FILARC welder guide book No.

PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire and related types for high tensile and creep resistant steels

Welder Guide Book No. 1

Index page 1

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FILARC PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire and related types for high tensile and creep resistant steels

A new generation of basic cored wires with excellent welding characteristics for positional work on high quality fabrication

.6 Welding parameter setting.... but not difficult......4 Back to catalogue FILARC PZ6125 is decribed in this guide......2 Gas regulation ...........................6mm and are developed for use in Ar/CO2 mixed gas................... due to the new flux formulation...15 Welding advice ........................... There is also helpful information for welding engineers establishing appropriate welding procedures............. 1...........2 Gas cup and contact tip combination ......................................................................... together with related types............... including satisfactory CTOD values..................................Page 2 Torch.......................... both as-welded and stress relieved.........26 Causes of weld defects ...................................... Introduction FILARC PZ 6125 represents a new generation of basic fluxcored wires...........................12 EN 758 T 42 6 1Ni B M 1 H5 Back to catalogue/ product page T 50 5 Mn1Ni B M 1 H5 – – – – ASME and EN welding positions.......... weldability has distinctive..................... with much improved weldability............................1 PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire and related types for high tensile and creep resistant steels Due to its policy of continual improvements in its welding consumables..................... ....... having identical welding performance..... also training instructors and welding foremen..................8 Choice of wire size .......................24 Trouble shooting ........... The information provided will be helpful to welders both qualified or still to qualify for cored wire welding..... PZ 6125 and related types provide good all-position weldability............... This Guide Book provides all the information you need to ensure fully satisfactory use of these new basic cored wires......... with useful tolerance in welding parameter setting..............................10 Recommended average parameter setting ..................... / DIN 8575 DIN: SGCrMo1 29:E71T5-A1 DIN: SGCrMo2 22:E502T-1 29:E81T5-B2 – – – – – Grinding .. to achieve optimum productivity and avoid faults................. Previous page Next page FILARC Welder Guide Books provide practical information on the use of specific FILARC flux and metal-cored wires...... Overall the guide will enhance results from the FILARC flux or metal-cored wire(s) described...................2 and 1.... However......................................27 1 .......0........................4 Gas cup sizes ........4 Correct stickout length ....................................................... FILARC reserves the right to change data in this guide without notice........16 Torch positions for positional welding ......................18 Weaving technique ......2 Wire drive unit....... with hydrogen content dependably below 3ml /100g........................ liners and cable assembly ................................. All types come in diameter size 1..........FILARC welder guide book No........... PZ 6125 yields excellent mechanical properties............................ listed below..................................... The contents will assist welders to apply correct welding parameters and use the FILARC cored wire effectively............... Low alloyed types AWS A5........................29 E71T5-G FILARC PZ 6125 High tensile types FILARC PZ6145 FILARC PZ6146 FILARC PZ6147 FILARC PZ6148 FILARC PZ6149 Creep resistant types FILARC PZ6201 FILARC PZ6202 FILARC PZ6203 FILARC PZ6204 FILARC PZ6205 E81T5-G E91T5-K2 E101T5-K3 E111T5-K4 E121T5-G Power source facilities..................... they are far easier to use than conventional basic cored wires...........22 AWS A5..... characteristics... Index Correct use of equipment.............................................

