Q 1.Discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of the different methods of distributing questionnaires to the respondents of a study.

There are some alternative methods of distributing questionnaires to the respondents. They are: 1) Personal delivery, 2) Attaching the questionnaire to a product, 3) Advertising the questionnaire in a newspaper or magazine, and 4) News-stand inserts.

Personal delivery: The researcher or his assistant may deliver the questionnaires to the potential respondents, with a request to complete them at their convenience. After a day or two, the completed questionnaires can be collected from them. Often referred to as the self administered questionnaire method, it combines the advantages of the personal interview and the mail survey. Alternatively, the questionnaires may be delivered in person and the respondents may return the completed questionnaires through mail.

Attaching questionnaire to a product: A firm test marketing a product may attach aquestionnaire to a product and request the buyer to complete it and mail it back to the firm. A gift or a discount coupon usually rewards the respondent.

Advertising the questionnaire: The questionnaire with the instructions for completion may be advertised on a page of a magazine or in a section of newspapers. The potential respondent completes it, tears it out and mails it to the advertiser. For example, the committee of Banks Customer Services used this method for collecting information from the customers of commercial banks in India. This method may be useful for large-scale studies on topics of common interest.

Newsstand inserts: This method involves inserting the covering letter, questionnaire and self addressed reply-paid envelope into a random sample of newsstand copies of a newspaper or magazine.

Advantages and Disadvantages: The advantages of Questionnaire are: a. This method facilitates collection of more accurate data for longitudinal studies than any other method, because under this method, the event or action is reported soon after its occurrence. b. this method makes it possible to have before and after designs made for field based studies. For example, the effect of public relations or advertising

campaigns or welfare measures can be measured by collecting data before, during and after the campaign. c. the panel method offers a good way of studying trends in events, behavior or attitudes. For example, a panel enables a market researcher to study how brand preferences change from month to month; it enables an economics researcher to study how employment, income and expenditure of agricultural laborers change from month to month; a political scientist can study the shifts in inclinations of voters and the causative influential factors during an election. It is also possible to find out how the constituency of the various economic and social strata of society changes through time and so on. d. A panel study also provides evidence on the causal relationship between variables. For example, a cross sectional study of employees may show an association between their attitude to their jobs and their positions in the organization, but it does not indicate as to which comes first -favorable attitude or promotion. A panel study can provide data for finding an answer to this question. e. It facilities depth interviewing, because panel members become well acquainted with the field workers and will be willing to allow probing interviews.

The major limitations or problems of Questionnaire method are: a. this method is very expensive. The selection of panel members, the payment of premiums, periodic training of investigators and supervisors, and the costs involved in replacing dropouts, all add to the expenditure. b. it is often difficult to set up a representative panel and to keep it representative. Many persons may be unwilling to participate in a panel study. In the course of

Where X is the sum of all the numbers in the numbers in the sample and N is the number of numbers in the sample. The formula for m is shown below: m= X/N. Persons with similar characteristics may replace the dropouts. after a panel has been in operation for some time. One possible safeguard to panel conditioning is to give members of a panel only a limited panel life and then to replace them with persons taken randomly from a reserve list. Q 2. Cheating by panel members or investigators may be a problem in some cases. shows the number of touchdown (TD) passes thrown by each of the 31 teams in the National Football League in the 2000 season. the members of a panel study of political opinions may try to appear consistent in the views they express on consecutive occasions.. there may be frequent dropouts. m= X/N=634/31 =20. The symbol M is used for the mean of a sample. there is no guarantee that the emerging panel would be representative. A real danger with the panel method is ³panel conditioning´ i.e. It simply the sum of the numbers divided by the number of numbers. As an example. For example.4516 as shown below. the mean of the numbers 1+2+3+6+8=20/5=4 regardless of whether the numbers constitute the entire population or just a sample from the population. The symbol m is used for the mean of a population. as a result of being on the panel. Number of touchdown passes. However. In processing data. d. what is the difference between measures of central tendency and measures of dispersion? What is the most important measure of central tendency and dispersion? Measures of Central tendency: Arithmetic Mean The arithmetic mean is the most common measure of central tendency. the risk that repeated interviews may sensitize the panel members and they become untypical. the quality of reporting may tend to decline. the panel becomes untypical of the population it was selected to represent. The mean number of touchdown passes thrown is 20. due to decreasing interest. The table. In such cases.4516 .the study. c.

