will give every veteran returning from active duty with a Heroes Health Card that provides them with a choice of physicians wherever they live. No one who has served in our military should have to drive 100 miles to the nearest VA facility just to get care. Making Prescription Drugs Affordable I have helped the people in my state get more affordable prescription drugs. Americans are tired of big pharmaceutical companies that rake in profits while they struggle to pay for basic, lifesaving medicines. The Federal government should negotiate prescription drug prices through Medicare. Making Cancer a Thing of the Past. We need a strong focus on prevention and screening -- every American who could benefit from proven screening should get it. I am a strong believer in investing in science and technology. I will substantially boost the NIH and NCI budgets. As Governor, I increased the cigarette tax that funds the University of New Mexico Cancer Center. HIV/AIDS In New Mexico I created the Billy Griego HIV and AIDS Act. My Vice President will serve as Chair of the HIV/AIDS Commission. That will help assure that this issue get the leadership and profile that it deserves. We've just got to do a better job on education and outreach. Autism First of all I am for strongly increased research on autism. The number of children in this country affected by autism is just staggering. [1 in every 166 children] Comprehensive and universal access to health care is part of the solution. I fought for increased funding in New Mexico for outreach, education, treatment and awareness. This is something that I have been

talking about on the campaign trail everyday and it will be a priority in my administration.

Pro te ctin g Rig ht s and Fr ee do ms
As Congressman, Ambassador, Secretary and Governor of New Mexico, Bill Richardson has been a champion of civil rights, equality, freedom and the rule of law. As President, Bill Richardson will continue to fight for and protect the rights and freedoms that make America so great. Champion of Choice In January of 2007, Bill Richardson was named a "Champion of Choice" by NARAL-NM for his career spanning record of protecting and fighting for the right to choose. We can work together to make abortion safe, legal and rare. And we should do everything we can to support quality prenatal care and early child health care so that newborns and infants have the support they need to grow. Expand Equal Rights As Governor, Bill Richardson has expanded anti-discrimination laws to include sexual orientation, signed into law the state's first hate crimes legislation for acts including those based on sexual orientation, and provided state health insurance for domestic partnerships. He supports domestic partnerships and worked hard to secure them in New Mexico in a special session this year. His legislation failed by only one vote and he will fight for domestic partnerships again in the next legislative session. Protection for Native Americans Throughout his career, Bill Richardson has worked tirelessly to improve the quality of life for Native Americans and protect the sovereign rights of tribal governments. He has worked to uphold government-to-government relations, has reaffirmed Native peoples' right to selfdetermination and has successfully protected Native American religious freedom rights. Count Every Vote In 2006, Governor Richardson signed into law the landmark New Mexico Make Every Vote Count Act, that moves the state to a single paper ballot system, makes New Mexico's elections system more transparent and helps guarantee that every New Mexican's ballot will be counted. No Torture America is too great of a nation to support such retrograde measures such as torture. There is no place for torture, water boarding, Abu Ghraib or Guantanamo in American policy or law. As president, Bill Richardson will work to restore American greatness by putting an end to these inappropriate (and ineffective) policies and by following the Geneva Conventions.

A Free and Open Internet The internet has revolutionized communication, education, and commerce. It has also become an essential part of exercising our right to free speech. And the very reason why the internet has become such an important part of our lives is because its network infrastructure transmits data at the same rate and with the same quality to every user. Government built the Internet, and, while it has been improved by the market, profits shouldn't be made by destroying the egalitarian nature of online information. I support net neutrality and as President I will fight to keep the internet free and open.

Edu cati on
Giving our children a good start in their education has been a key priority of mine as Governor, and it will continue to be a priority for me as President. If we are to maintain our position as the world's leader in business, technology and innovation, we must strengthen the American education system that has made us the most powerful country in human history. I am optimistic about our country's ability to improve our education system and prepare young Americans for a successful future. It will require resources -- some $60 billion a year -- but this is money we must spend, as an investment in our people. And I have already outlined nearly $60 billion in specific cuts to nuclear weapons and other weapons systems to cover this necessary investment. Quite simply, American schools -- designed for the early 20th century -- must be restructured to meet the demands of the 21st. Provide Universal Access to Quality Pre-K Programs As an investment in early education, I will create a program to provide universal access to full-day pre-kindergarten to all four-year-olds for the entire school year, and I will fully fund Head Start. Scrap No Child Left Behind It is imperative that the next President ensures that states receive appropriate funding and are no longer forced to accept one-size-fits-all programs. I will reauthorize the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, but eliminate the punitive approach of No Child Left Behind and replace it with a fairer, more comprehensive, and more supportive system of measuring progress. Increase the Availability of Quality Teachers To attract and retain the best and brightest teachers, we must raise teacher's salaries to a national average starting salary of $40,000, improve and expand teacher training, increase the number of nationally-certified educators, increase standards and accountability, and hire an additional 100,000 math and science teachers.

Oppose Private School Tuition Vouchers, Increase Public School Choice I oppose public tax dollars going to private schools, but will increase school choice with charter, magnet, and other public school options, as well as more flexible course options. Create 250 Math, Science, and Innovation (MSI) Academies We need to raise the bar on education to meet America's needs, especially in math and science. We can revitalize America's innovative talents by bringing together students, educators, and entrepreneurs. Put the Arts and Music back into Education To retain this critical education element, I will invest up to $500 million in arts and music education programs. Increase Graduation Rates I will invest $1 billion a year in states' dropout prevention programs to encourage the one million students who drop out each year to stay in school. Take Action to Improve the Health of Our Children If children's health suffers, their education will suffer too. I would help our children lead healthier lives by insisting on strong nutritional guidelines for school meals and reinstituting physical education. Promote More Meaningful Parental Involvement Our work to improve education depends on parental involvement. We should provide all federal employees with eight hours per year of paid, one-to-one time with their children, and encourage private businesses and the rest of the public sector to do the same. Create a Nation of Service Teaching the importance of community service should be a focus in our schools. To create incentives for more student participation, in my Administration, the federal government will forgive two years of the cost of tuition and fees at a public university for each year of service. Eliminate the FAFSA and Expand Access to Student Aid The Richardson plan for college affordability calls for increasing the number of student loan applicants by simplifying and consolidating the federal government's loans, grants, and scholarship programs. We will also provide financial incentives for schools to keep their tuition costs under control. Increase Aid to Those Who Need It Most: Expand LEAP and GEAR UP I will expand need-based federal programs that assist students from low-income families and

eliminate the enormous subsidies to banks and private lenders and redirect that money to students who need it. Beyond School: The Richardson Plan for Promoting Life-Long Learning and Adult Education We must revive the federal government's role as workforce development coordinator. The first step is to revive the national job bank that in 2002 placed nearly 345,000 job seekers in new jobs before it was terminated by the Bush Administration. We will also create a new generation of manufacturing jobs that move our country toward energy independence and to clean energy sources. Transitional Jobs and Career Training (Perkins II) Expanding transitional jobs will give lower-income people a chance to learn the valuable skills that can lead to greater success. In addition, career and vocational education should be expanded so those without a college education can develop valuable skills.

Governor Bill Richardson has the strongest record of achievement of any Presidential candidate on civil rights issues and support for the LGBT community. He proudly stands for domestic partner rights and against discrimination of any kind. He believes all families deserve our respect no matter their race, creed or sexual orientation. A Record of Accomplishment From Day One In his very first legislative session after taking office in 2003 Governor Richardson fought for, passed and signed: * The first hate crimes law in New Mexico history. * Legislation extending civil rights protections based on sexual orientation and gender identity. He issued an executive order to extend access to health insurance and benefits to the domestic partners of state employees. Pushed for Domestic Partnerships in New Mexico Earlier this year Governor Richardson called the New Mexico Legislature back into a special session to address this important issue. Unfortunately, it lost by one vote in the regular session. But Governor Richardson will bring this bill back in the 2008 session, and this time will get it passed. Additionally, with a coalition of advocates, he successfully warded off a DOMA in New Mexico – one of only a handful of states that does not have one. A Track Record of Inclusion and Diversity

Fig htin g f or E qual Oppo rtunity and E qual Ri gh ts fo r All Am er ic ans

He has also appointed gay and lesbian individuals to important posts throughout his administration -- to Cabinet posts, Division Directors, and to powerful boards and commissions. He will do the same as President, leading an Administration that truly looks like America. In Fact, he has pledged that his Vice-President will be an integral member of the HIV/AIDS Commission. An End to "Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell" And as President, he will continue to get things done. He will also end the military’s disastrous, disrespectful "Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell" policy. He voted against this as a Congressman and continues to oppose it today. It makes no sense to turn away and turn out well-qualified recruits, at a time when our country needs them most. There are currently an estimated 65,000 gay and lesbian soldiers serving in our military. They are no less patriotic and their lives and sacrifices are no less valuable because of their sexual orientation. Homosexuality is not immoral, asking someone to hide their identity and devaluing their sacrifice is. A Commitment to Achieving Equal Rights Under the Law Gay and lesbian families deserve respect, and as President, Bill Richardson will take a principled stand to fight for it. He strongly believes that we don’t need constitutional amendments designed to exclude supportive, devoted couples. We need to extend the rights due to all of us as Americans: * The right to visit a sick or dying partner in the hospital, * The right to make necessary legal and financial decisions when a partner can no longer do so, * The right to equal employment opportunity, and * The right to protection from violent prejudice. A Pledge to Accomplish Full Equality for ALL Americans As President, he will continue to fight for full and equal rights for all domestic partners, including gay and lesbian families. Bill Richardson did all this in a "red state." With the right leadership, you can get these things done. He believes that by working together, we can accomplish the same on the national level. But before you cast your lot with any national candidate, you have to ask -not just do they talk the talk -- but do they walk the walk? Can they get it done? As a Governor -- Bill Richardson gets things done.

Jo bs & th e Ec on om y
Restoring Fiscal Discipline to Our Government

Under President Bush, our country's national debt has skyrocketed to a record-breaking $9 trillion, with interest payments on the debt reaching $404 billion last year alone. Our next President must have the discipline to rein in spending so that we may return to the budget surpluses we experienced during the Clinton Administration. As Governor, I consistently demonstrated fiscal responsibility, and as President I will restore America's financial strength. Investing in Technology and Innovation If America is to retain its leadership in the global marketplace, it must renew its emphasis on science and technology and establish new incentives for innovation. As President, I will achieve this through an aggressive combination of tax credits, Green Jobs programs, and the establishment of 250 Math, Science, and Innovation Academies throughout the country. Investing in and Protecting the American Workforce A highly skilled, well-paid workforce is central to sustained job growth and a healthy economy. Our country must establish a strong foundation of improved education and a workforce development system that's streamlined and targeted to the needs of the 21st century economy. We will make this happen through tax credits that offer incentives for good-paying jobs in all sectors and regions of the country, including manufacturing and rural areas. The Bottom Line Our nation is more than a piece of land or a set of laws. Our nation embodies the belief that tomorrow can be better than today. Together, we can do this. We can restore fiscal responsibility to our government. We can be the catalyst for innovation. And we can keep America's promise to its Middle Class workers. A strong economy is the engine of everything that America does and everything we want this country to be. I have the experience and the record of accomplishment to meet the economic challenges we face and to lead our country into the future.

Imm ig rati on
Secure the Border by Hiring and Training Enough Patrol Guards to Cover the Entire Border We must more than double the number of guards, and provide them with the best surveillance technology available. Establish a Reasonable Path to Legalization for Many of Those Who are Already Here This is not amnesty, but is a tough but fair opportunity for legalization and the possibility of citizenship. Most of the illegal workers in the country are hard-working, law abiding people simply pursuing the American Dream. Those who pass a background check, learn English,

pay back taxes and fines for being here illegally get the opportunity for legal status. Those that don't must leave. Crack Down on Immigration Fraud and Illegal Workers We should offer informant visas and cash rewards for aliens who provide law enforcement with credible information on human traffickers and document forgers. As President, I would establish a fraudulent documents task force to constantly update law enforcement and border officials on the latest fraudulent documents being marketed for entry into the United States. In addition, I believe we must improve identification documentation of immigrant workers. Eliminate One of the Prime Attractions for Illegal Workers We must crack down on employers who knowingly hire undocumented immigrants and enforce the laws already on the books. After establishing a national ID system, employers will have no excuses. Work in Partnership with the Mexican Government and Nations Throughout Latin America Mexico is our friend and a major trading partner but they must take action to help reduce the northward flow of illegal immigrants and illegal drugs. We must improve border infrastructure to streamline the movement of goods through the free-trade zones along the border, revitalizing communities on both sides of the border and creating much-needed jobs. The Secretary General of the Organization of American States appointed me as a special envoy to Latin American to promote initiatives that focus on economic development and immigration. Through intensive diplomacy and face-to-face dialogue we must demonstrate to OAS member states that they have an equal responsibility to help solve the immigration problem. Throughout my career I have worked closely and effectively with Mexico on issues such as border security, trade, and education. As Governor I convinced the Mexican government to bulldoze a section of the border town of Las Chepas, where abandoned buildings had become staging points for bringing illegal immigrants and drugs into the US. I also met with President Calderon to discuss how the United States and Mexico can work together to solve the problems associated with illegal immigration. I don't need to learn about the problems or to figure out how to get things done. I've done it. Increase the Number of Legal Immigrants Allowed Into the US Each Year The number of guest workers allowed at any one time must be based upon the needs of the US economy. Our goal must be to meet demand for jobs that go unfilled by American citizens, and no more. I Was the First Governor in the Nation to Send National Guard Troops to the Border In 2006 President Bush called for the deployment of National Guard troops to fortify the nation's borders and stem the flow of undocumented immigrants. I was the first Governor to

honor that request and send National Guard support to the existing border patrol forces, with the condition that the assignment was temporary until the administration could recruit and train a large number of new Border Patrol agents.

Rudy Giuliani

Bi og rap hy
Perso nal Birthdate: May 28, 1944 (Brooklyn, N.Y.) Hometown: New York, N.Y. Spouse: Judith Nathan Children: Andrew Giuliani, Caroline Giuliani, Whitney Giuliani Religion: Roman Catholic Education * New York University School of Law, J.D., 1968 * Manhattan College, B.A., 1965 * Bishop Loughlin Memorial High School

Experience Businesses Owned, Past Careers, Board Memberships, Etc.: * Bracewell & Giuliani, 2005-present * Giuliani Partners, 2002-present Public Service / Elected Offices: * Mayor, New York City, 1994-2001 * United States Attorney, 1981-1989

Issu es Fi scal R espon sibi lity

Anonymous earmarks, concealed budgeting, and special interests waste taxpayer dollars within the Federal budget. Over the last decade, non-defense spending increased 72%, while the number of earmarks increased from 1,000 to nearly 10,000. Rudy Giuliani will impose fiscal discipline and accountability through a combination of executive action and legislative reform. End Earmarking & Start Budgeting Like a Business: Rudy's plan will make government more honest, accountable, and transparent by making Congress budget more responsibly, like American businesses and taxpayers. * Stop irresponsible and anonymous earmarks. * Require mandatory sunset clauses for all Federal programs. * Require Congressional Budget Office cost estimates for all legislation before it is voted upon. * Create separate capital and operating budgets. * Bring generally accepted accounting principles to the Federal government. Reduce the Federal Civilian Workforce by 20% through Attrition and Retirement: Within the next decade, 42% of the Federal Civilian Workforce - some 300,000 bureaucrats will retire. * Replace only half, making the Federal government smaller and smarter through increased use of technology and privatization. * Eventually saving the taxpayers $21 billion each year, while ensuring that the Federal government is focused on performing its essential responsibilities. Require Agencies to Identify at Least 5% to 20% in Spending Reductions: Requiring agency heads to identify savings and increased efficiencies in each annual budget - as Rudy Giuliani did as Mayor - is a management tool that will lead to constant streamlining and more costeffective government spending without compromising national security in the search for savings. Propose a Constitutional Amendment Establishing a Presidential Line-Item Veto: A constitutional line-item veto would allow the President to fight for the national interest by cutting wasteful special interest programs without contributing to gridlock by vetoing an otherwise sound bill.

Use GAPStat to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Federal Agencies & Eliminate Wasteful Spending: Rudy's plan establishes a Government-wide Accountability Program ["GAPStat"] based on New York's successful CompStat program to better evaluate each agency, analyze the

effectiveness of Federal programs, and identify those that are wasteful, failing or duplicative. * Allows the Office of Management and Budget to evaluate effectiveness in a new way, hold Congress accountable for the wasteful programs it funds, and offer specific solutions to save taxpayer dollars.

Mar ria ge
Rudy Giuliani believes marriage is between a man and a woman. He does not—and has never—supported gay marriage. But he believes in equal rights under law for all Americans. That’s why he supports domestic partnerships that provide stability for committed partners in important legal and personal matters, while preserving the sanctity of marriage between a man and a woman.

Rudy Giuliani supports reasonable restrictions on abortion such as parental notification with a judicial bypass and a ban on partial birth abortion—except when the life of the mother is at stake. He’s proud that adoptions increased 66% while abortions decreased over 16% in New York City when he was Mayor. But Rudy understands that this is a deeply personal moral dilemma, and people of good conscience can disagree respectfully.

