GAZETTEER

OF THE
PERSIAN GULF, 'OMAN,
AND
CENTRAL ARABIA
I
HISTORICAL
Part I A
E:r pi>diti on by
the Shaikh8
of Hii:o.·al.
Khllimah
and Shiirjal-,
1885.
Procl·cdings
flf the cx·
Shaikh Salim,
1886·89.
Re· incotpOTR·
tion of Has-
al·Khaimah
with the

SIJaikhdouI,
1900.
H aml' i yah
affairs, 180i1·
0·1.
Political
po"itioTl Il nd
I'crsonal char-
of the
Shaikh of
Shiirj ah,
I OOi.
762
10 December 1885, Sha' am ha.ving' revolted against the Shaikh of
Ras·a.l - I\ haimah, t hat chief, assisted by his cousiu the Shaikh of 8hirjab
proceeded against the pJace and quickly red uced it t o submission, inflict'
ing a finc of S J,600, of which a porti on was paid at once_ -
rrhc expellcd Shaikh, Sali m, continued to 'watch f or an opportunity of
ohtaining better terms than he bad yet receiyed f rom his successful
riyal. I n June on a combination hei ng formed by t he Shaikhs of
Dibai, } Ajmii.n and lIaml'lyah against t he Sbaikh of U mm-al-Qaiwail\
Salim ollce more landed. at } Ajman j but no opport unit y having Occurred
)£ prosecuting his designs against Sharjah, he shortly ret ur ned t o Bli
1\['18". I n Salim paid a yisi t to Dibai, bet ween t he Shaikh 01
which place and the Shaikh of Sbarj ah enmity at the time prevailed ; &
reconcil iat ion, however, hayi ng t aken place bet ween the two, he W&s
pCl'suaded hy thc Shaikh of Dibai to promi se, in return f or the rest oration
o[ pcm:ion, which had been sllspended, t o abstai n f rom intrigues
againKt his nephew, In April 1889, nevert heless, he organised an attack
npun Sharjah ; but he 'll"a6 unable to carry it out. Again, a little later, he
bc('am.e reconciled to Shaikh Saqa!', 'who t his t ime received him into
favour ami appointed him his 'Yazir.
On the 2nd of August 1900 lIamaid·bin·' Abdullah, Shaikh of Ras·
a.1- Khaimah, \ras removed by a para lytic strokc, a nd Shaikh Saqar-bin.
K hiiild In the following month re-annexcd the town and dist rict to his
principnJity of Shiirj ah wi t hout encounteri ng any opposition. Shaikh
Sarlnr at firs t placed his cousi n Hamad. bin-)Iii j id in charge of Ras·a.l-
Khaimah j hut a f ew months later, uas i ng found his conduct unsatis-
factory, he substituted his own son Khrdid as governor .
'r1..le township of Hamriyah, of which t he headman on the occasioll of
[Jol'd Curzon's visit to t he coast, in Nm;ember 1903, vainly sought to
obtain recognition as an independent Trucial Shaik h, conti nued in theory
attached to the principalit y and ill practice virt uall y indepen-
dent ; t hc reason of the vrolonged estmngement was so far as_ could
be ascertained, the neglect 01' i ncapacity of the Shaikh of Sha1'Jab to
protect t he i ntcl'cst s of his yassal 'when assailed by others. On the Srd
of Scptemher 1, a change of headmen occurred at Hamriyah by the
dcath of Sa iE· bill -) Abdul' Rahman and t he succession of his son' Abdur
Rallllliin-bin-Saif. '1'hc latt er sOon resiO'ned his posit ion in fa.vour of an
elder relation named Saif-bi n-Saif. of whose ambition he stood in dread ;
but, On the latter proC'('edi ng- to (lespoil him of his personal
, A Ldul' Hahman attackE't.1 tile house of Sai f by night, takmg, hIm
pri soncr and killing his amI himself resumed t he headshIp of
i-Jamri)3.h. Shaikh Rii-:;hid of Ullllll -al-Qaiwa in t hen inter vened and
sctilcd matter by rcmoving to his own capit al.
