Reasons for use

The global adoption of ISO 9001 may be attributable to a number of factors. A number of major purchasers require their suppliers to hold ISO 9001 certification. In addition to several stakeholders¶ benefits , a number of studies have identified significant financial benefits for organizations certified to ISO 9001. Corbett et al (2005) [6] showed that certified organizations achieved superior return on assets [7] compared to otherwise similar organizations without certification. Heras et al (2002) [8] found similarly superior performance [9] and demonstrated that this was statistically significant and not a function of organization size. Naveh and Marcus (2007) [10] showed that implementing ISO 9001 led to superior operational performance [11] . Sharma (2005) [12] identified similar improvements in operating performance and linked this to superior financial performance. Chow-Chua et al (2002) [13] showed better overall financial performance was achieved for companies in Denmark. Rajan and Tamimi (2003) [14] showed that ISO 9001 certification resulted in superior stock market performance [15] and suggested that shareholders were richly rewarded [16] for the investment in an ISO 9001 system.

While the connection between superior financial performance and ISO 9001 may be seen from the above, there remains no proof of direct causation, though longitudinal studies, such as those of Corbett et al (2005) [17] may suggest it. Other writers such as Heras et al (2002) [18] have suggested that while there is some evidence of this, the improvement is partly driven by the fact that there is a tendency for better performing companies to seek ISO 9001 certification. The mechanism for improving results has also been the subject of much research. Lo et al (2007) [19] identified operational improvements (cycle time reduction, inventory reductions, etc.) as following from certification. Buttle (1997) [20] and Santos (2002) [21] both indicated internal process improvements in organizations leading to externally observable improvements. Hendricks and Singhal (2001) [22] results indicate that firms outperform their control group during the post implementation period and effective implementation of total quality management principles and philosophies leads to significant wealth creation. The benefit of increased international trade and domestic market share, in addition to the internal benefits such as customer satisfaction, interdepartmental communications, work processes, and customer/supplier partnerships derived, far exceeds any and all initial investment according to Alcorn [23].

Background

With permission of BSI Group ISO 9001 was first published in 1987 [24]. It was largely based on the previous standard BS 5750 that was developed by BSI Group [25]. BSI has been certifying organizations for their quality management systems since 1978. Its first certification [26] (FM 00001) is still extant and held by the Tarmac company, a successor to the original company which held this certificate. Today BSI claims to certify organizations at nearly 70,000 sites globally[27]. The development of the ISO 9000 series is shown in the diagram to the right.

Global adoption
The growth in ISO 9001 certification is shown in the table below. The worldwide total of ISO 9001 certificates can be found in the ISO Survey of 9001 in 2003, 2007, 2008 and 2009. Worldwide total of ISO 9001:2000/2008 certificates Dec Dec Dec Dec Dec Dec

Dec

Dec

Dec

Dec

Top 10 countries for ISO 9001 certificates .2009 Rank Country No. of certificates 1 China 257076 2 Italy 130066 3 Japan 68484 4 Spain 59576 5 Russian Federation 53152 6 Germany 47156 7 United Kingdom 41193 8 India 37493 9 USA 28935 10 Korea.2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 457834 510349 561767 497919 660132 773867 896929 951486 982832 1064785 Source: ISO Survey 2009 In recent years there has been a rapid growth in China which now accounts for approximately a quarter of the global certifications. Republic of 23400 Source: ISO Survey 2009 Contents of ISO 9001 ISO 9001 certification of a fish wholesaler in Tsukiji .

4) Internal Audits (8.2) Control of Nonconforming Product / Service (8.5. users need to address all sections 1 to 8.2. but only 4 to 8 need implementing within a QMS.3) Corrective Action (8. y y Pages 15 to 22: Tables of Correspondence between ISO 9001 and other standards Page 23: Bibliography The standard specifies six compulsory documents: y y y y y y Control of Documents (4.2. 1.0 Scope [example] (Company Name) has developed and implemented this quality management system to demonstrate its ability to consistently provide a product that meets customer and statutory and regulatory requirements.3) Control of Records (4.2.ISO 9001:2008 Quality management systems ² Requirements is a document of approximately 30 pages which is available from the national standards organization in each country. ISO 9001:2008 requires a Quality Policy and Quality Manual (which may or may not include the above documents).5. not specified in ISO 9000) Pages 2 to 14 132 1 o Section 4: Quality management system o Section 5: Management responsibility o Section 6: Resource management o Section 7: Product realization o Section 8: Measurement.3) In addition to these. Outline contents are as follows: y y y y Page iv: Foreword Pages v to vii: Section 0 Introduction Page 1: Requirements o Section 1: Scope o Section 2: Normative references o Section 3: Terms and definitions (specific to ISO 9001.2) Preventive Action (8. 1. and to address customer satisfaction through the effective application of the system. analysis and improvement In effect.3 Quality Policy .