Abo rtion

Ed uc ation
As Mayor, Rudy Giuliani worked to reform the nation’s largest public school system, with over 1 million school children. He increased school funding and hired new teachers, while insisting on reforms that ended social promotion, abolished principal tenure, and created a Charter School Fund. Rudy is also a strong supporter of school choice, believing that it is one of the great civil rights issues of our time.

Like all Americans, Rudy Giuliani prays for the success of our troops in Iraq and their safe return home. But he believes setting an artificial timetable for withdrawal from Iraq now would be a terrible mistake, because it would only embolden our enemies. Iraq is only one front in the larger war on terror, and failure there would lead to a broader and bloodier regional conflict in the near future. Building an accountable Iraq will assist in reducing the threat of terrorism.

Ira q

Winning th e War on Te rro r
Rudy Giuliani believes winning the war on terror is the great responsibility of our generation. America cannot afford to go back to the days of playing defense, with

inconsistent responses to terrorist attacks, because weakness only encourages aggression. Americans want peace. We’re at war not because we want to be, but because the terrorists declared war on us—well before the attacks of September 11th. Rudy understands that freedom is going to win this war of ideas. America will win the war on terror.

Mike Huckabee
Bi og rap hy

Personal Birthdate: August 24, 1955 (Hope, Ark.) Hometown: Hope, Ark. Spouse: Janet Huckabee Children: John Mark Huckabee, David Huckabee, Sarah Huckabee Religion: Baptist Education * Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary, M.A., 1980 * Ouachita Baptist University, B.A., 1975 * Hope High School Experien ce Businesses Owned, Past Careers, Board Memberships, Etc.: * President, Cambridge Communications, 1992-1996 * President, KBSC-TV, 1987-1992 * President, ACTS-TV, 1983-1986

* Baptist Minister, 1980-1992 * Advertising Director, Focus, 1976-1980 * Former Chairman, Southern Governors' Association * Former Chairman, Southern Regional Education Board * Former Chairman, Southern Growth Policies Board * Former Chairman, Southern Technology Council * Former Chairman, Southern International Trade Council * Former Chairman, Interstate Oil & Gas Compact Commission Public Service / Elected Offices: * Arkansas Governor, 1996-2007 * Arkansas Lt. Governor, 1993-1996

Is sue s
* The First Amendment requires that expressions of faith be neither prohibited nor preferred. * My faith is my life - it defines me. I don't separate my faith from my personal and professional lives. * Real faith makes us more humble and mindful, not of the faults of others, but of our own. It makes us less judgmental, as we see others with the same frailties we have. * Faith gives us strength in the face of injustice and motivates us to do our best for "the least of us." * Our nation was birthed in a spirit of faith - not a prescriptive faith telling us how or whether to believe, but acknowledging a providence that pervades our world. The First Amendment requires that expressions of faith be neither prohibited nor preferred. We should not banish religion from the public square, but should guarantee access to all voices and views. We should share and debate our faith, but never seek to impose it. When discussing faith and politics, we should honor the "candid" in candidate - I have much more respect for an honest atheist than a disingenuous believer. My faith is my life - it defines me. My faith doesn't influence my decisions, it drives them. For example, when it comes to the environment, I believe in being a good steward of the earth. I don't separate my faith from my personal and professional lives. Real faith makes us humble and mindful, not of the faults of others, but of our own. It makes us less judgmental, as we see others with the same frailties we have. Faith gives us strength in the face of injustice and motivates us to do our best for "the least of us." Our nation was birthed in a spirit of faith - not a prescriptive one telling us whether to believe, but one acknowledging that a providence pervades our world.

Fait h and Po litic s

San ctity of Li fe
* I support and have always supported passage of a constitutional amendment to protect the right to life. My convictions regarding the sanctity of life have always been clear and consistent, without equivocation or wavering. I believe that Roe v. Wade should be overturned. * I applaud the Supreme Court's recent decision in Gonzales v. Cathcart forbidding the gruesome practice of partial birth abortion. While I am optimistic that we are turning the tide in favor of life, we still have many battles ahead of us to protect those who cannot protect themselves, and so it is vital that we elect a pro-life President. * I first became politically active because of abortion, when I helped pass Arkansas' Unborn Child Amendment, which requires the state to do whatever it legally can to protect life. * As Governor, I did all I could to protect life. The many pro-life laws I got through my Democrat legislature are the accomplishments that give me the most pride and personal satisfaction. * To me, life doesn't begin at conception and end at birth. Every child deserves a quality education, first-rate health care, decent housing in a safe neighborhood, and clean air and drinking water. Every child deserves the opportunity to discover and use his God-given gifts and talents. * I believe in using existing stem cell lines for research, but I do not believe in creating life for the sole purpose of destroying it. I support and have always supported passage of a constitutional amendment to protect the right to life. As President, I will fight for passage of this amendment. My convictions regarding the sanctity of life have always been clear and consistent, without equivocation or wavering. I believe that Roe v. Wade should be over-turned. I applaud the Supreme Court's recent decision in Gonzales v. Cathcart forbidding the gruesome practice of partial birth abortion. While I am optimistic that we are turning the tide in favor of life, we still have many battles ahead of us to protect those who cannot protect themselves, and so it is vital that we elect a pro-life President. No candidate has a stronger record on the sanctity of life than I do. I have always been actively and aggressively pro-life. I first became politically active when I helped pass Arkansas' Unborn Child Amendment, which requires the state to do whatever it can to protect life. As Governor, I used that Amendment to pass pro-life legislation. The many pro-life laws I got through my Democrat legislature are the accomplishments that give me the most pride and personal satisfaction. I banned partial birth abortion, I required parental notification, I required that a woman give informed consent before having an abortion, I required that a woman be told her baby will experience pain and be given the option of anesthesia for her baby, I allowed a woman to have her baby and leave the child safely at a hospital, and I made

it a crime for an unborn child to be injured or murdered during an attack on his mother. What I accomplished as Governor proves that there is a lot more that a pro-life President can do than wait for a Supreme Court vacancy, and I will do everything I can to promote a prolife agenda and pass pro-life legislation. If I'm saddled with a Democrat Congress, I'll veto any pro-abortion legislation they pass. I will staff all relevant positions with pro-life appointees. I will use the bully pulpit to change hearts and minds. I have no desire to throw women in jail, I just want us to stop throwing babies in the garbage. To me, life doesn't begin at conception and end at birth. Every child deserves a quality education, first-rate health care, decent housing in a safe neighborhood, and clean air and drinking water. Every child deserves the opportunity to discover and use his God-given gifts and talents. With respect to stem cells, I support federal funding of research using existing stem cell lines. I do not believe in creating life for the sole purpose of destroying it. I'm encouraged by recent discoveries showing that stem cells from the umbilical cord offer great promise.

Ed uc ation And Th e Arts
* I believe that every child should have the opportunity for a quality education that teaches the fundamental skills needed to compete in a global economy. * Music and the arts are not extraneous, extra-curricular, or expendable - I believe they are essential. I want to provide every child these "Weapons of Mass Instruction." * Our future economy depends on a creative generation. * We need to judge the success of our schools by the results we obtain, not the revenue we spend. * Test scores rose dramatically when I was Governor of Arkansas because of my education reforms. * I have been a strong, consistent supporter of the rights of parents to home school their children, of creating more charter schools, and of public school choice. * We need a clear distinction between federal and state roles in education. While there is value in the "No Child Left Behind" law's effort to set high standards, states must be allowed to develop their own benchmarks. I believe that every child should have the opportunity for a quality education that teaches the fundamental skills needed to compete in a global economy. As I traveled the country and the world over the last decade bringing jobs to Arkansas, the business leaders I met weren't worried about creating jobs, they were worried about finding skilled and professional workers to fill those jobs. In addition, I want to provide our children what I call the "Weapons of Mass Instruction" art and music - the secret, effective weapons that will help us to be competitive and creative. It is crucial that children flex both the left and right sides of the brain. We all know the cliché of thinking outside the box: I want our children to be so creative that they think

outside the cardboard factory. Art and music are as important as math and science because the dreamers and visionaries among us take the rough straw of an idea and spin it into the gold of new businesses and jobs. It is as important to identify and encourage children with artistic talent as it is those with athletic ability. Our future economy depends on a creative generation. Music has always been an important part of my life. I still play bass guitar in my band, Capitol Offense. As Governor of Arkansas, I undertook several initiatives to encourage arts in education. I passed landmark legislation to provide music and art instruction by certified teachers for all Arkansas children in grades one through six, forty minutes a week. As Chairman of the Education and Arts Commission of the States, I created a two-year initiative called "The Arts - A Lifetime of Learning," which promotes the benefits of arts education to all fifty states. Students with strong art and music programs have higher academic achievement overall, are far more likely to read for pleasure and participate in community service, and are less likely to engage in delinquent behavior. These programs have a powerful effect in leveling the academic playing field for students from lower socio-economic backgrounds. The study of music improves math scores, spatial reasoning and abstract thinking. The success of our schools has to be judged by the results we obtain, not the revenues we spend. A focus on true quality rather than mere quantity requires us to set high standards for our students and teachers, measure their performance diligently, and hold educators and administrators accountable for the results in an atmosphere of transparency and efficiency. As Governor of Arkansas, I created intensive reading and math programs that went back to basics. I started with elementary students and, as those children thrived, I expanded the program to middle and then high schools. Our test scores rose dramatically. I then created one of the most demanding high school curricula in the country, and the number of students taking advanced placement classes grew by leaps and bounds. I opposed the teachers' union and got the Fair Dismissal Law passed, which allowed us to terminate poorly performing teachers. To attract top talent, I raised teachers' salaries from among the lowest in the nation to among the most competitive. I created systems to make our schools accountable to both parents and taxpayers by insisting on transparency in how money is spent, efficiency in putting money into classroom programs rather than administrative costs, and clear responsibility of all employees for the tasks assigned to them. As Governor, I fought hard for more charter schools, with their strong parental involvement and their unique ability to serve as laboratories for education reform, and for the rights of parents to home school their children. I am a strong supporter of public school choice. I am proud that my three children attended public schools from K through twelve, as did my wife and I. In addition to my gubernatorial experience, I have significant national experience in education policy. I was Chairman of the National Governors Association from 2005-2006 and also Chairman of the Education Committee of the States from 2004-2006, working with governors, legislators, and education chiefs from all fifty states to advance education policy

and conduct research on effective trends in education. We need to test teachers as well as students, replace teachers who aren't competent, and impose reasonable waiting periods for teachers to gain tenure. We should provide bonuses and forgive student loans for high-performing teachers to work in low-performing schools. Just as there are executives in the corporate world who specialize in turning around failing companies, we need teachers who are "turn-around specialists" for failing schools. Typical employment procedures provide a disincentive for teachers and often discourage potentially good teachers from entering what I consider to be a noble profession. Educators and teachers should be involved in the design of compensation initiatives that incetivize training and promote performance based on merit, so that our children can have the best education in the world. As President, my education agenda will include working towards a clear distinction between the federal role in assisting and empowering states and in usurping the right of states to carry out the education programs for their students. While there is value in the "No Child Left Behind" law's effort to set high national standards, states must be allowed to develop their own benchmarks. As President, I will use my broad and deep expertise in education policy to lift up our children and America's economic future.

Hea lth Car e
* The health care system in this country is irrevocably broken, in part because it is only a "health care" system, not a "health" system. * We don't need universal health care mandated by federal edict. * We do need to get serious about preventive health care. * I advocate policies that will encourage the private sector to seek innovative ways to bring down costs. * I value the states' role as laboratories for new market-based approaches. * When I'm President, Americans will have more control of their health care options, not less. * As President, I will work with the private sector, Congress, health care providers, and other concerned parties to lead a complete overhaul of our health care system. * Our health care system is making our businesses non-competitive in the global economy. It is time to recognize that jobs don't need health care, people do, and move from employerbased to consumer-based health care. The health care system in this country is irrevocably broken, in part because it is only a "health care" system, not a "health" system. We don't need universal health care mandated by federal edict or funded through ever-higher taxes. We do need to get serious about preventive health care instead of chasing more and more dollars to treat chronic disease, which currently gobbles up 80% of our health care costs, and yet is often avoidable. The result is that we'll be able to deliver better care where and when it's needed.

I advocate policies that will encourage the private sector to seek innovative ways to bring down costs and improve the free market for health care services. We have to change a system that happily pays $30,000 for a diabetic to have his foot amputated, but won't pay for the shoes that would save his foot. We can make health care more affordable by reforming medical liability; adopting electronic record keeping; making health insurance more portable from one job to another; expanding health savings accounts to everyone, not just those with high deductibles; and making health insurance tax deductible for individuals and families as it now is for businesses. Low income families would get tax credits instead of deductions. We don't need all the government controls that would inevitably come with universal health care. When I'm President, Americans will have more control of their health care options, not less. I also value the states' role as laboratories for new market-based approaches, and I will encourage those efforts. As President I will work with the private sector, Congress, health care providers, and other concerned parties to lead a complete overhaul of our health care system, not more of the same, paid for by Uncle Sam at the expense of hard-working families. Health care spending is now about $2 trillion a year, which is close to $7,000 for each one of us. It consumes about 17% of our gross domestic product, easily surpassing the few European nations where spending is close to 10% and far higher than any other country in the world. If we reduced our out-of-control health care costs from 17% to 11%, we'd save $700 billion a year, which is about twice our annual national deficit. Our health care system is making our businesses non-competitive in the global economy. General Motors spends more on health care than it does on steel, $1,500 per car. Starbucks spends more on health care than it does on coffee beans. We have an employer-based system from the 1940's, a system devised not because it was the best way to provide health care, but as a way around World War II wage-and-price controls. Costs have skyrocketed because the party paying for the health care - the employer - and the party using the health care - the employee - are not the same. It is human nature to consume more of something that is essentially free. Workers complain that their wages are stagnant, but businesses reply that their total compensation costs are rising significantly because they are paying so much more for health care. Health care costs are adversely affecting your paycheck, even if you're healthy. Some Americans are afraid to change jobs or start their own businesses because they're afraid of losing their health insurance. It is time to recognize that jobs don't need health insurance, people do, and to ease the burden on our businesses. Our employer-based system has outlived its usefulness, but the answer is a consumer-based system, not socialized medicine.

Tax es /E co no my
* I support the FairTax. * As Governor of Arkansas, I cut taxes and fees almost 100 times, saving the taxpayers

almost $380 million. I left a surplus of nearly $850 million, which I urged should go back to the people. * Our massive deficit is not due to Americans' being under-taxed, but to the government's over-spending. * To control spending, I believe the President should have the line-item veto. * I believe in free trade, but it has to be fair trade. * Globalization, done right, done fairly, can be the equivalent of a big pay raise by allowing us to buy things more cheaply. I'd like you to join me at the best "Going Out of Business" sale I can imagine - one held by the Internal Revenue Service. Am I running for president to shut down the federal government? Not exactly. But I am running to completely eliminate all federal income and payroll taxes. And do I mean all - personal federal, corporate federal, gift, estate, capital gains, alternative minimum, Social Security, Medicare, self-employment. All our hours filling out forms, all our payments for help with those forms, all our shopping bags filled with disorganized receipts, all our headaches and heartburn from tax stress will vanish. Instead we will have the FairTax, a simple tax based on wealth. When the FairTax becomes law, it will be like waving a magic wand releasing us from pain and unfairness. The FairTax will replace the Internal Revenue Code with a consumption tax, like the taxes on retail sales forty-five states and the District of Columbia have now. All of us will get a monthly rebate that will reimburse us for taxes on purchases up to the poverty line, so that we're not taxed on necessities. That means people below the poverty line won't be taxed at all. We'll be taxed on what we decide to buy, not what we happen to earn. We won't be taxed on what we choose to save or the interest those savings earn. The tax will apply only to new goods, so we can reduce our taxes further by buying a used car or computer. Our current progressive tax system penalizes us for working harder and becoming more successful. As we climb the ladder, the government lurks on each rung, hungry for a bigger bite out of our earnings. The FairTax is also progressive, but it doesn't punish the American dream of success, or the old-fashioned virtues of hard work and thrift, it rewards and encourages them. The FairTax isn't intended to raise any more or less money for the federal government to spend - it is revenue neutral. Expert analyses have shown that the FairTax lowers the lifetime tax burden of all of us: single or married; working or retired; rich, poor or middle class. The FairTax will instantly make American products 12 to 25% more competitive because the cost of those goods will no longer be inflated by corporate taxes, costs of tax compliance, and Social Security matching payments. When we buy products now, those taxes are built into the cost, so all of us pay corporate taxes indirectly on top of the personal taxes we pay directly. Compliance costs are just make-work with no real added value, yet they consume as much as 3% of our gross domestic product annually. These costs are an especially heavy burden on small businesses, which generate most of our jobs.