37 33 33 32 29 28 28 23 22 22 22 21 21 21 20 20 19 19 18 18 18 18 16 15 14 14 14 12 12 9 6 Table 1: Number of touchdown passes Although the arithmetic mean is not the only "mean" (there is also a geometric mean). there are 31 scores. Number of touchdown passes. it is assumed to refer to the arithmetic mean. it is by far the most commonly used. Therefore. The median is the midpoint of a distribution: the same number of scores is above the median as below it. if the term "mean" is used without specifying whether it is the arithmetic mean. Student Dataset 1 Dataset 2 Dataset 3 You 3 3 3 John's 3 4 2 Maria's 3 4 2 Shareecia's 3 4 2 Luther's 3 5 1 Table 2: Three possible datasets for the 5-point make-up quiz . The median can also be thought of as the 50th percentile. or some other mean. The 16th highest score (which equals 20) is the median because there are 15 scores below the 16th score and 15 scores above the 16th score. For the data in the table. Median The median is also a frequently used measure of central tendency. Let's return to the made up example of the quiz on which you made a three discussed previously in the module Introduction to Central Tendency and shown in Table 2. the geometric mean.

Therefore. the median is the mean of the two middle numbers. your score is below the median. Mode The mode is the most frequently occurring value. the same as your score. For the data in the table. The Grouped frequency distribution table shows a grouped frequency distribution for the target response time data. the median is simply the middle number. Computation of the Median: When there is an odd number of numbers. the median is three. This means you are in the lower half of the class. the mode is the middle of that interval (650). For Dataset 2.5. Thus. the median of 2. the mode is 18 since more teams (4) had 18 touchdown passes than any other number of touchdown passes. Finally for Dataset 3. Since the interval with the highest frequency is 600-700.For Dataset 1. For example. For this dataset. Number of touchdown passes. the median is 4. Therefore the mode of continuous data is normally computed from a grouped frequency distribution. 4. Range Frequency 500-600 3 600-700 6 700-800 5 800-900 5 900-1000 0 1000-1100 1 . 7. the frequency of each value is one since no two scores will be exactly the same (see discussion of continuous variables). 4. 12 is 4+7/2=5. your score is above the median and therefore in the upper half of the distribution. and 7 is 4. the median is 2. With continuous data such as response time measured to many decimals. When there is an even number of numbers. the median of the numbers 2.

Table 3: Grouped frequency distribution Measures of Dispersion: A measure of statistical dispersion is a real number that is zero if all the data are identical. and increases as the data becomes more diverse. It cannot be less than zero. equal to twice the Gini coefficient There are other measures of dispersion: · Variance (the square of the standard deviation) ² location-invariant but not linear in scale. such as metres or seconds. they have no units even if the variable itself has units. the measure of dispersion has the same units. In other words. Most measures of dispersion have the same scale as the quantity being measured. So if a random variable X has a dispersion of SX then a linear transformation Y = aX + b for real a and b should have dispersion SY = |a|SX. In other words. . All the above measures of statistical dispersion have the useful property that they are locationinvariant. These include: · Coefficient of variation · Quartile coefficient of dispersion · Relative mean difference. if the measurements have units. Such measures of dispersion include: · Standard deviation · Interquartile range · Range · Mean difference · Median absolute deviation · Average absolute deviation (or simply called average deviation) · Distance standard deviation These are frequently used (together with scale factors) as estimators of scale parameters. Other measures of dispersion are dimensionless (scale-free). as well as linear in scale. in which capacity they are called estimates of scale.

Each phenomenon must be examined to see if it warrants such a simplification. For example. we might wish to know whether a new educational program causes subsequent achievement score gains. For categorical variables. Distinct members of a population differ greatly. Good research design:Much contemporary social research is devoted to examining whether a program. Instrument measurements are often not perfectly precise.e.· Variance-to-mean ratio ² mostly used for count data when the term coefficient of dispersion is used and when this ratio is dimensionless. Cook and Campbell (1979) argue that three conditions must be met before we can infer that such a cause-effect relation exists: . i. treatment.. and that the variation between measurements is due to observational error. One may assume that the quantity being measured is unchanging and stable. it is less common to measure dispersion by a single number. such variability may result only from random measurement errors. and so on. whether a novel drug causes a reduction in symptoms. among them the Allan variance and the Hadamard variance. Some measures of dispersion have specialized purposes. this assumption is false. or manipulation causes some outcome or result. reproducible. The variation observed might be intrinsic to the phenomenon. This is also seen in the arena of manufactured products. The simple model of a stable quantity is preferred when it is tenable. One measure that does so is the discrete entropy. What are the characteristics of a good research design? Explain how the research design for exploratory studies is different from the research design for descriptive and diagnostic studies. the meticulous scientist finds variation. even there. Sources of statistical dispersion In the physical sciences. whether a special work release program for prisoners causes lower recidivism rates. In the biological sciences. Q 3. See qualitative variation. as count data are themselves dimensionless: otherwise this is not scale-free.

