January | February 2010 Feature title: Least cost formulation in aquafeed

International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058

The International magazine for the aquaculture feed industry

Least-cost formulation in aquafeeds
by Peter De Letter, Consultant BESTMIX® feed formulation software email: peter.deletter@adifo.be, Adifo NV, Belgium and Jean Broers, Product Manager BESTMIX® feed formulation software email: jean.broers@adifo.be
quafeed formulation is a fast growing business, yet relatively new. Growing world population, pressure on the use of marine ingredients, price volatility of raw materials, better availability of nutritional knowledge and difficulties in the production of aqua diet make aqua diet formulation a challenging business. A professional and state of the art least cost formulation software, like BESTMIX® (a product by software specialist Adifo) is essential to develop sustainable, cost effective and nutritionally complete feeds.


in agrifeed. The nutritionist manages his set of ingredients by setting the measured and calculated nutrient values. Then, taking into account the ingredient prices and the

availability per plant, the software creates a least cost formula that fulfils the ingredient and nutritional requirements of the diet. However, the quality and ‘real world’ cost

Figure 1: Data integration of formulation data

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The general principles of least cost formulation for aquafeed are the same as
14 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2011

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F: Feed formulation
effectiveness of the aqua diet stands or falls with the quality of the available data. Import wizards and special data management tools help the nutritionist to gain time and have a reliable database where prices, stock data, nutritional data and quality constraints are up to date. BESTMIX® feed formulation software offers the possibility to exchange information with ERP and production systems and to import nutritional data and calculation rules from external ingredient suppliers or research institutes. In addition, the software is able to use online data coming from NIR apparatus filtered through a special lab module called BESTMIX® LIMS (see figure 1).

Figure 2: use lot optimization to cope with changing ingredient qualities assuring a stable end product quality

seminar has been a huge success Email: sales@meriden-ah.com group, and yellowing of the tilapia surface was and above can affect fish performance and dissignificant increase of the and we look forward to working toxic potency of Website: www.meriden-ah.com ease resistance AFB1 (Centoducati et al., 2009). which confirms The hapatoxicity of AFB1 was also conprevious obserfirmed by Spahdari et al. (2010) in a study Are you sure by (Phuoc looking at the impacts of AFB1 on Beluga I N S E R T Iat levels of 0, 25,V50, 75, and vation2004) who NTO DRI E I‘m not missing et al., (Huso huso) a key essential reported that 100ppb AFB1/kg of diet during a threeF O R A D D E D M A R G Icontaining diet N months period. nutrient? l Large range and inventory 60 – 300 ppb In this case, results showed that the variof many sizes AFB1 can signifious levels of AFB1 did not significantly affect cantly reduced performance of tra catfish 16.59 ± 0.2 g after 10 or 22 weeks of feeding. These findings seem to suggest that Pangasius catfish is more sensitive to AFB1 than other catfish species powerful such as channel resource catfish (Ictalurus optimization software punctatus) and Recent studies in Vietnam moves feed businessescatfish walking In a recent study in Vietnam, Tu (2010) forward to improved margins.batra(Clarias conducted a comprehensive study on the senchus). The study sitivity of Tra catfish (Pangasionadon hypophFormat International Limited, the also evaluated thalmus) to AFB1, analyzing the impacts of Format House, Poole Road,Woking, application of an feeding AFB1 contaminated diets on growth Surrey GU21 6DY, England. Aflatoxin binder performance, physiological response, histoTel: +44 1483 726081 Fax: +44 1483 722827 (Mycofix®Secure) logical changes and disease resistance of Tra Website www.formatinternational.com to counteract catfish. the specific growth ratio (SGR) (P<0.05) of fish in different treatments. However, weight gain and food conversion ratio (FCR) varied significantly (P<0.05) between control and treatments with diets contaminated with 75 and 100ppb AFB1/kg after 90 days. Histopathological studies showed that different level of AFB1 can cause broad range of change in liver tissue, including progressive fat deposition, hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis, particularly at concentration of 75 and 100ppb AFB1/kg of diets after Format’s 60 days (Spahdari et al., 2010). formulation and
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sources combined with additives like assure this quality. BESTMIX® contains lysine, methionine, enzymes to increase a lot optimization module to take the essential nutrient availability from these real-time ingredient quality in account at sources and phosphate additives taking production time. Each lot of an ingrediinto account antinutritional factors of ent has a specific quality. This quality phytic acids for example. can be registered and controlled online Gut physiology and development vary upon the intake of each lot by using widely between the different aquaculture BESTMIX® LIMS, Adifo’s Lab Management species and life stages. Therefore it is Information System software. BESTMIX® important to be able to set up aqua diets will help the nutritionist and production per species and life stage. The nutritionist manager to optimize the usage of each Fulfilling nutritional and can create constraint frameworks and lot, guaranteeing an optimal production ingredient constraints calculate AquAFeed | January-February for process and a stable quality (Figure 2). Aqua diets contain a high concentra-| InternatIonalspecific nutrient availability2011 6 10 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2011 A second control mechanism is the larvae and adult animal types. This contion of protein and fat. This adds extra cept has already proven to maximize cost use of swing values: tolerances are set complexity to aqua diet formulation. effectiveness in agrifeed. for minimum and maximum deviations on Aqua feed nutritionists are challenged by Developing fish feed is a phased ingredient percentages determined in the the need to reduce reliance on marine research and development project. In the R&D formula. protein and lipid sources offering new

