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The Development of Centrifugal Turbo Compressor Stage Using CFD
Kosprdová, Jindra1, Oldřich, Jiří2
Ing. ČKD NOVÉ ENERGO, a.s. Klečákova 1947, 190 02 Praha 9, email@example.com, www.ckdnoveenergo.cz Ing., CSc. ČKD NOVÉ ENERGO, a.s. Klečákova 1947, 190 02 Praha 9, firstname.lastname@example.org, www.ckdnoveenergo.cz
Abstract: This paper describes the procedure of development of centrifugal turbo compressor flow passage using CFD. CFD simulation was used for fluid flow calculation in the flow passage of centrifugal compressor stage. The investigated centrifugal compressor stage was composed of 2D impeller blades, vaneless diffuser and return channel. The CFD simulation was calculated by means of ANSYS CFX software. In terms of the results the geometric modification of the flow passage was suggested and CFD simulation was again calculated. This paper describes several solver settings for these simulations (mathematical and physical). The geometric modification is described and the results of the CFD simulations are also shown. The evaluation of suggested modification of flow passage of the investigated turbo compressor is done as well. Key words: CFD, compressor, centrifugal, efficiency, optimization
The aim of this article is to inform the readers about the centrifugal turbo-compressor stage optimization using the latest methods. The scheme of this optimization process is shown in the figure 1. At the beginning the comparative analysis for existing compressor stage was made. This CFD analysis was solved in terms of ANSYS CFX software. The CFD calculation setting is described below and is the same both for the existing and for the optimized compressor stage. In both cases we used quantitatively and qualitatively similar computational grid. The results of the comparative analysis were, for their verification, compared with the measurements that were made on the original stage. Pressure and efficiency curves of the stage and loss and pressure recovery coefficient for return channel were also compared. The results of this analysis are shown in the figures 2 – 5 together with the results of the CFD analysis of the optimized stage. In the figure 2 we can see good agreement of pressure curve between the comparative analysis and measurements. In terms of efficiency curve we can also see good agreement but as the mass flow drops the deviation rises. Concerning loss and pressure recovery coefficients, which describe the quality of return channel, we can see much larger deviation. That’s why we will pay attention to this part of compressor stage in the future. Over all we can say that this CFD analysis can be comparative for evaluation of the geometry changes influence on the pressure and efficiency curve.
The 20th International Conference on Hydraulics and Pneumatics. Prague. 2008 2 Existing Compressor Stage Analysis NREC AxCent. The blade loading. Results of this analysis can be seen in . As mentioned earlier the goal of this project was the optimization of the shape of the impeller blades and of the return channel vanes shape. There were design requirements for the return channel vanes thickness (minimum blade thickness). static pressure and relative velocity distributions were evaluated for impeller and blade loading and absolute velocity for return channel. Initially the constraining requirements of the optimization were set. vaneless diffuser and vaned return channel. Besides the CFD analysis of the original compressor stage in the first step of this optimization was also done the MST analysis of this stage by means of NREX AxCent software. September 29 – October 1. ANSYS CFX 1 Optimization of Existing Stage NREC AxCent + iSight 2 Analysis of Optimized Stage ANSYS CFX 3 Verification Measurements of Optimized Stage Appropriate Concept of Additional Changes Fig. 6) and impeller outlet blade angle. 1 Compressor optimization process 2 Optimization The compressor stage which was optimized includes 2D impeller blades. The Basic requirement was the conservation of the meridional section (Fig.
vane thickness in return channel was changed. optimized). 2008 3 the figures 7 – 9 (impeller) and 13 . for lower mass flows the mass flow boundary conditions were set. compressible. As the convergence criteria was set for value of maximum residuals below 1e-4. The comparison between the blade loading for original and for the final design can be seen in the figure 7. Through the calculation the values of maximum residuals. The comparison of these distributions can be seen in figures 13 and 14. The angle was for both segments 40°. The comparison of the blade and flow angle for original and optimized compressor stage is shown in the figure 15. SST k-ϖ turbulent model was used because this model is suitable for such an analysis. pressure at the outlet eventually mass flow. The optimization was made in two steps the first approximation was done with Adaptive Simulated Annealing method and after this step was used Modified Method of Feasible Direction. The speed of revolution was also set.14 (return channel) in the comparison with the same calculation for optimized compressor stage. turbulent analysis of the fluid (air) flow was solved. diffuser and return channel. Computational grid was made by GRID-Pro software. The size (density) of the computational grid was restricted by software and hardware equipment (only one CPU was used for the calculation). The optimization of return channel was made in terms of the results from MST calculation. For rotor-stator interaction we used “stage” interface. The computational domain was periodically repeating segment of impeller. After this optimization process detailed CFD analysis of this optimized compressor stage was solved. The fully 3D. . viscous. September 29 – October 1. We evaluated the difference between calculated blade loading and designed optimum blade loading. At this value all other monitored parameters were constant.The 20th International Conference on Hydraulics and Pneumatics. At the outlet static pressure boundary conditions for higher mass flows were set. The structured computational grid contains cca 360 000 cells in rotor and the same value in stator in both cases (original. The impeller optimization was made by means of connection between NREC AxCent and optimization software iSight. We observed the influence of these changes on absolute velocity and blade loading distribution. The boundary condition at the inlet was always set as the total pressure and total temperature. 3 CFD Analysis The CFD analysis was solved by means of ANSYS CFX software. The relation between the state value was made by means of state equation of ideal gas. In this optimization we made changes in the impeller blade angle distribution along the blade (without change in the exit blade angle) and we observed the influence of this change on the blade loading calculated by means of the MST analysis. Initially inlet vane angle was changed in order to be the same as flow angle at appropriate diameter. imbalances and efficiency were monitored. Further. The solution was so made on the segment around one impeller blade and around two return channel vanes. The blade thickness was held constant. Prague.