1. This tends to foster a "cookbook" approach to research design . or change the level of a treatment or program. remove. an understanding of the logic of design construction in general will improve the comprehension of these standard approaches. This paper is primarily heuristic in purpose. . it helps to clarify some of the basic principles of design logic. it will often be necessary to "tailor" a research design to minimize specific threats to validity. The presumed cause must occur prior to the presumed effect.an emphasis on the selection of an available design rather than on the construction of an appropriate research strategy. 1981) typically present an array of research designs and the alternative explanations. This paper takes a structural approach to research design. The presumed cause must be the only reasonable explanation for changes in the outcome measures. changes in record keeping or measurement systems which occur at the same time as the program might be falsely attributed to the program. we should observe some change in the outcome measures. even if standard textbook designs are used. Cook and Campbell (1979) list a number of common plausible alternative explanations (or. if we introduce. 3. 2. If there are other factors. or. Changes in the presumed cause must be related to changes in the presumed effect. While standard designs may sometimes fit real-life situations. which could be responsible for changes in the outcome measures. Standard social science methodology textbooks (Cook and Campbell 1979. No Plausible Alternative Explanations. In most social research the third condition is the most difficult to meet. Any number of factors other than the treatment or program could cause changes in outcome measures. Judd and Kenny. Thus. While this is by no means the only strategy for constructing research designs. we cannot be confident that the presumed cause-effect relationship is correct. Furthermore. it may be that some historical event which occurs at the same time that the program or treatment is instituted was responsible for the change in the outcome measures. threats to internal validity). The reader is referred to standard research methods texts for more detailed discussions of threats to validity. which these designs rule out or minimize. Temporal Precedence. Covariation. For example. Campbell and Stanley (1966) and later.

By Argument. except in unusual cases. although the former will usually be more convincing than the latter. history (i. or similar events could cause an increase in product sales. it might be useful to observe everyday classroom behavior in order to verify that students were not receiving any additional math training to that provided in the study. Such an argument may be made either a priori or a posteriori.. One might attempt to minimize such threats by measuring local economic indicators and the availability and sales of competing products. which follows. For example. In most cases. In some cases it will be possible to rule out a threat by measuring it and demonstrating that either it does not occur at all or occurs so minimally as to not be a strong alternative explanation for the cause-effect relationship. 2. the most plausible threats in a study should not. depending on the situation. for example. the occurrence of other events which might lead to an increased desire to purchase the product) would be a plausible alternative explanation. if one is studying the effects of special mathematics training on math achievement scores of children. By Measurement or Observation. a change in the local economy. For example. outlines five ways to minimize threats to validity.e. one of which is by research design: 1. or other such factors. one might argue that an instrumentation threat is not likely because the same test is used for pre and post test measurements and did not involve observers who might improve. the removal of a competing product from the market. But such explanations may be ruled out or minimized in a number of ways other than by design. be ruled out by argument only. In such a study. Similarly.Minimizing Threats to Validity Good research designs minimize the plausible alternative explanations for the hypothesized cause-effect relationship. The discussion. Consider. The most straightforward way to rule out a potential threat to validity is to simply argue that the threat in question is not a reasonable one. a study of the effects of an advertising campaign on subsequent sales of a particular product. ruling out a potential threat to validity by argument alone will be weaker than the other approaches listed below. . these threats would be considerably minimized. As a result. If there is no change in these measures coincident with the onset of the advertising campaign.

Several actions can be . it might be possible to construct a measure of economic conditions and include that measure as a covariate in the statistical analysis. it is reasonable to infer that there is a threat to both internal and external validity. The plausibility of alternative explanations might also be minimized using covariance analysis. comparison group). in a study of the effects of "workfare" programs on social welfare caseloads. The dependent measure could be the pretest or other available pre-program measures. 4. This topic will be discussed in more detail below.e. Here. program vs.. One must be careful when using covariance adjustments of this type -. They suggest that one could study the plausibility of an attrition or mortality threat by conducting a two-way analysis of variance.e. By Preventive Action. dropout vs. Nevertheless causal assertions are likely to be strengthened by demonstrating that treatment effects occur even after adjusting on a number of good covariates. non-dropout group). while an interaction between group and attrition factors would point to a possible threat to internal validity. One factor in this study would be the original treatment group designations (i. There are a number of ways to rule out alternative explanations using statistical analysis. By Design. Here. and the like. 5. By Analysis. For example. When potential threats are anticipated some type of preventive action can often rule them out. Where both effects occur. it is likely that the comparison group would feel jealous or demoralized. the major emphasis is on ruling out alternative explanations by adding treatment or control groups. For example. One interesting example is provided by Jurs and Glass (1971).."perfect" covariates do not exist in most social research and the use of imperfect covariates will not completely adjust for potential alternative explanations. while the other factor would be attrition (i.3. if the program is a desirable one. one plausible alternative explanation might be the status of local economic conditions. waves of measurement. A main effect on the attrition factor would be indicative of a threat to external validity or generalizability.