provision of resources.1 General Specifications The quality management system documentation includes: y y y y documented statements of a quality policy and quality objectives. 4. analysis. NOTE 2: Documentation can be in any form or type of medium. We exercise this responsibility through adequate training of our employees. (Company Name) ensures control over such processes. 4. the documented procedures established for the quality management system. The type and extent of control of such outsourced processes are identified within the quality management system. and a description of the interaction between the processes of the quality management system. and total commitment to meeting and exceeding customer requirements. implemented and maintained. including details of and justification for any exclusions. and improvement. measurement. and documents. documented procedures and records required by the ISO 9001:2008 International Standard. Where (Company Name) chooses to outsource any process that affects product conformity with requirements. NOTE: Processes needed for the quality management system referred to above include processes for management activities. 4.3 Control of documents . These processes are managed by (Company Name) in accordance with the requirements of the ISO 9001:2008 International Standard. documented. means that a procedure is established. or reference to them.2. adherence to proven procedures.2. operation and control of its processes NOTE 1: Where the term ³documented procedure´ appears within the ISO 9001:2008 International Standard.(Company Name) accepts responsibility for the complete satisfaction of its customers.2 Documentation requirements 4. product realization.2 Quality manual (Company Name) establishes and maintains a quality manual that includes y y y the scope of the quality management system. including records determined by (Company Name) to be necessary to ensure the effective planning.2. a quality manual.

4 Control of records Records established to provide evidence of conformity to requirements and or the effective operation of the quality management system shall be controlled. retrieval. retention time and disposition of records.2 Customer focus . to ensure that changes and the current revision status of documents are identified. Records will remain legible. storage. to ensure that documents of external origin determined by the organization to be necessary for the planning and operation of the quality management system are identified and their distribution controlled. and to prevent the unintended use of obsolete documents.Documents required by the quality management system are controlled. readily identifiable. and ensuring the availability of resources. to review and update as necessary and re-approve documents.1 Management commitment Top management is committed to the development and implementation of the quality management system and continually improves its effectiveness by: y y y y y communicating to (Company Name) the importance of meeting customer as well as statutory and regulatory requirements.0 Management responsibility 5. to ensure that documents remain legible and readily identifiable. 5. ensuring that quality objectives are established.2. A documented procedure is established to define the controls needed: y y y y y y y to approve documents for adequacy prior to issue. Records required by the quality management system are controlled according to the requirements given in 4. Supporting Documentation QOP-42-01 Control of Documents 4. establishing a quality policy. to ensure that relevant versions of applicable documents are available at points of use. and to apply suitable identification to them if they are retained for any purpose. Supporting Documentation QOP-42-02 Control of Records.2. and retrievable. 5. (Company Name) will establish a documented procedure to define the controls needed for the identification. conducting management reviews.4. protection.

5. The quality objectives are measurable and consistent with the quality policy. and is reviewed for continuing suitability. Provide our customers high quality products and services. perform. Ontime.1 and 8.1 a]. (see 7. Absolute Customer Satisfaction is the expectation and. 1. including those needed to meet requirements for product [see 7. authority and communication 5. will be achieved through supplying a Superior Product. provides a framework for establishing and reviewing quality objectives.4. processes. and at a reasonable cost.Top management ensures that customer requirements are determined and are met with the aim of enhancing customer satisfaction. 5. 3. 5.2. and verify the activities affecting the QMS.2. includes a commitment to comply with requirements and continually improve the effectiveness of the quality management system. Meet or exceed customer expectations by effective communication and review of customer requirements. on time delivery. awareness. An Organizational Chart illustrates the responsibility and relative authority of the personnel who manage. Promote the safety.1.1 Quality objectives Top management ensures that quality objectives. at a Competitive Price. 4. Effectively manage our products. as well as the quality objectives.4 Planning 5.1 Responsibility and authority Top management ensures that responsibilities and authorities are defined and communicated within (Company Name) to promote effective management of the quality system.2 Quality management system planning Top management ensures that: y y the planning of the quality management system is carried out in order to meet the requirements given in 4.4. and services to provide superior customer satisfaction. and well being of employees through training and education.3 Quality policy ³(Company Name) is committed to Exceeding Customer Expectations through Implementation and Continuous Improvement of our Quality Management System. 2. 5. Changes to the quality system are .5 Responsibility.1) 5. are established at relevant functions and levels within (Company Name). and the integrity of the quality management system is maintained when changes to the quality management system are planned and implemented.´ Top management ensures that the quality policy y y y y y is appropriate to the purpose of the quality policy. is communicated and understood within (Company Name).