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Adjusting to the market using multiblend tools

"Using BESTMIX® multiblend, feed producers can reduce raw material costs by more than 1%. This way, the limited and more expensive resources will be divided amongst all aqua diets in the most cost effective way"

alternative protein sources. BESTMIX® helps searching for nutritionally valid alternatives by getting the most out of the nutritional potential of all ingredients. When setting a maximum constraint on marine oil and protein sources, or in case prices and availability are not favourable, the software will search for a valid and cost effective alternative formula. Such an alternative mixture could consist of vegetable oil and protein (or algae based)

final stage, when the production is defined and set, the diet should not change too drastically in order to guarantee the defined R&D characteristics. Still, the guaranteed nutritional values must be met at all times. Small quality changes of these ingredients will result in large deviations of the quality in the end-product. The production formulator must take this into account to deliver feed with stable quality. Developments are available to

Theoretically, it is possible to create the ideal formula: being both nutritionally fulfilling as well as cost effective at a certain point in time. Yet, ingredient resources and prices are very volatile and can change drastically in the short term. Using multiblend tools, the least cost formulation program will take into account ingredient availability and prices of stock, contracts and the market. Nutritionists and purchasers can sit together and create the most economical overall solution for the whole plant for a certain defined period. The moment of stocks and contracts usage can even be optimized: it can be cheaper to keep your current stock for a later period and buy an alternative lot of this ingredient at current market conditions (Figure 3). Using BESTMIX® multiblend, feed producers can reduce raw material costs by more than 1%. This way, the limited and more expen-

16 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | January-February 2011

January-February 2011 | InternatIonal AquAFeed | 17


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F: Feed formulation
Fourth International Feed Regulators Meeting
sive resources will be divided amongst all aqua diets in the most cost effective way.