Most research designs can be constructed from four basic elements: 1. The inclusion of measurements designed to minimize threats to validity will obviously be related to the design structure and is likely to be a factor in the analysis. 2. While for some phenomena the elapsed time might be measured in microseconds and therefore might be unnoticeable to a casual observer. In addition. A good research plan should. by its very nature. Thus. auditing methods and quality control can be used to track potential experimental dropouts or to insure the standardization of measurement. In design notation we indicate this temporal element horizontally . Make use of multiple methods for reducing threats. The choice of which strategy to use for any particular threat is complex and depends at least on the cost of the strategy and on the potential seriousness of the threat.whatever symbol is used to indicate the presumed cause would be placed to the left of the symbol indicating measurement of the effect. Complex designs might involve a lengthy sequence of observations and programs or treatments across time. we normally assume that the cause and effect in social science arenas do not occur simultaneously. In general. The presumed cause may be a program or treatment under the explicit control of the researcher or the occurrence of some natural event or . where possible. A causal relationship. reducing a particular threat by design or preventive action will probably be stronger than by using one of the other three approaches. as we read from left to right in design notation we are reading across time. The five categories listed above should not be considered mutually exclusive. Program(s) or Treatment(s). Time.taken to minimize the effects of these attitudes including offering the program to the comparison group upon completion of the study or using program and comparison groups which have little opportunity for contact and communication. Design Construction Basic Design Elements. implies that some time has elapsed between the occurrence of the cause and the consequent effect.

e. "R" will represent a group. then this "O" will be sufficient. 3.program not explicitly controlled. the manner in which groups are assigned to the conditions can be indicated by an appropriate symbol at the beginning of each line. How is the Case Study method useful in Business Research? Give two specific examples of how the case study method can be applied to business research. When multiple programs or treatments are being studied using the same design. the "O" can be used to depict the entire set of measures.e.. which was nonrandom assigned (i. we can keep the programs distinct by using subscripts such as "X1" or "X2". developing an effective case study (also called a success story) is an art.. In design notation we usually depict a presumed cause with the symbol "X". if the same set of measures is given at every point in time in this study. For a comparison group (i. each group is indicated on a separate line. learning how to write a case study takes time. one which does not receive the program under study) no "X" is used. While case study writing may seem easy at first glance. 4. Similarly. If the same measurement or observation is taken at every point in time in a design. Furthermore. Typically. Measurements are typically depicted in design notation with the symbol "O". In design notation. writing case studies without careful planning usually results in sub optimal results? . "N" will depict a group. Groups or Individuals. Here. Like other marketing communication skills. a nonequivalent group or cohort) and a "C" will indicate that the group was assigned using a cutoff score on a measurement. Observation(s) or Measure(s). which was randomly assigned. The final design element consists of the intact groups or the individuals who participate in various conditions. What¶s more. there will be one or more program and comparison groups. Q 4. However. if different measures are given at different times it is useful to subscript the "O" to indicate which measurement is being given at which point in time.

Include a short (less than 20-word) customer quote in larger text. and ensures that the document looks. begin with a general discussion of the issue that faces the relevant industry. describe the specific problem or issue that the customer faced. and reads consistently. define 3-5 specific elements to include in every case study. and benefits.Savvy case study writers increase their chances of success by following these ten proven techniques for writing an effective case study: Involve the customer throughout the process . Visually. Use action verbs and emphasize benefits in the case study title and subtitle. In the problem section. procedurally. the time-tested. and stick to them. Then. formalize those elements. Rather than asking the customer to draft their quotes.Involving the customer throughout the case study development process helps ensure customer cooperation and approval. This natural storytelling sequence resonates with readers. it simplifies the actual writing. use the opposite . A template serves as a roadmap for the case study process. describe how the customer benefited from the particular solution (more on this below). Case Study Writing Ideas · Establish a document template. describe the solution to this problem or resolution of this issue. Regardless of length. solicit input during the development. describe the business and/or technical problem or issue. Then. Before beginning work. · Start with a bang. The goal should be to tease the reader into wanting to read more. summarize the key points of the case study in 2-3 succinct bullet points. In the solution section. finally. solution. most effective organization for a case study follows the problem-solution benefits flow. · Use the general-to-specific-to-general approach. the template helps build the brand. feels. First. and secure approval after drafting the document. Write all customer quotes for their review. writing them for their review usually results in more compelling material. · Organize according to problem. and results in an improved case study. Obtain customer permission before writing the document. next.

