t . 'f. of :1 complete O'cncalogical table heing drawn up ; hut
obseU1'e,- 0 1'01 ml " '0' _ . t l bc third volume of this Gazetteer will
. tl ace given to man 111 1 .'
1ll 10 sp h1' 1 d' 0' all or most of those who l'c1tUn any lm-POl't.."tllce
be fOllnd a, to. ?I me U Inc·
at the present time. . T k' G C I E
t S It
·- Saivid Sir Fnlsal-bm· \11' ' I , f. • . " IS
'1.'ho 11l'cscn u ,tn, • J • in his OWll
)l'ivatc individual, of the followmg estates
pl'opl'ietol', as a
Whore situated.
, Auhi in t.he sub-
Wilii:ya.t of Sohar
Bidbi (l in Wadi
H:\il in Wa.di-al-
Ilt UfC 0 1 property.
Do.te.groves and
cultivated lantl .
Date-groves and
cultivated hmd.
Gra.zing l!\nd.
Date.gravE's and
cul tivated land.
A few sma.1l date-
A few small
AnnUAl value.


n ow proceeds disposed of.
Assignod \ 0 Su\aiman.
bin.Suwailim, lately dc-
rCRflPd, who was WiiH of
Dhuffir and in recent
yeRrs of Sohar 0.180.
. Do.
As<:.igned to the Wiili of
Assigned to thE:l officer
of Manah.
Assigned to tht'< WaH of
A::.signcd to tho Witi of
Asslrrncd to the Wali of
Hetaincd by t he Sultan.
Assigned to 'ViIi of
Hi sn Samail.
Retained by the SulUtn.
groves. 000 ASIIiA'ncil by the to
Date-groves and .. • his eldest SOli TalTuur.
\ oult.ivat ed Ia.nd. •
S It
- aheady rcmarked above and furthcr explained by t hIS
The n au, as t t . -tent out
. bl' d to defray the expenses of governmcu 0 some ex
table, IS 0 1ge
h' oeket d t
o IS own P db'. Tt'rki t he brother of the Sultan, owns a small a e-
Muhamma • m-, . .
lantation at Raudhab in the Masqat D,stn ct.. 1 . and Wat aiyah
P Thc Sultan possesses at_ B.alt-al-Fa aJ
. M t District and at Fal.1J m Batmah.
tn the . . 'rrl interests in the 'Oman Sulta.nate, whether
. tly British and Britain is the only
. ' 1 mmerCla) al'e pl'euOmlnan, d t l
pohtlCa. or co ., C 1 P l' t ical' Agent France an 10
ted by a onEin or 0 I •
power reprcsen 1 V' C . 1 The only European
United States arc each repl'cscntC( by a lCC- fi. which
t' B 't'sh as arc also most or the European Ims
firm at . . \ of the more recently establisbed businesses agenCieS lere, U .'
· belong to French or RUSSian subjects.
in the a.rms lOO
There are at Masqat 12 European British subjects, also 32 British
suLjccts or protected persons belonging to. :,a,rious and or t,he
last arc found also at Matrah. Other Bntlsh subJects or plOteeted
persons arc either Hindus or M uhammaJans, in the second case generally
Khojahs, and are di stributed as follows :--
lIindus. U1allana.
11 1
10 18
253 122
37 665
9 1
A brn.nch of i be Arabian Thtfission of
of America is establ ished at Masqat.
thc Reformed
10 6
8 13
28 31
7 3'
382 998
(Dutch) Church
Uniformity of physical, social and politi cal conditions throughout
that part of 'Oman whi ch extends from the frontier of the ' Oman
• 1'hc matter of tllis alticle a.nd of the "lI1inor articles dependent upon it ha1l been
f(l r the mnst part specially collected during tho Jcars 190! to 1907. An abstract of
the then exi8ting informaLion concerning Truciul 'Oman W,IS 'completed h the writer
in November 190·1, fr om all a.\·ailnble books and reports; it amounted to 17 pri nted
foolscap pnges and IVa!! only intended to !'lervc as a basis for further investigation.
Earl.v in 1905 Iho wrilf'r visitod Sharjah ']'OWI1. where with t.he assistance nf
Mr. J C. Gaskin. Uncovenanted Politicnl Assistallt in the Persinn Oulf. and of 'Abdu l
Latif, I{csi dency Agent at Sharjah, he W:IS able t.o oollect a quantit.yof freeh in·
rormation. A serics of articles pr eparf' d from the mat.,·rif11 thus obtained was ready
in Janunry 1906 and f:lIed 65 oct.avo pages of print : this draft was oiroulated to
lhe local officers Wh086 atlent.ion it engaged during the whole of 1906. The
greater ralt of the work of revision and ampli6cation fell on Major P. Z. Cox,
Rf'eident in the Prreian Gulf, who in July tOOG a special viuit. to Fujairah
and on K. B. 'Abdul Latif-bin·' Abdul' Rahman, n.f:sidcnoy A:.;ent at Sharjab, who
undertook slich of the inquiri('s as Majol' Cox was unable to carry out persona.H)' .
In tho next flet of drafts, which appeared early ill 1907 and extendcd to over 120
oelayo pages of print, W{'TO incorf,orllt('d the re8ul ts or an important jonrney by
Mu.jor Cox in December 1905 from Rii.s-;ai·Khaimah Town to the Baraimi Oasis;
also those of oareful inquiries by the same officer reg:t rdillg the Dhafrah tract.; new
data relating 10 communi catic..ns oblaincd by Liclltrnnnt C. H. Gabriel at the end of
HJ05 j the facls cnntained in a I<e.. ics of usefnl reports by Captain F. B. Prideaux,
Political Agent in Bahrain, on the whoht (GllEtal r egion bllt.lVeen Qatar and Abu
Dhabi Town j t.ho oblcrva.lionil or Commander W. S. Bowman of H. M. S.·' Sphinx"
on t.he islands of Bli. Musa and Tunb, recorded after a villit. to tho same; ana some
I'omflrks by Captain A. P. 'frevor, Assi stant on tho islands of Tunb and
Nibi,u Tunb, aillo founded 011 a personal inspection.
on the east to Qatar and tbe Jafiirah desert on the west requires
that the region should be treated as a geographical unit.
For discnssion!! of tbe ancient geography Sprenger's Alte Geo9"apltic A.1·alJiens,
1975, and Miles Note OIL Pliny's Gcogt'apl,y of tile East Coast of Arabia, 1876,
may be COll8ulted.
The prinoipal authorit.y ill I'ilgard to the geography of 'l'L'llciai 'Oman hBs hitherto
beeD the Per8ian Gulf Pilot, 1898, in which t.he alld all maritime features fire
fully describei. bllt littl.., is said of the intprior j simiJRrly restri,-ted in its scope,
for the most part, is tho older information cl'lntained in Bombay Selections X Xl fT,
1866. Vll.lllsbJe IhollAh early authorities (I n the coentry are Wllite\ .. ck' s A ccount of
the ..dmbs, etc., and his Llcsc'I'i1Jtiull of tlUJ Ooast, 1836-38, the former of
whicb is occupied largely with tho subjecl of population . Trllde, as it, WI\8 in 1863, and
qaestion8 of iocail' csources, taxation, etc., are fully d£'alt with by Pelly in hill Report
on the Tribes, etc" at'ou1ld tlw Shares of tile Persian Gulf, ] 863, in which some older
statistics for 1826 Ilnd 1831 lire also quotod. Recent topographical and olhol' infor-
mation regarding the interior is due almost clitirely to Major P. Z, Cox, among whose
communications the following are important: his Notes to a('company Sket ch Map of
R oute ... from Abu Th abi t o Maskat ill tho Proceedings of the Government of India
in the Foreign Depllrtment for December 1903 (rela.ting to the route between Abu
Dhabi Town and tbe Baraimi Oasis); his letter No. 290 of tho 2nd July 1902 in
Foreign Department Pl'cccedings for NMewber J902, (relating to the Shamailiyah
district.); aud tbe el.closure to his letter No. laOO of the 5th AIlgU8t 1906, a" Resident
in the Persian Gulf to the Secretarr in the Department to the Government
of India tho route from Ras-al-Khaim&h 'I'own to the Baraimi Oasis).
The onJ,V other modern account of aUJ part of tile oOllntry at a distance from the coast
will be found in the Rev_ S, M. Zwemer's 7'k,'cc J OU1'IlCYS in iVortliet'll Omall, 1902;
bot a recent descripfion of plaoes on the CI)f!st, accompanied by photogI'II phs, if! given by
Burchardt in his Ost-.Ambien von Basf'a bis Ma ,,:Cat, 19C6,
The Annual Administration and Commercil'l l\epol'ts of the Prrsian Gulf Rasidency
are the principal pource of information in reg-arli to trarle,
The map whioh acoompanies this Gllutteer is the most uscfnl, for ceneml purposetl,
of Trncial'Omsn; its pr .. dece88or in this wa.s that knowil as Pa9'ts Of ..d.9·abia
and Persia, 1883, on tho SSIDe scale. Smaller portion ... of the region aro on a
largel' scale in the R Qutc of LicutclIant·Coloncl Ht.'·l'bC'1·t Dish9'OW6 ... and Captui'lf.
Walter Powell ... ii'om Dibba ht tkc I mliall Ocean to Kkyman in tllc Pet'sian
Gulf. 1865, R.nd in thl' R oute taken hy ldajot· p, Z. 00.7' mid LieutcnUll.t
O . ..d. Scott, R,I.}'}., f'l'om Ras-al-Khaima t o Suhm' yia. Remimi, 1905; the former
of t.hese i8 map No, 1366 in tho Library of the I!'oleign Departmelot, Simla, and the
laUer Wtloll reprodnced by the Survey of India. in 1907. .A 11Iap of DnafNth, Liwah.
ctc., 1906, compiled by l\1ajor Cox from information, givps the topilgraphy of
tllat tract so far as it could be ascertained and is fil ed as map No. 1367 in the LibrliTY
of the Foreign Department, Simla; and 0110 by Capt.ain F. n, Pridea1lx, Political
Agent in Bahrain, from a similar sourcc,- Map of Jiifumh, 'Agal, Mfjun and
Sabalcnat Matti, 1906, Foreign Department No, 1E65 -is the be!'t for the
tracts mentiolle i in its title, but is not of equal authority with Major Cox's Dbarrilh
map for those further to eastward.
The whole coa..t ofT1'ncial 'Oman :.ppt'ar s ill C1,arts NOQ, 2373-2837A and 2374.-
2837B of tho Persian Gf4lji A.nd Chart No. 2376·763, Entmllcc Of the Persia1&
Gtl.lf, containll parte of the same on a largor 8cale, the stretch from Dibah
The name '1 fucial 'Oman.-The region in question consists of the
possessions of tbe Shaikhs of 'Ajman, Abu Dhabi, Dihai,
U mm-al-Qaiwain and Sharjah and of the territories of the tribes who, in
fact or in theory, are directly subjec t to their influence; but in Arabic it
has no general name. A mOl1g the subjects of the 'Oman Sultanate the
whole is kl own as Shamal Jt..,.;., either on account of its position with
l'efel'enre to t heir own country oj' because or its exposure to the north-west
wind; and in Eastern Arabia, further to the 1l( lrthward, the part
adjoining A JU Dhabi Town seems to be spoken of as "Oman-ash-Shamali
it is the northernmost part of 'Oman j but neither of these
terms is in t.'ommon use among the inhabitants of the regions \\ hich
they used to describe, The nenl'est approach to a recognised
designation is apparent ly Sahil 'Oman JAot .... 01' Coast of 'OllIan ;
but this expl'ession, though not unknown to the pCOI)le of the country,
is wanting in precision and distinctiveness and is far from being
universally understood. In English official literature :t part of the shore
line has long been familiar under the name of {( The Pirate Coast H j but
the term is not sufficiently comprehensive, and, at the presont day, is
obsolete and even misleading, inasmuch as the of affa.irs which it
once accumtely connoted has long since passed away. Regard being had
to a perpetual maritime truce which regulates the relations of the rulers
to one another alld to the British Government the pentarchy in question
may he not inappropriately, Tl'llci.1 'Omiin*; but it must be
l'elllemhercd that Lhe trncial obligations of the Shaikhs do not exteDd
to the interior of their dominions.
The component principalities or Trucial 'Oman arc fully described
elsewhere under t heir own names; and the function of t }l c. present
:11,ticle is accordingly to correla.te them! to describe the cc.untry and its
inhabitants as a whole, and to dispose of eertain matters (such as com-
munications) which could not be dealt with piecemeal under the names
of the separate principalities,
to Khor Fakkan (n the f'll.stern, a.nd tllnt from Sha'am to Dibai en the ,;estern
side of the 'Oman Promontory. Of the Cl'Iflst between Abu Dhabi To'vo 3:ld tbe
island of YnB the best delineation will t:c found in a. 1.'riqonometrical Surve.1/ of
tIl e .d:,·abian or southe-rn side of tlte Gulf from .iJ.botlJuLLee to Z,aboot