U ndcr Saqar-bi n· Khal id the impor tance or S harjah among the
Shaikhllollls o[ rJ1ruciai decl ined, and t he prest ige of the
Qfl.simi lIame sunk to an u ll prccedcntecll y low leycl. In
li re the Shaikh was weak, miserl y, and uxorious : i n public
he was apathrtic ano :-;cemell i ncalmblc of exer t ion_ He hiS
subj ects a.nd f unnel' Bedouin adherenb; by indiffcrence to t helr
an(:CS and requests; and he forfeited t he respect of the ot her Truci
S ua..ikhs lJY hi s general bot h as a man and as a ruler. U
763
his personal relations wit h Brit ish o fll Ct!l'r; Shai kb 8:1113.1' alwa.ys
showed himsel f fri endly and well-disposed; but, from iudoIOl.ce, he \\as
sometimes remiss i n enforcing thc just cla ims of Bl'itish subjects; and,
on the occurrcnce of internal difficulties i n hie: state, he manifested
toO great :l. disposit ion to rely on thC' help of UtP British Resi-
dency, instead of grappli ng with them himielf. I n l!\O± the
dissatisfact ion of his subjects with his l'ult' found eXI)l'eF:..ioll in a plol tu
d. epose Shaikh Saqar in fa.,·ol1 l' of his unde, tbe ex· Shaikh Sii1illl i hut
timely information cnabled Shaikh Saqar to the intrig'ue and
MuLa.nlloatl -bill -KhaJilllj olle of the chief conspirators, ",as ohligeJ, on
csc:aping from custody, to seek refuge at Umm-al·Qaiwain_ II'he direct
administration of tbp tow II of Shal'jah was hel d, until his death about
]9lju by Shaikh Saqar's son H. .l silid,-tl. ,Young- mall who in character
resembled hi s father; a,ntl H:ls-al-Khaimah waS ill ]907 still gorcl'llctl by
Khfliic1
j
tbe only son then sHn ' i vi ng of the Shaikh.
ANi'lEXUlW No. Z.- li'\ 'l'J<: R .'A L lll STORY OF '1'1 1 1£ AlJ lI
DHABI PRD'C1P,\L1'J'Y.
AI) ill t he Ct'lse of Shflrjah it advisable tv duvote a shurt
not ice to t he i nternal affair::. of t.he ALu Dhabi prillt-ipality, of
wincJ} the external histol'Y has been g i\'en in t he prCt..'edi ng cha pter_
Earl y hist ory, 1761·1818 ,
Thc fOll ndation of t he tuwn of Abu DhaLi is ::tSl:l' iiJec1 tu t he ,-ear
17£i.1. T he sU1TouIHl i ng count r,)" was then alrea.dy o(·t..'lIpied IJ.v" t he
Balli Yas,-a land· faring' Bedouin lri be who, unt il the aCl'idelltal discoven '
of water at t he site of Abu Dhabi town, wherc a small vi liaO'e of 20
I

lOuses now sprang' up, Lad not apparcntl_,- a. !:; ingle permanent settle-
ment upon the coast _
1,101' information reg'al'diog t bc rl liefti of t he tl'ibe at the ti mc of
the establ ishment of t he Abu Dhabi prilll"ipali t,' - the reader is referred
to the gencalog-it:al table of t he Ba.lli Yas SlmikhfO_ ProlJaLh· the
last Shaikh to reside t.:hietir i n t he i ntcrior was Dhinlb-bill.
1
1sa" who
in 17\:),j was murdered his cousin, 1I :12Z,·ll·lJin-'Z,lid. '1' he deat h
of p hiyflb was ampl.v' a \ enged by SUIl ShakhbiiL, fo r t he young
Shaikh sm:t..'ccded ill putti ng' t o deat h no fcwer t han tell persons who
had been pl'csen t at hi s . and ill liD5 H :.LZZll
1
, the
<lelual fOlJnd himscl f obl igcd, fro III fear of a .... illl ilaJ' fate, to fly
F ou.nda.t ion
of Abu Dhll. bj
t own, 1761.
R ulers down
to and incl ud·
ing ShaLk h
i\1uhRLllLll ad,
deposed in
I B1B.
AcceSRion of
Shaikh Tab·
nun, 1818.
