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The Internet is growing fast and doubling its number of websites every 53 days and the number of people using the internet is also growing. Hence, global communication is getting more important every day. At the same time, computer crimes are also increasing. Countermeasures are developed to detect or prevent attacks - most of these measures are based on known facts, known attack patterns. Countermeasures such as firewalls and network intrusion detection systems are based on prevention, detection and reaction mechanism; but is there enough information about the enemy? As in the military, it is important to know, who the enemy is, what kind of strategy he uses, what tools he utilizes and what he is aiming for. Gathering this kind of information is not easy but important. By knowing attack strategies, countermeasure scan be improved and vulnerabilities can be fixed. To gather as much information as possible is one main goal of a honeypot. Generally, such information gathering should be done silently, without alarming an attacker. All the gathered information leads to an advantage on the defending side and can therefore be used on productive systems to prevent attacks. A honeypot is primarily an instrument for information gathering and learning. Its primary purpose is not to be an ambush for the blackhat community to catch them in action and to press charges against them. The focus lies on a silent collection of as much information as possible about their attack patterns, used programs, purpose of attack and the blackhat community itself. All this information is used to learn more about the blackhat proceedings and motives, as well as their technical knowledge and abilities. This is just a primary purpose of a honeypot. There are a lot of other possibilities for a honeypot - divert hackers from productive systems or catch a hacker while conducting an attack are just two possible examples. They are not the perfect solution for solving or preventing computer crimes. Honeypots are hard to maintain and they need operators with good knowledge about operating systems and network security. In the right hands, a honeypot can be an effective tool for information gathering. In the wrong, unexperienced hands, a honeypot can become another infiltrated machine and an instrument for the blackhat community. This paper will present the basic concepts behind honeypots and also the legal aspects of honeypots. HONEYPOT BASICS Honeypots are an exciting new technology with enormous potential for the security community. The concepts were first introduced by several icons in computer security, specifically Cliff Stoll in the book "The Cuckoo's Egg" , and Bill Cheswick's paper "An Evening with Berferd". Since then, honeypots have continued to evolve, developing into the powerful security tools they are today. Honeypots are neither like Firewalls that are used to limit or control the traffic coming into the network and to deter attacks neither is it like IDS (Intrusion Detection Systems) which is used to detect attacks. However it can be used along with these. Honeypots does not solve a specific problem as such, it can be used to deter attacks, to detect attacks, to gather information, to act as an early warning or indication systems etc. They can do everything from detecting encrypted attacks in IPv6 networks to capturing the latest in on-line credit card fraud. It is this flexibility that gives honeypots their true power. It is also this flexibility that can make them challenging to define and understand. The basic definition of honeypots is
The device is very user-friendly since it 'talks' with the user when the user is picking up choices on the screen. Touch-screens are typically found on larger displays. Touch technology turns a CRT. such as the Palm Pilot® and signature capture systems. in phones with integrated PDA features. touch offers an "intuitive" interface.Some phones with this feature can also recognize handwriting written on the screen using a stylus. for example. It is impossible to point accurately to small areas of the screen. A touchscreen can be used with most PC systems as easily as other input devices such as track balls or touch pads. Touch input is suitable for a wide variety of computing applications. Although touch screens provide a natural interface for computer novices. Specific areas of the screen are defined as "buttons" that the operator selects simply by touching them. One significant advantage to touch screen applications is that each screen can be customized to reflect only the valid options for each phase of an operation. also use touch technology but are not included in this article. In addition. Tapping a specific point on the display will activate the virtual button or feature displayed at that location on the display. In public kiosks. they are unsatisfactory for most applications because the finger is such a relatively large object.TOUCHSCREENSduction A type of display screen that has a touch-sensitive transparent panel covering the screen. The essential difference is that the pressure levels are set higher for pen-based systems than for touch. most users find touch screens tiring to the arms after long use. .Touch screens come in a wide range of options. you can use your finger to point directly to objects on the screen. In addition to eliminating these separate data entry devices. Pen-based systems. History Of Touch Screen Technology A touch screen is a special type of visual display unit with a screen which is sensitive to pressure or touching. flat panel display or flat surface into a dynamic data entry device that replaces both the keyboard and mouse. Browse the links below to learn more about touch input technology and how it can work for you. The screen can detect the position of the point of touch. Most are designed to work with either your finger or a special stylus. greatly reducing the frustration of hunting for the right key or function. users receive no more instruction than 'touch your selection. as a way to quickly input lengthy or complex information A touchscreen is an input device that allows users to operate a PC by simply touching the display screen. The design of touch screens is best for inputting simple choices and the choices are programmable. from full color VGA and SVGA monitors designed for highly graphic Windows® or Macintosh® applications to small monochrome displays designed for keypad replacement and enhancement. Instead of using a pointing device such as a mouse or light pen.