Isl and, 182·.1. j tid .. was apparently Ollee 1\ chart IllImbered 19B, but it seems to have
been wit.h(\I'IIWD. A small sketch of P ad (if Klw1'-al·Batin was prepared by
Commander G. Sinclair, R,l.M., in 1906 ror the iuformatioll of the writpr. and is now
wap No, 1364 in the Library of the Foreign Del'artment, Sitnla.
., This name was enggested by C"plain F. B. Prideaux, and ;in the absenoe of any
other, either Arabic or English, it appears to bc the convenient, the most. des.
r.riptive, and goneTall.Y tho most suitable for adoption.
Lim'£ta.- Upon the coast, Trnci::t.1 'Oman extends In the Gulf or
'Oman froIU Kho,' Kalba to Dibah, and in the Per;iau G"U from
Sha'am to Khol'.a,l-'Odaid, the places named being all included in it i
in other words its bound:.!.\'y between these two sets of points is the son.
lllland, its frontiers arc morC difIicult to define; but it covel'S a cOllsi·
del'able portion of the interior of the 'Oman Promontory. au one side
there it is bounded by a line of' nncertaln course which runs from a spot
between the contiguous villages of Dibah and Bai'ah on the east coabt
Has Sha'am on the west coast, and so divides it from the
Ruiis-al-JibaJ di strict of the 'Oman Sultanate to the north; ou another
by a line, even morc indeterminate, whi ch leaves t he Gulf between Khor
Kalba and Muralr and, after partially crossing' the promontory in such
it way as to exclude the Mahadhah Jau distri cts to the south, is
eventually lost in Khatam. Westwards of Khatam t he inland limit of
Trucial 'Oman is at the commencement of the and
Jafiirah deserts.
Physical divisilJ1ts.-I.Jeaving out. of consideration £01' the present
the al-tificial political divisions of Tl'ucial 'Oman, we find tha.t it consists
of a maritime belt (or 'raff ";10 ) and islands j of inland plains j and of a
mountain system: these we now pt'Oceed to describe.
Mar/time features and £slaJl(ls oj 'Prnct'al 'Omiill.-The eastern
coast-that washed by the Gulf of 'Oman-is bold, somewhat re-
sembling the ooast of R niis-al-Jib'il, all I the hill s in places eome down
to the wa.ter's edge. w03t)rn coast -- that within the Persian
Gulf-is low and monotonous . In the nortl. the latter is diversified by
occasional date groves, especially by those of Sir tract between Rams
and Ras-al-Khaimah 'fown) but as the coast trend; away to south and
west trees languish, and at ALl! Dhabi they cea:;;c altogetber. The
hills, too) whicb near Town form a pleasing back-
ground, rapidly recode inlan'l and are E=-oon lost to view fl'om seaward
as the coast is rollowod to the soui h S ,It-w.1tcr creeks abound
on this coast, and the lag.:>ons at Ras-:d-Khaimah rrOWll :I nd near the
of Abu Dhabi have a considerable superfi cil3s; yet there are no
inlets of real imporhncc. The creeks sometimes unite i nland to form
l·ackwaters and m;1,ugl'Ove swamps, which are separatell by a short
diFtance only frJll1 the coastj and qUlsi-ishtnds, sometimes inhabited and
not, are created in this manner. The best known instances
of such islauds are Qnl'lnah Rams and Ras-al-Khaimah;
.Tazirat-al-Hamra; the Siniyah isbnd, formed by Khor-al-Haidhah
near j Zora; the not altogether insulated site common
to the village of Khan aml to tho Laiyah suburb of Sharjah Town;
and, last hut not least, the tract of country In which stands Lho town
of Abu Dhabi. Boyond Abu Dhabi, as far as Khor-al·'Odaid, the
coast is almost ullknownj it is barren and generally low, Lut has some
bluff henella nds.
The only eminence and O()11SpiCllOUS bn(lmark all the ccast of Truei al
'Oman Dhafrah beine>' cxclll(lod, is in Dibai territory.
, 0
Tn t hc Gulf of 'Oman the sea is deep a,t no great distance from shore.
In the Persian Gulf, from Sha'am to Abu Dhabi it i, open and free from
dangers but rather shallow ; hero the coast lies opcn t o the full fury of
the Shamal, there :tre no ha.t'bours or sheltered anchorages cxcept for
boats, and bndiTlg' i, of ton diffioult. From Abu Dhabi to Khor-al-'Odaid
the coast is adjoined by a In.bYl'inth of islauds, shoals and reefs,
imperfectly surveyed and so intricate that even AraL vessels, if larger
than pcn.rl boaLS, a.yoid these waterl:i. In this directi oll 1l103t of t he space
bctweeu tile coast an:l the 20 I'athorn linc,-which runs approximately
from opposite Shal'jah Town to tbe tip of t he peniusuia,-is
occupied by pear! banks. Full details oE these banks are given in the
Appendix 0 11 the Pearl ll'i sherics.
A number of al'e associated with the coast oE 'L\ucial 'Omfm,
tho most important being llll Miisa, Tunb, SII' Bli Na'air .. Yas and
Dalmah j the last of these is 3djoinocl by a numuer or others which are
enumerated in the artiele on tho Ab" Dhabi Principality, and by
Inlanrl plain of 'P'fltcial 'Omun,_rrlw interior of a ex-
tensive naturally varies in character from one part to another, but, atten·
tion being for the moment confined. to thc non-mountainous portions,
the variations arc found to be less considerable than might have been
expected. Almost the whole of sandy desert j ull cultivable but
not altogether destitute of natural vegetation 01' even of wood j the
principal excepti ons to t he genera l lnEertility are the Jiri plaiu, the
plain of Dhaid and the Liwah eli vision of the Dhafrah tract, in all of
which somc culti vation, at least of dates, is carried all. . These relatively
small districts nrc fully described in the articles under the names
indicated, and it is to enter here llPon the except ional
features which Lhey present. Another tract of a different nature, which
has no general name and which it is consequently impossible to make
the subject of an article, is described below in the paragraph on the
topography of Tl'ucial 'Oman. The only remaining portion of the
country is that which lies between the sea and an imaginary line joining
Ras·al·Khaimah '1'own to the Baraimi Oasis: it ends sout hwards in
tho district of Khatam which is elsewhere described under its own
80 far as can be asccrtained this portion, from Ras·"I·Khaimah as far
south as Dibai 'rown, is not entirely composed of saud duuc!l, but
conta.ins also level shingly plains with sparse aca.cIa. vegetation j
southwards from Dibai the whole surface appears to be sandy and
undulating, but vegetation a.nd wells and water holes aft! still
sufficiently plentiful t o snpport a scanty Bcdouin populat ion. In the
whole of this region no running watcl' is fOllnd except in one subterranean
aqueduct which irrigates the settlement of Falai; but there arC numerous
wells, sunk generally on the banks or in the beas of dry wa.tercourses,
and sometimes in spots whieh from t heir elevated position might have
been supposed unsuitable for tbe purpose. On the Ras·al·Khaimah·
Baraimi routc tbese wells nre genel'ally from 40 to 60 feet deep and
arc lined f or 8 01' 10 feet near the sm'face with timber or
stones brougbt from the hills.
Acacf's, which are the commonest kind of tree, are of t he Ghaf and
Samr varieties; the Ashkar shrub, the bush, and grass of the
kind called Arta are frequently met with; and the dwarf tamarisk, the
wild castor oil plant, and a bulbous grass calicO. Qufa are also found.
Othel' sorts of vegetation which afford grazing are Rimth, a species of
Salsola which, when green, is eaten by camels j Halam, a small sand
plant j 'l'hamam, a coarse grass which cventually dries up into twigs
and becomes inedible; and Qasad, a small vivid g l'ecn shrub of the caper
tribe: the t h"eo are eaten by li vestock of all kinds. There is also a
bright green edible weed, somewhat resembling which is
called Hamm.
Hill, of 1rt/cial 'Om<in .-The only mountainous part of the country
is in the east, where a section of t he spinal range of Lhe 'Omin
tory is inolnded: this section is the part between a line j oini ng Dibah
to Sha/am· ou the north, and another, on the south, which runs jnland
from Khor Kalba, first westwards then southwa.rds, so as to curve
ronnd the northern and westem side, of the tract .. nd the
hills connccted with it. Th. hill traot of Trucial 'Oman is thus abont
50 miles in extent from north to south, and its average breadth seems to
be about 20 mile.. It is still almost entirely unexplored, the only part
of it as yet traversed by Europeans bciul.! that which lies ou the direct
route, through Wadi·al·Qaliddi, bct.veeu Dibah and R,,,-,,I·Khaimah;
aud e\'eU of this pa.rt no accoHnt to be extant. As seen from
the west, from thc Ras·al-Khaimah·Baraimi roule, thc mOl:ntains
appear to be Jisposed iu three more or Jt!SS parallel ridges rUIlning from
uorlh to snuth : of these westernmost terminates at a. hill ca.lled
Qumr J.J imlTIetl iately behind the village of Adhau j amI the second
ridge, after cUl'vi ug' slightly wcstwardF, scemS to continue the interrupted
line of the first. The third or easternmost ridge contaius the big'hest
peaks allll probably o"erlooks the Gulf of ' Oman: one of these high
pea.ks, situated apparently 12 t o 15 mi les east of Adbau, is :-aicl t o be
named Jaua\ Sa'ta It is possible, however, tha.t these three
ridges are apparent ouly, twd t hat the hill systcrn is more complex tha.n
from the west it scorns ill be. As Adhau iu the Jiri plain is considered
to be a vilbgc of Wadi Ham, il may be inferred that this v"lley pierces
the whole mfl ss of mountains from side to side and even conveys part of
tbe drainage of th'c soulh end of the Jiri plain to the Gulf or 'Om,tu at
Fujairah; out it has not beel! fonnd po:: sible to locate with certainty
the true head ot Ham: in auy cast', howe\'er, its average direction
ill be fr,HTI north-wc::it to sQuth-east, and not from west to
cast as has hitherto been gcnerally supposed. ",V'-tdi-al -Qor, further
south than " 'adi Ham, is th. only other considerable valley that
comes down to t he sea. [rom the bill s of ' Prucial ' Oman on their eastern
side. 'l'he dl'aillagc from the western slope of t he hill s never,
apparently, reaches the Persian Gulf, but is swallowed up by the
intervening sands.
Climolc. -The olimate of Tl'ucial 'Oman in winter is pleasantly cool
oy day and cold at night, but frost is unknown: 011 the coast, in the
same seasou, the weather is often boi sterous. Between l\fay and October
the climate is excc@sively hot aud trying' ; and during the worst of the
heat, that is from .\lay to September, travellers j ourney by night as
much as pObsible. The rainfall is scanty and is bel ieved to average
about 5 inches a year. of the rain is received in midwinter, but
there arc also occasional showers in spring',
PtJ1J1tlo/ioil allt! /l' ibe.}' .- 1
he people of 'rl'lIcial belong to
llun1.CI'OliS di::itind tribes; indeed, the countl'y is tribally one of the mORL
composite and perph·xing ill the Gulf. The comprehensi\'e
H Joasmee J) tribe, assumed by some has no real existence. Only
1432 'oMAN (TRUCIAL)
the members of the family of the Shaikh of Sharjah, numbering at the
present day about 20 adult males, arc Qawasim (Jawiisim) by blood;
and tbe use of thc namc to denote all suhjccts of the Sharjah Sbaikb,
though partially sanctioned by local practice, is really incorrect.
The following I S a of the principal tribes of rrl'ucial
Tribe. Singular.
Scttl('d In
lu '1'r ucial
Locatioll. REloIJ.lIIJI.
----1---- ---- - -