Movcm4'ntll
of Sli waidln·
bin·Za'al,
1822-23.
A.t.lAck nil
Ahu Dhabi
town by the
764
tho (·onntry along' with all bis snpporlf'rs .
at the head of the trihe uutil I H16: he
)luh:ulllllad, who ruled for two rea.rs .
Shaikh Shakbbiit "emaine<!
was thell deposed by his SOil
Shaikh Tahniln-bill-Shakhbilt, 1818· 33.
In 1 'd H ,luhammad ",as expelled from Abu DI",bi by his brot hel'
rrahnllll,-an enterpl'isc favoured by Shakhhut, the father of both,
by a. majority of the Balli Yfls trihe, ::t.nd h.v t.he ruler of .:\[asqat who
a.fiordef\ m:ttcrird assif:::i.a.nce.* 71fllbamma,(l sou[!ht refu.!re a.t Dohah
in Qa.tar under the protection of the Shnikh of Bahra.in, whi le Ta.hnUI1
bet·:tnw of Abu Dhabi, but f or n. lime associated his f ather
with himr.:/.'If in the administration and him on impor t ant
llIil"f;jOIlR, par! iClllarly on that of ncgotiating a peace with the commander
of thc British expedit.ion a.gainst }l,fls-:Il-KiJaimah in 1819-2U. rrhe
u[ Talilliin to power ullder the auspiccs of !\1asqat was the
heqi nning of a. permanent brcaciJ bclween thc Qawilsim a.nd t he Ba.ni
Ya8, wuo, i[ tradilion may be belic\·ed, Lad hitherto lived as close friends
and allies.
In] "'2l or 18:ll?, some time after the accession of Shaikh Tabnun,
an indi\·idual named Suwaidan bin-Za.'al, who appears to have been
head or the )Iah,irihah section of the Balli Y fls, absconded f rom Abu
Dhabi in orde!· to avoid payment of his deLts, and adopted a rovi ng anu
preuatory life. Action was at once taken ap:ainst him by
who Rllccccded in capturing some of lLis boats j but these proceedlllgs
w('l'e view('d hy the British :lllthol'il ics of the da.y with disapproval, a8
Clldan(rcritw tho tra.tlCluiliity o[ tho SC:lfi,' alld the Shaikh was even
M I' t
rC(jllircci, Ott pa.ill of a Hrili8h war vessel being' Bent against us port, 0
c\ el' ist I'rom thCli1 atld to givo up thc vessels wh ich he had seized. the
und of lhe ycar Suwa.iclan paid a viljit to ?'I"£alj(plt, where he received a.
prCf;ctti from. Sa'id, and in .!:\.Iluary 1 t;;!S he was to
ha.vo r.:cli led down quictly on the island oC Y{ts. A different of
Suwa-iuan's character \lOW appa.rently presentcd itself to the local
ollicel'tl, for we find the Resident.. advising hiln to make his
Lo Sh:,ikh 1'ahnull and even encouraging tbe latter, 011 certain
to reduce him by force. Eventually Suwnidan was reconcil ed t o hlB
chief and rctltl'llC<\ to Abu Dhabi in 1828.
Lale i n lI,e year 182:3 lhe ex-Shaikh )[nhammnd, whose
werc now a.t Doltah in Qa.tar, al)pcarecl hc[oro Abu Dhabi at the hea
Sueh is thC' !\1· COuut t.:ivoll by Lil'utell Bll t Hcnnl·ll about 1831. Bee
Selcl'lio1ls, XX) V. page ,J64 ; unt. Lieutenant writing in stat es t
'fahnun waB BI·t up hy the ruler of MlISqflt, nbollt 1821 III plnco of hll fat her, t
hrc ,tlt er !It lLhl\mmat.l At ti lC r:.an.e time tailing fl i ght. Si guattll'O of the GOnPTai Trl!'
of }leaCO Oil behalf of Abu Dhaui ill [til)' C'a90 (on tl!e !lth of.
J820) by SllI\ikh Shakhbut , who In 1833 WU8 still ahvo; Lut It i8 certAin t ..