extremely curved cable assemblies. When carried out regularly. Gas regulation Check that Ar/CO 2 (80/20) gas is used. Spiral steel liners are recommended. Following are some simple guidelines for preventive inspection and maintenance. Check gas and water connections for leaks. to be sure that required gas flow is available. Exit to torch Excessive space between wire guide tubes and rollers can cause kinking of wire. Adjust the flow rate between 15 and 20 l /min to suit wire Ø and joint configuration. contact tips are checked for wear upon wire spool change and replaced when necessary. Proper alignment is essential. and/or with units with one set of rolls. Check gas pressure and flow rate. giving increased wear of liner and contact tip. this must be regular. also in the plane perpendicular to the one shown here. Correct location of wire guide tubes. Proper alignment is essential to avoid unnecessary friction. Check gas cups for spatter built-up and clean if necessary. Knurled wheels cause increased wear of liner and contact tip. Replace worn contact tip. Always check gas flow with a flow meter which fits on the nozzle. When fitted. by preference. Too much pressure may flatten the cored wire. Inspect torch connections and clean liner weekly. use 20l. causing erratic wire feed and burn-back.FILARC welder guide book No. This is only likely to happen with long. 2 3 . Blowing-out the liner into the direction of wire delivery should be a regularly recurring routine. the most common causes of malfunctioning are avoided.1 Correct use of equipment PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire and related types for high tensile and creep resistant steels FILARC PZ 6125 and other cored wires will always perform well when welding sets are used correctly and maintained according to the maker’s instructions. Minimal space between guide tubes and rollers. Check that the groove of the drive wheel is correctly selected for the wire diameter. Insufficient pressure may result in slip. Check liners for damage at least weekly. concentric hole worn hole Previous page Next page Back to index page 1 Torch. and replace when necessary. causes friction. flat pressure wheels. Outdoors. A substantial amount of fine metallic swarf underneath the drive wheels indicates misalignment (or excessively worn drive wheels). Make a short test run to assure no porosity arises from incorrect gas flow. and that the pressure wheel is correctly tensioned. ensure water cooler is filled and pump operates satisfactorily. Test wire delivery at the torch. Impeded gas flow from clogged cups may cause porosity. Ideally. Misalignment. Limit the use of knurled wheels to situations where friction in the liner causes wheels with a V-groove to slip. Exit to torch Back to catalogue Wire drive unit Wire guide tubes must be as close to the rollers as possible to prevent kinking of a cored wire. Use drive wheels with a V-groove and. liners and cable assembly Ensure that the contact tip has the right size and is mounted tight.

Incorrect. causing spatter. to allow satisfactory access to the joint. and maintain the stickout length recommended above. rust or paint on the plate material or an overlong stickout length. Correct stickout length Incorrect. Also refer to the checklist of process faults and weld defects as from page 26. 10 -1 5m m Gas cup sizes Back to catalogue Various cup diameters must be available. Unstable arc or large droplets are a sign of excessive stickout. Overlong stickout results in larger droplets. ± 2mm ± 10mm Correct positioning of contact tip. Right: contact tip extends beyond gas cup. It must be held constant at 10 to 15mm for PZ 6125 and related types in 1. Too large gas cup diameter restricts access to narrow joints. according to wire size. Risk of insufficient shielding gas protection. 4 5 . possibly due to gas cup size not allowing suitable access to the joint.FILARC welder guide book No. Correct.1 PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire and related types for high tensile and creep resistant steels Gas cup and contact tip combination It is essential to mount the gas cup and contact tip at the right distance relative to each other. Small diameter gas cups are used for first layers only. Variations will cause arc voltage and welding current to fluctuate and in turn adversely influence droplet transfer. if porosity occurs.0 and 1.2mm wire sizes. Check gas flow after a change of gas cup size. Too small gas cup diameter for filling reduces gas protection and brings porosity. mainly in narrow joints. Also insufficient gas flow. A larger distance increases stickout length.6mm size. replace gas cup with smaller size. here and in other FILARC sales literature referred to as stickout. Smaller gas cup diameter for 1st layers of joints with limited access. Check the above. the presence of condense water. Left: increased stickout causes slag traps and fusion faults. Ideal stickout length for 1. resulting in too long stickout length. so bringing weld porosity. constant stickout length must be maintained. Revert to the standard gas cup diameter when access to the weld joint allows this. due to clogged gas nozzles is a common cause.2mm sizes and 15 to 20mm for 1. mainly in narrow joints. Correct. is the distance between the tip of the contact tip and the workpiece. Previous page Next page Back to index page 1 The stand-off. as far as joint preparation will allow. so full gas protection can be assured. Correct gas cup for filling ensures good gas protection and correct stickout. causing slag traps and lack of fusion. 10- 15m m >10 -15 mm Trouble shooting Porosity is normally the result of draught. Incorrect. also reducing gas protection.0 and 1. The ideal 2mm distance is shown right.