'Ali (AI)
.;: JT
'Arolm(AI Eu)
r. Jj


'A bdiili.

'All yi.



'1' own.
See article' Aba:dilah.
See article Al 'Ali.
Originally. it is said,
Bani Tamim; but
now practically merg-
ed in lhe Hani Yae ,
None in patti· See artide 'Awa;mir.
cular. SOIl1(, of the tribe
come ItS hr 88
Sharjah 'rowr. in
spring for the sake of
the grazil1g.
Kh:,tt in tI,e Jiri
plain Dibah
J azlml ·al ·
This tribe is nc, w prac.
tically extinct; and,
acoording to somp-,
those who remain
are not genuine
'Awanat. Some say
that th e 'Awanat
wpre s\:wcs of the
Qawasim j others
t.hat they were con·
necLed with the
Abu Dhabi lind See article Bahari.
Dibai Towns' j nah.
At,u Dhabi By some l't'gal'de.9 as a
Town. section of tho Al Eli
Raha, Faihrah Sunnis and belong to
alld NuslRh in tho G1lafiri faction .
also l\Ianai'i in
the neighbolll'·
hood of tbe
sarno valley.



o.l7'- 1l;>.
Kal"i (AIllu)
y! Ji
(Ahl Rus-al-)
crl) J.>I
6. ..

J II laijali.


Kunfid Kindi.
Mahair 1\-1 iri.
Settled in
(;.oOlls) •
A few.
in Tmcial

5,500 \
Wadi Sfuni and
its bl'Rl\ch
Wadi Nllidain .
Abll Dhabi
TO\,\,D .
l-hir in Sllnmai·
Sharjah rrOWIl
Furfar and Hail
in Shamai·
liyah j
Indlik in Wadi
a side
valley <If Wadi·
al·Qor .
mah Town.
Abu Dhabi
The dest'fllt of tllis
tribe is unknown:
they Ilre said to be
See art icle Ghafalah.
formerly a section of
the Bani. Qitab, but
now attached to tho
Bani Yas. In reli-
gion they 0.1'0 1\'1 aliki
Seo article Huwalah.
The tribe is divid .. d in
al1 .. giallce between
the ShHikh of Shar-
jah lind the nbcl
of Fujairah.
The name is gene·
rall.v pronounced
POl'haps a section of
the Al Bli 1\ baraiban
section of the Na'im.
Originally from
Khamir in Persia.
They 1Il'f' M iilikie by
religinn find to
be ennnected with tho
Set' article Kunud.
See article Al fil
v.u ............. \ .... . '-',uv ... .a. ...... ,
· VM.dL' i':lh.'"
I Settled In BedOUlns j
Tribe. Singular.
" '''''',' I
I.oCll tion
'Omlin 'Omlln
8ctlled lu ID
Trllcinl 'I'ruelsl
Loclltlou. RSNAIIIs.
'Omli ll 'Omlin
(SOUI Sl . (SOllla).
l\In.hfi. ... Rii8·a!·Khaimah
The origin of t.his

I..S .;s:'"
tribe i8 they
.. J
to hnve AppNU' some
conuuoLion with the
Za'ab, bnd Itcoflrding
100!\1 tradit ion
they are of the same
stock as Mir
Mahnnna, the cele-
brated of Rig
in the 18th century,
Mall1i.rizah l\lahlliri1.i. 1 250
-rtlnsiifi. and Tniri- Origillally tile Malla-
'.ills>' <,fj.r:-r< L:l.h in Wiidi
l'ir.ah may have been
a 8('cl ion of tile
but it
"dmilled that
. .. 260 AL and
the By thl' .Y .r.
Qil.itli .
neighb 0 11 1'- bt·liovOII t o u. on
oJlj l.J'..JlJ
huod uf olTshoot of no
ShiJk",h in Mazari' , but t hia
Wiidi Ham. i, doulttful. 'rhey
'Own about 10 ou.mels
aud 150 sheep aud
goat!! j but tbey also
cultivato a li ttle,
and Bomo of their
number .r. semi-
Qasi mi
GO ... Seo articlo Qa"Wilsim.