.hllunry 182:3 '1'!llmun 1l1r<Jl\dy held tllo f;o lo power.
'/ 00
of a. numbcr of ':\ian1lsir BedouinB and attacked Dud plundered the
town; but he was driven out with a loss or 35 men by his brother
who hastened to thc spot with 1\ largo force from Iho intel'jor.
Betrcating northwards ho Look ill Sharjnh, wltithrr Ta.hllllll
followed by land and domanded IllS surrondcr; but, beforc ma.tter8
calllO to n. ("riEiis betwecn Lhe ShaikhEi of Abu Dhahi and Shflrja.h,
Muha.mmad Lho laUer o[ his prc6o nco by returning' lo Qatar.
Shaikh 'raitnun had long diEitruEitcd his \,rothers Khalifah and SulUin
o.nd had kept Lhem at a distance [rolU Abu Dhahi j bllt he was Ht. length
persuaded by his father, Shakhbut, to all ow them. t o return. Soon
o. [t Cl'wards they were f ound to Itayo entered wit.h some of the principal
residcnts of Abu Dhabi i nto a plot for the removal of Tnhnutl, - nil nct
of tl'co.son with which the Shuikh prepared to deal by Lhrowing some
of their confederates into prison. 'l'llie prec:mti oll, howe,"cr, was not
sufHrit.' tlt. On the contrary it preci pitatcd Lhe nct ion o[ the conspirat.ors;
rt. nd ill April 1833 Sha.ikh rrahnun I'cll a yictilll to tho vi stol of his
Lrother Khalifah find tho clagg-or or hit; brothN 8ulbll.
Shaikh Khalifah-bin·Shakhbut, 1833-45.
Khalifah and Sultfm at fi rst ruled in partnership; but gradually
tho pl'ellomi ll aoee of Khalifah declaret! itself, and SultflU descended
to a subordinate place. A tender of and Zaka.t on the
pal'l, of the usurpers was readily accepted Ly the Wahhabi AmiI', who at
onco took thorn ullder his protect ion and f orbade I lto Qflsimi Shaikh
of Sh.-ll'jall to meddle i n their affairs.
III t he course of the following summer :t COtlspiracy was formed Ly
SOmo mnll:o ntents nt Abu DhaLi to lnul'(ler SlmikhKha.llfah a.mll'cpbce
hi m by OItL' vI' his lirst ceousinf'>; but lhe l'Olltiilt wlill1tt it. W:I:-; inlvttdl'cl til
b\'lldit hilli self divulged the pl ot. to tho Sktikh, wIt o, retiring- inlo his
fort, t>cized three of the ring-leadcrs and put them Lo death. lIe W:16 all'o
ahout tv two influcntial but. popular inliig'natiull and
t he OPPOSItIOn of his brother SulUul diyerte(l hilll from hi t; purpoi:iC
and obliged him to be satil5fied instead wi lh the ('xpulf'ioll o[ one oE tho
mercha.nts named lJin·'Iyflll, whom, aft.er beating a,lId tlespoiling of his
property, he sent in a Baqarah to Lingch.
rl'.lt ili violeltce on the part of Shai kh Khalifah was highly prejudicial
to Ius OWn interests, £01' it led to the Fecession from Abu Dhabi to
Dibai, during the pearl fishery, o[ a lnrge number of Bani Yas of the
Al 13rl Falasah secLion. Dibai, of whi ch the date of foundation ca nnot
be fixed but mar h:nc been latar than that o[ Abu Dhahi seoms to ha\'c
been readily sm:rcndered b\' the indiyidu:d who lhf'rt it on
behalf of Shaikh Khalifah to the seceders j and they, the foll owing'
aulumn, ,,'ere joilled there by lhe bulk of their rebt iVL's, rel urnillg from
tl lO pe:trl L:1Iti.;s. rl'ho sccession was perm:tll ent, :ilmoRt the entire Lody
of tbe Al Bil Fnlflfmh being to the pn.'6ollt day dOllliciled at and
ex·Sh"ikh
1\l nham1l1ud.
1829.
AIISA6IIil l at i ol1
or Shnikh
'fa.llIlun,
Ap, ;118S3.
Acecllion of
Shaikh Kha.-
lifah, 1833.