Due to the variety of welding equipment available. – + Previous page Next page Back to index page 1 • Pre-programmed with variable selection of wire feed speed. and if not fully satisfactory check with equipment supplier for program revisions. Typical examples are shown here. – polarity Choke setting values may be indicated by various symbols.1 PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire and related types for high tensile and creep resistant steels Power source facilities Power source rating must be suitable for the basic cored wire size at 60% duty cycle. These should have selectable choke settings. and trim these for smoothest weldability in the welding position required. 6 7 . in all positions. so will adjust this until arriving at what is considered to be satisfactory. select the parameters recommended for FILARC PZ 6125 in preference to any already installed program(s) for flux-cored wires. Only if spatter is excessive. Power sources fall into the following categories for setting welding parameters (arc voltage. However. • Programmable. wire feed speed/welding current. it is impractical to define the exact setting. Advice Start with a minimum value and adjust the arc voltage and wire feed speed to recommended values. to avoid slag inclusions and lack of fusion. • Manual selection. use the next higher choke setting.FILARC welder guide book No. Available programs for flux-cored wires may not necessarily suit FILARC PZ 6125 and related wires. Choke setting A welder often has a preference for a particular setting. choke setting). Use negative polarity for PZ6125 and related types (straight polarity). especially when welding in position. also to obtain deeper penetration. a minimum choke value is best suited for FILARC PZ 6125. with or without Voltage and Ampère meters. Test these carefully. automatic chokes are not recommended. Back to catalogue –1 minimum –2 –3 maximum A minimum B C maximum A minimum B C maximum Recommended setting for PZ6125 and related types. Polarity –negative It is essential to weld FILARC PZ 6125 and related types on – negative polarity.

Arc length too short. use a higher choke value and repeat the above adjustments. Correct arc length. which is established by the wire feed speed adjustment on the wire drive unit. Arc Voltage and Welding Current Meters Usually fitted to power sources. fine droplet transfer at lower wire feed speeds. Test weldability in the required welding position. Previous page Next page Back to index page 1 Back to catalogue • adjust arc voltage in steps of 1 or 2V. They are not a substitute for correct adjustment of welding parameters to suit the best combination of wire size and welding position. Arc is just over weldpool. delivering either a smooth. Wire dips into weldpool. with smooth droplets or spray arc. irregular wire feeding due to incorrect wire drive roller adjustment. caused by too high a wire speed or too low an arc voltage. the arc voltage setting for FILARC PZ6125 is higher than usually required for normal basic cored wires. Note. set the recommended arc voltage (V) and wire feed settings/current values. Check these if weldability fluctuates. Wire speed too low. Correct parameter setting will bring the arc over the weld pool. especially at lower arc voltage/welding currents. Power sources fitted with voltage and current meters allow settings to be monitored. a damaged torch cable liner. or spray arc at higher speeds. Results may be further improved by slight adjustment of wire feed speed/welding current. Arc length too long. Advice After selecting the minimum choke value.1 PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire and related types for high tensile and creep resistant steels Welding parameter setting Arc voltage is related to welding current. In case of continuing difficulty. see following pages for examples.FILARC welder guide book No. or a worn contact tip can cause difficulties. Note. or arc voltage too high. adjustment of welding parameters will not overcome these equipment faults. 8 9 . Stubbing. To obtain correct results: • adjust the wire feed speed slightly. If the arc length remains unsatisfactory. Too short or long arcs can arise from incorrect setting of parameters for the welding position. these are helpful for training or monitoring purposes. or weldability unsmooth.