If you buy a bottle of domestic wine, you're paying the taxes/compliance/matching payments of all the folks who produced the grapes, the wine, the bottle, the cork, the label. If you buy a bottle of French wine, the producers had their Value Added Tax rebated to them when the wine was exported. So French consumers pay those taxes, but you don't. Our current tax system puts our goods at a disadvantage both here and overseas. Other governments give their goods an advantage on the world market, an advantage estimated at 18% compared to American goods. So no matter how hard Americans work, no matter how innovative and creative we are, no matter how superior our products are, we suffer from a built-in competitive disadvantage simply because of our tax system. A recent study by MIT found that our tax system deprives us of about $1 billion in exports annually. When you export over-priced goods as we have, you inevitably end up exporting jobs and industries as we now are. We are the square peg trying to fit into the round hole of international trade. The rest of the world isn't going to change, it's time that we do. Under the FairTax, American companies are far less likely to move overseas and foreign companies are far more likely to come here, hiring Americans to build and work in their new plants. The FairTax encourages growth by promoting investment and capital formation. We have to scrap a 20th century tax system that is holding us back and keeping us down in the 21st century. The FairTax is the path to greater prosperity and job security for us and for our children. As Governor of Arkansas, I pushed through the Arkansas Legislature the first major, broadbased tax cuts in state history - a $90 million tax relief package for Arkansas families. I also doubled the standard deduction to $2,000 for single taxpayers and $4,000 for those who are married. Some taxes I eliminated entirely: the marriage penalty, bracket creep caused by inflation, income tax on poor families, and capital gains on home sales. To encourage investment, I cut capital gains for both individuals and businesses. To help people better themselves, I provided tax credits for employee training and education. In total, I cut taxes and fees nearly 100 times during my ten-and-a-half years as Governor, saving the people of Arkansas almost $380 million. When I left office in early 2007, Arkansas had nearly $850 million in state surplus, which I urged should go back to the people in the form of either a tax rebate or tax cut. I believe that our massive deficit is not due to Americans' being under-taxed, but due to the federal government's over-spending. Achieving and maintaining a balanced federal budget is an important and worthy goal necessary to our long-term economic well-being. To achieve a balanced federal budget, I believe the President should have the line-item veto. I believe in free trade, but it has to be fair trade. We are losing jobs because of an unlevel, unfair trading arena that has to be fixed. Behind the statistics, there are real families and real lives and real pain. I'm running for President because I don't want people who have worked loyally for a company for twenty or thirty years to walk in one morning and be handed a pink slip and be told, "I'm sorry, but everything you spent your life working for is no longer

here." I believe that globalization, done right, done fairly, can be a blessing for our society. As the Industrial Revolution raised living standards by allowing ordinary people to buy massproduced goods that previously only the rich could afford, so globalization gives all of us the equivalent of a big pay raise by letting us buy all kinds of things from clothing to computers to TVs much more inexpensively.

Mar ria ge
* I support and have consistently supported passage of a federal constitutional amendment that defines marriage as a union between one man and one woman. * As Governor of Arkansas, I led the successful effort to pass a similar state constitutional amendment in 2002. * As Governor of Arkansas, I led the successful effort to make our state only the third to adopt "covenant" marriage. * Our true strength comes from our families. I support and have always supported passage of a federal constitutional amendment that defines marriage as a union between one man and one woman. As President, I will fight for passage of this amendment. My personal belief is that marriage is between one man and one woman, for life. No other candidate has supported traditional marriage more consistently and steadfastly than I have. While Massachusetts was allowing homosexuals to marry, I got a constitutional amendment passed in Arkansas in 2002 defining marriage as between one man and one woman. I got Arkansas to become only the third state to adopt "covenant" marriage. My wife Janet and I upgraded our vows on Valentine's Day, 2005. Today, many churches in Arkansas will perform only covenant marriages, so I'm hoping we'll see a decline in our divorce rates. The late Cardinal O'Connor decried a domestic partnership law (which provided that all couples who signed up, whether heterosexual or homosexual, would be treated the same as married couples) as legislating that "marriage doesn't matter." I agree with the Cardinal that marriage does matter, I would add that nothing in our society matters more. Our true strength doesn't come from our military or our gross national product, it comes from our families. What's the point of keeping the terrorists at bay in the Middle East if we can't keep decline and decadence at bay here at home? The growing number of children born out of wedlock and the rise in no-fault divorce have been a disaster for our society. They have pushed many women and children into poverty and onto the welfare, food stamp, and Medicaid rolls. These children are more likely to drop out of school and end up in lowpaying, dead-end jobs, they are more likely to get involved with drugs and crime, they are more likely to have children out of wedlock or get divorced themselves someday, continuing the unhappy cycle. My wife Janet and I celebrated our thirty-third wedding anniversary this past May. For us, every anniversary is a miracle. When we were both twenty and married just over a year,

when I was in my last semester of college, Janet was diagnosed with cancer of the spine. I can't tell you what a stunning blow it was - two kids just starting out, you don't think something like that can happen when you're so young. Yet there we were, staring death in the face. At first, they told us that even if she lived, she might be paralyzed from the waist down, so I'd be a young man with an invalid wife. After I learned she wouldn't be paralyzed, I was told that because of the radiation she had to receive following surgery, we'd probably never have children. I wanted children very much, I couldn't imagine never being a father. During that time, a lot of things went through my mind. But one thing never did - the thought of leaving her. If Janet were in a wheelchair today, if we'd never had children, I can tell you this - she would still be my wife.

Na tional S ecu rity/F or ei gn P oli cy : Wa r On T er ro r
* I believe that we are currently engaged in a world war. This war is not a conventional war, and these terrorists are not a conventional enemy. * The top priority of the President as Commander in Chief is first and foremost protecting our own citizens. * With a focus on renewed diplomacy and inclusion, we can accomplish the goals of our nation without having to go it alone. * During the Cold War, we had hawks and doves, but this new war requires us to be a phoenix, rising reborn to meet each new challenge and seize each new opportunity. * As President, I will fight this war hard, but I will also fight it smart, using all our political, economic, diplomatic, and intelligence weapons as well as our military might. * The terrorists train in small, scattered groups. We can accomplish a great deal with swift, surgical air strikes and commando raids by our elite units. * We have to get tough with President Musharaff who has allowed Al Qaeda and the Taliban to have bases in Waziristan. * We don't have a dog in the fight between Sunnis and Shiites - our enemy is Islamic extremism in all its guises. * The long-term solution is to empower moderates in the region by attacking the underlying conditions that breed terror. * Part of winning the war on terror is achieving energy independence. * I believe in the Powell Doctrine of using overwhelming force to accomplish a mission. * I have the executive and crisis management experience, the judgment and the temperament to be an effective commander in chief. * I will expand the army and increase the defense budget. I believe that we are currently engaged in a world war. Radical Islamic fascists have declared war on our country and our way of life. They have sworn to annihilate each of us who believe in a free society, all in the name of a perversion of religion and an impersonal god. We go to great extremes to save lives, they go to great extremes to take them. This war is not

a conventional war, and these terrorists are not a conventional enemy. I will fight the war on terror with the intensity and single-mindedness that it deserves. The top priority of the president as Commander in Chief is first and foremost protecting our own citizens. While we live in a neighborhood of nations and must strive to be good neighbors, as President, I will ensure the peace, safety, and well-being of American citizens at home and abroad. While I prefer America to be safe and secure within her own borders rather than loved and appreciated abroad, I believe we can accomplish both goals. We can resurrect relationships with our allies and neighbors. With a focus on renewed diplomacy and inclusion, we can accomplish the goals of our nation without having to go it alone. When the sun rose on September 11, we were the only superpower in the world; when the sun set that day, we were still the only superpower, but how different the world looked. During the Cold War, you were a hawk or a dove, but this new world requires us to be a phoenix, to rise from the ashes of the twin towers with a whole new game plan for this very different enemy. Being a phoenix means constantly reinventing ourselves, dying to mistakes and miscalculations, changing tactics and strategies, rising reborn to meet each new challenge and seize each new opportunity. As president, I will fight this war hard, but I will also fight it smart, using all our political, economic, diplomatic, and intelligence weapons as well as our military might. The terrorists unfortunately have a great many sympathizers all over the world, folks who are happy to show up and be filmed shouting "Death to America," but the actual number of those willing to blow themselves up is relatively few, and they train and plot in small, scattered groups. It's an enemy conducive to being tracked down and eliminated by using the CIA and the Pentagon's Joint Special Operations Command. We can accomplish a great deal, we can achieve tremendous bang for the buck, with swift, surgical air strikes and commando raids by our elite units, working with friendly governments, as we've done with the Ethiopians in Somalia. These operations are impossible without first-rate intelligence. When the Cold War ended, we cut back on our human intelligence, just as we cut back on our armed forces, and both have come back to haunt us. As President, I will beef up our human intelligence capacity, both the operatives who gather information and the analysts who figure out what it means. Right after September 11, with wounds fresh and emotions running high, President Bush declared that all other countries were either for us or they were for the terrorists. Such a black-and-white stance doesn't work in the Arab and Muslim worlds, where there are more shades of gray than you'll find at Sherwin-Williams. Is President Musharaff of Pakistan for us 100%? No, since September 11, he's been playing both ends in the middle to survive. At the moment he's pulled too far away from us. While we have been focused on Iraq, Al Qaeda and the Taliban have expanded their training camps in the Waziristan region of Pakistan with impunity. This bodes ominously not just for Afghanistan, but also for Al Qaeda's plotting and training for more attacks all over the world, including here in the United States.

This is the direct result of an ill-conceived autonomy agreement President Musharaff made with Waziristan's tribal leaders. In fact the tribal leader Musharaff has praised for fighting foreign terrorists, Mullah Nazir, recently said that he would protect Osama bin Laden! We have to get tough with Mursharaff and re-calibrate the carrots and sticks we use with him. Pakistan is the fifth largest recipient of American aid, and right now we're not getting real good value. We're in a game of chicken with this military dictator: he warns us not to pursue terrorists across the border with Afghanistan, not to strike their bases on his territory because it could cause his government to fall and an even less friendly figure to take his job. But we have to make clear to him that he is of no use to us if he allows the Taliban and Al Qaeda to use his territory with impunity. The current situation highlights that, despite our generous aid, both the Taliban and Al Qaeda enjoy a disturbing degree of popularity in Pakistan. Ultimately it is this popularity contest, this war of ideas, that we have to win. Creativity and flexibility are Musharaff's keys to retaining power. Creativity and flexibility are our keys to dealing with him and other Muslim leaders. Instead of asking if someone is for us, instead of demanding that every ally be at the level of Great Britain, I will ask if we should be for them, if they can be useful in any way, however limited, however temporary. The terrorists have succeeded in dividing us over how to fight them, but we are not taking full advantage of their divisions and of the broader divisions in the region. For example, Hamas, Al Qaeda, and Hezbollah are all terrorist groups, but Hamas and Al Qaeda are Sunni and hate Hezbollah, which is Shiite, as much as they hate us. We are worried about the Iranians extending their sphere of influence west, but so are the Sunni Arabs in Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Jordan, who dislike the Iranians not just because they are Shiites, but because they are Persians. Fighting smart means learning the neighborhood, achieving a level of political, religious, and cultural sophistication about the Arab and Islamic worlds that will pay huge dividends for us. We have to know the cast of characters, not just the national political leaders and their leading opponents, but the clerics, the tribal and clan leaders. We get criticized for our arrogance, but it's our ignorance that's killing us. As for the underlying dispute between Sunnis and Shiites that's been going on for fourteen hundred years, we don't have a dog in that fight. Our enemy is Islamic extremism in all its guises. The Saudis want us to support extremist Sunni groups to counter growing Iranian influence. The Saudis assure us that they can control these groups and keep them from turning against us. We saw how well that turned out with Al Qaeda. I will support moderates, not extremists, with no favoring of Sunnis or Shiites. The long-term solution to terror is to empower moderates in the region. My goal in the Middle and Near East is to correctly calibrate a course between maintaining stability and promoting democracy. It's self-defeating to try to accomplish too much too soon, you just have elections where extremists win, but it's equally self-defeating to do nothing. First, we have to destroy the terrorists who already exist, then we have to attack the underlying conditions that breed terror, by creating schools that offer an alternative to the extremist madrassas that take impressionable children and turn them into killers, by creating jobs and

opportunity and hope, by encouraging a free press and other institutions that promote democracy. The recent rising appeal of Al Qaeda across North Africa - Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia - shows why we have to do better in the war of ideas - and soon. In the past, we've been constrained from helping some of the good guys because our dependence on oil has forced us to support repressive regimes, to conduct our foreign policy with one hand tied behind our back. It's time, it's past time, to untie that hand and reach out to the moderates with both hands. Oil has not just shaped our foreign policy, it has deformed it. When I make foreign policy, I want to be able to treat Saudi Arabia the same way I treat Sweden, and that requires us to be energy independent. These folks have had us over a barrel - literally - for way too long. The first thing I will do as President is send Congress my comprehensive plan for energy independence. We will achieve energy independence by the end of my second term. We will explore, we will conserve, and we will pursue all avenues of alternative energy - nuclear, wind, solar, hydrogen, clean coal, biodiesel, and biomass. If I ever have to undertake a large invasion, I will follow the Powell Doctrine and use overwhelming force. The notion of an "occupation with a light footprint" that was our paradigm for Iraq always struck me as a contradiction in terms. Liberating a country and occupying it are two different missions. Occupation inevitably demands a lot of boots on the ground. Instead of marginalizing General Shinseki when he said we needed several hundred thousand troops for Iraq, I would have met privately with him and carefully weighed his advice and his underlying analysis. Our current armed forces aren't large enough - we have been relying far too heavily on our National Guard and our Reserves, we have worn them out. When our enemies know that we are spread thin, they're more apt to test us by provoking a crisis. Having a sizeable standing army actually makes it less likely that we'll have to use it. So I will increase the defense budget. We have to be ready to fight both conventional and unconventional wars against both state and non-state enemies. Right now we spend about 3.9% of our GDP on defense, while we spent about 6% in 1986 under President Reagan. I would return to that 6% level. I believe we can do this without raising taxes. I will limit increases in other discretionary spending and rely on the normal increase in federal tax revenue that is generated annually as Americans' incomes rise. Crises arise suddenly and unpredictably, and no one has the database for every possible scenario. What we have to evaluate is the strength of a leader's operating system, because if that's sound, he can always add the data. I'll be an effective commander in chief because I have executive experience and crisis management experience. My record as Governor shows that I'm intellectually curious, a quick study, and have sound judgment. I will get advice from a broad circle with differing perspectives and portfolios; encourage dissent and stay out of the bubble; refuse to wilt under criticism, but also be flexible and ready to change course if a policy isn't working. I will communicate my rationale for our foreign and defense policies clearly and frequently to Congress and to the American people.

Im mi gr ation
* My number one priority is to secure America's border. * We have to know who is coming into our country, where they are going, and why they are here. We need a fence along our border with Mexico, electronic in some places, and more highly-trained border agents. * Those who are caught trying to enter illegally must be detained, processed, and deported. * Illegal immigrants already living among us who commit crimes must be prosecuted to the full extent of the law and incarcerated or deported. I opposed the amnesty bill that was defeated by the Senate in June. I support the $3 billion that Congress recently appropriated for border security. These funds will be used to train and deploy 23,000 more agents, add four drone airplanes, build 700 miles of fence and 300 miles of vehicle barriers, and erect 105 radar and camera towers. They will be used to end "catch and release" by providing money to "catch and detain" those caught entering illegally and to crack down on those who enter legally, but overstay their visas. These border security provisions will stem the tide of illegals, which is what we must do before we can turn the tide and deal with those who are already here. Before you fix the damage in your house caused by a leaking roof, you stop the leak, which is what this legislation will do. My number one priority is to have a secure border. Right now, we have too many people entering the country illegally, and this must stop. We can't turn the tide until we stem the tide. We need to know who is coming into our country, where they are going, and why they are here. We need to create a process to allow people to come here to do the jobs - plucking chickens, tarring roofs, picking fruits - that are going unfilled by our citizens. They must have a tamper-proof, scannable I. D. with a finger or retinal scan, so that their employers know they belong here. Besides stopping terrorists, we must weed out those with a criminal background or a communicable disease. We have to build a fence along our border with Mexico, parts of which will be electronic. We need more well-trained border agents and cooperation agreements with local and state law enforcement officials, so that we have a clear and consistent approach by all jurisdictions. Those who are caught trying to enter illegally must be detained, processed, and deported. Illegal immigrants who are already living among us and commit crimes must be prosecuted to the full extent of the law and incarcerated or deported.