Another idea is to frame a copy of the completed case study and present it to the customer in appreciation for their efforts and cooperation. how the solution resolves a commonly faced issue. and remain flexible during this discussion. . If a qualified internal writer is unavailable. In many cases. ideally using the solution. ³Using Solution X saved Customer Y over $ZZZ. in a concrete way. If benefits cannot be quantified. The key is to present imaginative ideas to the customer for ways to quantify the benefits. No single element in a case study is more compelling than the ability to tie quantitative benefits to the solution. · Use photos.´ Quantifying benefits can be challenging. Ask the customer if they can provide shots of personnel. · Reward the customer. offering a specific example demonstrates. to the customer. · Quantify benefits when possible.´ or. in fact. as well as printed copies. Even with the best plan. ³homegrown´ digital photos sometimes lead to surprisingly good results and often appear more genuine. ³Thanks to Solution X. and concluding more generally allows the reader to understand how the solution can also address their problem. First. The shots need not be professionally done. and marketing experience that these documents require. the latter can be quite compelling to readers as well. ZZZ after just 6 months of implementation. then indicate how it can also help resolve this issue more broadly within the industry. attempt to develop a range of qualitative benefits. After receiving final customer approval and finalizing the case study. a case study is doomed to failure if the writer lacks the exceptional writing skills. For example. Photos further personalize the story and help form a connection to readers. employees at Customer Y have realized a ZZ% increase in productivity as measured by standard performance indicators. a talented writer can mean the difference between an ineffective case study and one that provides the greatest benefit. Writing a case study is not easy. describe how the solution solved this specific problem. technical savvy.sequence. but not impossible. consider outsourcing the task to professionals who specialize in case study writing. Beginning more generally draws the reader into the story. provide a pdf.

The researcher needs to ask people about their behavior and interactions he can simply watch what they do and say. b. Other methods introduce elements or artificiality into the researched situation for instance in interview the respondent may not behave in a natural way. There is no such artificiality in observational studies especially when the observed persons are not aware of their being observed. Observation may be defined as a systematic viewing of a specific phenomenon on its proper setting for the specific purpose of gathering data for a particular study. What are the differences between observation and interviewing as methods of data collection? Give two specific examples of situations where either observation or interviewing would be more appropriate. The mechanical devices used must be in good working conditions and operated by skilled persons. Observation is classical method of scientific study. The distance and the light must be satisfactory. The prerequisites of observation consist of: · Observations must be done under conditions. Advantages of observation a. . Observation means viewing or seeing. Data collected by observation may describe the observed phenomena as they occur in their natural settings. · Observation must cover a sufficient number of representative samples of the cases. The results could then be compared to determine their accuracy and completeness.Q 5. The main virtue of observation is its directness it makes it possible to study behavior as it occurs. A certain number of cases can be observered again by another observer/another set of mechanical devices as the case may be. which will permit accurate results. The observer must be in vantage point to see clearly the objects to be observed. · The accuracy and completeness of recorded results must be checked. · Recording should be accurate and complete. If it is feasible two separate observers and set of instruments may be used in all or some of the original observations.

It is a good idea to ask the organisation in advance what format the interview will take. h. which will usually have been detailed in the job specification or advert.These are structured to reflect the competencies or qualities that an employer is seeking for a particular job. As this is a two-way process. e. Observations in more suitable for studying subjects who are unable to articulate meaningfully e. The interviewer is looking for evidence of your skills and may ask such things as: µGive an example of a time you worked as part of a team to achieve a common goal. studies of children. Mechanical devices may be used for recording data in order to secure more accurate data and also of making continuous observations over longer periods. The validity of what men of position and authority say can be verified by observing what they actually do. For example only observation can be providing an insight into all the aspects of the process of negotiation between union and management representatives. birds etc. Observations make it possible to capture the whole event as it occurs.g. · Competency/criteria based interviews . Interview format Interviews take many different forms. f. It is easier to conduct disguised observation studies than disguised questioning. Interviews are a crucial part of the recruitment process for all Organisations. g. Observations improve the opportunities for analyzing the contextual back ground of behavior. d.¶ . Furthermore verbal resorts can be validated and compared with behavior through observation.c. tribal animals. Observation is less demanding of the subjects and has less biasing effect on their conduct than questioning. Their purpose is to give the interviewer(s) a chance to assess your suitability for the role and for you to demonstrate your abilities and personality. it is also a good opportunity for you to ask questions and to make sure the organisation and position are right for you.

Questions are likely to center on your academic history to date. · Structured interviews . media or communications industries. . Be aware that you are still being assessed.These are used for further study or research positions. · Formal/informal interviews . how you pursue a particular line of thinking and whether you can develop and present an appropriate framework for organising your thoughts. however informal the discussion may seem. · Portfolio based interviews . how you identify the key issues.These ranges from straightforward scenario questions (e. and asks all the candidates the same questions. but also to admit to what you do not know and stress that you are keen to learn. Questions may focus on your final year project or on real or hypothetical technical problems. You will be evaluated on your analysis of the problem.· Technical interviews . µWhat would you do in a situation where«?¶) to the detailed analysis of a hypothetical business problem. · Senior/case study interviews . Do not worry if you do not know the exact answer . · Academic interviews .The interviewer has a set list of questions.interviewers are interested in your thought process and logic. you may be asked to bring a portfolio of your work to the interview.If the role is within the arts. it is likely that you will be asked technical questions or has a separate technical interview. while others will feel more like an informal chat about you and your interests.Some interviews may be very formal.If you have applied for a job or course that requires technical knowledge. You should be prepared to prove yourself. and to have an in-depth discussion about the pieces you have chosen to include.g.