2 Review input The input to management review includes information on below: y y results of audits. NOTE The responsibility of a management representative can include liaison with external parties on matters relating to the quality management system. has the responsibility and authority that includes y y y ensuring that processes needed for the quality management system are established. .5. or other operational or organizational changes. customer feedback. Supporting Documentation QOP-56-01 Management Review 5. 5.4). capacity.3 Internal communication Top management ensures that appropriate communication processes are established within (Company Name) and that communication takes place regarding the effectiveness of the quality management system. implemented and maintained. or to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the quality system.6.2. 5. to ensure its continuing suitability. including the quality policy and quality objectives. at planned intervals. Records from management reviews are maintained (see 4. Supporting Documentation Organizational Chart 5. These changes may be in response to changing circumstances.6 Management Review 5. reporting to top management on the performance of the quality management system and any need for improvement.5. process.planned within the framework of management reviews. The review includes assessing opportunities for improvement and the need for changes to the quality management system. such as product. irrespective of other responsibilities. and ensuring the promotion of awareness of customer requirements throughout (Company Name).1 General Top management reviews (Company Name)¶s quality management system. adequacy and effectiveness.2 Management representative Top management has appointed a member of the organization¶s management who.6.

skills and experience (see 4. 6. training.2 Competence.3 Review output The output from the management review includes any decisions and actions related to: y y y improvement of the effectiveness of the quality management system and its processes. improvement of product related to customer requirements. training. provides training or takes other actions to achieve the necessary competence. and awareness (Company Name) : y y y y y determines the necessary competence for personnel performing work affecting conformity to product requirements. skills and experience. status of preventive and corrective actions. training. changes that could affect the quality management system.2. follow-up actions from previous management reviews. and maintains appropriate records of education. Training. ensures that its personnel are aware of the relevance and importance of their activities and how they contribute to the achievement of the quality objectives. 5.2. 6.2. Supporting Documentation QOP-62-01 Competence.6. and resource needs.1 Provision of resources (Company Name) determines and provides the resources needed y y to implement and maintain the quality management system and continually improve its effectiveness to enhance customer satisfaction by meeting customer requirements. and Awareness .4).y y y y y process performance and product conformity. 6. where applicable. and recommendations for improvement. evaluates the effectiveness of the actions taken.0 Resource management 6.2 Human resource Management 6.1 General Personnel performing work affecting conformity to product requirements are competent on the basis of appropriate education.

(Company Name) determines the following.1 Planning of product realization (Company Name) plans and develops the processes needed for product realization. and maintains the infrastructure needed to achieve conformity to product requirements. communication or information systems).0 Product realization 7. 7.6. project or contract. validation. and Supporting services (such as transport.3 to the development of product realization processes. Infrastructure includes. Supporting Documentation QOP-71-01 Planning of Product Realization .4). workspace and associated utilities. Planning of product realization is consistent with the requirements of the other processes of the quality management system (see 4. Supporting Documentation QOP-63-01 Equipment Maintenance. as appropriate: y y y y quality objectives and requirements for the product. and provide resources specific to the product. measurement. Process equipment (both hardware and software). provides for.1).4 Work environment (Company Name) determines and manages the work environment needed to achieve conformity to product requirements. required verification. as applicable: y y y buildings. 6.3 Infrastructure (Company Name) determines. NOTE 1 A document specifying the processes of the quality management system (including the product realization processes) and the resources to be applied to a specific product. monitoring. is referred to as the quality plan. NOTE 2 (Company Name) also applies the requirements given in 7. The output of the planning is in a form suitable for (Company Name)s method of operations.2. the need to establish processes. and records needed to provide evidence that the realization processes and resulting product meet requirements (see 4. inspection and test activities specific to the product and the criteria for product acceptance. In planning product realization. and documents.

submission of tenders. including amendments. NOTE In some situations. Where the customer provides no documented statement of requirement. contract or order requirements differing from those previously expressed are resolved.2.2.2.2. enquiries. This review is conducted prior to (Company Name)s commitment to supply a product to the customer (e.2 Review of requirements related to the product (Company Name) reviews the requirements related to the product. acceptance of changes to contracts or orders) and ensures that: y y y product requirements are defined. where known. statutory and regulatory requirements applicable to the product. Where product requirements are changed. Supporting Documentation QOP-72-02 Order Processing & Review 7. Records of the results of the review and actions arising from the review are maintained (see 4.related processes 7. requirements not stated by the customer but necessary for specified or intended use.2 Customer. contracts or order handling.7. and .g. a formal review is impractical for each order. the customer requirements are confirmed by (Company Name) before acceptance. including the requirements for delivery and postdelivery activities. acceptance of contracts or orders. and (Company Name) has the ability to meet the defined requirements.4).1 Determination of requirements related to the product (Company Name) determines: y y y y requirements specified by the customer. and any additional requirements considered necessary by (Company Name). Instead the review can cover relevant product information such as catalogues or advertising material.3 Customer communication (Company Name) determines and implements effective arrangements for communicating with customers in relation to: y y product information. Supporting Documentation QOP-72-02 Order Processing & Review 7. (Company Name) ensures that relevant documents are amended and that relevant personnel are made aware of the changed requirements.