Duncan Hunter
Bi og rap hy
Perso nal Birthdate: May 31, 1948 (Riverside, Calif.) Hometown: Alpine, Calif. Spouse: Lynne Hunter Children: Duncan Duane Hunter, Sam Hunter Religion: Baptist Education * Western State University, J.D., 1976 * Western State University, B.S., 1968 * Rubidoux High School Experience Military Service: United States Army, 1969-1971, with service in Vietnam Businesses Owned, Past Careers, Board Memberships, Etc.:

Practicing Lawyer, 1976-1980 Public Service / Elected Offices: * Representative, United States House of Representatives, 1981-present * Chair, Committee on Armed Services, 2003-2007

Issu es Li fe
Right to Life Amendment I would amend the U.S. Constitution and provide blanket protection to all unborn children from the moment of conception by prohibiting any state or federal law that denies the personhood of the unborn. Likewise, I have also introduced the Right to Life Act, which would legally define “personhood” as the moment of conception and, therefore, guarantee all constitutional rights and protections, including life, to the unborn without utilizing a constitutional amendment. Philosophy of Judicial Appointments I support people with good judgment, proven values, a belief in God, and a heart for the least of us, including the unborn. I believe it is important that those sitting on the bench understand that they have a responsibility to strictly interpret our nation’s laws and not legislate from the bench with their own political or social agenda. I will not appoint judges who do not believe that the unborn are precious and should be protected. Federal Legislation and Votes I have cosponsored the following pieces of legislation: A The Child Interstate Abortion Notification Act, which would amend the federal criminal code to prohibit transporting a minor across state lines to obtain an abortion, if this action circumvents the minor's native state's parental involvement law. I voted in favor of this bill when it passed the House 270-157 on April 27, 2005. A The Human Cloning Prohibition Act of 2005, which would prohibit and criminalize efforts at reproductive cloning. A The Parent's Right to Know Act of 2005, which would prohibit federal funding to carry out federal family planning programs in which service providers in the project knowingly provides contraceptive drugs or devices to a minor, except in specific circumstances. A The Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act of 2006, which would require abortion providers to notify women who want to have an abortion 20 weeks after fertilization that the

evidence suggests their unborn child feels pain and they may request anesthesia for their unborn child in order to reduce or eliminate the pain. I have also supported human life protection efforts with the following votes: A I supported the Fetus Farming Prohibition Act, banning the practice of fetal farming, the creation of embryos specifically for the purposes of scientific research. A I voted in favor of the Alternative Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapies Enhancement Act, which would direct federal funding to stem-cell research that does not rely on embryos. A I voted against the Stem-Cell Research Enhancement Act of 2005, which would have directed the Secretary of Health and Human Services to conduct and support research that utilizes human embryonic stem-cells, regardless of the date on which the stem-cells were derived from a human embryo. A I voted against amendments offered to the National Defense Authorization Act permitting taxpayer funded military facilities overseas to be used to support abortions on demand for military women and military dependents. A I voted against amendments providing UN funding to groups that support coercive abortion programs.

Mar ria ge
Constitutional Amendment Defining Marriage I firmly believe that marriage is one of the most important social institutions we have and that it is central to promoting family values and raising children in a healthy environment. It is for this reason that I cosponsored and voted in favor of H.J. Res. 88 (Musgrave-CO), which proposes an amendment to the U.S. Constitution declaring that marriage in the United States shall consist solely of the union of a man and a woman. I firmly believe that children need the unique influence offered by both a father and a mother.

I support a balanced federal budget, with additional revenue provided by economic growth, not increased taxes. Further, I support limiting growth in non-defense areas. A balanced federal budget is a priority for our national economic health and long-term prosperity. Throughout my tenure in Congress, I have fought for federal spending to provide for our national and homeland security, as directed by the U.S. Constitution, and funding increases in both of these arenas will be necessary in the future to keep our families safe and secure Budgetary savings must be identified through efficiency reforms throughout the federal government. Furthermore, we must aggressively attack the creation and funding of duplicative federal programs, many of which simply do not perform but cost taxpayers millions of their hard-earned dollars. According to Office of Management and Budget, 28%

Bala nced B udg et

of federal programs are either ineffective or have results that are not demonstrated. Reforming, combining or eliminating those programs remains among my highest legislative priorities.

Ed uc ation
I believe we can educate students more effectively by returning school curriculum prerogatives to the states, local communities and, most importantly, to the family. State agencies charged with conducting education policies do not need expensive and inefficient mandates from a federal agency and I support streamlining the responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Education toward a goal of working in cooperation with local and state governments to meet local and state learning levels.

Healt h Care R ef or m

I believe our health care system and its challenges need to be addressed in a new way that empowers our strongest asset in controlling the spiraling cost of health care: the U.S. consumer. As you know, health care costs in the U.S. are increasing over 30% faster than the rest of the economy and will consume 17% of our Gross Domestic Product by 2011. [The U.S. spends less than 4% of our GDP to provide for the national security of our great nation.] This level of spending and inflation makes our current system unsustainable and real reforms are going to be necessary as our population ages. Since World War II, when employer sponsored health care became a more widely offered employee benefit, spending has increased from 5% of GNP to 16% today. Systematically, the eye of the health care consumer has been removed from the market place. Whether it is employers offering a single insurance option or the government making health care choices on behalf of the elderly and the poor, consumers have been increasingly removed from the market place. The result has been a system with costs increasing at rates that are neither sustainable nor practical. The solution is freedom for the consumer to pursue their own health care choices. Therefore, I propose three major reforms that will bring the consumer back into the health care equation: 1. freedom to buy health insurance across state lines; 2. freedom to make informed health care choices; and 3. freedom to innovate to save money and improve medical outcomes. Buy Health Insurance Across State Lines Under current law, individuals and small businesses are required to purchase health care plans that are offered in their state of residency. Therefore, the health insurance customer is held hostage to state legislators and regulators which impose an increasing number of mandates on the marketplace. For example, the average individual policy in the state of New Jersey costs $6,046 per year for a family of four, while a similar policy in Iowa costs only

$1,965. This disparity in health insurance premium costs can largely be attributed to the level of mandates imposed by the respective states. New Jersey insurers are required to cover 41 mandates (including chiropodist and occupational therapists) versus the 23 mandates imposed by the State of Iowa. Families and small businesses in New Jersey should be allowed to shop across state lines for the health care policy that best meets their needs; avoiding systems that encourage mandates. Make Informed Health Care Choices Through Public Disclosure Today, when a consumer decides to make a purchase, for example a new car, they are empowered through easy access to information to find the best deal. With just a couple of clicks of the mouse, they can find clear and concise information on the vehicle including: price, reliability, upgrades, customer reviews and maintenance costs. Sadly, this same level of information is denied those seeking to purchase health care. This lack of available information keeps the consumer/patient hostage to the false market that has been negotiated between the hospital and the insurance company. Consumers should be permitted to find the highest quality of care for the lowest price. Therefore, hospitals and other health care providers should be required to place their fee schedules on line or otherwise make them readily accessible for potential consumers. This return of market forces, open competition and empowered consumer will result in falling health care costs and rising care quality. Innovate In Order to Save Money and Improve Medical Outcomes Over the past 30 years, eight of the ten most important medical breakthroughs originated in America. The United States is home to some of the best medical minds in the world, yet government driven health care fails to reward innovative thinking and new methods in hospitals. The Government bureaucracy that is Medicare determines the means by which a patient will receive care by mandating a payment scheme based on a particular treatment protocol. Should a doctor find an equally effective and less expensive manner by which to treat a patient that further involves less time in the hospital, the reimbursement rate for the process is significantly less and, in some cases, does not cover the total cost of care. Therefore, government management actually encourages expensive and more ineffective care over better, less expensive alternatives. Unfortunately, Medicare is slow to implement these innovations in protocols. Therefore, I propose the creation of four test hospitals (1 university hospital, 1 public hospital and 2 community hospitals) that will, under the direction of an established commission, be deregulated institutions that will safely implement new procedures and cost saving measures within a test hospital in order to determine and implement system-wide protocol improvements. By agreeing to participate, Medicare will cover all patient expenses not covered by insurance, including all revenue loss. In return, the institution will agree to strict oversight by the established commission and follow all protocols. This pilot project will

bring innovation back to health care delivery and identify in a rapid, safe and appropriate manner, changes in the system that will increase health care quality and reduce costs.

Ill eg al Im mi gr ation
Amnesty Congressman Hunter has a 27 year record of fighting illegal immigration and promoting border security. As a member of Congress with a Southwest border district heavily impacted by the effects of illegal immigration, Rep. Hunter has steadfastly opposed amnesty proposals, including voting against the 1986 amnesty law, while tirelessly working to strengthen border security. Amnesty is not the answer. In fact, it encourages a whole new wave of illegal immigrants who seek to catch the next amnesty. America has one of the most generous immigration policies in the world. It is unacceptable that we allow millions of people to sneak in the back door of our country when the front door is available. We have tried amnesty and it does not work. We must enforce and, as necessary, tighten our immigration laws and secure our border–it is a matter of national security. Border Fence As part of the 1996 Illegal Immigration Reform Act (P.L. 104-208), Rep. Hunter authored the legislative language mandating a 14-mile triple fence along the San Diego-Mexico land border, which augmented the single layer fence he had built with surplus landing-matt in 1989. Since then he has worked, most notably against strong opposition of the Clinton Administration, to see that project completed. Since construction of the San Diego fence began: A Illegal alien apprehensions along the fenced region dropped from over 202,000 in 1992 to about 9,000 in 2004. Further, it is estimated that the apprehensions vs. attempts ratio increased to over 90%; A With the establishment of the San Diego border fence, crime rates in San Diego have fallen off dramatically. According to the FBI Crime Index, crime in San Diego County dropped 56.3% between 1989 to 2000; A Vehicle drive-throughs in the region have fallen from between 6 to 10 per day before the construction of border infrastructure, to only 4 drive-throughs in 2004 and those occurred only where the secondary fence is incomplete; A The fence has forced drug smugglers, who once easily crossed the San Diego border, to attempt to enter the U.S. through major ports of entry instead. This significantly increases the likelihood of discovery and seizure of illegal narcotics entering our country. As a result of the success of the San Diego fence, Rep. Hunter authored the provisions of the Secure Fence Act calling for the construction of 854 miles of border fence along the five most

prolific smuggling corridors on the Southwest border. While construction of the Secure Fence project is not moving as rapidly as Rep. Hunter would like, the Administration is moving forward and as of September 30, 2007, 70 miles of new border pedestrian fence has been constructed. Congressman Hunter remains engaged in ensuring that the Administration meets the mandates put in place by the Secure Fence Act and secures our borders as rapidly as possible. Birth Right Citizenship Reform Congressman Hunter opposes summarily bestowing citizenship on people who have crossed our borders illegally. Therefore, he is a cosponsor of H.R. 1940, the Birthright Citizenship Act, grants automatic citizenship only to those who have at least one parent who is a U.S. citizen. The Constitution has been interpreted to grant U.S. citizenship to any person born on U.S. territory. The unintended consequences of this policy has been thousands of women a year illegally cross our international border, often in dangerous circumstances, to give birth to their child in the U.S. and thereby guaranteeing that child U.S. citizenship. Employer Verification One of the strongest draws to the United States for illegal immigrants is our economy and enticing job market. It is critical that we remove this incentive for illegal migrants. As a result, Rep. Hunter has cosponsored H.R. 19, which would require the Department of Homeland Security to implement a nationwide employment verification system. Employers need to have an easy, reliable and efficient system to verify an employee’s status and there must be real consequences imposed on employers who willfully break the law and employ illegal immigrants. Border Patrol Agents Border Patrol Agents Ignacio Ramos and Jose Compean were convicted for what amounted to procedural violations in their attempted apprehension of drug smuggler, Aldrete-Davila, along the Southwest border in Texas. For reasons that remain unclear, U.S. Attorney Johnny Sutton used his prosecutorial discretion to indict Agents Ramos and Compean on a weapons charge that carries a 10-year mandatory sentence. Given the evidence and circumstances of the case, this indictment against these Border Patrol Agents was completely unjustified. In addition, information has come forward since the agents’ convictions that the drug smuggler, who was granted immunity, received free medical care and a humanitarian visa for his testimony against the agents, was involved in another drug smuggling incident just 8 months later. Understanding the miscarriage of justice that has been perpetuated against these agents, Rep. Duncan Hunter has introduced H.R. 563, legislation granting a congressional pardon to the agents. While this has never been tried before and some argue that it is unconstitutional, legal advisors have stipulated that it has never been adjudicated and that there are some indications that such an action would be valid. Regardless, since the agents remain in jail,

Rep. Hunter believes it is appropriate to try this course of action. 102 of his House colleagues agree and have cosponsored the legislation. In addition, Rep. Hunter is

circulating a letter amongst his colleagues to ask the President to reevaluate his previous position and immediately pardon the agents. Finally, Rep. Hunter and Rep Poe offered an amendment to the Commerce Justice and Science Appropriations Act, which funds the federal Bureau of Prisons, to bar any funding included in the bill to be used for the incarceration of the two agents. The amendment passed by voice vote. Now it is hoped that the Senate will follow the House’s lead.

Alan Keyes
Bi og rap hy
Personal Birthdate: August 7, 1950 (Long Island, New York) Hometown: Montgomery County, Maryland Spouse: Jocelyn Keyes Children: Francis, Maya, and Andrew Religion: Catholic Education B.A., Ph.D. Harvard University Experien ce

Public Service / Elected Offices: U.S. Department of State: Assistant Secretary of State, Ambassador, Foreign Service Officer

Issu es Ab orti on / life i ssu es
If the Declaration of Independence states our creed, then there can be no right to abortion, since it means denying the most fundamental right of all to human offspring in the womb. The Declaration states plainly that we are all created equal, endowed by our Creator with our basic human rights. But if human beings can decide who is human and who is not, the doctrine of God-given rights is utterly corrupted. For these and similar reasons, abortion must be understood as the unjust taking of a human life, and a breach of the fundamental principles of our public moral creed. Some people talk about "viability" as a test to determine which human offspring have rights that we must respect, and which do not. But "might does not make right." So the mere fact that the person in the womb is wholly in its mother's physical power and completely dependent upon her for sustenance gives her no right whatsoever with respect to its life — since the mere possession of physical power can never confer such a right. Therefore, medical procedures resulting in the death of the unborn child, except as an unintended consequence of efforts to save the mother's physical life, are impermissible. As far as the "legality" of abortion is concerned, how could the so-called "right" to murder our children in the womb have come about? I think, in open debate, I could prove it to anyone — that Roe v. Wade was the most obscenely illogical and shoddily-written Supreme Court decision perhaps in the whole history of our country. There was a perverse illogic to it that ought to, even to this day, warn us against the possibility that it has any real ground or foundation in our law or the Constitution. In addition to overturning Roe v. Wade, we need a Human Life Amendment that respects life and restores our respect for the will of God. As for the so-called "right to suicide" and related practices such as euthanasia: whatever emotional arguments we make on their behalf, they represent a violation of the principles of the Declaration of Independence. Our rights, including the right to life, are unalienable. If we kill ourselves or consent to allow another to do so, we both destroy and surrender our right to life. We act unjustly. We usurp the power that belongs solely to the Creator, and deny the basis of our claim to human rights.

Ho mo se xual ri gh ts
In terms of civil rights discrimination, it is wrong to treat sexual orientation like race, for race is a condition beyond the individual's control. Sexual orientation, however, involves

behavior, especially in response to passion. If we equate sexual orientation and race, we are saying that sexual behavior is beyond the individual's control and moral will. We cannot embrace such an understanding of civil rights without denying the human moral capacity, and with it the fitness of human beings for life in a free society. The effort to equate homosexual and lesbian relations with legal marriage represents a destructive assault on the heterosexual, marriage-based family.

Im mi gr ation
Our country's immigration policy should encourage legal immigration to be maintained, and illegal immigration to be curtailed. The policy should be enforced through existing laws. It's a travesty when those who have abided by the law and become citizens through the proper means are considered no different than those who have not. If we start extending all the privileges of life and citizenship to people who are not citizens and who are not here legally, then we're breaking down our own laws. And in breaking down those laws, we're creating a situation that will eventually damage our economy, damage our ability to deliver social services, damage our ability to maintain schools on an equitable basis, and so forth. It doesn't make sense. That's why I believe that we have to enforce our immigration laws, and that we shouldn't be putting laws on the books that will extend to non-citizens the privileges of citizenship, because I think you are actually inviting people to violate the law when you're doing that, you're decreasing the respect for the law. Let me stress that I believe that immigration in the true sense is good for America. This would mean policies aimed at assuring that, by and large, the people who come to America come with the intention of becoming full and responsible citizens of the republic. It also means discouraging any who think they have the right to establish foreign enclaves in our midst, so to speak, in order to gain economic advantages for themselves without fully committing to help us build this free society. Immigration, yes; colonization, no. The first prerequisite, therefore, of any effective immigration policy is to regain full control of the borders of the United States. Proposed legislation in Congress falls far short of what is needed to achieve this goal. Until our political leaders put in place the tools and forces needed to control our borders, responsible and moral Americans should oppose any measures that would signal our acceptance of the de facto colonization of our country. President Bush's guest-worker proposal and the Senate's amnesty bill are such measures. They may serve short-sighted business interests intent on cheapening the cost of labor in our economy, and they may serve the corrupt interests of Mexican and other foreign elites seeking to relieve the pressure created by their own policies of greedy exploitation, but they do not serve the common good. Serving the common good demands policies that give preference in immigration not just to workers seeking jobs and money, but to those who seek

liberty and the responsibilities of citizenship. Let me add that it is incongruous that in the midst of the struggle we are now waging against the international terror network--a struggle that has taken various forms, including, we are told, the effort we are making on behalf of self-government and liberty in Iraq--I think it's incongruous that we should be putting forth such a maximal effort of sending our men and women over there to risk their lives and spill their blood, and meanwhile we are being told that we don't have the right to defend the integrity of the identity and the borders and the self-government of our own people. You can't have freedom in principle if you won't defend it in fact! And if we let our borders collapse, the facts that support our freedom will be gone, and you know it.