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20" x 10" CC-XD

has to consider other production-related Conclusion parameters as well. One ingredient can The different parameters can be chalbe dosed on different scales, while each lenging for the team that is responsible of these scales has a certain precision and for developing and producing aquafeed. Coping with production minimal some This challenges in aqua dietsoffer a wide variety dosing capacity. In “It is asituations,event for means that the nutritionist, the feed unique of topics, event, he International Feed will the amount of silos is limited. The formulaengineer, the logistic planner, the producProducing aqua-feed is different from industry and global feed regulaI n d u s t r y F e d e r a t i o n including: apco has tor can set up these parameters in his tion manager and the sales manager must producing compound feed. Most fish feeds A presentation on regula- tors to come together to discuss (IFIF) in cooper ation i n t r o formulation software tool to optimize the all work together in one formulation with the Food and Agriculture tor y developments of feed issues of mutual interest.” duced a 20" formula, taking into account the production system in such a way that the information Government feed regulators may Organization of the United labeling; x 10" Xtreme Duty process parameters passed from one step to the next "Only the most the The newly reestablished Codex of the plant.event at no fee.isFor (CC-XD) elevator bucket step. attend this Nations (FAO) will host advanced Afterwards, the diet information must be four th I n t e r n a t i o n a l F e e d Feed Task Force, hosted by Swiss industry and trade association repreto accompany its existing 7" and formulation software automatically updated when new informaKeep your labels up to date Regulator s Meeting (IFRM) authorities, - an outlook on the sentatives, the cost is $275 USD. 8" projection sizes. tion comes up or when new parameters The aqua feed world is a highly competiThe IFRM is being held prior January 24-25, 2011 in Atlanta, Task Force plans and a discussion The Tapco CC-XD operates at tools such as BESTMIX® have been measured. Only the most tive world. Feed manufacturers have to difUSA. The Amer ican Feed of risk assessment methods and to the International Feed Expo/I up to 940 feet per minute. The ferentiate themselvesnternational Poultrylevel. which is from the average Expo advanced formulation software tools such guarantee an added value to tools; Industr y Association (AFIA) is management bucket is reinforced with a 5/8" as BESTMIX® guarantee an added value A good presentationon January 26-28, 2011. For more of the aqua-feed diets The IFIF Feed Regulator y assisting with the organization of thick front lip and has 1056.6 aqua diet manufacturers" is a must for every producer. Generated to aqua diet manufacturers, who focus Comparison Repor t for Feed details on the largest annual feed the event. cubic inches of capacity. CC-XD specifications must have a highly commercial on delivering to their customers exactly Delegates from over 20 coun- Additives will compare and industry tradeshow, visit www. buckets are molded with value, whilst the information presented must what they ordered. tries are expected to attend contrast the approval processes in ife11.org or www.ipe11.org. 35-50% more resin than the be complete, 100 percent correct, customer are extruded and pelletized.This means that the two-day event, held in the Canada, the USA and the EU; CC-HD. The CC style buckets’ friendly and fulfilling all legal specifications. So the formulator has to pay extra attention to FAO/WHO will provide an More inforMation: Georgia World Congress Center, distinctive “breaks” on the how to keep reports and labels up to date controlling the starch content, the humidity, to discuss topics relevant to the outlook on the possible emer- AFIA bottom of the More inforMation: bucket provide an when formulas and ingredients vary in time? the density and the high fat contents. To be gency notification mecha- 2101 Wilson Boulevard feed and pet food industry. ideal product trajectory. Tapco Adifo N.V. And how to keep labels up to date according able to achieve a certain quality and density Industrielaan 11 B is available in polyethSuite 916 IFRM offers a chance for inter- nisms; CC-XD to changing feed policies? Adjusting these for optimal pelletizing, the nutritionist or Maldegem, B-9990 A report on of the Safe Supply Arlington VA 22201 national regulators to come ylene, nylon and urethane and is Belgium data one by one would be extremely timeproduction manager can adjust the dry mattogether and gain greater under- of Affordable Food Everywhere USA ideal for demanding, super high Tel: +32 50 303211 Tel: +1 essential to consuming. Therefore it is703 5241921 be ter and density parameters in BESTMIX® standing of the global issues project. throughput Fax: +32 50 711193 applications. For Fax: +1 software in such 703 5241921 able to set up labels in the as to start the pelletizing process in ideal IFIF chairman of the board, Email: afia@afia.org affecting the feed industr y Website:more information visit www. www.adifo.com a way, that they are ‘refreshed’ automatically conditions. around the world. The meeting Dave Cieslak, Cargill, said of the Website: www.afia.org tapcoinc.com. when needed. When formulating diets, the formulator


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International Aquafeed is published six times a year, bringing you in-depth features, industry news, events, book reviews and more. Subscribers to International Aquafeed also receive a free copy of the International Aquafeed Directory worth UK£85. For more information please visit our website. Producers of petfood, agri- and aquafeed now can benefit from BENEO‘s unique expertise in the food world. BENEO-Animal Nutrition For a complimentary trial issue, please contact the Circulation & Subscriptions Manager - Tuti offers a broad range of nature based ingredients that improve nutritional value. It covers speciality ingredients such as vegetable Tan - Email: tutit@aquafeed.co.uk proteins, functional fibres & carbohydrates and prebiotics from chicory. www.beneo-an.com Connecting nutrition and health
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