.. .
in ilmt case they
have 110W 8eceded
and hecome

rate tribe.
Qitab (Bani)
200 2,100 ... See article Bani Qitab.

Manasir Mansilri. 100 1,300
... Sec article Manasir.
... '-;?y..,a.i...
Marar Mani. 1,350 350
... Sec tllticle Marar .
Shah ii.i rah Ashhari .
125 ...
in There is also a SlUg'U-
Wadi Ham. lar . '1 he

Shflhiiilah are consid-
ered to be aborigi&
bl iiibll h
25 .. .
'Aj miin T\lwn. Thc$e ar e an off-shoot
of t.he Na'im with
an admil.ture of
negro blood.
Shamaili .
1,000 . ..
Shimil in Sir. Th. Hani Shflmaili

are said to hs\'o heen
J ews
). but now they
1,000 ...
Shiirjah Town. tl'ibe
cf.! lhA
I\lso ill tho Bl1tinall
'Omiin Sultanate.
n1'O closely c(1nnpctod
with lite Shihfih
and maya.lmost bo
rrl;ntdod 11.8 a sect ion
of lhnt tribr,
Mnzari' !\1nzti, 'j. 1,400 ...
... Seo attide Maziiri'.
..j'J))'" 'those
tho t ri be
\\+0 arc clcady con-
sideri'd to be 0 aeo-
tion of tho Baui Y8S
are excludt'd herc.
thou!!h not induded
ill either of its 2
main divisions.
'l'hfly .r. also
called SbamaiiYlu

A fe .. of
them who are noma-
Na'im Na'aimi. 3,500 ...
... See arti. cle Na' im.
die IHe f4l1lnd
the Shiblib in
the Ruus&al ..
Naqbiyin Naghi . 1,800
... ... s., article Naqbiy·
Nasir (;\ Illi n) NitSiri. ]20
... Ahu Dhabi Thefie nrc to be of
y"u ",,! Jf
'1\''''11. 1 h" S'UIlf' Lho
Bahnrinah, uut
they are Sunni!!
I by rt.:! igioll.
Jib;;'1 distliot. of
t i, e 'Oman SuI·
. Ajman ' I'ho :-lhaqosh
• .. . ...
!lecLinn of the URni
v:,.:;t..:. ' I' awn.
hb'iu of Qisbm.
1436 'oMAN ('fRUCIAL)
S.-ttled in r Drdo,JiIlS
rrudal \" 'J"rueial
I,orati on. U.liaUIlKH,
'Om>l n

Shar q iyin S\u\I'qi. 7,000 ..

Sbarqiyi n .
Shihfih SLihhi. 2,500 ... . .. See article Shihfih.
Cr -
Sh wllihiyi n ... 2.050 ... Dibai Rnd rrhh II ibe ore apparrntlJ'

Shiirjah identical with the
Towns. !<ection simi lar! y
nnm .. d of tho Ba,; i
Ka'ab, willi which
tribe they st ill inter-
1Ilt'lITY. but ;n
Gazetteer they have
noL been
amnllg the latter . In

H an bali!'!.
th!')' a l"O
SUII':\iJi. 5,000 ... .. . Sec ar lic:le SUdan .
owI !J)' ...
Tanaij Tanai ji. :&,500 1,500 ... 81' 0 IHticlc Ta naij .
'l'hiimil'i. 120 Abu Dhabi Tho Thl\mairiit .. . wero
.... J
TIlwn. originnlly Marar.
but t h"y are now
rcciloncd among
tht Ban i Vas.
Yi'iB (llan;)
Yiisi. 10,000 2,000
,-", 4
0 .,-4
... See Bani Vas.
Z a1ab
Za'abi. 3,500 See Za.'iib . .. . .. .