) Sometimes human professionals are the gatekeepers." · If the interview is conducted by phone. "I would be willing to consider your best offer. you will be able to switch gears quickly. They also will want to know from the outset whether you will be too expensive for the company. only whether you are not a match. See our resume center for help. it is helpful to have note cards with your vital information sitting next to the phone. Some tips for maintaining confidence during screening interviews: · Highlight your accomplishments and qualifications. Personality is not as important to the screener as verifying your qualifications. A meeting that you initiate. Computer programs are among the tools used to weed out unqualified candidates. and try to avoid giving specifics by replying. · Get into the straightforward groove. whether the interviewer catches you sleeping or vacuuming the floor. (This is why you need a digital resume that is screening-friendly. Employers that like to stay apprised of available talent even when they do .Specific types of interview The Screening Interview Companies use screening tools to ensure that candidates meet minimum qualification requirements. Give a range. Screeners will hone in on gaps in your employment history or pieces of information that look inconsistent. Save your winning personality for the person making hiring decisions! · Be tactful about addressing income requirements. the informational interview is underutilized by jobseekers who might otherwise consider themselves savvy to the merits of networking. Job seekers ostensibly secure informational meetings in order to seek the advice of someone in their current or desired field as well as to gain further references to people who can lend insight. For this reason. That way. The Informational Interview On the opposite end of the stress spectrum from screening interviews is the informational interview. Rememberthey does not need to know whether you are the best fit for the position. Answer questions directly and succinctly. Screening interviewers often have honed skills to determine whether there is anything that might disqualify you for the position. screeners tend to dig for dirt.

but be intentional nonetheless: · Come prepared with thoughtful questions about the field and the company. The Meandering Style This interview type. The Directive Style In this style of interview. · Do not relinquish complete control of the interview. It might begin with a statement like "tell me about yourself. contact information and resume. This interview style allows you tactfully to guide the . politely interject it. Their style does not necessarily mean that they have dominance issues. are often open to informational interviews. feel flattered by your interest. · Gain references to other people and make sure that the interviewer would be comfortable if you contact other people and use his or her name. when interviewers ask each candidate the same series of questions. following his or her lead. · Give the interviewer your card. or you might find the conversation develops naturally. the interviewer has a clear agenda that he or she follows unflinchingly. You might feel like you are being steam-rolled." which you can use to your advantage.not have current job openings. Either way. especially if they like to share their knowledge. If the interviewer does not ask you for information that you think is important to proving your superiority as a candidate. open-ended question before falling into silence. This takes off some of the performance pressure. remember: · Flex with the interviewer. or esteem the mutual friend that connected you to them. although you should keep an eye open for these if the interviewer would be your supervisor. they can more readily compare the results. · Write a thank you note to the interviewer. the jobseeker and employer exchange information and get to know one another better without reference to a specific job opening. Directive interviewers rely upon their own questions and methods to tease from you what they wish to know. usually used by inexperienced interviewers. The interviewer might ask you another broad. Sometimes companies use this rigid format to ensure parity between interviews. relies on you to lead the discussion. During an informational interview.

take each group in turn and really think about what you want to achieve in presenting them this way. What type of research report would be most appropriate? Develop an outline of the research report with the main sections. Case Study: You are engaged to carry out a market survey on behalf of a leading Newspaper that is keen to increase its circulation in Bangalore City. Do not rely on the interviewer to spark your memory-jot down some notes that you can reference throughout the interview. Even if you feel like you can take the driver's seat and go in any direction you wish. . The following strategies. are particularly important when interviewers use a non-directive approach: · Come to the interview prepared with highlights and anecdotes of your skills. adjust. There are four major interlinking processes in the presentation of a literature review: 1. remain respectful of the interviewer's role. Critiquing rather than merely listing each item a good literature review is led by your own critical thought processes . This is your opportunity for showing that you did not take all your reading at face value. particularly if there are conflicting views or incompatible findings in a particular area. running with your own agenda and dominating the conversation means that you run the risk of missing important information about the company and its needs. but that you have the knowledge and skills to interpret the authors' meanings and intentions in relation to each other. Although the open format allows you significantly to shape the interview. Once you have established which authors and ideas are linked. If he or she becomes more directive during the interview. in order to ascertain reader habits and interests.it is not simply a catalogue of what has been written. · Remain alert to the interviewer. qualities and experiences. which are helpful for any interview. · Ask well-placed questions.discussion in a way that best serves you. Q 6.