Ira q War
I will not for the moment go into the question of whether it was right or wrong to choose Iraq as some kind of strategic priority in the war against terror. I frankly have said in the past and would say now — and not with the wisdom of hindsight either — it was not what would have been my choice. Having, however, determined that we were going to go to war, and what we said was the best interest of defending the American people against weapons of mass destruction and other terrible elements of terrorism, somebody explain to me why it is that we see fit to then take the question to the United Nations? When we respond to an attack on the United States and are moving forward with a strategy necessary to defend ourselves, we don't have to ask a "by-your-leave" from the UN — especially not when the regime established by the UN to keep Iraq under control had collapsed, without any effective action from other member nations. Now, after we won the military victory in Iraq — which, thank God, everybody assumed we would — what should have happened? Well — and this is not the wisdom of hindsight either, because I said so at the time — what we should have done at that point was to keep the security aspects to ourselves and turn all the political junk over to the UN. That's part of why it's there. This whole business of nation-building and shepherding people through representative government — it's not our purpose. How many people believe that we're going to introduce representative self-government in the Middle-East in the Arabic and Islamic countries, where they have never known not even one moment of liberty and self-government, as individuals or as a people where even some of their own clerics stand up and declare that their religion is contrary to the very principles of self-government? How many people think we're going to do it, in one year, in five years, in one generation? I don't think we will! Why on earth did we set it as our objective? It makes no sense! You set yourself up for failure, and we did. Instead, we should have turned to the international community and said, "Look. We established a UN because it was supposed to, among other things, help nations along the road

to self-government." Some of the things that are put in that charter were our things, and they're not bad things. Why do we never use them against these bad guys? Put the UN on the spot. We should say, "You should be working, all of

you, to help these people to achieve representative institutions of selfgovernment. Get in here with your money, and with your workers, and so on" — and guess what? Right this minute, would it be our prestige that was on the line? No. I think that sometimes we wear blinders, we have prejudices. There should be no blinders and no prejudices when it comes to figuring out what we do to defend the interests of this country.

John McCain
Bi og rap hy
Personal Birthdate: August 29, 1936 (Panama Canal Zone) Hometown: Alexandria, Va.

Spouse: Cindy Hensley McCain Children: Sydney McCain, Doug Shepp, Andy Shepp, Meghan McCain, John Sidney McCain IV, James McCain, Bridget McCain Religion: Episcopal Education * National War College, 1973 * United States Naval Academy, 1958 * Episcopal High School Experien ce Military Service: * United States Navy 1958-1981 with service in Vietnam * Prisoner of war in Vietnam, 1967-1973 * Awards: Silver Star, Legion of Merit, Purple Heart and Distinguished Flying Cross Businesses Owned, Past Careers, Board Memberships, Etc.: * Member, American Dream Political Action Committee, 1997-present * Member, Council on Foreign Relations, 1997-present * Honorary Board Member, Hispanic Youth Foundation, 1997-present * Honorary Board Member, The Leonard Cheshire Foundation, 1997-present * Honorary Member, National Hispanic Foundation for the Arts Advisory Council, 1997present * Honorary Vice Chairman, New Majority Council, 1997-present * Board of Trustees, Gallaudet University, 1995-present * Founding Member, Pacific Council on International Policy, University of Southern California, 1995-present * Board of Directors, Board of Directors Chair, International Republican Insitutute, 1992present * Life Member, Navy League, 1987-present * Member, The Alfalfa Club * Member, Air Force Sergeants Association * Honorary Advisor Board, Arizonia Black Chamber of Commerce * Honorary Co-chairman, Advisory Board of Directors, Arizona Cancer Research Foundation * Honorary Member, Arizona Hispanic Chamber of Commerce * Complimentary Member, Association of the United States Army * Honorary Member, Barry Goldwater Foundation * Honorary Member, Fifty-Five Years and Up Incorporated * Honorary Member, Board of Regents, Francis Scott Key Foundation * Honorary Member, The John Goodwin Tower Center * Honorary Board Member, Kids Voting Arizona

* Member, The Military Order of World Wars * Honorary Member, Mo Udall Foundation * Board of Directors, Nixon Center for Peace and Freedom * Member, Purple Heart Association * Member, The Retired Officers Association * Member, Sons of the Revolution in the State of Virginia * Member, U.S. Naval Academy Alumni Association * Member of Board of Visitors, US Naval Academy * Honorary Member, Board of Directors, Council of Notables, U.S.-Spain Council * Member, Veterans of Foreign Wars * Member, Vietnam Veterans Association * Senate Navy Liaison, 1977-1981 * Pilot, Captain, United States Navy, Vietnam, 1958-1981 Public Service / Elected Offices: * Senator, United States Senate, 1987-present * Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, 1995-2001, 2003-2005 * Chair, Committee on Indian Affairs, 1995-1997, 2005-2007 * Representative, United States House of Representatives, 1983-1987 * Republican presidential candidate, 2000

Issu es Strai gh t T alk on Hea lth Sy st em R ef or m

John McCain is willing to address the fundamental problem: the rapidly rising cost of U.S. health care. * Bringing costs under control is the only way to stop the erosion of affordable health insurance, save Medicare and Medicaid, protect private health benefits for retirees, and allow our companies to effectively compete around the world. * Families should be in charge of their health care dollars and have more control over their care. We can improve health and spend less, while promoting competition on the cost and quality of care, taking better care of our citizens with chronic illness, and promoting prevention that will keep millions of others from ever developing deadly and debilitating disease. * While we reform the system and maintain quality, we can and must provide access to health care for all our citizens - whether temporarily or chronically uninsured, whether living in rural areas with limited services, or whether residing in inner cities where access to physicians is often limited. * America's veterans have fought for our freedom. We should give them freedom to choose to carry their VA dollars to a provider that gives them the timely care at high quality and in the best location. * Controlling health care costs will take fundamental change - nothing short of a complete

reform of the culture of our health system and the way we pay for it will suffice. Reforms to federal policy and programs should focus on enhancing quality while controlling costs: * Promote competition throughout the health care system - between providers and among alternative treatments. * Make patients the center of care and give them a larger role in both prevention and care, putting more decisions and responsibility in their hands. * Make public more information on treatment options and require transparency by providers regarding medical outcomes, quality of care, costs, and prices. * Facilitate the development of national standards for measuring and recording treatments and outcomes. * Reform the payment systems in Medicare to compensate providers for diagnosis, prevention, and care coordination. Medicare should not pay for preventable medical errors or mismanagement. * Dedicate federal research on the basis of sound science resulting in greater focus on care and cure of chronic disease * Give states the flexibility to, and encourage them to experiment with: alternative forms of access; risk-adjusted payments per episode covered under Medicaid; use of private insurance in Medicaid; alternative insurance policies and insurance providers; and, different licensing schemes for medical providers. * Build genuine national markets by permitting providers to practice nationwide. * Promote rapid deployment of 21st century information systems. * Support innovative delivery systems, such as clinics in retail outlets and other ways that provide greater market flexibility in permitting appropriate roles for nurse practitioners, nurses, and doctors. * Where cost-effective, employ telemedicine, and community and mental health clinics in areas where services and providers are limited. * Foster the development of routes for safe, cheaper generic versions of drugs and biologic pharmaceuticals. Develop safety protocols that permit re-importation to keep competition vigorous. * Pass tort reform to eliminate frivolous lawsuits and excessive damage awards. Provide a safe harbor for doctors that follow clinical guidelines and adhere to patient safety protocols. * Protect the health care consumer through vigorous enforcement of federal protections against collusion, unfair business actions, and deceptive consumer practices. John McCain believes that insurance reforms should increase the variety and affordability of insurance coverage available to American families by fostering competition and innovation. * Reform the tax code to eliminate the bias toward employer-sponsored health insurance, and provide all individuals with a $2,500 tax credit ($5,000 for families) to increase incentives for insurance coverage. Individuals owning innovative multi-year policies that cost less than the full credit can deposit remainder in expanded health savings accounts.

* Families should be able to purchase health insurance nationwide, across state lines, to maximize their choices, and heighten competition for their business that will eliminate excess overhead, administrative, and excessive compensation costs from the system. * Insurance should be innovative, moving from job to home, job to job, and providing multi-year coverage. * Require any state receiving Medicaid to develop a financial "risk adjustment" bonus to high-cost and low-income families to supplement tax credits and Medicaid funds. * Allow individuals to get insurance through any organization or association that they choose: employers, individual purchases, churches, professional association, and so forth. These policies will be available to small businesses and the self-employed, will be portable across all jobs, and will automatically bridge the time between retirement and Medicare eligibility. These plans would have to meet rigorous standards and certification. John McCain Believes in Personal Responsibility * We must do more to take care of ourselves to prevent chronic diseases when possible, and do more to adhere to treatment after we are diagnosed with an illness. * Childhood obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure are all on the rise. We must again teach our children about health, nutrition and exercise - vital life information. * Public health initiatives must be undertaken with all our citizens to stem the growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes, and to deter smoking.

Human Dignity & th e Sancti ty of Life

Overturning Roe v. Wade John McCain believes Roe v. Wade is a flawed decision that must be overturned, and as president he will nominate judges who understand that courts should not be in the business of legislating from the bench. Constitutional balance would be restored by the reversal of Roe v. Wade, returning the abortion question to the individual states. The difficult issue of abortion should not be decided by judicial fiat. However, the reversal of Roe v. Wade represents only one step in the long path toward ending abortion. Once the question is returned to the states, the fight for life will be one of courage and compassion - the courage of a pregnant mother to bring her child into the world and the compassion of civil society to meet her needs and those of her newborn baby. The pro-life movement has done tremendous work in building and reinforcing the infrastructure of civil society by strengthening faith-based, community, and neighborhood organizations that provide critical services to pregnant mothers in need. This work must continue and government must find new ways to empower and strengthen these armies of compassion. These important groups can help build the consensus necessary to end abortion at the state level. As John McCain has publicly noted, "At its core, abortion is a human tragedy. To effect meaningful change, we must engage the debate at a human level."

Promoting Adoption In 1993, John McCain and his wife, Cindy, adopted a little girl with a cleft palate from Mother Teresa's orphanage in Bangladesh. Bridget, now in high school, has been a blessing to the McCain family and helped make adoption advocacy a personal issue for the Senator. The McCain family experience is not unique; millions of families have had their lives transformed by the adoption of a child. As president, motivated by his personal experience, John McCain will seek ways to promote adoption as a first option for women struggling with a crisis pregnancy. In the past, he cosponsored legislation to prohibit discrimination against families with adopted children, to provide adoption education, and to permit tax deductions for qualified adoption expenses, as well as to remove barriers to interracial and inter-ethnic adoptions. Protecting Marriage As president, John McCain would nominate judges who understand that the role of the Court is not to subvert the rights of the people by legislating from the bench. Critical to Constitutional balance is ensuring that, where state and local governments do act to preserve the traditional family, the Courts must not overstep their authority and thwart the Constitutional right of the people to decide this question. The family represents the foundation of Western Civilization and civil society and John McCain believes the institution of marriage is a union between one man and one woman. It is only this definition that sufficiently recognizes the vital and unique role played by mothers and fathers in the raising of children, and the role of the family in shaping, stabilizing, and strengthening communities and our nation. As with most issues vital to the preservation and health of civil society, the basic responsibility for preserving and strengthening the family should reside at the level of government closest to the people. In their wisdom, the Founding Fathers reserved for the States the authority and responsibility to protect and strengthen the vital institutions of our civil society. They did so to ensure that the voices of America's families could not be ignored by an indifferent national government or suffocated through filibusters and clever legislative maneuvering in Congress. Addressing the Moral Concerns of Advanced Technology Stem cell research offers tremendous hope for those suffering from a variety of deadly diseases - hope for both cures and life-extending treatments. However, the compassion to relieve suffering and to cure deadly disease cannot erode moral and ethical principles. For this reason, John McCain opposes the intentional creation of human embryos for research purposes. To that end, Senator McCain voted to ban the practice of "fetal farming," making it a federal crime for researchers to use cells or fetal tissue from an embryo created for research purposes. Furthermore, he voted to ban attempts to use or obtain human cells gestated in animals. Finally, John McCain strongly opposes human cloning and voted to ban the practice, and any related experimentation, under federal law.

As president, John McCain will strongly support funding for promising research programs, including amniotic fluid and adult stem cell research and other types of scientific study that do not involve the use of human embryos. Where federal funds are used for stem cell research, Senator McCain believes clear lines should be drawn that reflect a refusal to sacrifice moral values and ethical principles for the sake of scientific progress, and that any such research should be subject to strict federal guidelines. Protecting Children from Internet Pornography John McCain believes the Internet offers tremendous promise in terms of freedom of expression, information sharing, and the spread of knowledge and commerce. It represents the greatest innovation of the modern era in terms of the democratization of free speech and access to information. From human rights groups in China to bloggers here in the United States, the Internet has opened a global dialogue that has propelled the world into an exciting new century of connectivity and communication. However, there is a darker side to the Internet. Along with the access and anonymity of the Internet have come those who would use it to peddle child pornography and other sexually explicit material and to prey upon children. John McCain has been a leader in pushing legislation through Congress that requires all schools and libraries receiving federal subsidies for Internet connectivity to utilize technology to restrict access to sexually explicit material by children using such computers. While the first line of defense for children will always be strong and involved parents, when they send their child to school or drop their child off at the library, parents have the right to feel safe that someone is going to be looking out for their children. Protecting Children from Online Predators America's most precious asset is its children. The innocence of childhood provides hope for the future and refreshes and restores the ideals of this great country. However, there are those who prey upon this innocence and the Internet offers these predators unprecedented, often anonymous, access to children. John McCain has taken a hard line against pedophiles that would use the Internet to prey upon children by proposing the first-of-its-kind national online registry for persons who have been convicted of sex crimes against children. Senator McCain's legislation requires that sex offenders register all online accounts in a national database that can be used by law enforcement to investigate crimes against children. If these predators fail to register they would be sent to prison for ten years. The legislation also makes use of the Internet an "aggravating factor" in sex crimes against children, adding an additional ten years to any conviction. It is the responsibility of government to do all that can be done to protect children from predators who lurk on the Internet. The Greatest Honor is to Serve the Cause of Human Dignity There is no greater nobility than to sacrifice for a great cause and no cause greater than

protection of human dignity. Decency, human compassion, self-sacrifice and the defense of innocent life are at the core of John McCain's value system and will be the guiding principles of a McCain Presidency. "To sacrifice for a cause greater than yourself, and to sacrifice your life to the eminence of that cause, is the noblest activity of all." John McCain is the son and grandson of military officers. He served as a Navy pilot, honored to live in the company of heroes as a prisoner of war in Vietnam, and is a beloved husband and father. Senator McCain has enjoyed the quiet blessings found in serving others.

Strat eg y fo r Vi ct ory in Ir aq
Bolster Troops on the Ground A greater military commitment now is necessary if we are to achieve long-term success in Iraq. John McCain agrees with retired Army General Jack Keane that there are simply not enough American forces in Iraq. More troops are necessary to clear and hold insurgent strongholds; to provide security for rebuilding local institutions and economies; to halt sectarian violence in Baghdad and disarm Sunni and Shia militias; to dismantle al Qaeda; to train the Iraqi Army; and to embed American personnel in Iraqi police units. Accomplishing each of these goals will require more troops and is a crucial prerequisite for needed economic and political development in the country. America's ultimate strategy is to give Iraqis the capabilities to govern and secure their own country. Implement New Counterinsurgency Strategy For most of the occupation, military strategy has focused on securing all of Iraq by establishing bases and conducting short operations from them. Ultimately, this secured only small areas of the country. John McCain believes the current force structure and power vacuum persisting in many areas of the country demands a more robust counterinsurgency strategy. Iraqi and American forces must not only use force to clear areas occupied by insurgents but to stay and hold these areas to deny them as a base for insurgent forces and allow economic and political development to occur in a secure environment. By emphasizing safety of the local population, this strategy will create strongholds in which insurgents find it difficult to operate. Create the security necessary for political progress and stability John McCain believes that only by controlling the violence in Iraq can we pave the way for a political settlement. But once the Iraqi government wields greater authority, it will be incumbent upon Iraqi leaders to take significant steps on their own. These include a commitment to go after the militias, a reconciliation process for insurgents and Baathists, more equitable distribution of government resources, provincial elections that will bring Sunnis into the government, and a large increase in employment-generating economic projects.