7.n. hiim
Zabllli .
100 Sij i near Wadi They ... a r t! Lo
Ham. h!lvC bC'(>n former ly
Sharqiy in of the
HI!. rai Hit section, but
at t lle present ti me
t hey nre un·
dOllbterl lya distinct
Besides the foregoing tbere arc about 1,-100 Baliichis at lJibai TowD,
Ghallah and ltiis·al· Khaimah ; 101 Hindus at Abu Dhabi Dibal' , ,
Umm-al-Qaiwain and Sharjah Towns; 214 Khoj ahs or other Indian
Muimmmallans at Dibai, ll'ls·al· Khaimah
and Pcrr:: ian$\, t-iomc not,
Dhabi all(l Dibai TO\\,Il', II: hoI' Fakkan
"nd Sharj ah TowIIs;
abo lit 2,.100 at Abu
and Ghiillah. Negro
S1a.VCR arc exceptiunally lll/mel'OIlS in the coa$\t tOWlll-l, but no separate
cstimato of tbem pO:'l'iblc nnd tbcy may he takcn as inc:1uc1cd in our
tables among'tile Arabs to whom they belong' . rrhe Indians are not
domiciled nor accumpanied by their families. Hcrc it mn.y be useful
to ment ion that the Ua.radir found III Sir, :It Dibah, and
elsewhel'O ".g., "L Khasab III Ruiis-al · J ibal, me not a t ri be
but :1 cl:MH":,-' the cln.!'!' Hamely of the agricultural la,ootlrer to
whatever tribe he may belong. 'rhc !'ingnlar of the name is Baidul'
The toLal nllmhel' of Bedouins in 'l'ruciai ) Omii.n may be estimated
in accOl'cian('c with the tahle a.hoyc a.t al)out 8,UOO !'Oli1!'. ] n respect of
settled popula.tioll) howeyCl', the ta.ble is llOt exhausti,'c, :1nd rOcoul'se must
be bad to tbe articles upon the principalities, from which it will appea.r
tbat tbe figurcs al'C ' :-
}'rinripali ty,
Dhabi (Abu)
Dibai .
Qaiwain (U mm-al-)
'I'otal £'JI' l'rl1cial 'Oman
Scttlru inl'lluitants,
J 1,000
By far the strongcst numcricallyof the settled tribes arC tbe Bani Yas,
whose Bedouins al!'o arc the mo::; t numerous of any cxecpt t be Bani Qitab.
Next aftl'r thc llani Vas therc rank, in point of lltllnUcrs among t he
settled tribe" fir,t the Sbarqiyi n and Al 'Ali, and tben tbe Al Bu
Mahair and tbe Siidan.
Puliticul and 1'e/i,qi IUtj d /stiJlclio1ls.-Like thc l)Coplc of the ' Oman
Sultanate those of Trucia,l ' Oman arc divided betwecn the H inawi and
Ghftfll'i political factions, but G hanriyn.h gren.t1y prcJominate, t he
Yas and the Shi hiih alone being 11 inawi; and) whereas in the Sultn.nate
thc Hinfnviyah arc mostly and the Ghafil'ipth mostly Sunnis by
religion, herc the Hinawiyah arc all Stlnnis of the l\ [fi,Jiki school while
tbe Gbiifiriyah arc yirtnal Wahhiibis. The Wabbiibi ism of Truci al
'Omtin is not now, howevcr, of the militant ordcr; it is generally
described as Sunniism of the orthodox school of Ibn lIanbul, and it even
connives at tbe private consumption of tobacco, though not as yet at tbe
1438 'oMAN (TRUCIAL)
public sale of the same. Modol'll rifles are widoly clistributccl among the
people in bot.h town and country.
Character, a.nrt languIIg". - people of the western COllst, at least
those of tho 0101'0 llortllct'li parts, kwe shown themscl ves in tho past a
bold alld energetic r::tci..'. By t hei r piratical ex.ploits at the beginning of
the 19th cOllill!'Y iboy gained, \llIdel' t he mif'lcadillg' name of {( Joasmees,"
a permanent pla.ce ill history; a.nd t hoy played a. largo part in tho politics
of the Persian Coast, cSjlecially ot Qishm i, lalld, and in those of
Bahrain and the 'Oman Sultanate. At the present day they lead a
quiet a.nd nnobtrllsive existence, but doubtless the old qualities am latent
in them stil l.
frhe weJ.l-ta-do classes on the coast of 'l'rllcial 'Omfltl have throo meals
a. Jay j lhe fin.t, ('a.lIcd Fakk.: n·.R.i(l , or (( LooRf'n illg of the
Spittle," killd 01: and cOlu..:isb f.;ometimcs of pancakes
m:u\c or eggs, ril'(' nOll!' :1llll Rugal' j the otlll'r two meals, :1L noo n and
evening, {,Illllpris(' I'i('c wilh H:-:h 01' nwat , a.('compallipd hy datos and
thin cakes of white 1,read, Coffel' is drunk s('v('ml timCR a day.
Virtually tLe whole f],(1e popula.ti on is Arab, a.nd Arabic is almost the
only language spoken. Swahili, how'evcr, fmrvives among' neg'l'o slaves
of the full blood.
OCCMjHtty'01lS anrl fcso/trcc8.-Pcarl di\·ing' is, Rince the snppression of
piracy, the principal and almost the sole occupation of the maritime
population. In 81111111101' most of t ill' ahle·hodied men, to the number of
more than 22,0
0, are aiJscnt. at the pearl hank!; j anll the coast towns
am} villages arc 10ft to a gn':LiJ cxtl'nt u1lprotected and ucsorted. '11110
I1l1mb('1' of pearllJoats in Tnu'ial 'Qmflll is approxim::dJ{'ly ], 2 15, carrying
On the :L\' Cr:lg'C NeWS of about 18 1I1CH cadI: they :,I1'e distributed
us toll ows :-
, AjmaD
Dhabi (Abu)
Number of LOlLh,
Dibai 335
Qaiwain (Umm·f41.) 7C1
Sharjah 360
In winter somc of the pearl diving class take purt in the ordinary
sca fisheries, but the majol'ity or thcm t he Rcason at home in idl eness
supported hy boat owncrs and contractors who thercby a.cquire, nndcl' the
stringcnt r\lles of the industry, :1.n indcfeasible licn all theil' services for
the ncxt pearling season. A few of the scafaring class arc employed on
the cargo vessels mentioned in the on shipping below. Fish
1439 everywhere plentifnl and excellent, and turtle are caught upon
he f'(.f,tll'1i pOl'u lal iUlI who dn I1 cd lin' by t.he H'a axe herdsmen and
agl'i(,llltul'il'tK: to t hi !' ('!n$!'< helong' 1l1()l'it of UH' Hon-Homa.dl' of the intel'ior
and of til(' ca.!'tl'rn f'ide of the ' Oman Promo1ltory, rl'lI(' a.gri cultul'i.\l
capabiliticR of the ('01lnt,I'Y :tn', llOwt,\,C'I', very limited j alill cel'eal8, 8\1ch as
wheat alill jowa,1'i, :1,r/..' p;rowlI only in a. few favourcd local itic!\ such as Sir
allll the Shamailiyah diHtl'i ct. Dates fl ouris h in most places; but on
thc west coast sonth of Ras-al-Khaimah ffown they ncver fully ripen, £01'
want of watur, and nre caten £I·esh. Vegetables arc raised at most
places by m('allS of well irl'ig·ation. Li \'cstock are chiefl y camels,
uOllh'YK, c;LUll', l'll('('p :LlId g'oats, ;LIlU there is pl c1lty of poulLry; but
hor:-:es :1.1'(' few ill ('01lSt'qW'IH'P of thl' tliflkul ty of fl'eding them j the last
arc k<'pL Oil hal'll'y aml tit':-:(,1'L g'l'aSS, wit.h o('(';lsi()tla,lly a litLle luccrne, wllicit
in plac('\-i g' rowli :UII OIlg- the date gT()\'l'!-\.
The Bl'llnllillH dc'pl'nd {·hidly (!II LlIl'ir li\' esLiJck f(JI' Huhsil'tcll('e, hut
801l1C of thl'lIl take parL ill till' Jll'ad fi :dl(,l'ies. 1n winter, wlleH the
wcather is cool and grazill g' abundant, Lhcy are ficat1ereu fa.r and widc in
small partie:.'; hllf, as water and pasture scarcc with the approach
of summer, they cong' rcg:ltc ill larger bodies around the marc c01)ions
wells in t.hc less inhospitable parts of the country. li'avouritc Bedouin
sum111cr of thifi kind. arc the Jiri plain in the north and Bainunah
in the \\·e., t. 'rhc.y own ma.lIY camels awl a 1111mbcr of donkey!' j bnt the
latter a.rc only \'01' work in the lleig- hLolll'hood of Lhe campt;, and 1I0t
[or long car:L\':lIl jOlll'lll'YS,
1Ioi't' i!J
!tll(if. - ComllH'rcial st.atistit"s arc available only for thc Ia.rger
lowns 011 t he western side of the 'Oman Promontory, and so much o[ ihe
foreigll trade 01' the cOHntry a.!-i is carried on from til e Shamailiyah coast
('6C3.1)C5 obtlervatioll: the :.LIllOltllt of this trade is I'rohahly incollf; idcrable,
but the fact. o[ it:; nOLl · inclusion should be hornc in mind. Scrutiny or
the trade'ties shows how artifiClal is t hc existence of the largcr coast
settlcmcnts or Trucial ' OwfUl and Low enti rely uependent they arc on the
proceeds of the pearl fh;bery f or the mc...'\\lS of purchasing the ordinary
necess-aries of li[e, which thcy do noL t.hemselves produce.
Pea.rls the on ly export of :1l1y ma.g-nitudc, and the aH!1'ag-c a11nllal
value of tit()SC scnt abroa.d (: t1most cnt irel y til India) during- the last seveu
ycars beoll 67 la.kln; or I'upees: the !'I.'collll eX:l'()rt ill valnt' is tllat of
mother·of- pcarl shell, worth only t,- 01' a lakh of I'llpeer: Pt'l' a,n1lum.
Dibai is now the chief pcarl mart of the Persian Gulf after Bahrain a.nd
1440 'oMAN (TRUCIAL)
occupieR in this rCSl)Cct the place formerly held by Lingeh; it has also
tmpplanted Lingeh as tho distributing centre for impol'teu goods on the
Arabian coast between Ruiis-al-Jibal and Qatar.
rrhe following arc the chief imports with the annual ya,lue of
each during the past scptellil ium (ill Jakbs of rupees): -grain and pulse,
chicO), from Persia. <:tHO India, 12k; cotion picce-goods, from I ndia, 4;
dates and date juice, mostly from rrlll'kish )Iraq, :3; coffee, from India,
miscellaneous provisi on", il' om Persia, 2. j and sugar, from 01' through
India, 11. Considerable amonnts or specie rtlso pass in both directions.
In face of the facts it docs not seem nnl'easonable to hold that all
sources of profit ho1'o are subsidiar}' to pearl divillg, alld that if the pearl
banks WOI'C to rail this coast would EilOrLly be depopnlated,
Shipping.-Dibai is the only port of rrt'llcia,l 'Oman, 'rcn years
ago Dibai was almost nnvif'ited hy Europcan "essel1', unt in 1905·00 the
numbcr of stcamers calling bad rison to 34, all British, with a tonnagc of
70,132; thc progress of thc place is 3i COil sequence of the decline of
Lingeh. 'rLe number of nati,'c sailing Ycssclf.:, - other than 11earl boats,
coasters and flshing boat!', - owned ill the ports of r!'rucial 'Oman IS
about 90, distributeu as foll ows :-
Bidyah ' ]0 Khaimah (Hii.s·a.l-) '1'own 15
Dhabi (Ahu) Town 10 Qaiwain (Umlll'al-) Town 1
Dibai Town 20 Rams.
Fakkan (Khor) 5 and
GhaHah 10 Sharjah'ruwl1 18
The majority appeal' to be SamLfi1{fo" but a proportion of them arc
Baghlahs, and there are some and lladans: these vossels are
chiefly employed in runnin
to India and of the Gulf for
snpplie!'. rfhe statif'tics of pearl are given in the Appendix on the
pead fisilOl'ics. Fishing boats nota-1 m used as pcarlel's appear to be roughly
eqw11 in number to pearl boats, hnt they are often ext remely small.
Jazimt-al-Hamra and Sha'am, though they hftve no large vessels,
possess some coa.sters of a. useful f:izc.
Internal trade a lid manlifacturc8.-Inluml traliic if' pett,}, a.nd it; chieAy
with thc Bcdoui" tribes; but Sharjah, Dibai amI All" Dhabi divide with
Sohar Town in the 'Oman Sultanate tho trade, such as it is, of the
Baraimi Oasis.
Local manufactures are few and none of them are exported. Fine
sheep wool 'Abas are made at Sharjah rrown, and daggors at Has-al-
Khaimah. A certain number of sailing ,"oswls are built, chiefly at
Umm-al-Qaiwain; the average number!=; launcbed annuaJly are a.bout
20 at that place, ]0 at Dibai and 5 at Sharjah Town.
Topog,-aphy. -The topography of ncarly the whole of Trncial 'OI1'.'n
is explained in the articles on the five principalities of which it consists,
and ill the various subsidiary articles to which clum; are given in
the articles on the principalities. Some additional facts may he
learned from the paragraph on communications which follows b310w.
It only remains to deal in this place with the topography or a small land-
locked tract which does not apparently belong to anyone of the !ll'inci.
palities in particular, and which bas no general name; the centre of this
tract is approxi mately the plain which lies about ·:W miles inland,
south-eastwards, from Sharjah Town. The principal points of the tract
in question are as follow * '-

'Aui\ij (Ramlal)
. ;u,.

