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**Bandgap Reference Circuit
**

Reference voltages or currents that exhibit little dependence on temperature prove essential in many analog circuits. It is interesting to note that, since most process parameters vary with temperature, if a reference is temperatureindependent, then it is usually process-independent as well.

In order to generate a quantity that remains constant with temperature, we postulate that if two quantities having opposite temperature coefficients (TCs) are added with proper weighting, the result displays a zero TC. For example, for two voltages V1 and V2 that vary in opposite direction with temperature, we choose α1 and α2 such that α1 VREF = α1V1 + α 2V2 , with zero TC.

∂V1 ∂V + α 2 2 = 0 , obtaining a reference voltage, ∂T ∂T

7.1 Negative-TC Voltage

The base-emitter voltage of bipolar transistors or, more generally, the forward voltage of a pn-junction diode exhibits a negative TC. For a bipolar device, we can write I C = I S exp(VBE / VT ) , where VT = KT / q . The saturation current I S is proportional to μ kTni2 , where μ denotes the mobility of minority carriers and ni is the intrinsic minority carrier concentration of silicon. The temperature dependence of these quantities is represented as μ ∝ μ 0T m , where m ≈ −3 / 2 , and ni2 ∝ T 3 exp[− Eg /(kT )] , where E g ≈ 1.12eV is the Bandgap energy of silicon. Thus,

⎛ −E ⎞ I S = bT 4+ m exp ⎜ g ⎟ ⎝ kT ⎠

(7.1)

- 45 -

4) (7. we must know the behaviour of I C as a function of temperature.5) gives the temperature coefficient of the base-emitter voltage at a given temperature T. we have ⎛ −E ∂I S = b(4 + m)T 3+ m exp ⎜ g ∂T ⎝ kT Therefore.46 - . Thus.1).3) Eg VT ∂I S V = (4 + m) T + 2 VT I S ∂T T kT From equations (7.5) Equation (7. In taking the derivative of VBE with respect to T. ∂T We note that the temperature coefficient of VBE itself depends on the temperature. we assume that I C is held constant. we can write E ∂VBE VT I C V = ln − (4 + m) T − g2 VT ∂T T IS T kT = VBE − (4 + m)VT − Eg / q T (7.where b is a proportionality factor.4). ∂VBE ∂VT I C VT ∂I S ln − = ∂T ∂T I S I S ∂T (7. With VBE ≈ 750mV and T = 300 K .2) From (7.5mV / K . creating error in constant reference generation if the positive-TC quantity exhibits a constant temperature coefficient. Writing VBE = VT ln ( I C / I S ) . revealing dependence on the magnitude of VBE itself. To simplify the analysis. we can now compute the TC of the base-emitter voltage.2) and (7. ∂VBE ≈ −1. − Eg ⎞⎛ Eg ⎞ ⎞ 4+ m ⎛ ⎟ + bT ⎜ exp ⎟⎜ ⎟ kT ⎠⎝ kT 2 ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ (7. .

1. this TC is independent of the temperature or behaviour of the collector currents.2. 7.7. Fig.47 - . 7. if two identical transistors ( I S 1 = I S 2 ) are biased at collector currents of nI0 and I0 and their base currents are negligible.2 Positive-TC Voltage If two bipolar transistors operate at unequal current densities.2.1 Generation of PTAT voltage . the VBE difference exhibits a positive temperature coefficient. then the difference between their base-emitter voltages is directly proportional to the absolute temperature. As shown in Fig. then ΔVBE = VBE1 − VBE 2 ⎛ nI ⎞ ⎛ I ⎞ = VT ln ⎜ 0 ⎟ − VT ln ⎜ 0 ⎟ ⎝ I S1 ⎠ ⎝ IS 2 ⎠ = VT ln n Thus. given by: ∂ΔVBE k = ln n ∂T q Interestingly.

voltages at X and Y are approximately equal to VX = 749.5 mV and VY = 742.and positive. we can now develop a reference having nominally zero temperature coefficient. we use the circuit shown in fig 7. we obtain ID5 ≈ 3ID2 ID5 = 31.5 µA in each branch. This makes ID1=ID2 and hence Vx=VY.TC voltages obtained above. Therefore. the current values obtained after simulation are: ID1 = 10.6 mV .48 - . Using suitable transistor sizes.1 Bandgap Reference Voltage Circuit In our circuit.3.7. To generate a Bandgap reference voltage.78 µA Since. Fig. 7.68 µA Size of transistor M5 is 3 times that of M3 and M4. we obtain a current of approximately 10. the transistor pairs M1-M2 and M3-M4 are identical.3 Bandgap Reference With the negative.5 µA ID2 = 10.3. On simulation. To be more accurate.1.

6) Here. Voltage output. we obtain Now.9505 ×10−4 ) ⎜ 2 ⎟ V/K ⎝ R1 ⎠ From equation (7. since m=10 for Q1 and m=1 for Q0.7) ∂VBE 2 = −1.7. current across R1 can be indicated as: I R1 = VT ln10 R1 3VT ln10 R1 Current through M5 is: Therefore. ∂I ∂VBE 2 + R2 D 5 = 0 ∂T ∂T (7. VR1 = VBE 0 − VBE1 = ΔVBE = VT ln n Here n=10. ID5 ≈ 3I R1 = VREF = VBE 2 + I D 5 R2 ⎛ V ln10 ⎞ = VBE 2 + 3 ⎜ T ⎟ R2 ⎝ R1 ⎠ Differentiating with respect to temperature.147 R1 5. Voltage across R1. For zero TC of the Bandgap reference voltage.49 - . we assume that the temperature coefficient of R2 is zero.4.2. Therefore.27763mV / K ∂T From simulation plots shown in fig. we get R2 1.We assume that VX ≈ VY = VBE 0 Therefore.9505 ×10−4 . R2 ∂I D 5 ⎛ 3k ln10 ⎞ ⎛ R2 ⎞ =⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ∂T ⎝ q ⎠⎝ R1 ⎠ ⎛R ⎞ = ( 5.27763 ×10−3 = = 2. we get: ∂I ∂VREF ∂VBE 2 = + R2 D 5 ∂T ∂T ∂T (7. we need ∂VREF =0 ∂T Therefore.7).

1112 V.3 shows that though the voltage reference obtained is around 1.4. we notice a finite curvature which may be due to many reasons.7. 2. Temperature variations of offset voltages. To solve the above two problems. In the curve shown in Fig. Temperature variations of base-emitter voltages.3. it has nearly zero TC at T = 300K.78 × 10 −6 R2 = 1. we get: or. Voltages VX and VY were very different.7).2 R2 ≈ 15k Ω R1 ≈ 7k Ω On selecting these values of R1 and R2. some of which are listed below: 1. the value of R1 is reduced and following several iterations we obtain zero TC for VREF at 300K for R1 = 5 KΩ & R2 = 12 KΩ.50 - .6). we get: VREF = VBE 2 + I D 5 R2 = 1.4. or. The plot in Fig. the simulation results showed the following discrepancies: 1. VREF had a slightly negative temperature coefficient.2V 0. . Temperature variations of collector currents. 2. From equation (7. 3. 7.7179 + 31.From equation (7.

7.1 V Band-gap Voltage Reference Circuit .51 - .7.1 Schematic for 1.4 Observations and Results Fig.4.

Fig.4.52 - .4.3 Variation of ΔVbe with Temperature .2 Variation of Vbe with Temperature Fig.7.7.

4.7.Fig.4.5 Magnified look into the variation of output reference voltage with Temperature .53 - .7.4 Variation of Output Reference voltage with Temperature Fig.

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