Accelerate political and economic reconstruction in a secure environment While it is crucial to focus military efforts on insurgents, particularly against Sunni fighters using violence to strengthen their political position, John McCain believes there must be a greater emphasis on non-military components promoting economic development and representative, accountable governance. In territories newly secured by the "clear, hold, and build" counterinsurgency strategy, many of the critical steps to succeeding in Iraq can begin to be implemented. Massive reconstruction can go forward without overwhelming fear of attack and sabotage. A substantial employment program can begin to give hope and opportunity to Iraqi citizens. Political meetings and campaigning can take place more freely. Average Iraqis will be more secure as militias and terrorists are reigned in and violence reduced. All of this will help civil society to emerge and deepen. Iraqis need to see tangible improvements in their daily lives or support for the new government will falter. Sunnis need to know that if they abandon violence they will have a role in the political process, and the Shia need to know that security will be provided by coalition and government forces - not by private militias. Kurds need assurance that their gains will not be jeopardized by sectarian violence. All Iraqis must be able to look forward to a future of growing security and prosperity overseen by a competent, representative government free of corruption and sectarian conflict. Keep Senior Officers in Place The Pentagon has adopted a policy of rotating our generals in and out of Iraq almost as frequently as the rotating of troops. John McCain believes this to be a deeply flawed practice. If these are, in fact, the best leaders for the task, they should remain on the job as long as possible. These generals and other senior officers with experience possess critical situational awareness and expertise necessary to prevail. Call for International Pressure on Syria and Iran John McCain believes Syria and Iran have aided and abetted the violence in Iraq for too long. Syria has refused to crack down on Iraqi insurgents and foreign terrorists operating from within its territory. Iran has aided the most extreme and violent Shia militias, providing them with training, weapons, and technology that they have used to kill American troops. The answer is not to enter into unconditional dialogues with these two dictatorships from a position of weakness. The answer is for the international community to apply real pressure to Syria and Iran to change their behavior. The United States must also bolster its regional military posture to make clear to Iran our determination to protect our forces in Iraq and to deter Iranian intervention in that country. Win the Homefront

If efforts in Iraq do not retain the support of the American people, the war will be lost as soundly as if our forces were defeated in battle. A renewed effort at home starts with explaining precisely what is at stake in this war to ensure that Americans fully understand the high cost of a military defeat. The war in Iraq is at a crossroads and the future of the entire region is at stake - a region that produced the terrorists who attacked America on 9/11 and where much of the world's energy supplies are located. Success is essential to creating peace in the region, and failure would expose the United States to national security threats for generations. Defeat in the war would lead to much more violence in Iraq, greatly embolden Iran, undermine U.S. allies such as Israel, likely lead to wider conflict, result in a terrorist safe haven in the heart of the Middle East, and gravely damage U.S. credibility throughout the world. The American people also deserve to know that the path ahead will be long and difficult. They have heard many times that the violence in Iraq will subside soon - when a transitional government is in place, when Saddam is captured, when elections are held, when a constitution is in place. John McCain believes it is far better to describe the situation just as it is - difficult right now, but not without hope. The stakes for America could not be higher.

Bo rd er Se cur ity & I mmi grati on Re fo rm
Immigration is one of those challenging issues that touch on many aspects of American life. I have always believed that our border must be secure and that the federal government has utterly failed in its responsibility to ensure that it is secure. If we have learned anything from the recent immigration debate, it is that Americans have little trust that their government will honor a pledge to do the things necessary to make the border secure. As president, I will secure the border. I will restore the trust Americans should have in the basic competency of their government. A secure border is an essential element of our national security. Tight border security includes not just the entry and exit of people, but also the effective screening of cargo at our ports and other points of entry. But a secure border will contribute to addressing our immigration problem most effectively if we also: * Recognize the importance of building strong allies in Mexico and Latin America who reject the siren call of authoritarians like Hugo Chavez, support freedom and democracy, and seek strong domestic economies with abundant economic opportunities for their citizens. * Recognize the importance of pro-growth policies -- keeping government spending in check, holding down taxes, and cutting unnecessary regulatory burdens -- so American businesses can hire and pay the best. * Recognize the importance of a flexible labor market to keep employers in business and our economy on top. It should provide skilled Americans and immigrants with opportunity. Our education system should ensure skills for our younger workers, and our retraining and assistance programs for displaced workers must be modernized so they can pursue those

opportunities * Recognize the importance of assimilation of our immigrant population, which includes learning English, American history

and civics, and respecting the values of a democratic society. * Recognize that America will always be that "shining city upon a hill," a beacon of hope and opportunity for those seeking a better life built on hard work and optimism. Border security and our failed immigration system are more examples of an ailing Washington culture in need of reform to regain the trust of Americans. In too many areas -from immigration and pork barrel spending to Social Security, health care, energy security and tax relief -- business-as-usual politics prevents addressing the important challenges facing our nation.

Ron Paul

Bi og rap hy
Personal Birthdate: August 20, 1935 (Pittsburgh, Pa. ) Hometown: Pittsburgh, Pa. Spouse: Carol Paul Children: Five children, 17 grandchildren Religion: Protestant Education * Duke University School of Medicine, M.D., 1961 * Gettysburg College, B.A., 1957 * Dormont High School Experien ce Military Service: * Flight Surgeon, United States Air National Guard, 1965-1968 * Flight Surgeon, United States Air Force, 1963-1965 Businesses Owned, Past Careers, Board Memberships, Etc.: * Practicing physician specializing in obstetrics, 1968-1996 * Distinguished counselor to the Ludwig von Mises Institute Public Service / Elected Offices: * U.S. House of Representatives, 14th district of Texas, 1997-present * U.S. House of Representatives, 22nd district of Texas, 1979-1985 * Libertarian candidate for president, 1988

Is sue s Bor der Se curit y an d Im mi gr ation R ef or m
The talk must stop. We must secure our borders now. A nation without secure borders is no nation at all. It makes no sense to fight terrorists abroad when our own front door is left unlocked. This is my six point plan: * Physically secure our borders and coastlines. We must do whatever it takes to control

entry into our country before we undertake complicated immigration reform proposals. * Enforce visa rules. Immigration officials must track visa holders and deport anyone who overstays their visa or otherwise violates U.S. law. This is especially important when we recall that a number of 9/11 terrorists had expired visas. * No amnesty. Estimates suggest that 10 to 20 million people are in our country illegally. That’s a lot of people to reward for breaking our laws. * No welfare for illegal aliens. Americans have welcomed immigrants who seek opportunity, work hard, and play by the rules. But taxpayers should not pay for illegal immigrants who use hospitals, clinics, schools, roads, and social services. * End birthright citizenship. As long as illegal immigrants know their children born here will be citizens, the incentive to enter the U.S. illegally will remain strong. * Pass true immigration reform. The current system is incoherent and unfair. But current reform proposals would allow up to 60 million more immigrants into our country, according to the Heritage Foundation. This is insanity. Legal immigrants from all countries should face the same rules and waiting periods.

Wa r an d For ei gn P oli cy
The war in Iraq was sold to us with false information. The area is more dangerous now than when we entered it. We destroyed a regime hated by our direct enemies, the jihadists, and created thousands of new recruits for them. This war has cost more than 3,000 American lives, thousands of seriously wounded, and hundreds of billions of dollars. We must have new leadership in the White House to ensure this never happens again. Both Jefferson and Washington warned us about entangling ourselves in the affairs of other nations. Today, we have troops in 130 countries. We are spread so thin that we have too few troops defending America. And now, there are new calls for a draft of our young men and women. We can continue to fund and fight no-win police actions around the globe, or we can refocus on securing America and bring the troops home. No war should ever be fought without a declaration of war voted upon by the Congress, as required by the Constitution. Under no circumstances should the U.S. again go to war as the result of a resolution that comes from an unelected, foreign body, such as the United Nations. Too often we give foreign aid and intervene on behalf of governments that are despised. Then, we become despised. Too often we have supported those who turn on us, like the Kosovars who aid Islamic terrorists, or the Afghan jihadists themselves, and their friend Osama bin Laden. We armed and trained them, and now we’re paying the price. At the same time, we must not isolate ourselves. The generosity of the American people has been felt around the globe. Many have thanked God for it, in many languages. Let us have a strong America, conducting open trade, travel, communication, and diplomacy with other nations.

Healt h Fre edo m
Americans are justifiably concerned over the government’s escalating intervention into their freedom to choose what they eat and how they take care of their health. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA), in order to comply with standards dictated by supra-national organizations such as the UN‘s World Food Code (CODEX), NAFTA, and CAFTA, has been assuming greater control over nutrients, vitamins and natural health care providers to restrict your right to choose the manner in which you manage your health and nutritional needs. I have been the national leader in preserving Health Freedom. I have introduced the Health Freedom Protection Act, HR 2117, to ensure Americans can receive truthful health information about supplements and natural remedies. I support the Access to Medical Treatment Act, H.R. 2717, which expands the ability of Americans to use alternative medicine and new treatments. I oppose legislation that increases the FDA‘s legal powers. FDA has consistently failed to protect the public from dangerous drugs, genetically modified foods, dangerous pesticides and other chemicals in the food supply. Meanwhile they waste public funds attacking safe, healthy foods and dietary supplements I also opposed the Homeland Security Bill, H.R. 5005, which, in section 304, authorizes the forced vaccination of American citizens against small pox. The government should never have the power to require immunizations or vaccinations.

Li fe and Li be rty

The right of an innocent, unborn child to life is at the heart of the American ideals of liberty. My professional and legislative record demonstrates my strong commitment to this pro-life principle. In 40 years of medical practice, I never once considered performing an abortion, nor did I ever find abortion necessary to save the life of a pregnant woman. In Congress, I have authored legislation that seeks to define life as beginning at conception, HR 1094. I am also the prime sponsor of HR 300, which would negate the effect of Roe v Wade by removing the ability of federal courts to interfere with state legislation to protect life. This is a practical, direct approach to ending federal court tyranny which threatens our constitutional republic and has caused the deaths of 45 million of the unborn. I have also authored HR 1095, which prevents federal funds to be used for so-called “population control.” Many talk about being pro-life. I have taken direct action to restore protection for the unborn.

As an OB/GYN doctor, I’ve delivered over 4,000 babies. That experience has made me an unshakable foe of abortion. Many of you may have read my book, Challenge To Liberty, which champions the idea that there cannot be liberty in a society unless the rights of all innocents are protected. Much can be understood about the civility of a society in observing its regard for the dignity of human life.

Socia l S ecu rity
Our nation’s promise to its seniors, once considered a sacred trust, has become little more than a tool for politicians to scare retirees while robbing them of their promised benefits. Today, the Social Security system is broke and broken. Those in the system are seeing their benefits dwindle due to higher taxes, increasing inflation, and irresponsible public spending. The proposed solutions, ranging from lower benefits to higher taxes to increasing the age of eligibility, are NOT solutions; they are betrayals. Imposing any tax on Social Security benefits is unfair and illogical. In Congress, I have introduced the Senior Citizens Tax Elimination Act (H.R. 191), which repeals ALL taxes on Social Security benefits, to eliminate political theft of our seniors’ income and raise their standard of living. Solvency is the key to keeping our promise to our seniors, and I have introduced the Social Security Preservation Act (H.R. 219) to ensure that money paid into the system is only used for Social Security. It is fundamentally unfair to give benefits to anyone who has not paid into the system. The Social Security for Americans Only Act (H.R. 190) ends the drain on Social Security caused by illegal aliens seeking the fruits of your labor. We must also address the desire of younger workers to save and invest on their own. We should cut payroll taxes and give workers the opportunity to seek better returns in the private market. Excessive government spending has created the insolvency crisis in Social Security. We must significantly reduce spending so that our nation can keep its promise to our seniors.

Mitt Romney

Bi og rap hy
Personal Birthdate: March 12, 1947 (Detroit, Mich.) Hometown: Bloomfield Hills, Mich. Spouse: Ann Romney Children: Tagg Romney, Matt Romney, Josh Romney, Ben Romney, Craig Romney Religion: Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Education * Harvard Business School, M.B.A, 1975 * Harvard Law School, J.D. * Brigham Young University, B.A., 1971 * Cranbrook School Experien ce Businesses Owned, Past Careers, Board Memberships, Etc.: * Bain Capital, founded by Romney in 1984 * Salt Lake Organizing Committee (2002 winter Olympics) * Bain & Co. vice president, 1978-1984 Public Service / Elected Offices: * Governor of Massachusetts, 2003-2007 * Chairman, Republican Governors Association

Is sue s Ir an:
There are few more urgent priorities for our nation than confronting Iran's dangerous nuclear program and support of terrorist groups targeting Americans. Governor Romney has led efforts to stand up to an Iranian regime that threatens America, Israel, and ultimately the world. At the 2007 Herzliya Conference in Israel, Governor Romney laid out a comprehensive, five point strategy for dealing with Iran. Specifically, we must: - First, continue to tighten economic sanctions.

- Second, impose diplomatic isolation on Iran's Government. - Third, have Arab states join this effort to prevent a nuclear Iran. - Fourth, make it clear that while nuclear capabilities may be a source of pride, it can also be a source of peril. The military option remains on the table. - Fifth, integrate our strategy into a broader approach to the broader Muslim world-including working with our NATO allies and with progressive Muslim communities and leaders to build a partnership for prosperity. Governor Romney has taken concrete action to confront this threat. As Governor, he denied state police security for former Iranian President Khatami's visit to Harvard. He has personally and repeatedly led efforts and called on numerous private sector and state officials to strategically divest from Iran and cut off the resources Iran uses to fuel terror. No state could have a bigger impact on this effort than New York - the world's financial center, site of the tragic attacks on 9/11, and home of some of America's largest pension funds. After a new state comptroller responsible for New York pension funds was named in February 2007, Governor Romney wrote New York's Comptroller, Senators Clinton and Schumer, and Governor Spitzer calling on them to join this effort and terminate investments that support the Iranian regime and its nuclear and terrorist activities.

Im mi gr ation
Immigration has been an important part of our nation's success. The current system, however, puts up a concrete wall to the best and brightest, yet those without skill or education are able to walk across the border. We must reform the current immigration laws so we can secure our borders, implement a mandatory biometrically enabled, tamper proof documentation and employment verification system, and increase legal immigration into America.

We must become independent from foreign sources of oil. This will mean a combination of efforts related to conservation and efficiency measures, developing alternative sources of energy like biodiesel, ethanol, nuclear, and coal gasification, and finding more domestic sources of oil such as in ANWR or the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS).

Ene rg y

Am er ic a’ s Cultu re an d Valu es
American values are at the heart of America's historic rise to world leadership. These include, among others, respect for hard work, sacrifice, civility, love of family, respect for life, education and love of freedom. To remain a superpower in the world we must continuously and vigorously reaffirm these key components that have led to America's greatness as a country. "I am pro-life. I believe that abortion is the wrong choice except in cases of incest, rape, and

to save the life of the mother. I wish the people of America agreed, and that the laws of our nation could reflect that view. But while the nation remains so divided over abortion, I believe that the states, through the democratic process, should determine their own abortion laws and not have them dictated by judicial mandate." - Governor Romney

Hea lth ca re
The health of our nation can be improved by extending health insurance to all Americans, not through a government program or new taxes, but through market reforms. "We can't have as a nation 40 million people -- or, in my state, half a million -- saying, 'I don't have insurance, and if I get sick, I want someone else to pay." - Governor Romney "It's a conservative idea," says Romney, "insisting that individuals have responsibility for their own health care. I think it appeals to people on both sides of the aisle: insurance for everyone without a tax increase." - Governor Romney

Edu cati on

Today's schools are falling further and further behind world standards. It is time to raise the bar on education by making teaching a true profession, measuring progress, providing a focus on math and science, and involving parents from the beginning of a child's school career. "We cannot continue to have an excellence gap with the rest of the world and intend to remain the economic superpower and military superpower of the planet. That's just not going to happen," Romney said. "We're in a position where unless we take action, we'll end up being the France of the 21st century: a lot of talk, but not a lot of strength behind it in terms of economic capability." - Governor Romney

Tom Tancredo

Bi og rap hy
Perso nal Birthdate: December 20, 1945 (Denver, Colo.) Hometown: Broomfield, Colo. Spouse: Jackie Tancredo Religion: Evangelical Presbyterian Education * University of Northern Colorado, B.A., 1968 * Holy Family High School Experience Businesses Owned, Past Careers, Board Memberships, Etc.: * Teacher, Drake Junior High School Public Service / Elected Offices: * Representative, United States House of Representatives, 1999-present * Secretary of Education Regional Representative, 1981-1992 * Colorado State Legislature, 1976-1981

Issu es

Imm ig rati on
Illegal aliens threaten our economy and undermine our culture. While our brave soldiers risk their lives to protect us overseas, our political elites lack the courage to defend us at home. I am 100% opposed to amnesty. As President, I will secure our borders so illegal aliens do not come, and I will eliminate benefits and job prospects so they do not stay.

Pre ser ving Lif e

The innocent unborn enjoy a God given right to life. Roe is a scar on the moral and intellectual history of the country; but, contrary to popular belief, overturning it would merely permit and not require states to prohibit abortion. To protect life, we also need to educate the public about the second victim of abortion, the mother who is subject to potential life long medical and emotional scarring. .

Inc om e T ax

A growing chorus of economists and experts argue, and I agree, that the current income tax system is complex and unfair and should be replaced by a flat tax or national sales tax. That's why I co-sponsored the FairTax legislation. Simplifying the process would dramatically reduce the costs of compliance, make American companies more competitive, and put billions back into the economy by encouraging investment.

Ira q

America's noble sacrifice has purchased Iraqis a precious opportunity for democratic change; it is now up to them to ensure success. Setting the President's November benchmark for shifting control as an actual timetable for disengagement will let regional powers and Iraqi factions cooperate to forge a new balance of power.