Fii."Ah (Jabal)

Position. Clmracter.
In tilt' c"ntre of lh<.l A lIingle well, lined at The s:te 811rt'ounded
l\flidiim p·ain. the top w:th limber . by Ilclici BS.
20 miles south of A narrow stl ip of This tract lies east
Aiyoh. rolling l'A.nd hills. god weg- the
r. U' e froll1 Riis-Ri.
Khai mah T O il n to
Ibe Bar ai mi Oa,is.
11 miles bv A group
west of ·Aiyoh. · holes.
of water 'rhe sito is II blind re-
enTrant alllong- f:'.IIU·
hills, Iorilling a
b,·sn.·b of Wiidi Sa-
B tWpen Raml>lt A well .
. Anaij fLnd
hah S-I,lItliLil 011
t i, e rig t hallk of
the latter.
1 to 2 milrs of
th .. oldillar,V mlJTe
hetwl·;·n Rlls ai-
Khaima.h '1\ wn
Illid the Baraimi
0\, iI" _ fr"m Qallah
Mat.iitldh un Ihe
Iionh to the
M,u1ii.,m plain on
the south,
A range of hill .. ,
1\ (If
R.bout 1,0. ° feet; it
runs nOl'lh and
/-"lIlh wit!. fL lcnlZth
of Sbllut 12 mill'S,
ann is ronglily
pitrall,} to th .. rnai'l
mllgon£ lh,,'Oman
Plumol!tory at'out
It flit1lRt.ed flo litt1(' to
:he west of (I rdiIlK,"Y
rOllt!' bf,tw ·t'n HaS-'ll·
Khai mah T;)wo
fL- d the Bar aimi
At the n{lrthern
hemitl" (If Jabal
Fii \ ah Arc tw(! (:.n·
ta,,:ic TOI'ka forming
j"nnmlu ks, T ill y
li re known HI' Zibb-al·
'Az:lh ":j I a.nd
lOtll.rikii :-al·Jiili \" a h
:l<A,rfhority.-Majol' P. Z. C.·x f(olll pelsolla} observHtionand inquir.l'. Most. of
the plaoe!! m<tntioned in this taLla are :..hown in HH>l) RG'l'[(' by Maj(J.'
P. Z. Ooz, 6tc., 1905.
Fiiiy.ih (Yahfli.l'-
! ..lis!.
h;k" J-;
Pflsilin .
8 mill'fI north by
of 'Aiyoh.
10 to 11 miles south
of Dhaid vi!lage .
17 mil('s south of
'Aiyoh. (The ex -
:It't is 2,r
42' I ti" lIorll! l,y
4!)' 21;" east.)
Tu centre nbnnt
40 Inil('s Muth -
elst of Sharjah
8 toO 11 !:olltb
(.f Dhaid villngc.
20 miks 10 the ('alit·
ward of it
of \l"\lieh the mCfLll-
are appareutly
/I well similar to that This well is on the
of lIamdah. ordil18n route viii
Warii 'Hatta from
Dibai to Shinas
'1'own. .
I See Ilrticlf' Gharif.
A I'inj!ie well about 1 It ill on the north
40 fe"t. deep nnd blink of a hollow
timber.lined :\1 the which fm-ma the
iou southern border of
. I QaU"h Mahii.6.dh.
A well wooded @.trip · The nan'e means" The
of ph\in, H Or 2 lia'lellj"s BOlllld",
miles III 1!I'efl.ti1h'l The lolace is also
bt'lwfH'lI .Jabal SIl- called KhMaib.
maini I\od tl;e rig-I t
bllnk (If \\ Rdi Ra-
A \\'ooeled pJt\in several
miles ill dialll('tf'r
:Inti containing \,al,i-
ons Wl'lls arnong
I hose of
'Ail Olt, and
A ClOlly plnt(,8 n
wilhonL watel' or abollt 20
f eet than the
co Inlr)' imnH'dilllelv
to north of it
ami 550 to 610 feet
above le\"el. Jt
"t'"t, Rnd Cllst
111111 is S niiles
from north to south.
The plain il' enclosed
h,' the FO'lth elld of
,J;b,,1 Faiyah on the
nort h, by Jabal
J!&dhah on the nort h-
eHSt. and bv the
llortJw1"n par't of
.r allal Samflini 011 the
ens! : on 1 he we!:t it
divided by Wi'idi
Yidaiyah froln a traci
of sanuhil1ll, l\hdiim
is a. camping ground
of noml1dic Na'im
connl'cted widl the
Baraimi Oasis.
This pblin ",lopes: down
from the bafe
of J a bal Faiyah on
the we:<t to the foot
of main range of
the 'Oman Frumon.
t (l ry on the c .... st.
and it ltho oecli"e8
A"rariually from north
to south, 'fhe soil is
s(lund alld hard, con·
sisling of black Bind
I ",,<I ,hi,,"I.; nCR< to
_______ . ________ . _ _________
.... ::::
..c 0:
• <
- N

MUf'laifi (Yllhfar)