Plot agninst
Kiln-
iifnll, 1833.
SecrIJllion 0 f
the Ai Eii
FaIR.ah to
Dibll i,1833,
Ij
First seces-
tit111 of the
to
'Odaid,
1835·3i.
Assrtssinr'\ ion
of
Khl\1iCah.
1845.
that place, which
became afler 1833
t)tate.
766
had hitherto heen a dependency of Abu Dhabi
a dangerous riyal, and at times enemy, of the parent
The attack on and subsequent blockade of Abu Dhabi town by the
o SlJalkh of Shiil'}th 111 the auLumn of 18:33 were due to these dissensiOlls
\yhich appeared to Shaikh Snltan-bin-Saqar to provide an excellent
tunitr of crushing the Bani Yiis chief on pretext of obtaini ng justice f or
the merchant Bill-Jlyan; hut the result was far from answering to t. he
('xpe('tatiolls of the wily intriguer.
III whell damages on ,of piratical outra.ges by
Y:18 were belllg 1'eco,'e1'e<1 by the Bnhsh Governml?nt from the
Shaikh of Abu l' habi, the subjects of Shaikh Khalifah began to dis.
1)cI'FC in :\11 JirC'ctiolls with a view to avoiding payment of t heir in-
dividual contributions; and it even became necessary for t he :British
alltbol'it ies to J'equest other Shaikhs to abstain from affording asylum to
fugitives from Abu Dbnbi,
It \,'as impossibl e, howcyer, to prcyont by these means the emigra.-
tion of the QuhniEat F:cdion of the Bani 1'5.8, who now, under t he leader-
ship of Khi!d_im-bin-Nn/amull and their dcbts at Abu Dhabi nn-
removed in aooi,h· to Khor-al -' Odaid,-an inl et of the unin habited
('onst neal' the base of U;e Qatar promontory, distant nearly 200 JIliles
fr0tll Abu Dl!:"tbi, rrhr, British Resident made an eff ort to reconcile
the Qubaip;at with tbrir chief a.nd to induce them to return to their
all egia.uce, bnt iL was nnsuccessful j and soon afterwards it was reported
that the fleU]et's at ) Odaid \Yere affording encouragement to pirates)
espe(;iallr to the notorious Jiisim-bill·Jabir, Raqraqi, whose depreda.-
occasiol1(-1d fI. Briti8h naval demonlitra.tion along t he Qatar f'on.st in
1836, as related in the history of that promontory. The usual hc"d-
lluarters of the pirates were at l\lirfah, an anchorage on t he coast of
TarfY. in Dhafrah, where they were accuslomed to bring their spoil
and load. it on camels f or despatch to different destinations; but .laslm
had in the £l'st instance issued from' Odaid, and the headman of that
place continued to countenance I,im so long as he dared.
At lenO'th in l\fay \ ]lOl'mission to take such measures as
necessary been accorded by the nesident, Shaikh con-
triyed to fall without warning upon the 'Odaid settlement, whIch ,be
completely destroyed: 50 of the inhabitants were kill ed; t he
cati ons and houses dismantled j and tIe wells were fill ed up With
the ruins of ihe uuildillO's and the bodies of the slain, A number of
the QuLaisat then took a.t Dibai, anti prubably at uLher place8
also ' but when they saw some of their number who had gone back
to A.'bn Dhabi were treate<.l with illdulg'ence and had their boats restored
to them the)- aCCelJted a O'eneral am nest" offered by Shaikh Kbalifah
, - b · Kh - d n1
returned to their homes and t heir allegiance, a.mong them emg a I . -
a'aman, the chief of the seceders,
In July 1845 in circumstances whi ch are not fully explained, Sbaikh
Tahllfm with his' brother SnlUul was t l'eacl!cnlllsly murdered by
) lsa-bill-Khalid who had 10110' been l..-illrr ill wait for his life. The
W<lS comn1itted a. F(':.tSOIl \then the'to,;n wns nlmost deserted bY
d
\F.