not recomm. Consult the special FILARC brochure on ceramic backing materials. The chart opposite shows recommended use. yes not recomm.2mm size is also an option when fabricators wish to weld root passes without ceramic weld metal support. The 1. yes yes not recomm. 10 11 .6mm size are very suited. possible1 not recomm.2 and 1. bringing excellent control of the weld pool in the 3 to 9 o'clock positions. yes1 not recomm. Diameter 1.6mm is a more productive choice when the majority of welding takes place in the downhand position. not recomm. 1G/PA 1G/PA 2G/PC 2G/PC 3G/PF 3G/PF 4G/PE 4G/PE 5G/PF 5G/PF 6G HL045 6G HL045 1F/PA 2F/PB 3F/PF 4F/PD Previous page Next page Back to index page 1 not recomm. not recomm. not recomm. so allowing optimal productivity for various combinations of plate thicknesses and welding positions. not recomm. where the versatility of PZ 6125 will still provide excellent results.0mm 1.0mm size is recommended 1.6mm Suitability for average application not recomm. not recomm.FILARC welder guide book No. not recomm. For additional advice contact your FILARC welding engineer or nearest sales office.2mm 1.6mm size is very productive for root passes in the 1G and 2G positions. possible1 yes yes yes yes not recomm. There will be exceptions for plate size. not recomm. Both the 1. yes possible2 possible2 not recomm. Use with ceramic backing High quality root runs can be deposited economically when using ceramic weld metal support. Chart recommendations are for average situations.2mm size is recommended for general all-positional use.1 PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire and related types for high tensile and creep resistant steels Choice of wire size FILARC PZ 6125 and related types are all available in 1. The 1. The 1. not recomm. Wire Ø Welding position Root Fill Root Fill Root Fill Root Fill Root Fill Root Fill – – – – 1 2 1. Although it is not recommended by FILARC.0. Back to catalogue For thicknesses below 20mm. A guide to ASME and EN welding positions is given on page 15.2mm as well as the 1.2 or 1. The thick root pass layer allows filling at higher welding currents. not recomm.0mm size is advantageous for pipe work and tubular constructions with minimal 10-12mm wall thickness and minimal 4inch diameter.6mm diameters. 1. application area.6mm sizes will improve productivity. yes not recomm. yes not recomm. etc. not recomm. not recomm. the 1. on backing yes on backing yes on backing yes on backing yes on backing yes not recomm. 1.

5-9. Diameters 1.5-9.5m/min 22-25V Root*: 170-230A/7.1 PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire and related types for high tensile and creep resistant steels Recommended average parameter settings FILARC PZ 6125.5-8.5-11.2 and 1.2mm Ø.2 and 1.FILARC welder guide book No.0-11. 1G/PA Root*: 180-230A /8.0m/min 22-28V (spray arc) Fill : 240-320A/12.5m/min 22-25V 4F: 160-230A/ 6.0m/min/18-28V * One-sided root pass on ceramic backing (round groove) 12 13 .0-9.8m/min 18-19V Root : not recommended Fill : 130-150A /4.2m/min 18-19V 5G+6G/H-L000+H-L045 5G/PF Root : not recommended Fill : 130-160A/7.2m/min 18-20V 1F/2F/PA/PB 240-320A/ 12.0-6.0-8.5-19.0mm Ø. negative (–) polarity. 1. FILARC PZ 6125. 1.8m/min 18-21V 3G/PF Root*: 150-180A /6.0m/min 19-22V (spray arc) Fill : 180-200A /8.0-11.5-19.0m/min 28-34V 1G/PA Not recommended. Root : not recommended Fill : 140-160A/8.0-9.0m/min 23-33V Previous page 2G/PC Next page 3G/PF Back to index page 1 3F/4F/PF/PD Fill : not recommended Back to catalogue 4G/PE 4G/PE Root : not recommended Fill : 130-150A/7.6mm are best suited. Diameters 1.5m/min 18-19V Root : not recommended Fill : 130-180A /4.0m/min 18-22V 6G/HL045 Root : not recommended Fill : 140-150A/8.0m/min 21-28V (spray arc) Fill : 190-280A /9.0m/min 28-34V 3F/4F/PF/PD 3F: 180-200A/ 8.6mm are best suited.0-16.8-9. negative (–) polarity.8-9. 2G/PC Not recommended.