and the responsibilities and authorities for design and development.1 design and development planning (Company Name) plans and controls the design and development of product. and other requirements essential for design and development.3. unambiguous and not in conflict with each other.y customer feedback. where applicable information derived from previous similar designs. including customer complaints. 7.3 Design and development 7. as the design and development progresses. (Company Name) manages the interface between different groups involved in design and development to ensure effective communication and clear assignment of responsibility. The inputs are reviewed for adequacy. Supporting Documentation QOP-72-02 Order Processing & Review QOP-85-02 Customer Complaints 7. verification and validation that are appropriate to each design and development stage. 7. Supporting Documentation QOP-74-01 Purchasing .4. applicable statutory and regulatory requirements. During the design and development planning. The type and extent of control applied to the supplier and the purchased product is dependent upon the effect of the purchased product on subsequent product realization or the final product. as appropriate. (Company Name) determines: y y y the design and development stages.2 Design and development inputs Inputs relating to product requirements are determined and records maintained. the review.1 Purchasing process (Company Name) ensures that purchased product conforms to specified purchase requirements. these inputs include: y y y y functional and performance requirements.4 Purchasing 7. Planning output is updated.3. Requirements are complete.

Supporting Documentation QOP-74-02 Verification of Purchase Product 7.5. (Company Name) ensures the adequacy of specified purchase requirements prior to their communication to the supplier.1 Control of production and service provision As applicable. Supporting Documentation QOP-75-01 Work Order and Production Records QOP-63-01 Equipment Maintenance QOP-76-01 Measuring and Monitoring Equipment QOP-84-02 Final Inspection QOP-75-06 Shipping 7. Controlled conditions include: y y y y y y the availability of information that describes the characteristics of the product.5 Production and service provision 7. the availability of work instructions. (Company Name) states the intended verification arrangements and method of product release in the purchasing information.4. delivery and post-delivery activities. processes and equipment. the implementation of monitoring and measurement activities. procedures. (Company Name) plans and carries out production and service provisions under controlled conditions. the availability and use of monitoring and measuring equipment.2 Purchasing Information Purchasing information describes the product to be purchased.4.2 Validation of processes for production and service provision .5. including where appropriate y y y requirements for approval of product.7. the use of suitable equipment. Supporting Documentation QOP-74-01 Purchasing 7.3 Verification of purchased product (Company Name) establishes and implements the inspection or other activities necessary for ensuring that purchased product meets specified purchase requirements. and quality management system requirements. Where (Company Name) or its customer intends to perform verification at the supplier¶s premises. as necessary. requirements for qualification of personnel. and the implementation of product release.

6 Control of monitoring and measuring equipment .(Company Name) validates any processes for production and service provisions where the resulting output cannot be verified by subsequent monitoring or measurement and. (Company Name) establishes arrangements for these processes including: y y y y y defined criteria for review and approval of the processes. As applicable.3 Identification and traceability Where appropriate. as a consequence.2. Validation demonstrates the ability of these processes to achieve planned results. preservation includes identification. Note: (Company Name) has no Customer Property at this time.2. (Company Name) identifies the product status with respect to monitoring and measurement requirements throughout product realization. (Company Name) will report this to the customer and maintain records (see 4. use of specific methods and procedures. (Company Name) controls the unique identification of the product an maintain records (4. Preservation also applies to the constituent parts of a product.2. (Company Name) identifies the product by suitable means throughout product realization. Note: (Company Name) has no Special Processes at this time. If any customer property is lost. 7.4). deficiencies become apparent only after the product is in use or the service has been delivered.4 Customer property (Company Name) exercises care with customer property while it is under (Company Name)s control or being used by (Company Name).4).4).5.5 Preservation of product (Company Name) preserves the product during internal processing and delivery to the intended destination in order to maintain conformity to requirements. (Company Name) identifies. Supporting Documentation QOP-75-04 Product Identification and Traceability 7. handling. verifies. requirements for records (see 4.5. As applicable. Note: Customer property can include intellectual property and personal data. protects and safeguards customer property provided for use or incorporation into the product. 7. packaging. damaged or otherwise found to be unsuitable for use. Where traceability is a requirement. 7. approval of equipment and qualification of personnel.5. storage and protection. and revalidation.