In the early stages of your research you cannot be expected to have a fully developed appreciation of the implications of all findings. grouping linked items. How reliable is the evidence? h. What is this all about? b. ideas and authors into firm categories as they relate more obviously to your own study. So what? 2. Why is it significant? d. Knowing what you want to convey will help you decide the most appropriate structure. with your own intentions and conceptual framework in mind. Who is saying it and what authorities do they have? c. As you begin to group together the items you read. How valid is it? g. you will eventually reach a final decision as to your own topic and research design. . How was it reached? f. j. Now you can plan the structure of your written literature review. As you get used to reading at this level of intensity within your field you will find it easier and more purposeful to ask questions as you read: a. terminology and conventions in the field. This is a good time to finalise your concept map. What has been gained? i. the direction of your literature review will emerge with greater clarity. What is its context? e. language.Rest assured that developing a sense of critical judgment in the literature surrounding a topic is a gradual process of gaining familiarity with the concepts. Structuring the fragments into a coherent body through your reading and discussions with your supervisor during the searching and organising phases of the cycle. What do other authors say? How does it contribute? k.

for example: a. when you come to write the discussion chapter of your thesis. An historical survey of theory and research in your field b. it appears that the majority of subjects responded positively. The body takes each element in turn. 'From the results shown in table 2. The first paragraph or two of each section mentions the major authors in association with their main ideas and areas of debate. you should be able to relate your findings in one-to-one correspondence with many of the concepts or questions that were firmed up in the conclusion of your literature review. A body c. As with all academic writing. for example: a. but the difference is that it is not data you generated yourself. A short conclusion at the end of each section presents a synthesis of these linked ideas. The final conclusion of the literature review ties together the main points from each of your sections and this is then used to build the framework for your own study. paraphrasing and summarizing) You can treat published literature like any other data. An introduction b. The section then expands on these ideas and authors. showing how each relates to the others. A process of narrowing down to your own topic It is likely that your literature review will contain elements of all of these. 'Positive responses were recorded for 80 per cent of the subjects (see table 2).A review can take many forms. and how the debate informs your understanding of the topic. usually as a series of headed sections and subsections. 3. Controlling the 'voice' of your citations in the text (by selective use of direct quoting. you would say: b. Later. a literature review needs: a.' .' c. Table 2 shows that sixteen of the twenty subjects responded positively.'When using published data. A conclusion The introduction sets the scene and lays out the various elements that are to be explored. When you report on your own findings. A synthesis of several paradigms c. you are likely to present the results with reference to their source.

Direct quote b. Summary In each method. . There are three ways to combine an idea and its source with your own voice: a. this is significant in the assessment of the merit and rigor of your work. which determines how strong the wall will be. Paraphrasing allows you to organize the ideas expressed by the authors without being rigidly constrained by the grammar. with no loss of the author's intended meaning: As Smith (1988) pointed out in the late eighties. tense and vocabulary of the original. Paraphrase c. you would naturally substitute the name. the author's name and publication details must be associated with the words in the text. and might be penalized. If you don't do this you would be in severe breach of academic convention. Overuse or simple 'listing' of quotes can substantially weaken your own argument by silencing your critical view or voice. You retain a degree of flexibility as to whose voice comes through most strongly. In each case it would be your voice introducing a fact or statement that had been generated somewhere else. rain may well be indicated by the presence of cloud in the sky. date and page number for 'table 2'. Direct quoting repeats exact wording and thus directly represents the author: 'Rain is likely when the sky becomes overcast' (Smith 1988. Paraphrasing is repeating an idea in your own words. using an approved referencing system. In turn. single quotation marks are used to enclose it. If the quotation is run in with your text. Your field of study has its own referencing conventions you should investigate before writing up your results. and it must be an identical copy of the original in every respect. Had you found the same results on page 17 of a text by Smith published in 1988. page 27).In these examples your source of information is table 2. You could see this process as building a wall: you select and place the 'bricks' and your 'voice' provides the µmortar¶.

Summarizing means to shorten or crystallize a detailed piece of writing by restating the main points in your own words and in the order in which you found them. you can help yourself in several ways: a. Access programs or self-paced learning resources which may be available on your campus Grammar tips . Which tense should I use? Use present tense: For generalizations and claims. However. colleagues and academics b. which exist for the reader at the time of For authors' statements of a theoretical nature. 4. Once you have established a good structure with appropriate headings for your literature review. The good use of language depends on the quality of the thinking behind the writing. The original writing is 'described' as if from the outside. Ask for feedback on your writing from friends. Look for specific language information in reference materials c. there may still be some points of grammar and vocabulary you would like to improve. Smith (1988) predicted the likelihood of rain.practical and helpful The following guidance on tenses and other language tips may be useful. y y y To convey ideas. Using appropriate language Your writing style represents you as a researcher. and reflects how you are dealing with the subtleties and complexities inherent in the literature. and it is your own voice that is predominant: Referring to the possible effects of cloudy weather. If you have doubts about your confidence to use the English language well. which can then be compared on In referring to components of your own document: . especially theories. and once you are confident in controlling the voice in your citations. you should find that your writing becomes more lucid and fluent because you know what you want to say and how to say it. You need to conform to discipline-specific requirements. and on the context of the writing. Smith (1988) claims that some degree of precipitation could be expected as the result of clouds in the sky: he has clearly discounted the findings of Jones (1986).