0-5. negative (–) polarity.5-4.5-5.0m/min 27-36V Root*: 200-240A /3. Also used with ceramic backing for plate thicknesses down to 16mm. 1.5-8.FILARC welder guide book No. Generally used for plate thickness of 20mm and higher.5-12.5-12.5m/min 24-26V (spray arc) Fill : 240-270A /4.0m/min 27-36V 5G ↑↓ / PF & PG-H-L000 6G ↑↓ / H-L045 1F/ PA 2F/PB Fill : 240-320A/4.0m/min 30-35V 2F/ PB 3F ↑↓ / PF & PG 4F / PD * One-sided root pass on ceramic backing (round groove) 14 15 . With ceramic backing 1G /PA 2G /PC Previous page 1G/PA Next page Back to index page 1 2G/PC Root*: 220-260A /4.6mm Ø.0m/min 26-28V (spray arc) Fill : 220-380A /4.5m/min 26-30V 3G ↑↓/ PF & PG 4G /PE Back to catalogue Plate thickness ≥ 20mm 1F/PA Fill : 240-380A/4.1 PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire and related types for high tensile and creep resistant steels ASME and EN Welding Positions FILARC PZ 6125.

Figure A Correct backhand welding (trailing) with torch at 70-90°. will bring improved results when the welding guidelines are correctly followed. Correct torch angle is 70-90° as shown figure A. but penetration is often poor. including welder comfort. followed by troubleshooting for typical faults. see figure C. causing slag traps and lack of fusion. Welding characteristics FILARC PZ 6125 has distinctive. see figure B. direction of travel direction of travel Figure B Forehand welding (pushing). more fluid weldpool for higher penetration. Greater tolerance for arc voltage/welding current setting. also to avoid using methods associated with rutile cored wires. Positive penetration To ensure positive penetration.1 PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire and related types for high tensile and creep resistant steels Welding advice Following pages provide advice on welding techniques for typical applications. See figure A. Forehand welding can deliver a reasonable appearance. insufficient penetration and lack of fusion can be expected. Less slag. At lower angles. There is also the chance of overflowing the weldpool. Risk of insufficient penetration. and so avoid the most common cause of weld defects: Always try to weld backhand This ensures good penetration and prevents slag running ahead of the weldpool. Less risk of fusion faults and slag traps. Flatter weld beads. lack of fusion and slag traps. Grinding requirements considerably reduced.FILARC welder guide book No. Figure C Backhand welding with too small a torch angle. Warmer. direction of travel 70-90° Previous page Next page Back to index page 1 Back to catalogue These impressive advantages. Some training is obviously needed to gain familiarity with the welding characteristics of the PZ 6125. 16 17 . by way of: • • • • • • • • Higher arc voltage with smoother droplet transfer. or conventional basic types where colder weld pools and short arc dip transfer lead to less favourable weldability. due to the slag running ahead of the weldpool. but not difficult welding characteristics. These differ from conventional basic cored wires. Semi-spray arc operation aids positional work. causing insufficient penetration and lack of fusion.

With backing: use round ceramic. it is recommended that the bevel angle is enlarged. Following are typical situations where correct torch positioning plays an important role in avoiding weld defects. Fourth layer creates favourable angle for following pass. This can be avoided by keeping weld beads as flat as possible as shown by the diagrams. Wrong weld bead sequence. Third layer builds up weld thickness. See page 22 for guidance on weaving. 19 . Fifth layer. Avoid sagging Slag traps and fusion faults arise from sagging (rollover). A. Second layer. Without backing: grind opposite side. 45° Sagging requires grinding to eliminate weld defects. Note how layers are always built up from bottom side of joint as weld thickness increases. without sagging. Incorrect torch angle. Too high welding current. wrong right 18 Weaving advice is given on page 22.1 PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire and related types for high tensile and creep resistant steels Torch positions for positional welding PZ 6125 and related types are well suited for all-position welding. using flatter bead. so reducing repair rates and unproductive grinding. typically caused by: B. Always maintain the torch angle of 70-90° relative to the weld bead and direction of travel as advised on page 17. C. • • • • Wrong travel speed.FILARC welder guide book No. 10° Previous page Next page Back to index page 1 D. Maintain a steady travel speed to achieve a regular bead thickness. Avoid overthick bead. 45° Back to catalogue 30° 10° E. If the torch positions shown cannot be used. Root pass. 2G/PC Torch position depends on plate thickness and bevel angle of the joint.