8. maintenance and storage. have identification in order to determine it¶s calibration status.2 Monitoring and measurement . (Company Name) takes appropriate action on the equipment and any product affected. the ability of computer software to satisfy the intended application is confirmed. measurement. verified or both at specified intervals.1 General (Company Name) plans and implements the monitoring. adjusted or re-adjusted as necessary. Supporting Documentation QOP-76-01 Monitoring and Measuring Equipment 8. This includes determination of applicable methods. analysis and improvement 8. the basis used for calibration or verification shall be recorded.0 Measurement. When used in the monitoring and measurement of specified requirements. Where necessary to ensure valid results measuring equipment is: y y y y y calibrated. (Company Name) assesses and records the validity of the previous measuring results when the equipment is found not to conform to requirements. (Company Name) establishes processes to ensure that monitoring and measurement can be carried out. This is undertaken prior to initial use and reconfirmed as necessary. analysis and improvement processes needed: y y y to demonstrate conformity to product requirements. or prior to use. safeguarded from adjustments that would invalidate the measurement result. and is carried out in a manner that is consistent with the monitoring and measurement requirements.2. In addition. and to continually improve the effectiveness of the quality management system. including statistical techniques. and protected from damage and deterioration during handling. against measurement standards traceable to international or national measurement standards. where no such standards exist.4). Records of the results of calibration and verification are maintained (see 4. Note: Confirmation of the ability of computer software to satisfy the intended application will typically include its verification and configuration management to maintain its suitability for use. and the extent of their use.(Company Name) determines the monitoring and measurement to be undertaken and the monitoring and measuring equipment needed to provide evidence of conformity of product to determined requirements. to ensure conformity of the quality management system.

The selection of auditors and conduct of audits ensures objectivity and impartiality of the audit process.2.2. An audit program is planned. as well as the results of previous audits. Auditors do not audit their own work.4) are defined in a documented procedure. correction and corrective action is taken. measurement of the quality management system processes. The management responsible for the area being audited ensures that any necessary correction and corrective actions are taken without undue delay to eliminate detected nonconformities and their causes. and for reporting results and maintaining records (see 4. The responsibilities and requirements for planning and conducting audits. taking into consideration the status and importance of the processes and areas to be audited.2 Internal audit (Company Name) conducts internal audits at planned intervals to determine whether the quality management system: y y conforms to the planned arrangements (see 7. as appropriate. Follow-up activities include the verification of the actions taken and the reporting of verification results (see 8.5. When planned results are not achieved.2. Supporting Documentation QOP-82-02 Internal Quality Audits 8. 8.2).1 Customer satisfaction As one of the measurements of the performance of the quality management system.1). Supporting Documentation QOP-82-01 Customer Satisfaction 8. This is carried out at appropriate stages of the product realization .8.3 Monitoring and measurement of processes (Company Name) applies suitable methods for monitoring and where applicable. (Company Name) monitors information relating to customer perception as to whether (Company Name) has met customer requirements. and is effectively implemented and maintained. frequency and methods are defined.4 Monitoring and measurement of product (Company Name) monitors and measures the characteristics of the product to verify that product requirements have been met.2. The audit criteria.2. to the requirements of ISO 9001:2008 and to the quality management system requirements established by (Company Name). The methods for obtaining and using this information are determined. These methods demonstrate the ability of the processes to achieve planned results. scope.

1) have been satisfactorily completed.1).4). by authorizing its use. Records indicate the person(s) authorizing release of product for delivery to the customer (see 4. or potential effects.2. where applicable. This includes data generated as a result of monitoring and measurement and from other relevant sources. conformity to product requirements (see 8. by the customer.4).4). collects and analyzes appropriate data to demonstrate the suitability and effectiveness of the quality management system and to evaluate where continual improvement of the effectiveness of the quality management system can be made.process in accordance with the planned arrangements (see 7. including concessions obtained.2. Records of the nature of nonconformities and any subsequent actions taken. and by taking action to preclude its original intended use or application. When nonconforming product is corrected the product is subjected to re-verification to demonstrate conformity to the requirements.1). by the customer. The analysis of data provides information relating to: y y customer satisfaction (see 8. A documented procedure is established to define the controls and related responsibilities and authorities for dealing with nonconforming products. Evidence of conformity with the acceptance criteria is maintained. .2. or potential effects. of the nonconformity when nonconforming product is detected after delivery or use has started. When nonconforming product is detected after delivery or use has started. by taking action appropriate to the effects.3 Control of nonconforming product (Company Name) ensures that product which does not conform to product requirements is identified and controlled to prevent its unintended use or delivery. The release of product and delivery of service to the customer does not proceed until the planned arrangements (see 7. Supporting Documentation QOP-83-01 Control of Nonconforming Product 8. release or acceptance under concession by a relevant authority and. (Company Name) takes action appropriate to the effects. Where applicable (Company Name) deals with nonconforming product by one or more of the following ways: y y y y by taking action to eliminate the detected nonconformity. of the nonconformity. Supporting Documentation QOP-82-03 In Process Inspections QOP-82-04 Final Inspection 8. are maintained (see 4.4 Analysis of data (Company Name) determines. unless otherwise approved by a relevant authority and where applicable.2.