Socia l S ecu rity

There is no question that the system is broken. Projections show that by 2016, the only way to avert its collapse will be deep cuts in benefits, heavy borrowing, or substantial tax hikes. The best suggestion I have heard is to switch from a defined benefits approach to a defined contribution approach with payroll tax funded private investment accounts. These accounts would be made available to young workers and function similarly to 401Ks.

Edu cati on
I spent a decade as the Department of Education's regional representative in Denver so I do not say this lightly. Federal involvement should be limited. Educational control is best left in the hands of parents. A no-strings-attached voucher system would promote school choice,

while competition for students would drive educational improvements at the institutional level. I also suggest schools return to a more traditional course of study and that the public focus shift to certain non-school factors, like parental involvement, which studies show are the most important determinants of student performance.

Healt hc ar e
The two major problems are the high cost of care and the number of uninsured. Tort reform and immigration enforcement would save the system billions and drive down costs. In California alone, illegal immigrants cost the system $800 million annually and have forced 84 hospitals to close. As for the uninsured: as many as 25% of them are illegal aliens and should be deported or encouraged to leave. For citizens and legal residents who are employed by businesses which cannot afford coverage, I favor association health plans which band small businesses together to access lower cost insurance. For those out of work, state governments should be the primary source of relief, although I would not rule out federal incentives or limited subsidies to make sure families who have fallen on hard times are not without coverage.

Bud ge t
The federal government is in debt because it spends too much, not because it taxes people too little. Government spending is classified as either discretionary or mandatory. Discretionary spending includes funds for things like the military and is explicitly set by Congress on an annual basis. But the major culprit in ballooning budgets is mandatory spending for entitlement programs like medicare, expenditures which are determined by the number of beneficiaries. The only way to control the budget is to reform the entitlement programs that mandatory spending funds. Those decisions on how to allocate resources are as economically necessary as they are politically and ethically difficult.

Homeland security plans which do not include enforcing our immigration laws and securing our borders are entirely inadequate. A CIS study of 94 terrorists prosecuted for their crimes in the U.S., found that nearly two thirds had committed immigration fraud. It is difficult then to justify the rigor, expense, and inconvenience of new safety measures at our airports and harbors, while leaving the door open for terrorists to slip across our southern border undetected.

Ho me land S ecu rity

Gay M ar riag e
Federalism concerns make a constitutional amendment protecting traditional marriage an avenue of last resort, Unfortunately, intellectually dishonest activist judges have left us no choice.

Activist courts have ignored the principal legal argument that the state's interest in marriage is procreation. Population is power. Society needs a young generation to defend the country in battle, to support its programs with taxes and to carry on its culture and traditions. The mere fact that two people are in a loving relationship does not matter to the state. Society supports traditional marriage because it is the only union which, in the ordinary course, leads to children, without the intervention of a third party.

Fred Thompson

Bi og rap hy
Personal Birthdate: August 19, 1942 (Sheffield, Ala.) Hometown: Lawrenceburg, Tenn. Spouse: Jeri Kehn Thompson

Children: Tony Thompson, Daniel Thompson, Hayden Victoria Thompson, Betsy Thompson (died in 2002), Samuel Thompson Religion: Protestant Education * Vanderbilt University, J.D., 1967 * Memphis State University, B.A., 1964 Experience Businesses Owned, Past Careers, Board Memberships, Etc.: * Fellow, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, present * Lobbyist, 2004-2006 * Arthur Branch, "Law and Order," 2002-present * White House Chief of Staff Harry Sargent, "In the Line of Fire," 1993 * Admiral Joshua Painter, "The Hunt for Red October," 1990 * Trudeau, "Die Hard 2," 1990 * Himself, "Marie," 1985 * Lawyer and Lobbyist, 1975-1993 Public Service / Elected Offices: * Senator, United States Senate, 1994-2003 * Member, Tennessee Appellate Court Nominating Commission, 1985-1987 * Special Counsel, Senate Intelligence Committee, 1982 * Special Counsel, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 1980-1981 * Committee Member, Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities ("Watergate Committee"), 1973-1974 * Assistant U.S. Attorney, 1969-1972

Is sue s
The first responsibility of government is to protect the American people, the homeland, and our way of life. Today we face the urgent threat of radical Islamic terrorists. Al Qaeda is committed to attacking us here at home, and wants to use weapons of mass destruction (WMD) to kill millions. We must never give them that opportunity. We must defeat the terrorists abroad, and that begins in Iraq and Afghanistan—the central fronts in this global war. We must show the world we have the will to fight and win. A weakened America - or an America that appears weaker - will only encourage further attacks. We must persevere. As Commander-in-Chief, the president must ensure the United States has the means to achieve victory. Presidential leadership requires talking to the American people about these stakes, mapping out a clear vision for success, and devising a comprehensive strategy for

Na tional S ecu rity

achieving it. I am committed to: * A larger, more capable, and more modern military that can defeat terrorists, deter adversaries, and defend the U.S. and our interests. * A missile defense system that can protect the U.S. and our allies from long-range ballistic missiles. * An enhanced intelligence community, with robust human-intelligence capabilities, focused on terrorism and proliferation. * A robust approach to homeland security that will protect our nation from terrorists and WMD, regardless of where they come from. * A strengthened system of global alliances to better combat terrorists, proliferators, and traditional threats to our interests. * A judicial system that deals with the realities of terrorists and unlawful enemy combatants.

Fe de ra l Bu dg et an d Spend ing/ Bud ge tar y Re fo rm
In a few short years—not a generation from now—a fiscal tsunami that could imperil our security and economic prosperity will hit our nation and place an unfair burden of debt on our children and grandchildren. The tens of trillions of dollars in debt that will be accumulated over the next few decades will do immense harm to our economy. This burden is now estimated at $170,000 per person and $440,000 per family. Time is running out to address this looming crisis. We need market-based approaches to reform that guarantee benefits for those who need them and embrace personal responsibility and cost-effectiveness without raising taxes. Given the scope and urgency of this problem, and the burden it will place on our children, reform is not only an economic necessity, it is a moral imperative that requires action now. I am committed to: * Opening the government’s fiscal books on this looming crisis for all to see and understand. * Working with individuals of all political persuasions to develop a comprehensive solution to the pending fiscal crisis. * Leading and making the hard choices necessary, to include cutting wasteful government spending, to safeguard our security, promote our prosperity, and protect our children and grandchildren from fiscal calamity.

Americans have the best healthcare in the world. Some, however, choose not be insured; others cannot afford it. Every American should be able to get health insurance coverage that

He alth ca re

is affordable, fully accessible, and portable. Coverage should meet their individual needs and put them in control. Those who propose a one-size-fits-all Washington-controlled program ignore the cost, inefficiency, and inadequate care that such a system offers. Access to affordable, portable health care can be made available for all Americans without imposing new mandates or raising taxes. Current government programs must also be streamlined and improved so that those who truly need help can get the health care they need. I am committed to a healthcare system that: * Realigns programs and creates a system around individual consumers and patients by providing more information and more opportunities to choose affordable health care options that best meet their needs and those of their families. * Improves the individual health of all Americans by shifting to a system that promotes cost-effective prevention, chronic-care management, and personal responsibility * Modernizes delivery and administration of care by encouraging the widespread use of clinical best practices, medical information technology, and other innovations. * Increases competition and consumer choice while streamlining regulations through freemarket solutions that benefit individuals and reduce costs for employers. * Promotes and speeds medical research and life-sciences innovation.

I mmi gra tion
The United States is a nation of immigrants. Throughout our history, legal immigrants have brought energy, ideas, strength, and diversity to our country, our economy, and our culture. This must continue. But in the post-9/11 world, immigration is more of a national security issue. A government that cannot secure its borders and determine who may enter and who may not, abrogates a fundamental responsibility. I am committed to: * Securing our borders and enforcing immigration laws. Amnesty is not an option and the toleration of “sanctuary cities” must end. * Reviewing our immigration laws and policies to ensure they advance our national interests. * Uniting Americans by welcoming legal immigrants willing to learn English, assimilate into our communities, and become productive citizens.

A well-educated citizenry is vital to our security, our economy, and our democracy. Despite the tens of billions of dollars spent on education by Washington each year, and the hundreds of federal education programs now in place, our children are still falling behind, particularly in subjects crucial to the global economy in which we live. At a time when America is behind other developed countries in education excellence, the federal role in education is too intrusive and too bureaucratic, and has become part of the problem. State and local

Ed uc ation

governments are closest to the parents, the kids, and the schools, and best situated to implement changes and innovations that best educate children. I am committed to: * Giving parents more choices in education and schools less bureaucracy. * Reviewing federal programs for cost-effectiveness, reducing federal mandates, returning education money to the states, and empowering parents by promoting voucher programs, charter schools, and other innovations that enhance education excellence through competition and choice. * Encouraging students and teachers to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering, and math—fields that are crucial to our security, competitiveness, and prosperity. * Promoting transparency to assess performance, promote accountability, and share innovations in education at all levels.

En er gy S ecu rity
The energy challenges our nation faces today are real and significant. Our dependence on foreign sources of oil threatens our national security and puts our economic prosperity at risk. America must rise to the challenge and take the steps necessary to become more energy independent before this becomes a crisis. No one solution will solve the energy challenges we face; all ideas must be on the table. Greater energy security will enhance our ability to pursue our foreign policy and national security objectives. Increasing our energy independence and investing in alternative energy sources will also produce a healthier environment. And while we don’t know for certain how or why climate change is occurring, it makes sense to take reasonable steps to reduce CO2 emissions without harming our economy. Overall, I am committed to: * A balanced approach to energy security that increases domestic supplies, reduces demand for oil and gas, and promotes alternative fuels and other diverse energy sources. * Investing in renewable and alternative fuels to promote greater energy independence and a cleaner environment. * An energy policy that invests in the advanced technologies of tomorrow and places more emphasis on conservation and energy efficiency. * Conducting research and development into technologies that improve the environment, especially the reduction of CO2 emissions.

Ralph Nader
Nader graduated from Princeton University in 1955 and Harvard Law School in 1958. He served in the United States Army for six months in 1959, then began work as a lawyer in Hartford, Connecticut. Between 1961 and 1963, he was a Professor of History and Government at the University of Hartford. In 1964, Nader moved to Washington, D.C., where he worked for Assistant Secretary of Labor Daniel Patrick Moynihan. He also advised a United States Senate subcommittee on car safety. In the early 1980s, Nader spearheaded a powerful lobby against FDA approval of mass-scale experimentation of artificial lens implants. Nader also served as a faculty member at The American University Washington College of Law.

Is sue s Re sto rati on and Expan si on o f Civil Li be rti es & Con stituti onal Ri ght s
Civil liberties and due process of law are eroding due to the “war on terrorism” and new technology that allows easy invasion of privacy. Americans of Arab descent and MuslimAmericans are feeling the brunt of these dragnet, arbitrary practices. Mr. Nader supports the restoration of civil liberties, repeal of the Patriot Act, and an end to secret detentions, arrests without charges, no access to attorneys and the use of secret “evidence,” military tribunals for civilians, non-combatant status and the shredding of “probable cause” determinations.

They represent a perilous diminishment of judicial authority in favor of concentrated power in the executive branch. Sloppy law enforcement, dragnet practices are wasteful and reduce the likelihood of apprehending violent criminals. Mr. Nader seeks to expand civil liberties to include basic human rights in employment and truly equal rights regardless of gender, sexual orientation, race or religion.

Edu cati on for E ve ry on e
Education is primarily the responsibility of state and local governments. The federal government has a critical supporting role to play in ensuring that all children -- irrespective of the income of their parents, or their race -- are provided with rich learning environments and equal educational opportunities and upgraded repaired school buildings. The government has an important role to play in keeping undermining influences out of the public schools -- among them, commercialism and private school voucher programs. The federal government must not impose an overemphasis on high-stakes standardized tests. Such testing has a negative impact on student learning, curriculum and teaching by resulting in excessive time devoted to narrow test participation, de-enrichment of the curriculum, false accountability, equity and cultural bias, excessive use of financial resources for testing among other problems. Federal law should be transformed to one that supports teachers and students; from one that relies primarily on standardized tests and punishment. And the government should encourage schools to infuse their curriculum with civic experiences that teaches students both how to connect classroom learning to the outside world and how to practice democracy.

A "Re al Worl d" En vir onm ent al P oli cy

The epidemic of silent environmental violence continues. Whether it is the 65,000 Americans who die every year from air pollution, or the 80,000 estimated annual fatalities from hospital malpractice, or the 100,000 Americans whose demise comes from occupational toxic exposures or the cruel environmental racism where the poor and their often asthmatic children live in pollution sinks located near toxic hot spots that are never situated in shrubbered suburbs, to cite a few preventable conditions. Now, as the evidence of global warming mounts it is evident that we threaten the global environment with tremendous economic threats facing humanity including bankrupting the reinsurance industry, the spread of infectious tropical diseases, massive ecological disruption and increased severe and unpredictable weather, all of which will significantly impact commerce, agriculture and communities across America. Toxic standards need to be strengthened. Currently toxic standards are designed for adults not for more vulnerable children, this should be reversed. We need to make environmental protection a priority for our energy, trade, industrial, agricultural, transportation, development and land use policies, indeed protecting the environment must be weaved throughout our governance.

A Fed er al Bu dg et th at Puts Hu man Ne ed s Be fo re Co rpo rat e Gr ee d an d Milita ris m

The United States needs a redirected federal budget that adequately funds the crucial priorities like infrastructure, transit and other public works, schools, clinics, libraries, forests, parks, sustainable energy and pollution controls. The budget should move away from the deeply documented and criticized (by the US General Accounting Office, retired Admirals and Generals and others) wasteful, redundant “military industrial complex” as President Eisenhower called it, as well as corporate welfare and tax cuts for the wealthy that expand the divide between the luxuries of the rich and the necessities of the poor and middle class.

Hea lth Car e fo r All
The state of health care in the United States is a disgrace. For millions of Americans it is a struggle between life, health and money. The Nader Campaign supports a single-payer health care plan that replaces for-profit, investor-owned health care and removes the private health insurance industry (full Medicare for all). This approach is supported by Physicians for a National Health Program (PNHP); the American Nurses Association; the U.S. Labor Party; the California Nurses Association; the National Association of Social Workers; the Associations of Physicians Assistants; and the National Association of Midwives, among others. The United States spends far more on health care than any other country in the world, but ranks only 37th in the overall quality of health care it provides, according to the World Health Organization. The U.S. is the only industrialized country that does not provide universal health care. More than 44.3 million Americans have no health insurance, and tens of millions more are underinsured. Private corporations pay less than 20% of health costs. Thus, even if you have insurance, you may not be able to afford the care you need, and some treatments may not be covered at all. For a family living on the edge financially and facing the onset of a serious illness or disabling injury, a lack of health insurance can trigger bankruptcy or even homelessness. Homelessness only leads to more health care problems—a world of inadequate hygiene, communicable diseases, exposure to the elements, violence, and emotional trauma. Studies by the National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine find that the homeless are far more likely to suffer from chronic medical conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and asthma. The Nader Campaign favors replacing our fragmented, market-based system with a singlepayer health plan - where the government finances health care, but keeps the delivery of health care to private non-profits, and allows free choice of doctors and hospitals for patients. The U.S. health care system has many grave faults that could be remedied by a system of universal coverage, including serious gaps in coverage for: prescription drugs and medical supplies; dental, vision, and hearing care; long-term care; mental health care; preventive care for children; and treatment for substance abuse. A recent study by National Academy of

Sciences' Institute of Medicine estimates that 18,000 25- to 64-year-old Americans die every year as a result of lack of coverage. That is 18,000 human beings every year, not counting younger Americans.