inhabitants, these having gone either to the pend banks 01' to the n f'
767
groves of Liwah j and it formed the conclusion oC a Ceast of which ill('
victims lind just. portnkcn, nt the im'itaiion of tlH' murdrl'el's, under the
shade or a Balil dmwn up upon the heach,
Notwithstandi ng' the fratricidal cl'imf' hy which he firFt attained to
power, but wi ,ich wc may consider tn b::tvf' been rxpii1ted iJy the
manner of hi s OWl} <.l eat h, the rul C' of Shaik h Khalifal! had becli in cn'IT
respect creditable to his eba1' 3cLer, Hy hi s g:al1an1l'y,
prudence he rai sed the Ahu nhabi principality Lo a pOf'ilion mllcll higll{'r
than it had eyC'r before occupied; and at thr timc he lllrt.intainrd,
at least after a. good underlstarH.lillQ,' with the Hri Lish authoritiefi,
and restrained. hi s to thr best of his ability from 1reach('" of the·
mariti me peace,
Interregnum, 1845.
On thc <.leath of Sl!aikh Kl!alifah LlIr headship nf lhe Ba.ni Yii.."l was
assumed. by thc principal 'ha-bin·K halid , apl'fln'iltiy \\·ith ihe
consent of such of the triLl' aF; wore titrll at han<.l j llut !llol!th:-: later
the Ilsurper was cut ofT by Dhiy:ilJ-bill-' l fia, wl lo from his llalll4' lIlay lie
supposed to have Lcen a lil' sl eousin ()f ;")haikh Khalifnh, n!!il'i"ib waR
slain ill hi s turn by Kh.-tlid-I)ill-'Im, a of hil-' yit,tim j 1m! this ill-
diyidual, instead of a.llempting- to secure thr Shnikhdo1ll for
prudently returned, a.fter a\,PIlg'ing' his fatiter'fO. death, tu Sh ,-t rjah ",holl('('
be had set out, A brothel' of Khfdi d contrin'd to oLtaili of
the f ort of Aim nhahi; hut. he ::;pccdily <'jected 1/)' :\IulliLlllmad-lJin-
HamfLid and R::-u:ihid-lJin-l
j
\l.dhil two influential lea(lel"s uf lhf' Billli Y'-lR.
who now declared [or Sa'id, a F:on of the FOl'Jner Shaikh 'ra.hlllill anf!
{;onseqllclltly nephew CJ[ the late Slmikh Khalifall.
Shaikh Sa'id-bin-'fahnun, 1845-55.
\ 'rhe chJef was.retained hands hr,
a.nll Rashid untIl the arrl\' al of who, hf'lll!.!,"
regarded a.s the most elig·ihlc cllirf, and !; eing' finpported mor('O\'er hy U;n
Illol'al i nfluence of thc British Volitical TIesidrnt, rsf:llli ishrd ill
power without a.n.\- difficulty.
In 184,9, dissat isfic(l at t.he f:-LVOI1I' shown 11\' Shnikh Sn'id (4) tho
section of the Balli Y,I.S with the\' Wf'r(' at feud
cncoumgcd also 11)' the Shaikh!:; of Sh.-lrj<1h ::tnd nilJn{ to hopI' that
'VahhiilJi AmiI' would shul'tly assist Lo esiallliE=h themsclves at.
'Odaid, the Quhais:"lt of .-\ htl nkll;i oncC' more ahandolH'd their homes
and settled temporaril r at lXlh<1h in Qatar. mf'a,stlrf'S to com-
pel their retnrn \\"Cl'c' at oller take!!, i! 1 )[OVE'!HI.C'r or DccC' wber I \) by

tion of

Khali fah,
Acces«ioll of
Shtlik h Sn'id,
l S,J,·j,
Second
(., tempted)
sPcPII'Iifln of
the Qubnisiit
to ' Od:lid,
IBI9.
il
ExplusioD of
Shni kh Sa'id
and accceaion
of Shai ll h
Zlid, 1856,
Attack on
Abu Dhabi
t own by t hc
cx· Shaikh
1856.