5. Supporting Documentation QOP-85-01 Continual Improvement 8.y y characteristics and trends of processes and products including opportunities for preventive action (see 8. and reviewing the effectiveness of the preventive action taken. Supporting Documentation QOP-56-01 Management Review 8. records of results of action taken (see 4. records of the results of action taken (see 4.5 Improvement 8.2. A documented procedure is established to define requirements for: y y y y y determining potential nonconformities and their causes. evaluating the need for action to ensure that nonconformities do not recur.2. suppliers (see 7. corrective and preventive actions and management reviews. .5.5.2. determining the causes of nonconformities. Supporting Documentation QOP-85-02 Customer Complaints QOP-85-03 Corrective and Preventive Actions 8.1 Continual improvement (Company Name) continually improves the effectiveness of the quality management system through the use of the quality policy.4).3 and 8. evaluating the need for action to prevent occurrence of nonconformities. and reviewing the effectiveness of the corrective action taken. audit results.4).2 Corrective action (Company Name) takes action to eliminate the causes of nonconformities in order to prevent recurrence. determining and implementing action needed.4). determining and implementing action needed.3 Preventive action (Company Name) determines actions to eliminate the causes of potential nonconformities in order to prevent their occurrence. Corrective actions are appropriate to the effects of the nonconformities encountered. analysis of data. A documented procedure is established to define requirements for: y y y y y y reviewing nonconformities (including customer complaints).2. Preventive actions are appropriate to the effects of the potential problems. quality objectives.4).

As with the first edition. the selection of which was based on the scope of activities of the organization: y y y ISO 9001:1987 Model for quality assurance in design. ISO 9000:1987 was also influenced by existing U. The 2000 version also demands involvement by upper executives. installation.Supporting Documentation QOP-85-03 Corrective and Preventive Actions 1987 version ISO 9000:1987 had the same structure as the UK Standard BS 5750. and 9003 into one. and servicing was for companies and organizations whose activities included the creation of new products. called 9001. production. Design and development procedures are required only if a company does in fact engage in the creation of new products. installation. Expectations of continual process improvement and tracking customer satisfaction were made explicit. ISO 9002:1987 Model for quality assurance in production. In some companies. in order to integrate quality into the business system and avoid delegation of quality functions to junior administrators. The emphasis tended to be placed on conformance with procedures rather than the overall process of management²which was likely the actual intent. and becoming burdened with an ISO bureaucracy. instead of just checking final product. with three 'models' for quality management systems. development. adapting and improving processes could actually be impeded by the quality system. and continued to require evidence of compliance with documented procedures. and servicing had basically the same material as ISO 9001 but without covering the creation of new products.S.[citation needed] 1994 version ISO 9000:1994 emphasized quality assurance via preventive actions. 9002. and other Defense Standards ("MIL SPECS"). ISO 9003:1987 Model for quality assurance in final inspection and test covered only the final inspection of finished product.[citation needed] 2000 version ISO 9001:2000 combines the three standards 9001. and so was well-suited to manufacturing. the down-side was that companies tended to implement its requirements by creating shelf-loads of procedure manuals. with no concern for how the product was produced. The 2000 version sought to make a radical change in thinking by actually placing the concept of process management front and center ("Process management" was the monitoring and optimizing of a company's tasks and activities. instead of just inspecting the final product). Another goal is to improve effectiveness via process performance metrics ² numerical measurement of the effectiveness of tasks and activities. .

There are no new requirements. The various accreditation bodies have mutual agreements with each other to ensure that certificates issued by one of the Accredited Certification Bodies (CB) are accepted worldwide. but must be renewed at regular intervals recommended by the certification body. In this respect. Under the 1994 standard. A quality management system being upgraded just needs to be checked to see if it is following the clarifications introduced in the amended version. or it is not. It is considered healthier for internal auditors to audit outside their usual management line.[1] ISO 9001:2008 only introduces clarifications to the existing requirements of ISO 9001:2000 and some changes intended to improve consistency with ISO 14001:2004. Many countries have formed accreditation bodies to authorize certification bodies. Both the accreditation bodies and the certification bodies charge fees for their services. or after it receives a satisfactory improvement plan from the management showing how any problems will be resolved. a list of problems ("action requests" or "non-compliance") is made known to the management. If there are no major problems on this list. the actual standard to which an organization's quality management can be certified is ISO 9001:2008. There are no grades of competence within ISO 9001: either a company is certified (meaning that it is committed to the method and model of quality management described in the standard). who receive feedback from those professionals who are implementing the standard. products. the auditing process could be adequately addressed by performing "compliance auditing": y Tell me what you do (describe the business process) . Explanation of changes in ISO 9001:2008. to verify that the system is working as it's supposed to. The applying organization is assessed based on an extensive sample of its sites. Certification ISO does not itself certify organizations. which audit organizations applying for ISO 9001 compliance certification. the certification body will issue an ISO 9001 certificate for each geographical site it has visited. usually around three years. functions. An ISO certificate is not a once-and-for-all award. The aim is a continual process of review and assessment. services and processes. it contrasts with measurement-based quality systems such as the Capability Maturity Model. Auditing Two types of auditing are required to become registered to the standard: auditing by an external certification body (external audit) and audits by internal staff trained for this process (internal audits). so as to bring a degree of independence to their judgments. Although commonly referred to as ISO 9000:2000 certification. find out where it can improve and to correct or prevent problems identified.The ISO 9000 standard is continually being revised by standing technical committees and advisory groups.