1 PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire and related types for high tensile and creep resistant steels Torch positions. Arc too close to vertical plane. Weaving advice is given on page 22. ceramic backing 4G/PE Use basic electrode or TIG-welding for root pass. Figures A and B give ideal torch positioning. Arc voltage too high. using the backhand method recommended. If necessary use a narrower gas cup. Filling layers C • • • • • Undercut: Welding current too high. continued 3G↑/3F↑/PF Note the torch positions shown below for root run and filling layers. 20 21 . Torch angle (φ) too small. Joint bevelling must allow good access to the root area. Layer too thick. Torch angle (φ) too big. A B Previous page Next page 10° 90° 80-90° Back to index page 1 2F/PB Figures A and B show the ideal torch positioning. C 10° D φ φ B. D • • • • Sagging: Welding current too high. Root pass 70 . Arc voltage too high.FILARC welder guide book No. Travel speed too high. Use FILARC PZ 6125 and related types for filling. A B 45° Back to catalogue A.90° Trouble shooting Figures C and D show possible undercut and sagging faults. and possible causes.

Always ensure satisfactory side plate wetting. The arc must point into the corner between plate material and weld as illustrated below. Incorrect weaving can lead to weld defects. slag traps and fusion faults. in conjunction with the torch positions described on previous pages. will avoid weld defects and reduce grinding requirements.0cm. Incorrect • Weave width correct but wrong technique. • Good wetting onto plate edges and weld. C.1 PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire and related types for high tensile and creep resistant steels Weaving technique Use of correct weaving. as shown figure A. • Weave as little as possible. • Remain approximately 2 seconds at the plate edges. • Downward triangle causes convex weld with risk of slag traps and fusion faults. 2 seconds to allow weld metal to solidify. 22 23 . Apply a little weaving. B. Incorrect • Insufficient weaving. Incorrect • Torch not pointed onto plate. Correct • Weave width 1. • Forehand welding. A. • Wrong torch position. stop at the plate edges for approx. • Excessive weaving. B. • Correct torch position. 2G/PC Position A.FILARC welder guide book No. • Use an upward triangle towards the joint centre. Previous page Next page Back to index page 1 Back to catalogue B. Correct • Apply stringer beads as far as possible. 1G/PA Position Restrict weaving width. giving a convex weld. Correct • Torch pointed onto plate. restricted weaving and correct torch position are important. Incorrect • Excessive weaving. • Assure good side plate wetting. • Correct weaving width. • Backhand welding. For K joints.5-2. try to weld stringer beads as far as possible. shown. A. 3G/PF Position Correct weaving technique is very important when welding PZ 6125 in the 3G position.

Previous page A Correct. Remove only the most obvious irregularities. as shown figure D. this can cause defects. giving easy access for the welding torch. Sealing runs Grind before welding. Avoid overgrinding. Grinding wheel pushed into root. The narrow joint is almost inaccessible to the torch. starts. Back to catalogue C Always grind starts and stops. B Incorrect. stops and undercut. to create a smooth. bringing deep groove. D Correct.FILARC welder guide book No. like sagging. Next page Back to index page 1 E Incorrect. slightly concave groove. 24 25 . Also do not create sharp edges. always leaving smooth bead contours.1 PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire and related types for high tensile and creep resistant steels Grinding Grinding requirements for PZ 6125 welds are not excessive when the recommended welding techniques are applied. leading to slag traps and lack of fusion when filling.