. a. The flow character in return channel should be verified by the experimental measurements and by the more detailed CFD analysis. The changes of geometry led to the improvement of pressure and efficiency curve (to higher position). September 29 – October 1. as a part of project “Research and Development of Flow Part of Centrifugal Compressor Stage” which was carried out with financial support from Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Czech Republic.Outlet total pressure p s (i ) p s (i +1) .Inlet total pressure Tc 7 .The 20th International Conference on Hydraulics and Pneumatics.Outlet static pressure 5 Conclusions To sum up we can say that the whole turbocompressor stage was improved. The calculations were done in ČKD NOVÉ ENERGO.Outlet total pressure p c 0 . Prague.Inlet total temperature Loss coefficient K= p c (i ) − p c (i +1) p c (i ) − p s (i ) Cp coefficient Cp = p s (i +1) − p s (i ) p c (i ) − p s (i ) where: p c (i ) .s. It is important to point out that the CFD analysis doesn’t contain the leakage and disc friction losses.Total pressure near the return channel blade leading edge . 2008 4 4 Definition of evaluation parameters Blade to Blade loading B 2 Bloading = ws − w p ws + w p 2 where: Relative velocity at the blade suction side (in the case of return channel it is absolute velocity) w p [m / s ] − Relative velocity at the blade pressure side (in the case of return channel it is absolute velocity) Stage efficiency η pol p c7 p c0 = T κ log c 7 κ −1 Tcb log ws [m / s] − where: p c 7 .Static pressure near the return channel blade trailing edge p c ( i +1) .Outlet total temperature Tcb .
000 190000.000 1.500 1.200 160000. 5 Cp Coefficient Fig. 2008 Fig.3 1.200 1.300 110000.000 130000.800 2.5 0.1 0 1.9 0.6 1 0.200 1.400 1.5 0.800 1.000 140000.000 1.3 0.000 2.900 200000.300 1.600 1.200 Mass Flow (kg/s) original measurements original CFX opti CFX original measurements original CFX opti CFX Fig.000 150000.2 0.700 170000.7 Loss Coefficient (-) Cp Coefficient (-) 0.000 Outlet Total Pressure (Pa) Efficiency (-) 1.400 1.200 0. 3 Efficiency Curve 0.2 1.500 0.000 2.600 1.600 Mass Flow (kg/s) 1. Prague.000 0.000 180000.000 120000.2 -0.600 Mass Flow (kg/s) 1. 2 Pressure Curve 0.000 Fig.200 1.The 20th International Conference on Hydraulics and Pneumatics.1 0.1 0.200 -0.000 1.100 2. 4 Loss Coefficient 0.600 0.100 0.200 1.900 2.000 2.400 0.8 0.000 100000.4 0. September 29 – October 1.3 Mass Flow (kg/s) original measurements original measurements original CFX opti CFX original CFX opti CFX 5 .800 2.800 2.700 1.6 0.400 1.000 -0.000 2.200 1.4 0 0.400 1.800 0.
6 Meridional section 1 0. 8 Static Pressure 150000 350 obr.6 0. September 29 – October 1.6 -0.2 0 0 -0.2 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 -0.The 20th International Conference on Hydraulics and Pneumatics.4 B2B Loading (-) 0. 2008 Fig.8 -1 %M original hub original shroud opti hub opti shroud OPTIMUM fig. 9 Relative Velocity Distribution 140000 300 130000 250 Relative Velocity (m/s) 120000 Static Pressure (Pa) 200 110000 100000 150 90000 100 80000 50 70000 60000 0 10 20 30 40 50 %M original opti 60 70 80 90 100 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 %M 60 70 80 90 100 6 original pressure original suction opti pressure opti suction .4 -0.8 fig. 7 Blade to Blade Loading 0. Prague.
13 Return Channel Blade to Blade Loading 2 18 1.5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 8 -1 6 0 10 20 30 40 50 %M original opti 60 70 80 90 100 -1. 12 Thickness Distribution 20 2. 10 Impeller Beta Distribution 34 90 32 80 30 70 fig. 11 Return Channel Beta distribution The 20th International Conference on Hydraulics and Pneumatics.5 16 1 Thickness (mm) 14 B2B Loading (-) 0.5 fig. Prague.5 12 0 0 10 -0.fig. 2008 28 Beta (° ) Beta (° ) 26 50 24 22 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 %R original opti original 60 70 80 90 100 60 40 30 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 %M opti flow angle 60 70 80 90 100 fig.5 %M original hub original shroud opti hub opti shroud 7 . September 29 – October 1.
14 Return Channel Absolute Velocity Distribution 250 200 Absolute Velocity (m/s) 150 100 50 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 %M original pressure original suction opti pressure opti suction 60 70 80 90 100 . September 29 – October 1. 2008 8 Fig. Prague.The 20th International Conference on Hydraulics and Pneumatics.Blade Angle 100 90 80 70 60 Angle (° ) 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 %M original flow angle opti flow angle original blade angle opti blade angle 60 70 80 90 100 fig. 15 Return Channe l Flow .
s. cz .The 20th International Conference on Hydraulics and Pneumatics. a. 2008 9 Informace pro zpracovatele příspěvku (nepublikují se): Použitý formát souboru s příspěvkem: Microsoft Word 2003 Údaje jednotlivých autorů pro zpracování autorského rejstříku: Název organizace a stát Pořadí Příjmení Jméno Kosprdová Jindra ČKD NOVÉ ENERGO. a.oldrich@ckdenergo..kosprdova@ckde nergo.cz jiri. September 29 – October 1.. 1 Česká republika Oldřich Jiří ČKD NOVÉ ENERGO. 2 Česká republika Email jindra.s. Prague.
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