Imm ig rati on
Immigration presents challenges and opportunities for the United States. According the U.S. Census Bureau the United States is undergoing an unprecedented wave of immigration. According to the Census, during the 1990s, an average of more than 1.3 million immigrants — legal and illegal — settled in the United States each year. In less than 50 years, the U.S. Census Bureau projects that immigration will cause the population of the United States to increase from its present 288 million to more than 400 million. According to the US Census Bureau, the foreign-born population of the United States is currently 33.1 million. This is unparalleled in American history. It is more than triple the 9.6 million in 1970 and more than double the 14.1 million in 1980. Of this total, the Census Bureau estimates 8-9 million are illegal immigrants. The 57 percent increase from 19.8 million in 1990 to 31.1 million in 2000, is also without precedent in our history, both numerically and proportionately. Even during the great wave of immigration from 1900 to 1910, the foreign-born population grew by only 3.2 million (or 31 percent), from 10.3 million to 13.5 million. However, as a percentage of the U.S. population immigrants are half of the well over 20% of the U.S. population that immigrants constituted in 1912 - the actual highpoint of immigrant presence in the U.S. The Census Bureau estimates are conservative, other estimates indicate a considerably higher number of illegal immigrants. The Immigration and Nationality Act allows approximately 800,000 people to settle here each year as permanent residents including about 480,000 who are admitted to reunite with their spouses, children, parents and/or siblings; about 140,000 who are admitted to fill jobs for which the U.S. Department of Labor has determined no American workers are available; about 110,000 refugees who have proven their claims of political or religious persecution in their homelands; and about 55,000 who are admitted under a "diversity" lottery, begun in 1990, that mainly benefits young European and African immigrants. Immigration has major implications for the United States creating costs and benefits for our country. We need a more vigorous debate on immigration policies and how it intersects with other policy choices we make. Immigration issues relate to our foreign policy – particularly U.S. support for dictators and oligarchs or trade policy which re-enforces low paid labor and blocks the power of trade unions. It also relates to our domestic policies – low wages for many U.S. workers, rising poverty, providing social and health services, housing and security. Immigration links to all these issues. As long as our foreign policy supports dictators and oligarchs south of our borders, there are going to be desperate, oppressed people moving north over our border where employers like

Tysons Foods illegally employ them at very low wages but even these low wage jobs are many times what would be made in Mexico. Since 1985, U.S. spending on border enforcement has increased by a factor of six, the number of U.S. border patrol agents doubled and hours spent patrolling the borders tripled. The U.S. Border Patrol has a budget well in excess of $1 billion annually. But even with all of this expansion illegal immigration continues to expand. While the gap in wages between the United States and poor countries is vast, serious students of immigration point out that only a tiny percentage of people from any nation ever choose to emigrate from their homes: it is rarely the poorest who do so since they lack the necessary resources and contacts. Immigration is a process caused not by attraction of higher wages alone - since much of India, Mexico and China would have emptied into the United States were this the case and they clearly have not - but primarily caused by the inability of people to continue to live decently in their home countries. In the days of the great Ellis Island immigrations from Europe, this was due in large part to the privatization of common lands throughout the Continent and the flood of cheap American grain driving farmers out of business. (While economics was a major factor other issues included religious and political oppression.) In our day this is primarily the result of the policies of NAFTA, the WTO, the Structural Adjustment Programs of the IMF and World Bank and the predatory policies of multinational corporations. Part of the problem involves NAFTA. For example, the flood of cheap corn and other commodities into Mexico has dispossessed over a million Mexican farmers, and with their families, they either go to the urban slums or, in their desperation, head north. The United States should not be in the business of Brain Draining skilled talent, especially from developing countries. We are importing the best engineers, scientists, software people, doctors, entrepreneurs who should be in their countries, building their own countries. The long term solution to immigration is reducing the rich poor divide between the United States and other nations by peacefully supporting democratic movements. In addition to this being a long-standing brain drain of developing countries, often it undermines employment in the U.S. We have got many unemployed software people here. Regarding manual labor, the Wall Street Journal editors are for near open-borders policy in large part because they want a cheap wage policy. Bringing in cheap labor to the United States reduces wages here – immigration increases the supply of U.S. labor, reduces wages and makes jobs more scarce especially for people at the bottom of the labor market – immigrants are 60 percent more likely to be employed in low-skilled occupations than are native-born workers. When the average American wage exceeds the average Mexican wage by more than a factor of ten, even the most menial American job can be a strong reason to emigrate. In addition to driving down wages, immigration adds to the expansion of poverty in the U.S. The gap between the immigrant and native poverty rates is widening – with poverty among immigrants tripling between 1979 and 1997. If there were a living wage than many of the 15 million unemployed, underemployed and those who have given up looking for employment would be willing to take the jobs that are now often only taken by

immigrants. There are two ways to deal with these issues. First, raise the minimum wage to the purchasing power level of 1968 $8 per hour and then, in another two years, raise it to $10 an hour. Since 1968 the U.S. economy has doubled in production per capita. We need to ensure a living wage in the United States for full-time workers and their families. Currently, 47 million full-time workers work for less than a living wage. Second, we need to enforce the law against employers. It is hard to blame desperately poor people who want to feed their families and are willing to work hard to do so. You have to start with Washington and Wall Street. Enforcement is nearly non-existent – so much so that it has become a conscious policy to ignore both the labor and immigration laws by successive Republican and Democratic Administrations, including not enforcing laws against cruel sweatshops in the United States from New York City to Los Angeles. Such is the power of employers. Immigrant workers, even if they are undocumented, should be given all the fair-labor standards and all the rights and benefits of American workers. In addition they should be be allowed to get a drivers license in order to reduce hazards on the highway and allow them to function in our culture, e.g. get to work, get their children to school. If this country doesn't like that, maybe it will do something about the immigration laws. But we cannot treat undocumented immigrants as subjects for inhumanity. Regarding amnesty, this is very difficult issue because it gives a green light to cross the border illegally. Many are concerned with the issue of amnesty because then the question is how do you prevent the next wave and the next? I like the idea of giving workers and children equal rights – they are working, they are having their taxes withheld, they are performing a valuable service for their employers and customers even though they are illegally here it is humane. There is no alternative except allowing crueler exploitation, poverty, disease and their consequences for the general public. If that produces enough outrage to raise the immigration issue to a high level of visibility for public debate, that would be a good thing. There is no evidence that an amnesty for those already present and working constitutes an attraction to would-be immigrants outside the country: again, even from Mexico the immigrants constitute a relatively small percentage of the poor population of that country. We must leave aside the fiction that everyone in the world seeks to live in the United States: people love their homes and leave them, at great risk, only as acts of desperation when their previous way of making a living has become impossible. We in the United States have a special responsibility to those who have come here since it so often been our own government and corporations that have ruined the livelihoods and homes of immigrant workers, and to those in foreign lands that they will not have to make the same choice themselves. Changing these policies is the best way to limit further immigration to levels that are in the interests of both the U.S. and poor nations, and an amnesty for those who are already here is the least we can do as reparations to those whose lives our government has directly or indirectly wrecked.

Indeed, in decisions spanning over a century, the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that the Constitution applies to every person within U.S. borders, including "aliens whose presence in this country is unlawful." On the other hand, the Court has said that the federal government has the power to decide who to let into the country and under what circumstances. But once here, even undocumented immigrants have the right to freedom of speech and religion, the right to be treated fairly, the right to privacy, and some of the other fundamental rights U.S. citizens enjoy. Regarding deportation, the U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that the INS may not deport someone without a hearing that satisfies due process. According to the ACLU, most people facing deportation are entitled to: * a hearing before an immigration judge and review, in most cases, by a federal court; * representation by a lawyer (but not at government expense); * reasonable notice of charges, and of a hearing's time and place;

* a reasona ble oppor tun it y to exam ine the

evidence and the governmen t's wi tnes ses;
* competent interpretation for non-English speaking immigrants, and * clear and convincing proof that the government's grounds for deportation are valid. We have to control our immigration and our borders. We have to limit the number of people who come into this country illegally and see if a Canadian type temporary permit system can work for seasonal jobs. Regarding "Limited Duration Admissions," the 1997 report of the U.S. Commission on Immigration Reform said: Persons come to the United States for limited duration stays for several principal purposes: representation of a foreign government or other foreign entities; work; study; and shortterm visits for commercial or personal purposes, such as tourism and family visits. These individuals are statutorily referred to as "nonimmigrants." In this report, however, we refer to "limited duration admissions [LDAs]," a term that better captures the nature of their admission: When the original admission expires, the alien must either leave the country or meet the criteria for a new LDA or permanent

residence. For the most part LDAs help enhance our scientific, cultural, educational, and economic strength. However, the admission of LDAs is not without costs and, as explained below, certain reforms are needed to make the system even more advantageous for the United States than it now is. eves LDA policy should rest on th e fol lowing prin ciples: * Clear goals and priori ties; * Sys temati c and c om prehensible o rganiz ation of LDA ca tegories; * Timeline ss, efficiency, and flexibility in its im plementa tion; * Co mpliance wit h th e conditions for en try and exit (and effective me chanisms t o moni tor and enfor ce this c om pli ance); * Credible and real isti c policies gover ning transition from LDA to p ermanent i mmigration status; * P rote ction of U.S. wo rkers from u nfa ir com petition and of foreign w orkers fro m exploita tion and abuse; and * Ap propriate a ttention t o LDA p rovisions in t rade nego tiations t o ensure future i mmigration reforms are not un kno wing ly foreclosed. Im migration is a c halleng ing issue t ha t mus t be ad dressed in a mo re co hesive w ay t han h as been suggested by President Bush. We need to address econo mic jus tice in the Uni ted S tates and t he w orld and re cognize the basic h uman rig hts of al l peo ple. The Co mmission beli

1. Develop ment of an ap propriate interna tional pea ce- keeping for ce: Under t he auspi ces of t he United Nations an inter national pea ce keeping force, fro m neutral nations wi th su ch e xperience and from Is lami c coun tries, s hould be assembled immediately to re place all US troo ps and ci vi lian military con trac tors doing ma ny j obs t he Ar my used t o do

Na de r put for wa rd a th re e- st ep pro ce ss fo r r em oval of US tr oop s .

more efficiently. "Former General Wesle y Clark described t he Bush administration's foreign policy as 'co wboy unilateral ism t ha t goes against everyt hing th e United S tates is supposed to re present t o the world, ' noted Nader. "I t is t ime for th e US to re turn to t he family of na tions. The US will h ave to under write a sign ificant p ortion of t his less ex pensive shor t- term pea cekeeping force sin ce i t was George W. Bush's ille gal invasion and oc cupation of Iraq th at has le d to t his quagmire." 2. S uppor t Iraqi self rule and free and fair elections: Free and fair elections s hould be held as soon as possible under interna tional super vis ion so democra tic self -rule can be pu t in place in Iraq. T his will al lo w Iraq t o develop legitima te self- govern ment tha t will be able to p rovide for its o wn securi ty. Nader recognized: "I t is a c hallenge t o bring demo cracy t o Iraq, a c ountry c ontr ol led by a bru tal dictator, devasta ted by eco nomic san ctions and torn apar t by war. The c omplica ted c ulture of Iraq, the split bet ween Sunnis, Shiites and Kurds makes consensus on a ne w governmen t a challenge. A suitable framew ork of unity wi th allowance for reasonable autono my w ould be a p roper balance. But Iraq s hould be able to sor t out t hese issues m ore easily wi thou t th e military presence of a US oc cupying force and th e proje cted 14 US military bases th at Iraqis see as install ing a pup pet governmen t fronting for an indef inite military and oil industry oc cupation." 3. The US s hould p rovide h umanitarian aid t o Iraq to rebuil d its infrastru cture: The US invasion of Iraq and th e long -ter m US- led econo mic sanc tions aga inst Iraqi civilians resulted in tremendous damage to pe ople, t heir c hildren and th e Iraqi infrastru cture. The US has a his tory of su ppor ting Saddam Hussein. "Until th e 1991 Gulf War, Sadd am Hussein was our govern ment's anti- com munist ally in t he Mi ddle East. Washington also sup ported him t o kee p Iran at bay

wi th h is army. In so doin g, during t he 1980s under Rea gan and t he first George Bush, c orpo rations were licensed by t he De partmen t of Co mmer ce to e xport th e materials for c he mical and biological w eapons that P resi dent George W. Bush later ac cused h im of having," sai d Nad er. "Therefore, t he US h as a responsibil ity t o th e Iraqi peo ple so Iraq can be come a fun ctioning nation again. However, w e should not al low U S oil and ot her cor porations to p rofit from t he illeg al invas ion and oc cupation of t heir co untry." Control over Iraqi oil and ot her assets should be exer cise d by Iraqis.

Tow ar d a Wor ld of P ea ce , Justi ce , and Fulfill ment o f Hu man Po ss ibiliti es wit hin a Sus tainabl e En vir onm ent

Our foreign policy must redefine the elements of global security, peace, arms control, an end to nuclear weapons and expand the many assets of our country to launch, with other nations, major initiatives against global infections diseases (such as AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and virulent flu epidemics) which have and are coming to our country in increasingly drug resistant strains. Other low cost-high yield (compared to massive costs of redundant weapons) that extend the best of our country abroad include public health measures for drinking water safety abroad, tobacco control, stemming soil erosion, deforestation and misuse of chemicals, international labor standards, stimulating democratic institutions, agrarian cooperatives and demonstrating appropriate technologies dealing with agriculture, transportation, housing and efficient, renewable energy. The UN Development Program and many NGO's working abroad provide essential experience and directions in this regard including ending the specter of hunger, malnutrition and resultant diseases with known and proven remedies and practices. With this foreign policy orientation overhauls we will discover and facilitate the indigenous genius of the Third World, recalling Brazilian Paulo Freire (literacy), Egyptian Hasan Fathi (agrarian housing) and Bangladeshi Mohammed Yunis (microcredit).

Michael Bloomberg

After college, Mike went on to receive an MBA from Harvard Business School. In 1966, he was hired by Salomon Brothers to work on Wall Street. Mike Bloomberg quickly rose through the ranks at Salomon, where he eventually oversaw the trading firm's information systems, using his lifelong interest in technology and gaining a keen understanding of the importance of innovation to a successful business. In 1981, Salomon was acquired, and Mike was squeezed out by the merger. With a vision of an information company that would use emerging technology to bring transparency and efficiency to Wall Street's trading firms, Michael Bloomberg founded Bloomberg LP in 1981. Today, Bloomberg LP has over 250,000 subscribers to its financial news and information service. Headquartered in New York City, the company now has 9,500 employees in more than 100 cities. As his company grew, Mike started directing more of his attention to philanthropy. He soon became a generous donor of his time and resources, and he has sat on the boards of numerous charitable, cultural, and educational institutions, including Johns Hopkins University, where the prestigious School of Hygiene and Public Health was renamed the Bloomberg School of Public Health in recognition of Mike's dedication and commitment to health care issues. Already deeply involved in civic affairs, Michael Bloomberg officially entered public life in 2001, when he was elected the 108th Mayor of the City of New York. While many wondered about New York's future after the attacks of 9/11, Mayor Bloomberg brought a forwardlooking agenda and optimistic spirit to his job and provided the leadership necessary to get New Yorkers through this uncertain time. He took bold action to create jobs and help the economy grow. He wrested control of New York's schools from the unaccountable Board of Education. He built affordable housing, expanded parkland, improved efficiency in the City's agencies, and made America's safest metropolis even safer. Mike Bloomberg moved New York forward with an independent, fiscally responsible, non-partisan style of leadership. In 2005, Mayor Bloomberg was re-elected by the broadest, most diverse coalition of support in the history of America's largest city. Endorsed by every major newspaper and nearly every major labor group, business association and advocacy organization, Mike's victory united New Yorkers of every ethnicity, from every neighborhood, and from every political party behind his vision of a better future. In his second term, Mike continues to build on the successes of his first four years. He is keeping New York's economy strong and its streets the safest of any large city in the country. And in addition to continuing major initiatives in affordable housing, public health and education, he has launched a major anti-poverty campaign, developed a long-term plan for a sustainable, environmentally sound New York, and co-founded a bipartisan national coalition to fight against illegal guns.

Issu es Edu cati on
Mike Bloomberg believes that a good education is the key to unlocking the American Dream for all of our children - and that's why he made fixing New York City's long-broken public schools one of his top priorities as Mayor. During his first year at City Hall, Mike abolished the ineffective Board of Education and asked New Yorkers to hold him personally responsible for achieving results. Today, math and reading scores are up significantly and graduation rates are at their highest levels in two decades. Turning around the nation's largest school system wasn't Mike Bloomberg's first experience as an education leader; he also served as chairman of the board of trustees of his alma mater, Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore.

Pu blic H ealt h
Mike Bloomberg's passion for public health shows in his work both in the public sector and the world of philanthropy. As Mayor of New York, his groundbreaking initiatives to reduce smoking addiction, tackle obesity, and encourage preventive medical care have been praised and, in many cases, replicated in cities, states, and countries around the globe. Mike Bloomberg also helped build the Bloomberg School of Public Health at Johns Hopkins University into one of the world's premiere institutions of public health research and training. Mike Bloomberg's fiscal stewardship led New York from a deep recession and record deficits to record surpluses, tax cuts, and the city's highest ever bond rating. As he did as founder and CEO of Bloomberg LP, Mayor Mike Bloomberg has found innovative ways to improve services while cutting waste and balancing the books.

Fis cal Re sp ons ibility

Reduc ing Po ver ty
As Mayor of New York, Mike Bloomberg has tackled issues long thought to be unsolvable, like fixing the City's public schools and cutting bureaucratic red tape to improve government performance. With that same determination, Mike Bloomberg launched an innovative program to tackle poverty. That plan is working to break the cycle of poverty by rewarding work and encouraging education - the two things Mike Bloomberg believes do the most to help those in need step up the ladder of opportunity.

Mike Bloomberg believes those in public service should face up to tomorrow's problems today, and not pass those burdens along to our children. So as Mayor of New York, Mike

Env ir onm ent & Sustaina bility

launched "PlaNYC: A Greener, Greater New York" - a far-reaching strategy to fight global warming, protect the environment, and prepare New York City for an estimated one million more residents by 2030.

Art s & C ultu re
Through his philanthropy and as Mayor of New York, Mike Bloomberg is a strong advocate for the arts. He has sat on the board of directors of some of America's leading nonprofits. And during his time as Mayor, he has energized and expanded support for community arts organizations throughout the five boroughs - recognizing the critical role these organizations play in the city's diverse neighborhoods.