768
tho Shaikh of Abu Dhabi. Art. er imprisoning some of t he Qubaisflt
who still remai ned at Abu DI.n.Li, he sent for t he leaders of the Dohah
colony alld 0 11 lheir un'ival gavo lhem n. flattering receptio n, During
tho fullowing night, howcver, the lH)ntl:> ill whi ch they ha.d come were
stripped of masts, sail s and a,1l ot.her gear j and the entrappod envoys
thm; dopri ved of t ho moanl:; of esca. pe, found themselvos obl iged to
to lho turms imp()sed by the Shaikh, whieh included, besides retur n
DOltah, lho sal isfact ion of all deula due uy the Quuaisiit to private
creditors and the parmollt of a. fine to hi mself.
In 1855 Shaikh 'Sa'id uecame emb,'oiled ",i t h tho entire body of hi.
suhjects. 'rhe occasion was the murder by a triLal el der oE his 0\"11
brother, a.lJparently lIot without justifi cation, for the Ba.ni Y tiS as a whole
silled with til e elder and resisted the i ntention oE Shnikh Sa/ id to Ptlt
llim to UO:1t h. On a p(omiso gi,'en by tlw Shflikb to remit both t hat alltl
over'y at her pena.l,t)' the W:I S int.o his where.
Ilpon Sa'id, re\'erling to his ong1l1al dr tcrnlllllltlOll, drew Ills da.gger and
wiill hi s OWII hand st ruck the mall ueau. frhe popnla ce at once rose ill
:tr ms j and Shnikh Sa'id , :Ifter dt'i't' lH.ling' himself 1'01' somo t ime in hi/!
citallel, escaped Lo the l'ersia.n isla nd of Qai s, takinA' wiLh him most. or
hi8 property hoth ill g'oods and callie. rro ill e British ltesidoncy t.he
Shaikll represented Ilis explIh:icm :"I S due to ofTorts which he lind made to
pllni sh fl, piracy, committed hy llani Yal' of the Hnwamil and Mabnribah
sections, upon a Shu'ai uelongillg to Olle 'Abdul Kanm.
Shaikh Zaid·bin· Kh alifah, f r om 1855.
On the tli(J'ht. of Sh:likh Sa'id-binfl'ahllllll, his first cOllsi n, s hnlkh
'l.flid.bin,Khnlifah, wns elc('tud to sucered ll im .. According to all
mont appa.n'ntl y ClIf.;{.onmry the Bani Yas, a brot.her nam
DhiyfllJ wn l-> :lssoeinled with Zflid in the g-ovcrnlll cut; but as usuul
notLing wa!' hC;Il'd, after thc first, o[ the assist.ant chief.
I n .July IH5Q:t pirati cal and altog'ether unexpected tho
,o[ UhniJi was. by. the Shnik,h, Sa'id:bm.Ta,hnu
n
,
In tillS took Sh.lrph lor Ill S Lase oC operations j Ius fleet conSIS h
?f three YCRRe,lsJ all small, of which one hi s own, olle,
ISland of Q,"S and the othor was obta.ned at Abu Ha.1 III tbe Shal')
principality, On the 19th of July, the pri ncipal Shaikh (Zaid)
t.hen absent in Dhafrah Sa'id-Lin·'rahnun landed at A bu DhabI a.n
, , " d b b' dl erent • .
outaJltcd pORsesslOll of the town, wInch was plundere y IS a 1 I!
Shnikh and t he few inha.Lit:1nts then present at Abu
simt themsch' es lip in the fort, !Llld l here held out until the arrlV{l
of Siwi kh h;'lid I'rom LIle interior with a. party of l3edoui ns. C?n tho
appearance of the rcli e\Ting' force the invadcrs werc immediately
filed : SaJid Lin-Tahnllll himself was among tile slai n. As mentIOned I,n
the hi story of 'l'rucird tho damage done at Abu Dhabi ?n Ullci
occlI sion W;IS partially. made good ouL of:1 fine oJ: $25,OO?,
on lhe Shadd. of Sharph becall'" of lhe compliCIty of some of h.s SlI
jects in the raid.