Sikorsky Aircraft. the question is more "Will this process help you achieve your stated objectives? Is it a good process or is there a way to do it better?" Industry-specific interpretations The ISO 9001 standard is generalized and abstract. rather than merely adhering to what is formally prescribed. QS 9000 is an interpretation agreed upon by major automotive manufacturers (GM.y y Show me where it says that (reference the procedure manuals) Prove that this is what happened (exhibit evidence in documented records) The 2000 standard uses a different approach. an interpretation developed by major aerospace manufacturers. Northrop Grumman. This means they are expected to make more judgments on what is effective. and Sundstrand. ISO/TS . It applies ISO 9001: 2000 to pharmaceutical printed and contact packaging materials. Over time. General Electric Aircraft Engines. whereas under the 2000 version. Developing software is not like making cheese or offering counseling services. Its parts must be carefully interpreted. because they are business. but also to try and ensure that more appropriately trained and experienced auditors are sent to assess them. y y y y y The TickIT guidelines are an interpretation of ISO 9000 produced by the UK Board of Trade to suit the processes of the information technology industry. management guidelines can be applied to each of these. Chrysler). Lockheed-Martin. Boeing. It includes techniques such as FMEA and APQP. Rockwell-Collins. yet the ISO 9001 guidelines. professional soccer teams (Mexico) and city councils (UK)²have successfully implemented ISO 9001:2000 systems. Those major manufacturers include AlliedSignal. status and importance. Allison Engine. the latest version is based on ISO 9001:2008. The difference from the previous standard can be explained thus: Under the 1994 version. Ford. ISO/TS 16949:2009 is an interpretation agreed upon by major automotive manufacturers (American and European manufacturers). to make sense within a particular organization. The current version is AS9100. McDonnell Douglas. various industry sectors have wanted to standardize their interpretations of the guidelines within their own marketplace. Diverse organizations²police departments (US). It aims to provide a widely accepted baseline GMP framework of best practice within the pharmaceutical packaging supply industry. PS 9000 is an application of the standard for Pharmaceutical Packaging Materials. This is partly to ensure that their versions of ISO 9000 have their specific requirements. The Pharmaceutical Quality Group (PQG) of the Institute of Quality Assurance (IQA) has developed PS 9000:2001. QS 9000 is now replaced by ISO/TS 16949. especially software development. AS9000 is the Aerospace Basic Quality System Standard. the question was broadly "Are you doing what the manual says you should be doing?". Auditors are expected to go beyond mere auditing for rote "compliance" by focusing on risk. Pratt & Whitney. The emphasis on a process approach is stronger than in ISO 9001:2008.