y Verbs are more dynamic than nouns. should) to: y Convey degrees of doubt Other language tips y Convey your meaning in the simplest possible way. Don't try to use an intellectual tone for the sake of it. 'because'. y Use complex sentences when you are dealing with embedded ideas or those that show the interaction of two or more complex elements. and do not rely on your reader to read your mind! y y Keep sentences short and simple when you wish to emphasise a point. I wanted to investigate something in particular. could. y Select active or passive verbs according to whether you are highlighting the 'doer' or the 'done to' of the action. Use compound (joined simple) sentences to write about two or more ideas which may be linked with 'and'. Use it to separate the elements of complex sentences in order to keep subject. The total process The story of a research study Introduction I looked at the situation and found that I had a question to ask about it. . might. would.Use present perfect tense for: y Recent events or actions that are still linked in an unresolved way to the present: Use simple past tense for: y Completed events or actions: Use past perfect tense for: y Events which occurred before a specified past time: Use modals (may. 'whereas' etc. y Avoid densely packed strings of words. 'but'. particularly nouns. verb and object in clear view. y Keep punctuation to a minimum. and nouns carry information more densely than verbs.

For each display of results. so I made sure that the instrument and my proposed method(s) of analysis were compatible right from the start. and began to realise at this stage how my study would be different from anything done previously. They would carry a great deal more credibility. It was then that I began to realise what I had found. and with my research question clearly in mind. I began with the broad decision about which research paradigm I would work within (that is. I also spelled out what I had found truly significant to make sure my readers did not miss it. strength . I wanted to state the facts . I was careful not to let my own interpretations intrude or voice my excitement just yet.Review of literature So I read everything I could find on the topic . Findings/results What had I found? What did the tables/graphs/categories etc.what was already known and said and what had previously been found. graphs. Then I carried out the research study and recorded all the data in a methodical way according to my intended methods of analysis. I knew that I wanted my results to be as watertight and squeaky clean as possible. have to say that could be pinned down? It was easy enough for me to see the salient points at a glance from these records. I wrote a corresponding summary of important observations relating only elements within my own set of results and comparing only like with like. applying tests of significance where appropriate to ensure both reliability and validity. categories. Then I devised my research instrument to get the best out of what I was investigating.just the facts. Methodology I decided on the number and description of my subjects. I dealt correctly with all inferential statistical procedures. critical/interpretive/ empiricist). I knew I would have to analyse the raw data. designed my own investigation process. qualitative/quantitative. using certain known research methods (and perhaps some that are not so common). I reduced the data (by means of my preferred form of classification) to manageable thematic representation (tables. etc). I established exactly where my investigation would fit into the big picture. but in writing my report. As part of the analysis.

I'll know that I know what I'm talking about. how I speculate. Writing up the research report or thesis Use an active. so where do we all go from here? Three stages of research 1.and thereby academic 'clout' if I took no shortcuts and remained both rigorous and scholarly. What did I find in the results that answered my original research question? Why was I so sure I had some answers? What about the unexplained or unexpected findings? Had I interpreted the results correctly? Could there have been any other factors involved? Were my findings supported or contested by the results of similar studies? Where did that leave mine in terms of contribution to my field? Can I actually generalise from my findings in a breakthrough of some kind. How I wonder what you are . OK. which. even so. Discussion Now I was free to let the world know the significance of my findings. Conclusion We'll take a long hard look at this study from a broad perspective. check.. the fascinating byways sadly left behind. redraft. But I won't become over-apologetic about the things left undone. That way. I'll wrap up with whatever generalizations I can make. or the abandoned analyses. I'll defend to the hilt. revise.. . and whatever implications have arisen in my mind as a result of doing this thing at all. I have my memories. or do I simply see myself as reinforcing existing knowledge? And so what. the more questions arise. succinct sentences. Reading 2. after all? There were some obvious limitations to my study. Research design and implementation 3. How does it rate? How did I end up answering the question I first thought of? The conclusion needs to be a few clear. reflect. The more you find out. cyclical writing process: draft.

4. 7.Establishing good practice 1. decisions. which may relate to your topic. Keep a research journal to reflect on your processes. Discuss your ideas with your supervisor and interested others. 3. particularly to your hypothesis or research question. Know how you will analyse data so that your formats correspond from the start. 11. . Train yourself to select what you do need and reject what you don't need. state of mind. 2. Be thoughtful and think ahead about the way you will consider and store new information as it comes to light. Read widely to establish a context for your research. reactions to experimental outcomes etc. Read widely to collect information. Keep a systematic log of technical records of your experimental and other research data. note-taking and referencing records. Be systematic with your reading. Keep going back to the whole picture. 8. 5. changes of mind. Design your research approaches in detail in the early stages so that you have frameworks to fit findings into straightaway. remembering to date each entry. and noting any discrepancies or unexpected occurrences at the time you notice them. 6. 10. Keep your research question always in mind. 9.

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