enlarge gap Fillet: lack of fusion at standing leg • torch too much pointed at .irregular wire feed . spatter Back to catalogue . wire burn-back Likely causes .wrong contact tip size .change torch orientation horizontal leg 26 27 . wire stubbing 2.damaged/worn contact tip . too low or irregular . rust or dirt in joint area lack of fusion 4. normally. Listed below are the most common process faults and their likely causes.damaged/worn/bent liner . irregular wire feed/ . For faults that result from incorrect setting or wrong welding techniques. understanding of the most common causes will lead the welder to quickly solving the problem encountered.parameter settings wire reel brake too tight parameter settings damaged/worn contact tip burn-back time too long Trouble shooting/weld defects Lack of fusion defects. but all share the same feature that weld metal and parent metal have not fused at one or more places. 70-90° torch angle .dirty or rusty wire/wire kinks .backhand welding.worn contact tip .adjust parameters .1 PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire and related types for high tensile and creep resistant steels Trouble shooting/process faults Although good equipment maintenance and proper welder training will help preventing process faults and weld defects.paint. where the weld metal fails to fuse with.FILARC welder guide book No. the standing leg. Previous page Next page Back to index page 1 cold lap lack of interrun fusion lack of side wall fusion lack of root fusion 3. In such cases.reduce travel speed/allow more dwell time at edges .overheated contact tip .misalignment of rolls and guide tubes/worn rolls . we refer to previous chapters where correct handling of FILARC PZ 6125 and related types is described in detail. Weld defects and their origins are discussed on next pages. Also shown is a typical defect in fillet welds.parameter settings .roll pressure too low unstable arc/wire jam .irregular gas flow Possible causes General • travel speed too high • wrong parameter setting • forehand welding Lack of root fusion • root gap too small Remedies . Process faults 1. There are several types of lack of fusion defects.wrong shielding gas/gas flow rate too high. Below.wire reel brake too tight .wire crossed on reel (brake too loose) . they can never be avoided completely. They can equally occur in other butt-weld types. typical forms of lack of fusion are shown in a V-butt weld.

check connections • gas cup to workpiece . To avoid this. continued gas flow indicates leaks • water leaks in cooled guns .1 PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire and related types for high tensile and creep resistant steels Lack of weld penetration Lack of penetration occurs when the weld metal fails to extend into the complete root of a joint. Shown below are three typical cases. keep slag behind arc . readjust parameters Undercutting Back to catalogue Butt welds • root gap too small/ face too big • joint included angle Slag inclusions Slag inclusions occur when molten slag is not allowed to escape to the surface of the weld pool.replace with one suiting the joint geometry .reduce travel speed. avoid slag running ahead of weld pool . try increasing the angle between torch and opposite leg.use 70-90° torch angle.increase arc voltage . when possible use split-weave technique.close doors or windows/ place wind screens .backhand welding . Porosity. grease or dirt in the weld area • gas cup clogged • gas cup distorted • gas cup too small or too big • gas flow too high or too low • gas leaks in system aspirate air Remedies . lower wire feed speed and/or travel speed until satisfactory bead appearance is obtained. the torch position may be wrong. If undercutting appears at one leg of a fillet weld.increase travel speed. or may be the result of a too high travel speed. or when slag remainders at the toe of beads are not sufficiently remolten.clean plates .check positioning of contact tip distance too long relative to gas cup.adjust flow rate Previous page Examples of lack of root penetration Next page Back to index page 1 Possible causes General • welding current too low • arc voltage too high • travel speed too high • travel speed too low • forehand welding • torch angle too small Remedies increase wire feed/arc voltage reduce arc voltage reduce travel speed increase travel speed.check by blocking gas cup. aim the arc at the leading edge of the pool .clean/replace .increase angle . avoid slag running ahead of weld pool . Undercutting is generally caused by an excessive welding current or arc voltage.backhand welding .use 70-90° torch angle. Possible causes • draught /wind • paint. Avoid thick layers.FILARC welder guide book No. Possible causes • welding current too low • travel speed too low • forehand welding • torch angle too small • convex beads • too much weaving Remedies .increase wire feed/arc voltage . 28 29 .replace . when the weld pool overrides slag running ahead of it.increase gap/reduce face . otherwise reduce weaving width.