P.odl",h (J .bal)
"-") <-4e-
San;l\ ini (J tl)
811mai ni ( Wiidi)
... lS.)j
S:anail!ll (Rat-hah)
( Wadi)
I'ositiou. CharaeUr .
land is coarse nnd
boul der" taka the
place of shillglo.
On the northern . A wrIt.
of )ladil1l!
There is oilly a
bori ng. At the t op
it if! lined with
pltllll , 2 milc!!
west of J abal
Alont milE'S A del8cl ed hill about It fo rms a fine blnff
10Ith'E'3st of t ho 1,500 feet high. peak .
middle or the
1\ladillll plain .
On the west. s iJe of
t h" under
('on,.i<1(' r a I ion,
frl'lu Lh ... l1adilm
plain in the H<, rth
to tho) sout.hern
t' xt ltl lHit.r .
A hog backed rauge
running' nnrth and
£ollth for a distnnce
of nbuut 20 mil es,
nnd attaining in one
place nn all itudo of
I\bont 2,01.10 feet.
This range is parall el
to, bilL to he
sepllrated by fin in.
{(, l"vA.l from, tl lc mai It
rIlngc of tbe ' Oman
Promontory, wl lich i.
to east of it.
In the 1I0nthern 11 bl'ond drainage It emerges from a V-
p!'rlof t.he tract hollow, encl osing the I'h'l ped gap nellr the
HOW in qucstion. plai n of ITlI zn"arlh- south end of Jabal
Dhabi bi-twecn ihelf Sn.m:lini and run.
Porms the southern
11ll1llldary o( t he
trncL lIlHh' I' consi -
Along th e wcstel'll
border of the
"Madiim plai n.
and Jabal ::=amnini, firl-t ,J, wi lcs wt'st-
and contai ni ng wards, then 7 mil es
further dnwn t he northWArds, and thon
water hol es of Bndu', westwards ngain to
I the desert.
All ordlllary drainage It ("Olll !!!; from the
holl ow or water lIeighbourhood of
scanI'. .'!. bal Khadhm
fwlli ch is connected
wi t h Mnbadbah) on
tho cast and goe.
A fin e Bat-hah or
Wadi which descends.
in this part of it s
fr om sout h
to :J.ort h.
west wor ds t.o the
dC801 t. T he well of
Dhikhar is on it.
On its right bank is
the well of YidaiJah,
lmed with W(I(Y.l. like
that of 3IasBlil.
CO!fl1Jl1mi cationa,-The principal routes of Tracia.l 'Oman may be
diyided into three groups, viz.) (1) those whi ch lead 2C1'OSS the 'Oman Pl'O-
mon(ory from Uw Per. ian Gulf to the Gulf of ' Oman, (2) those whicL
4 z 2
oonnect the western coast of the 'Oman Promontory with the Baraimi
Oasis, aud (3) those which run westwards through Dhafrah, providing
access from tile castern parts of Trucial 'Oman and from the Barai-
mi Oasis to Qatar and the Hasa Sanjiiq. We proceed to deal with them
in the above order ..
I (a) . ROlttefrom. Ra,,·al·Khni1llak Town to Dibali.*-The places first
passed arc Falaiyah, Hail and Khatt jn Sir, which arc reached at 6, 7
and 14 miles, respecti\'ely, from Ra-al-Khaimah Town. A bout I ! miles
beyond Khatt the hills of tbe 'Oman Promontory are entered; and
from this point the w"y lies up Wildi·al·Qaliddi to a pass neal' Muhln,rqah
vilbgc j the chief poinif; passed hctw('cn KhaLt and l\fullt:U(Plll arc g·iven
as Labiinnh , S:Jnllll and rpllwi j':lin \.:.. whiGh are water ing
placcf'J aBd tile vill:lg'c of Ya,'akal. li'rom tile pass ncar
which is "bout h"lf way from Khatt 10 Ilibah al1(\ has good waleI', the
route descends towards Dibah j and at five miles Ahort of that place it
emerges from the hill s, continuing for the rest of the way ovcr a. plain
grown with brushwood. The journey was pcrformed (in the reverse
direction to that described) by Colonel "isbrowe and Captain Powell in
apparently in E'i,!!ht st.:'l.ges, cut most of these were extrcmely short.
The direct di stance between the termini ECCIDS to be less than 25 miles,
but the actual distance is probably about '1·0: the general direction is,
roughly, from west-north-west to cast-Rout.h-cast.
] (6). Rout" (r"' m ''Umm-nj-Q,liwo£n 'PI"f01t to Fu,1nirolt.t-This l'Outr
rUlls across the desert by t he wcllt-: of ,Ghal'a and Umm-an-
Naghul J)'iiJI to the ill!:1lltl villagc of Valaj AI 'Ali (01' lralai), whicll
is a dependency (·f Umm-al-Qaiwain :lnd ] 6 miles distant, south- east..
wards, {!'OID. t he same, From Falaj AI 'Ali it continues 8 miles further,
south·eastwards, to the Muraqqibat wells in the yicinity of Dhaid. It
tben enters the hills, passes by Slji, and drops into Wadi Ham which it
foll ows down to Fujairah. This ronte is f:aid to pl'eEcnt no difficulties
to camel transpoJ't: its length, wcre it straight, would be undel' 60 miles,
but in consequence of windings it is probahly a good deal more than tbis.
1'be average direction if: nearly south-cast .
• ,dllth',rjtie.r.-Pl\rlly P. Z. Cox from nJitive informAti on. C-,I"II.. 1 H_ Dis-
browe, T'olitira} Agent, lind C .. ptl\in W. l ' iI W.. II, LN., travcl1ed this Wily in 1865 i a
sketch of the route h.y the hlt .er is but the n' p"rt, if any existed. is I IOW luAt.
t From native information obLlliued by Mu.jor P_ Z. t:ox: and Lieutena.nt C. H.
l(r). Rn"te fro", Sha,;nh Town to nr".air.*-'l'he first part of t.hi.
route lies ovel' open desert by the wells of Zibair and Tahil to
Dhaid village, a di stance o[ about 3U miles. From Dhaid it runs to the
wells of "'-usilali, and thereafter it. enters Wadi-al-Qor, which it descends
to l\1"urair. I t is asscrted by native informants tha.t Wadi-al-Qor has
easy gradients and could probably be made practicable for tralli e
witllOllt great difficulty, uut. the, statement must be treated With
he distance dil'el't born Sharjah Towll to Murair is under 70 miles,
but by roa.d it must be considerably lUorc. 'l'he general dil'eetion is
about south-east by east.
The part of this route beyoud Dhaid may be used also 'by travellers
from Hamriyah and Umm-al·Qaiwain, those from Hamriyah making
direct for Dhaid (25 mil,>s) hy the well s of SilTah ;- and Ban'ah "!;) j
and tho," from Ulllm·,I-Qaiwain following route No. 1 (h) above as far
as 11'a,laj AI' Ali and then diverging to Dhaid (0 mil es from Fala.j AI 'Ali).
l(d). R01ft e from /)i/'ai 'l'0101t 10 Shi' J'ouJ1t .1' - Thi s route crOsses
the de.ert behind Dibai Town by thc well. of Matluah Kha-
walliJ' .01,':'" ]\fuhdathah ",j,,>.r'"', and Gh!lttah or Qatta Ibj; passing ovet
t ·· ,
(or Jabal Paiyah it arrive' at the well of Yahfar-al -Faiyah, 37
miles iu a direct line f,om D.bai. It then £aI ,s into \\ adi Hatt.a
whieh it follows down to Shinas. 'rhe actual distance in travelling
must exe' eel by a good deal the di!:'t,lllce in a straight line-which is a.
little over 811 miles-between t he ext t'clIll! point!) , The averag\! dilection
is south-east by east.
T,aveller; from Sharjah Town Lo Shin as may al,o ( them'elve,
o[ this rout.e, joining it at Ghalta.h 0 1' at ): a.hfar-a.I-!":liyah.
2(a). Rottte Irom RaB- at- A'haimah 't oW/t to th e Barainu: Oasif.t-
This rout.e can be most conveniently described in tabular form, a'j
follows :-
Stllrt\lIg poi ll t. Halling place.
c,jurnct r r "f halliug
Had ,ithll h Soc article Jiri.
• Autho,.itic.\".--l'l>e 811 for l'onle No.1 (6).
t Alltlt fJ ritie4.-TIi0 80.1110 as for I'l'lu'e No.1 (b).
n elcription of t h .. Interml'<iI:Ho
Sh gtl .
- --- - ---
'I be lolnl dillill1lce by ro\d
18 mil,·s and Iho L.','n"ril.l
dirl'cLiOIl 8ou: b by W('lIt. The
I P. Z. Cox, Po\iLi,'a\ Resi-tcnt in the Per"i&1I ';ul£. from
person ...l (IbsrTVutiun in a r t'purt submitted \\jtb his letter No. IBOOof 5th August 1906
to the Govl'rn,,,,,,,,t nf India.
llaltiJ.lg place,
QaIJ,h M.h.fidh
Character of halting
Sec article
Sec paragraph un
top 0 g r ap h y
Description of the i :ltcrmcliiate
- - _._-------
route rllns 2 mill's I!out h·
wCl'tw:;l.Hls al'l11g the of
sand npon which Lown
is then tUI'll3 t ho
bead of the barbour and
gops easlwards ov\!r sand ..
hills for l! mile;;, after
which it dl'OP3.illto tile Sir
plain. The of
Falo.iynh, !hil and lI'ahlai u,
on tho oast, arc passed at
6 7 and 8 miles .1 list
Fahlnin tho Jiri
ph-in j", t'lllered a:ld the
route follows its weitern
edge, tho .. and duneS of the
desert hein:; 1;10,6 11 pOll
right, by the ", .. Us of Bu
Ya'iliin at 14, and those of
Haml' yah at 16 miles.
Tile oistrlllC(, HI 18 mi les by
road, n.nd tLc direction is on
the aVt.:mgo by west .
The route conti nues 10 fuJlow
the western margin 01' the
Jiri plain and .. S the
w<3l:s of 8fi.'ndi at 5 miles.
At miles Il high
undlliatiuJ,: tract of ea:td IS
entered, which contil1ues
for 4 luiles and ill which a
winding course must be
Tho r emailldel' of
the wn.y down tho sandy
vaHcy \If J!'araik h.
The distance bv road IS 16
lIml I.he diredion ne;l rlv
due sout.h. The I!'araiki
valley is f"llow .. d fill' 2 milt's,
after which Wadi
(thtl lIort\lern b ,undal'Y of
the Dbaid plain) is (·.rossed
alld the p' Ri" {It" D haid
entcred. Dhaid villa.!"e is
rcached ;It a li llIe "VCI" fl
mil .. s. FOI" miles beyond
t he viJlnglJ the routo lit's
oVt'r tho opeu plain: it tht:n
dr"ps into the- bed of \\ ad
Kalhail"ah, whil·1! it f,.lI"wiol
for 2 to \\' tlls (if
'Vu.shR.l! ; it tl len ilcross
I:Itretcu of plain aud
Starting point. Jjaltilli plate.
of Ihe Intermediate