petrochemical and natural gas industries. The current version is 4. 2. the industry expectations. production. or some other dimension of customer service. Whereas the standards it replaces were interpretations of how to apply ISO 9001 and ISO 9002 to medical devices. ISO 13485:2003 is the medical industry's equivalent of ISO 9001:2000. an interpretation developed by the telecom consortium. Organizations that implement an ISO system without this desire and commitment. Effectiveness The debate on the effectiveness of ISO 9000 commonly centers on the following questions: 1. Many organizations that implement ISO try to make their system fit into a cookie-cutter quality manual rather than create a manual that documents existing practices and only adds new processes to meet the ISO standard when necessary. TL 9000 is the Telecom Quality Management and Measurement System Standard. Your ISO system should take into account all areas of the customer experience. It is equivalent to API Spec Q1 without the Monogram annex. and seek to improve them on a continual basis. 3. QuEST Forum. Commitment of Senior Management to monitor. In 1998 QuEST Forum developed the TL 9000 Quality Management System to meet the supply chain quality requirements of the worldwide telecommunications industry. TL 9000 includes standardized product measurements that can be benchmarked. some customers will have a higher tolerance for product failures if they always receive shipments on-time. often take the cheapest road to get a certificate on the wall and ignore problem areas uncovered in the audits. Are the quality principles in ISO 9001:2000 of value? (Note that the version date is important: in the 2000 version ISO attempted to address many concerns and criticisms of ISO 9000:1994). The broadest definition of quality is "Whatever the customer perceives good quality to be". Compliance with ISO 13485 does not necessarily mean compliance with ISO 9001:2000. the most significant of which are: 1. development.0 and unlike ISO 9001 or the above sector standards. ISO 13485:2003 is a stand-alone standard. Does it help to obtain ISO 9001:2000 certification? Effectiveness of the ISO system being implemented depends on a number of factors. installation and service of products for the petroleum. ISO/IEC 90003:2004 provides guidelines for the application of ISO 9001:2000 to computer software.y y y y 16949:2009 contains the full text of ISO 9001:2008 and automotive industry-specific requirements. How well the ISO system integrates into their business practices. How well the ISO system focuses on improving the customer experience. control. This means taking into account all processes that deal with the three . ISO/TS 29001 is quality management system requirements for the design. Does it help to implement an ISO 9001:2000 compliant quality management system? 3. This means that you don't necessarily have to make a product that never fails. and improve quality. 2.

market share. to most executives. Many auditors simply rely on submitting reports that indicate compliance or non-compliance with the appropriate section of the standard. ISO 9001 promotes specification. who say that "ISO 9000 guidelines provide a comprehensive model for quality management systems that can make any company competitive implementing ISO often gives the following advantages: 1.. 3. only then will you be able to sustain improvements in your customer experience. 6." [32] Paraphrased.. "Opponents claim that it is only for documentation. however. often having a positive effect on investment. competitive advantage. your suppliers. according to Wade and Barnes. sales growth.[28] According to Barnes.[30][31] Wade argues that ISO 9000 is effective as a guideline. however. sales margins. 5. but that promoting it as a standard "helps to mislead companies into thinking that certification means better quality.stakeholders (your customers. awareness. . 7. 8. 2. and morale Promote international trade Increases profit Reduce waste and increases productivity. [undermining] the need for an organization to set its own quality standards. control. Proponents believe that if a company has documented its quality systems. there is the potential for auditors to point out areas of improvement. this is like speaking a foreign language. 4.The quality principles in ISO 9000:2000 are also sound. they simply ignore the reports and focus on what they do understand. and your organization). A company can intend to produce a poor quality product and providing it does so consistently and with the proper documentation can put an ISO 9001 stamp on it. effective operation Increase customer satisfaction and retention Reduce audits Enhance marketing Improve employee motivation. How well the auditor finds and communicates areas of improvement. ISO auditors may not provide consulting to the clients they audit. and avoidance of litigation. Advantages It is widely acknowledged that proper quality management improves business. Auditors that can clearly identify and communicate areas of improvement in language and terms executive management understands allows the companies they audit to act on improvement initiatives. When management doesn't understand why they were noncompliant and the business implications. Create a more efficient. time and paperwork required for registration. . According to Seddon. then most of the paperwork has already been completed. 4. and procedures rather than understanding and improvement. Problems A common criticism of ISO 9001 is the amount of money. Now."[29] ISO 9001 is not in any way an indication that products produced using its certified systems are any good.

ISO itself advises that ISO 9001 can be implemented without certification. "has become a vehicle to increase consulting services. Abrahamson[35] argued that fashionable management discourse such as Quality Circles tends to follow a lifecycle in the form of a bell curve." [29] In fact. companies should utilize the ISO 9000 model as a benchmark to assess the adequacy of its quality programs. chances are. While internationally recognized." said ISO's Roger Frost. leading to a softer approach to the defects noticed in the operation of the Quality System of a firm. The cost can actually put a company at a competitive disadvantage when competing against a non ISO 9000 certified company. most US consumers are not aware of ISO 9000 and it holds no relevance to them. possibly indicating a management fad.[30] Certifications are in fact often based on customer contractual requirements rather than a desire to actually improve quality.Wade's argument is that reliance on the specifications of ISO 9001 does not guarantee a successful quality system. Summary A good overview for effective use of ISO 9000 is provided by Barnes: "Good business judgment is needed to determine its proper role for a company." . you will create a paper system that doesn't have much to do with the way you actually run your business. do not rush to certification Even without certification.[33] Certification by an independent auditor is often seen as the problem area. and according to Barnes. simply for the quality benefits that can be achieved.[29][33] "If you just want the certificate on the wall. The added cost to certify and then maintain certification may not be justified if product end users do not require ISO 9000. The standard is seen as especially prone to failure when a company is interested in certification before quality. Is certification itself important to the marketing plans of the company? If not.[34] Another problem reported is the competition among the numerous certifying bodies.

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