Box 2050 N-3255 Larvik Tel : + 47 331 210 00 Fax : + 47 331 152 03 Poland Esab Sp. Rue du Petit Albi ZAC du Moulin à Vent Batiment D.A. P. ul. I-20010 Mesero (MI) Tel : +39 297 96 81 Fax : +39 297 289 300 The Netherlands FILARC Lastechniek B.O. Esab N. Avenue Jules Bordetlaan 15 B-1140 Brussels Tel : +32 2 726 84 00 Fax : +32 2 726 80 05 Czech Republic ESAB VAMBERK a. Box 8035 NL-3503 RA Utrecht Tel : +31 30 248 59 11 Fax : +31 30 241 15 34 Norway AS Esab Frankendalsvn 97. P.O. Smetanovo nábr ˘ í 334 ˘ez 517 54 Vamberk Tel : +42 445 50 11 11 Fax : +45 445 50 14 64 Denmark V. International Division Utrecht.V. Christophe Tel : 33 1 30 75 55 00 Fax : 33 1 30 75 55 25 Germany Esab GmbH Beethovenstrasse 135 Postfach 100763 D-42648 Solingen Tel : +49 212 298 0 Fax : +49 212 298 415 Great Britain Esab Group (UK) Ltd Hertford Road.r. 17 E-28100 Alcobendas (Madrid) Z.Vajnory Tel : + 42 728 87 41 Fax : + 42 728 87 41 Spain Esab Ibèrica SA Calle Aragoneses.I.A.s. Porte 402 F-95800 Cergy St.V. P.O. lok. P-1800 Lisbon Tel : +35 118 371 527 Fax : +35 118 591 277 Slovakia Esab Slovakia s.1 PZ6125 basic flux-cored wire and related types for high tensile and creep resistant steels FILARC Welding Industries B. P.V. Box 8086 NL-3503 RB Utrecht The Netherlands Tel : + 31 30 248 59 11 Fax : + 31 30 241 15 35 FILARC Welding Sales Organisations Belgium & Luxembourg S.Henrique Lote 332 . Infante D. Box 8004 S-402 77 Göteborg Tel : +46 31 50 95 00 Fax : +46 31 50 92 22 Switzerland Hulftegger & AG Bahnhofstrasse 52 CH-8712 Stäfa Tel : +41 1 928 81 11 Fax : +41 1 926 67 55 For countries not listed here: FILARC Lastechniek B. St. z o.V. Kernkade 8. Rybnicná 40 ˘ 835 54 Bratislava . Box 1330 DK-2600 Glostrup Tel : +45 43 20 03 00 Fax : +45 43 43 03 59 Finland FILARC Hitsaustuotteet Yliopistonkatu 37C SF-20100 Turku Tel : +358 2 251 3880 Fax : +358 2 251 3940 France Esab France S.O. The Netherlands Previous page Next page Back to index page 1 Back to catalogue Member of The Esab Group Printed in The Netherlands CW-WG1-9604/ 01 . de Alcobendas Tel : +34 1 661 55 80 Fax : +34 1 661 71 36 Sweden Esab Sverige AB Marknad Tillsatsmaterial Herkulesgatan 72 P.2° Esq. Augusta 75.o. 47 03-846 Warszawa Tel : + 48 22 612 59 61 Fax : + 48 22 612 59 57 Portugal Esab LdA Av.FILARC welder guide book No. Løwener Smedeland 2.o. Waltham Cross Hertfordshire EN8 7RP Tel : +44 1992 76 85 15 Fax : +44 1992 71 58 03 Italy Esab Saldatura SpA Via E Mattei 24.O.

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