769
In does the Bedouin character of the slIuj ccts o(
t.he AIm D haLi Shflikh ;lpl'rflr more di stinctl y tllflll in the readiness with
which, on !=l lighL provoc,liion, 1hcy ahandon thoir ll omes and. Hot tle elsL"
whorC'. We hayc :dre:llly noliccd. tilt' permanellt hi villf'r-ofE of the Al
Du Ffll as:1 h i n 183:3 alill the temporary or u7e CluiJ:lisai ill
11.{:J5-37 alld IH4!) , n IHI mcnlion Illli st now lIe made 01' n l:iUstai ll rd ctrod
on Lhe pfLrL of tile Qubai sflt 10 frec tllcmselvcs, hy removal to a di stanco,
from (ho cOlltrol of the Shaikh of Abu Dhabi,
In 1S0U, for reasOIlS 1I 0t ascertainod and thoreforo p.'ohably of slight
importance, :t body of the Qnbaisat under Lhe leadership or llut i-bin·
Kltiidim unce mom Abu Dhabi and themsclyes in the
remote creek of 'Odaid
Third laces-
l ion of t he
Quh"i sAt. t o
' Od.id, 18UU·
80,
In I S7], in con'o'lllOlIOO of complaillts by Shaikh Zai d t hat the 1871.
oE Abu Dhabi was dimini shed Ily the l'ompct ili on of tht'
'Odald settlement. and that the' latter had become a. city of refuge for
fr::mdulently absconding dehtors, Colonel Pelly, the British Resident in
tht' . Gul f, Imi de careful cnquirics both personally and tllrough his
A!;:R lstant, Smith, regarding the o\'flH' rship or 'Odaid i lhe
was to show that. 'Odaid itself, tl) whit'h at this time III) Shaikh of Qat :l ),
so much :1.8 lu.id c/:tilll, wa s undoubtedly situated wi t hill the j\ll'isdicj,joll
o[ the Shai kh of AIm Dhabi . 'The 'Odaid colonists, however, clnimcd to
form :1 state (.ntirely illdependent of AIJu Dhabi i they 3Rscrted that theil'
territory exlonded half way from 'Od.id to Wakrah on the side of Qatar,
alld I n the other direction as far as the ir; land of Yas, nnd that i t included
Dal mah and other adj;went islands formerly considered to belolw to AL11
Dhabi j moreOVCt·, whil e tllry CXPl'cSfo;t.'d a wish to cont inue the
'J'ruc,ial fl ag, they hinted not oLs(;u]'ely that, iC t.heir prefensi 0ns were lIot
admlttcd, Lhoy would pl:lCC tilCll)Sclvcs undm the prot.ect ion oj' til(' '[ nrks,
wllo lmd now :nrivcd i n Qata r. Cololll'1 Pelly asked tha t IH' mi g ht ht ,
gi"('n for dealill g' with the matteI', inaRnllH' h as lite Shaikh
or Aha Dhnlli, relying' 011 tbe Perpetual Treaty of Veltte o/: had
olaimcd hi s i lltencnLioli as an arhitrator.
'1
1
110 orders oE the Government of India, communi cated i ll May 1872.
1872, woro to tho effoct that no acl ion hy lho Resident was callod for
under the l\faritimc Truce, no attack havi llg been mado by sea. upon the
Shaikh or A btl Dhabi , and tbat Colonol Polly should not interfere
unless he apprehended a breach of the peace at sea between tho parties i
but thn-t hr should report at once any overt action indicating an inten-
ti un on the part of the Turks to establi sh their supremacy at 'Odaid.
The position l'cJnnill cd unchanged until 1873, when Coloncl Ross, ]873.
who had mC:l.nwhilr succeeded Colonel Pelly in charge of the Gulf
Residoncy, reported an appl ication hy tbe Shaikh of Abu Dbabi for leaye
to take IlfLval action ag-nillsL tlte 'Odaid rebels: it was oxplai nod that an
expedit ion by land was impracticabl e on account oE physical ohst.nclo8
Colonel Ross was inclined 1.0 t.hink that refusal of sanction illig-lit throw
t he Shai kh himself into the arms of t he POl' to; but t he Governmont of
Tndia in reply directed him to avoid, if possibl e, giving any answer to
Zfl'id's alld, in tho opposite easo, to inform him tha.t the Govern-
mont of Inch:1 could not countenance, and would even prevo nt, t he
proposed naval expedition,
58

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