Other vendors agree that touch screen technology is becoming more popular because of its ease-of-use. This paper introduces digital audio signal compression. it is the study of acoustical perception.1 KHz. Increasing hardware efficiency and an expanding array of digital audio representation formats are giving rise to a wide variety of new digital audio applications. and processor speeds have improved by several orders of magnitude. however. Now. This voltage change is used to determine the location of the touch to the screen. and many others. such an application would require a 1. a process that is useful for conserving both transmission bandwidth and storage space. digital surround sound for cinema. expanded functionality. The sensor generally has an electrical current or signal going through it and touching the screen causes a voltage or signal change. When processors dissipated tens of watts of power and memory densities were on the order of kilobits per square inch. Effectively. a technique essential to the implementation of many digital audio applications. and decreasing cost. There are several different touch sensor technologies on the market today. Advancements in signal processing are exemplified by Internet broadcast applications: if the desired sound quality for an internet broadcast used 16-bit PCM encoding at 44. A touch screen sensor is a clear glass panel with a touch responsive surface. power dissipation. We begin by defining some useful terminology. high-quality digital radio and television broadcast. but a 1995 study last year by Venture Development Corporation predicted overall growth of 17%. Psychoacoustic modeling has long-since been an . Digital audio signal compression is the removal of redundant or otherwise irrelevant information from a digital audio signal. Psychoacoustics is the study of subjective human perception of sounds. The touch sensor/panel is placed over a display screen so that the responsive area of the panel covers the viewable area of the video screen. with at least 10% in the industrial sector. proven reliability. memory densities. Finally consider some standards that employ digital audio signal compression.4 Mbps (2 x 16 x 44k) channel for a stereo signal! Fortunately new bit rate reduction techniques in signal processing for audio of this quality are constantly being released. each using a different method to detect touch input. These applications include portable music playback devices. PSYCHOACOUSTICS Introduction Basics of Audio Compression Advances in digital audio technology are fueled by two sources: hardware developments and new signal processing techniques. Digital Versatile Disc (DVD).Specific figures on the growth of touch screen technology are hard to come by. portable playback devices like an MP3 player were not possible. We then present a typical "encoder" (as compression algorithms are often called) and explain how it functions. and discuss the future of the field.
e.integral part of audio compression. Lossless vs. These blocks typically consist of between 500 and 1500 samples per channel. lossy compression eliminates information. Speech compression uses a model of the human vocal tract to express particular signal in a compressed format. and lossy. This technique is not usually applied in the field of audio compression due to the ast array of sounds that can be generated models that represent audio generation would be too complex to implement. The entire MP3 phenomenon is made possible by the confluence of several distinct but interrelated elements: a few simple insights into the nature of human psychoacoustics. . The output is a compressed representation of the input block (a "frame") that can be transmitted or stored for subsequent decoding. modern audio compression models the receiver. and conformance to a tightly specified format for encoding and decoding audio into compact bitstreams. i. the differences between the original and reconstructed signals only matter if they are detectable by the human ear. a decoder can. In contrast. As a result. Terminology Audio Compression vs. Basic Building Blocks Figure 1 shows a generic encoder or "compressor that takes blocks of sampled audio signal as its input. from the original signal. which differ from those used in speech compression.. a whole lot of number crunching. As we will explore shortly. the MPEG-1 layer III (MP3) specification takes 576 samples per channel per input block. a reconstructed signal may differ from the original. For example. It exploits properties of the human auditory system to remove the redundancies inherent in audio signals that the human ear cannot perceive. Speech Compression This paper focuses on audio compression techniques. Lossy When we speak of compression. With audio signals. i. More powerful signals at certain frequencies 'mask' less powerful signals at nearby frequencies by de-sensitizing the human ear's basilar membrane (which is responsible for resolving the frequency components of a signal). Lossless compression retains all the information in a given signal.e. audio compression employs both lossy and lossless techniques. perfectly reconstruct a compressed signal. So instead of modeling the source of sounds.. the human ear. we must distinguish between two different types: lossless. depending on the encoder specification.
. and then recorded. (e. and pneumatics were used only with the tonereed/digital system. One was a joystick-like device called a transducer. Tones were recorded onto tape. otherwise known as the "natural resting position" (e.would be refined. but in the case of lifting an arm. Audio-Animatronics' movements that were operated with this system had two limitations. The Tiki birds were operated using digital controls. the natural resting position. (Hydraulics were used exclusively with the analog system. which on playback would cause a metal reed to vibrate. the pneumatic system didn't provide enough power to accomplish the lift. each individual action--one at a time-." The black boxes had the electronic equipment that would receive the signal and then activate the pneumatic and hydraulic valves that moved the performing figures.. which opened in June. that is. opening of the mouth) had a neutral position. rehearsed. Each action (e. the action would be in. the movement had to be simple--on or off. For instance. If this method was used.. when a figure was ready to be programmed. and the other device was a potentiometer (an instrument for measuring an unknown voltage or potential difference by comparison to a standard voltage--like the volume control knob on a radio or television receiver). The use of hydraulics allowed for a substantial increase in power. which was needed for the more unwieldy and demanding movements. the Fair shows required analog programming.g.. through the use of . something that is either on or off. The tone would be on constantly throughout the show. The relay sent a pulse of energy (electricity) to the figure's mechanism which would cause a pneumatic valve to operate.g. (e. 1963. This new "analog system" involved the use of voltage regulation. the movements couldn't require much force or power. When there was no pulse of energy forthcoming. in the case of the Tiki bird it would be for the mouth to be closed).g.g. First. like the opening of a bird's beak. everything was operated by air pressure.) Walt and WED knew that this this pneumatic system could not sufficiently handle the more complicated shows of the World's Fair. The open and shut beak of a Tiki bird or the blink of an eye. The first used two different methods of controlling the voltage regulation. the programmer. and the voltage would be varied to create the movement of the figure. The energy needed to open a Tiki Bird's beak could easily be obtained by using air pressure. which resulted in the action. as compared to the many different positions of raising and lowering an arm.) There were two basic ways of programming a figure. This digital/tone-reed system used pneumatic valves exclusively--that is. The vibrating reed would close a circuit and thus operate a relay. or return to.) Second. A new system was devised. In addition to the digital programming of the Tiki show. This "varied voltage" signal was sent to what was referred to as the "black box.ANIMATRONICS Introduction The first use of Audio-Animatronics was for Walt Disney's Enchanted Tiki Room in Disneyland.