Cilaracter of halting
-------1- ------ -1------------
Qallah M.h.fidh

",!1iJ1 U.
(N. B.-This is
not. the :\ 1 iso.kin
well but a place
neaf the r ight.
bank of Wi\di
M haki u Lighor
See paragnlpb on
See ar ticle
at 13 wiles r eaohes the ascellt
to Q'li lah Just
befofe this a"'ceut is leachen
thet e is good gra7..i nl: iar
CIUl els j on the plateau bi'J and
nono is obr uinable for ,",ome
,,,i lcs. Wat er f(lr thil:l huH
is laken fr uUl
The distance to the t raveller
i s 18 Illile>l, and the direction
neil-Ily d ue tho The
Q olbh !Iahafidh pLttcau is
traversed lor :-3 the
hollow containing the
Hamdah well is then
cfo_ sed; lind lit 12 miles the
W4'!\ of aiyah ill
reached. Throughout this
103.lch, after Qallah Mahilfidh
lelt behind, .jabal Fii",)ah
ill upon Ihe right at aile Of
twn mile!! distancf, lind tho
I'ath whlds O\'fr a well -
wooJ('d mndy plain. .An
a ltl'l"IlHtiv6 hltiti"g place to
Mu saifi is Yiclaiwi, al:,o in
II t.he Madam plain but 6 wilcs
furtucr to tbe SQut b·wcst.
The aotual distance is l 0 mile.
and f.lle generRI direct :tlu i s
ufarly dHO south. The routo
cr"ssCB betwet'D 10 and 12
ulIle:, a p1ojfcting' tongue of
tbe western de!lert. At
14 luil p,s it faHs into WId
SRmnini in whioh it CQntiuuell
almost 'lIltil the baltillg'
place is reached.
Til e distallce by roe-d is 1 B
miles Hn lt the a.verage direc
tioll of the 11' 11('1., which i
crookcd, is a little to tho
'VI'st of sout.h . At 1 mile
Wildi SHmlOilli is crossed, and
olle d its tLibutaries is RS
l:euded 1'1' 0'11 thill !,oint for
2 miles. The rollin!! sInd
hills of Rn.u,lat 'Anaij ;11'e
\h('n for 3 and
at thei r oonclusion Bal -bah
Sftnll.ibil is inters('cted. Sand
dunes of miJdc" alld lefl
baneu appeal"r.nce
at 1:1 wiles thl"! ?ecuba.r .0:1
l4048 'OMA.N (TRUOIAL)
Shortior point.
Halting place,
Jimi in
the Baraimi
Charao(cr of halting I
Drscription of tbe idormedi.te
1- ---- --- ---------
See article
Baraimi Oasis.
of S"fwAn is rellched. At
11 mill's the trl'l.vl'llt'r C'fO"Sf'8
the dr)' N .. wa,i.j
find to the sandy
SI,ibl'1i.t-al·Khidim tr.tct
which continl1t's for 10
milt's: he then liD
in the
the drainage of
wh'ch is t'lll'ried by Wil.di
The distance by route is 20
mill'S, and tile uenp!'al direc-
tion is l'oulh·Elouth·west.
The route rUDS Ht fiu'it Ulore
we<::t than south alollg' WJldi
Mis.iikin, jUflt bl·fore leai'ing
whi(,h the .lIisii.kin well on
I he rigbt i! pSS8Pd: for the
Ile:xt 4 Idles il lips /Over the
g""tIl! undIl1atil.D" of
Ihtl Bdlio·al."hiiD and 'he
riil"eetil)D is "olllh, rho Aft .. r
this it, wand"r" fur 7 milee
in the difficnlt Blind I" dretlrt
of Hllmlat K .. b 11. Mas·
'Udi is th" flnst RPtilpment
,lIlBlled aftpr dropping from
the I,i!!h s.'\nd·rlIlD" tract into
the Baraimi Oasil!.
Tho total distance from Ras-al-Khaimah Town to Jimi by this route
is 12. miles, and the journey is generally performed by caravans in 6 to 8
'1'1 -
.ays. lere IS no weJl·worn track, and no two caravans foHow exactly the
• ame COurse. Camel transport i. the only kind used in tr3lvelIing by this
hne; for donkeys-the only other beast of burden available-cannot,
when laden, negotiate the sandy tracts that have to be cross cd on the way_
Tbe wells n long the route are generally from 40 to 60 fed deep and are
lined fo th 8
r e uppermost 01' 10 feet with timbers or roul"h hewn ,tone
from the hills: the water i. invari.bly raised by me "US of a le"ther
, !'uc;'et which ishanled by a rope over a pulley, the pulley being SUSpellrled
from a trestle over the well mouth.
'l'his route i .. the main artery of traffic in the 'Oman Promontory j
the place of leeders to it is taken by routes I (h), 1 «) and 1 (Ii) above,
it at 01' near -\Iul'aqqibiit, Dhaid village and Yahfar-al-
Fal)'llil, respectively. There is reason t o th:nk that, by fol1owing a. line
IOm.what further to eastwardB and more cloBelV adjoilling the foot of
the main hills, a line might be found which could without mnch labour
be adapted for wheeled traffic, and that it might not be difficult to
connect such a road with the Bltinah ouast by me;;i.llS or another road
down Wadi-al-Qor.
2, (0 ) Rou,te from lJi bai 1'oUJn to the Ba1'aimi Oasis *.-This route,
which appa.rently runs straight aerMS the intervening desert, is identical
with route No, J (d) above as far :loS Khawanij. rrhe nu,mcs o£
points snbsequently passed are given as 'Awil' ./;:J"_JJ, Habab
].11 f"'! , Madhlill J}6
, Faqa' t
and Kbasilb
rrhe distance direct line is between 70 and 7j miles.
2. (e) Route frnm Aim jJhao; l'ollm to the Barai1Jti Oasis. t-The
distancc is about lOU miles by the route ordinal'ily followed which runs
a little south or east. (rhe stages are nlaqta', whele the creek behind
Abu Dhabi Town is cro3sed, 10 miles; from to Suq
Iblis, a rocky landmark, 141 miles j Iblis to Nahshilah &1..:..;,
water holes, 28 miles j Nahshi lah to Bill Huwail, wells, 15 mi les; But
Huwail by Nasuriyah to Juhar. water holes, 25 miles; Juhar to
the Baraimi Oasis, 12 miles. Stages named Habal and Muwaih
Arnab ,slightly more t o the south, may be substituted for
tbose of Silq ibHsa"d i'ahsbilah. The track from Maqt" , to Baraimi
lies over a. desert of sand and there is almost no grazing by the
Routes connecting the Baraimi Oasis with Mah:idhah and
Mah:idhah with the route from the Baraimi Oasis to Sohar Towu are
shortly noticed in t he article upon Mah:idhah •
3. There is no fixed route between Baraimi or Trucial 'Oman and
the Rasa and different caravans fo llow different lines of wells
aero" Dhafrah and the tl'acts beyond it . A straighter and more inland
course is apparently preferred b:y travellers in winter; while who
make tbe juurney in summer generally take a route less direct but Hearer
to the coast. SiJa', Sakak and the foot of Dohat-"s Salwa s.em to be
among the usual halting places in either seaSon. 'rhc joul'ney as a whole
is not considered clangerous or even difficuit j for water, th )ugh brackish,
is f "und in many and it is necessary to carry a supply
• .duthor.ty.-From nathe infOl'mation.
t 4 .. thoritl.-Major P. Z. from personal observation and enquiry.
l450 'oMAN (TRUOIAL)
for morc than two days. A mcsscn gel' ca.n co\'er the distance from
Baraimi t o Hofiif in ten da.ys; caravans bkc about a mont h.'"
Adm£uistration.-Eacb of the five principalities of Umm-al -Qaiwain,
' Ajman, Sharjah, Dibai and ALu Dhabi i. ruled by an independent
Shaikh, whose possessions on ILo sen, coast are generally uuder full
control; while all except the Shaikh of 'Ajman, and particularly the
Shaikh of Abu Dhabi, exercise SOme a.uthority or influence over Bedouin
tribes in the interior. 11'01' further details the separate article on each
principality may be consnlted.
Political position, fo?Oeign relatt'01l8 and foreigll, intucsts.-The
political position DE 'I'l'ucial 'Oman in regard to Groat Britain is difficult
to define with exactitude j it is regulated ill the main by two a.greements,
each of which has been signed by, allli. i!:> iutli\'idnally binding lipan, the
five Shaikh. of 'Ajman, Abu Dhabi, Dibai, Umm al -Q,aiwain and
'rhe earlier in (bte of these agl'cl!mcnts is a perpetual il'Uce, concluded
in 1853, which IJrovided for the entire of hostilities at sea among
the signatorie,s, and all the British Government the duty of
enforcing peace and obtaining rcparation for maritimc aggre:;;sions commit-
ted in contravention of the arrangement. It is ill virtuc of this treaty
that the Shaikh, of thc principalities arc styled 'frucial Shaikhs and that
their country may appropriately be stylcd 'l'rucial 'Oman.
By the second trcaty, signed in 189:1" thc '1'rucial Sbaikbs bound
themselves not to enter i nto any agreemcnt or corrcspondence with a
power other than the British Govemment; not to pcrmit, without the
assent of the Briti::; h Government, the residence within their territories
of the agent of any other gO" crnmcnt; and not to cede, bcll, mortgage or
otherwise give for occupation any part ?f their territories save to the
British Government.
The exact international effcct of lhesc two agreemcnts is a matter for
publicists to dcterminc, but taken togethcr they evidently creatc prcferen-
tial and almost exclusive relations betwcen the Government and
thc Trucial Chicfs,-relations which might Le held to imply ihe depen-
dence of the Shaikhs on the Dritish Govcrnment in foreign affairs and a
.moral obligation 011 the part of th£' :British Government to IJfotect the
Shaikhs in so far as they may he endangered, or di,abled from defending
"0111. Miles (vide J. A. S . .B. Volume XLVI, Part I, 1877, pages
69·60) giTeS more precise directions than t!u'sC', but the posit ions an (1 flven the Uloer
of hill Itll!toe do ,Dot always agree well with the results of the 1ll0S5 recent enquirie!!.
themselves, in consequence of the trea.ties of 1853 and 1892. That the
cxistence of some such position has been in a sense rccogniscd by the
GO"ernment of the French Bepublic will be apparent Oll reference to thc
historical volumc of this Gazetteer.
British subjects iu rrrucial rOman arc distriLuted as follows and
include at each place a proportion ot 'women and children :-
No"[ .
Nil. 33
61 158
'l'OTALs 19·1
If some l:'cl'si.uns from the oppositc coast and thcir concerns are left
out of aCcollllt, G rcat Britain is stili the only foreign country which
possesses :wy moral 01' matcl'ial or subjects in rj1 rucial 'Oman:
for the l)l'uicct ioll of a Natin: Agent of the 11ersian Gulf Residency
is maiutained a.t Sha,rjah 'rown. (rhe :;ubjects in question arc the
Indians, and Khojahs, who arc settled in the la.rger ports .
The name is vcry [rcq l1cntly pL'onounced JOjair. A coastal tract ill
the Sanjii'l of Hasa containing the port of 'Oqair; it falls naturally
within themaillbountiul.ic!; of Biyadh aDd should l>Cl'haps be regardcd
as forming' part of that diyibion.
Bonndaries ... Burr-al·'O(lail' cxtends upon thc sca from Tall-az·
Zabanai, on the sonth ,ide of tbe entrance of Dobat Ruhum, to Ras-
as-Sufairah, a. promontory of tbe mainland opposite the south end of
Zakhniiniyah i. land; its length from north-north-wcst to south-south-
east is thus roughly 3S miles. It, dcpth inland is undefined but small:
possibly howevcr the easternmost of tbe wells which arc enumerated in
the article on Biyadh (diyision VI) should be regarded as belonging to
"Barl'-al-'Oqair, ill p:ll'tieul:ll' those of Dannan) Hnghwtill, 1\1ijama'ah

;>.iWl .r.

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