however. Herpies lesions. Treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders with anti-inflammatory agents has been reported in the literature. and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. nail diseases. drugs. i. would repeatedly rehearse the gesture of lifting the arm. . Iontophoresis is a recognized therapeutic method for delivering ionic compounds. It has proven to be a beneficial treatment for many localized skin disorders such as.e. The absorption rate of the drug is increased. Obviously. psoriasis. eczematous. Application of a positive current from an electrode to a solution applied to a skin surface will drive the positively charged drug ions away from the electrode and into the skin. into and through the skin by applying electrical current." IONTOPHORESIS Iontophoresis is an effective and painless method of delivering medication to a localized tissue area by applying electrical current to a solution of the medication. The method has also been reported useful for topical anesthesia to the skin prior to cut-down for artificial kidney dialysis. Iontophoresis enhances the transdermal delivery of ionized drugs through the skin's outermost layer (stratum corneum) which is the main barrier to drug transport.the potentiometer or transducer. negatively charged ions will behave in the same manner. once the drug passes through the skin barrier natural diffusion and circulation are required to shuttle the drug to its proper location. insertion of tracheotomy tubes and infiltration of lidocaine into the skin prior to venipuncture. The mechanism by which iontophoresis works is based upon the knowledge that like electrical charges repel. The delivered dose depends on the current flowing and its duration. until it was ready for a "take.
But how are these brand-new forms of payment secure? And most importantly. digital cash. Hardly a day goes by without some mention in the financial press of new developments in "electronic money". Just as fiat money replaced specie-backed paper currencies. which is introduced to provide. Thus providing a form of security to the ever-lasting transaction currency of the future "e-cash". which of these emerging secure electronic money technologies will survive into the next century? These are some of the tough questions to answer but here's a solution. creating the potential for private money to compete with government-issued currencies. which we name so. electronically initiated debits and credits will become the dominant payment modes.ABSTRACT "Money in the 21st century will surely prove to be as different from the money of the current century as our money is from that of the previous century. Money Pad is a form of credit card or smartcard. In the emerging field of electronic commerce. Every time the user wants to access the Money Pad he has to make an impression of his fingers which will be scanned and matched with the one in the hard disk of data base server. online banking. which provides a form of security to these modes of currency exchange using the "Biometrics Technology". Money Pad . . novel buzzwords like smartcards. and electronic checks are being used to discuss money. If the finger print matches with the user's he will be allowed to access and use the Pad other wise the Money Pad is not accessible. secure e-cash transactions. The Money Pad introduced here uses the biometrics technology for Finger Print recognition." Just as every thing is getting under the shadow of "e" today we have paper currency being replaced by electronic money or e-cash.A form of credit card or smart card similar to floppy disk.
Speed detection of moving vehicles using speed camera Definition Although there is good road safety performance the number of people killed and injured on our roads remain unacceptably high. the solely to identify and prosecute those drivers that pass by the them when exceed the stipulated speed limit. So speed limits are good idea. and they work efficiently. Speed cameras on the side of urban and rural roads. on one who's got an ounce of Commons sense. . One among them is speed cameras. To enforce these speed limit. We use traffic lights and other traffic manager to reduce the speed. laws are passed making speed an offence and signs are erected were of to indicate the maximum permissible speeds. then we would expect there to be a great number of these every were and that day would be highly visible and identifiable to make a drivers slow down. We finally have a solution to the speeding problem. The main reason is speed of vehicle. The road safety strategy includes all forms of invention based on the engineering and education and enforcement and recognizes that there are many different factors that lead to traffic collisions and casualties. So nearly everyone slowdown for the speed Camera. the deliberately drive through speed camera in order fined and penalized . usually placed to catch transgressors of the stipulated speed limit for that road. At first glance this seemed to be reasonable that the road users do not exceed the speed limit must be a good thing because it increases road safety. The speed cameras. So the roads safety strategy was published or introduced to support the new casualty reduction targets. reduces accidents and protect other road users and pedestrians. Now if we are to assume that speed cameras are the only way to make driver's slowdown. The police can't be every where to enforce the speed limit and so enforcement cameras art director to do this work.
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