# USTER® HVI SPECTRUM

Measuring principles

Test Report

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM

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Measurements on cotton:
• • • • •
Length, uniformity Micronaire Strength Color Trash

NEW on USTER® HVI SPECTRUM: • Maturity Index • Short Fiber Index • Moisture
Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 3

Length & Strength Measurement

LED Comb Fiber Beard Breaker Jaws

Home Position

Breaker Jaws

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM

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Development of a fibrogram Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 5 .

Mean Length Principle of Measurement Developed from the fibrogram Length Mean length ML 0% 100% Tangent from origin Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 6 .

Upper Half Mean Length Principle of Measurement Developed from the fibrogram Length Upper half mean length UHML 0% 50% Tangent from 50% amount 100% Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 7 .

Comparison Mean Length .Upper Half Mean Length Length Upper half mean length Mean length 0% 50% 100% Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 8 .

Staple diagram Fiber length 0% 50% 100% Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 9 .

Comparison Fibrogram .Staple Diagram Fibrogram • non end-aligned diagram of the fiber length • calculated from a randomly taken fiber bundle which is fixed in a measuring grip Staple Diagram • end-aligned diagram of the fiber length • distribution curve (histogram) of all fiber lengths Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 10 .

Explanation to the length 1 inch = staple class 32  32:32  34:32 =1 =1 1 1/16 inch = staple class 34 1/16 1 1/2 inch = staple class 48  48:32 = 1 1/2 Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 11 .

11 1.95 0.8 > 35.30 .5 34.08 1.1 20.98 1.80 0.1.27 .8 22.21 1.1 21.05 1.4 28.89 0.6 22.0 Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM .9 23.14 1.13 1.4 27.92 0.35 > 1.23 1.90 0.0 30.0 33.17 1.8 26.2 27.1 25.9 28.1.10 1.26 21.5 Code 24 26 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 0.85 0.29 1.18 1.4 25.1 24.8 33.6 24.02 1.7 31.99 1.9 25.Relationship Between Staple Class and HVI UHML Results Inches below 13/16 13/16 7/8 29/32 15/16 31/32 1 1 1/32 1 1/16 1 3/32 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1/8 5/32 3/16 7/32 1/4 9/32 5/16 11/32 3/8 UHM [inches] < 0.79 0.3 33.1.2 32.07 1.38 12 32.7 30.0 32.33 .04 1.7 27.93 0.0 30.01 1.96 0.2 29.3 1.32 1.86 0.5 31.7 29.6 23.24 UHM [mm] < 20.20 1.4 24.9 26.

Uniformity Index Indication of the distribution of fiber length within the fibrogram  fiber length variation Uniformity Index UI = ML x 100 UHML ML UHML = Mean Length = Upper Half Mean Length Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 13 .

Length Uniformity .Evaluation criteria Uniformity Index ML/UHML 77 & lower 77 – 79 80 – 82 83 – 85 85 & higher Description very low low average high very high Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 14 .

Short Fiber Index Below 6 6 to 9 10 to 13 14 to 17 18 and higher Description very low low average high very high Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 15 .Short Fiber Index SFI An indication of the amount of fibers that are less than 0.7 mm) in length.5 inch (12.

7 mm Frequency (%) 0% 25% 50% x% 100% Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 16 .Short Fiber Index SFI Calculated with a proven algorithm Fiber length (mm/inch) Short fiber content SFC (%) L½" 12.

genetically caused weak places Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 17 .Length & Strength Measurement Cotton Fiber Structure .

not at a predetermined breaking-point (clamp). The fiber beard is broken at a continuous deformation rate and with a 1/8-inch distance between the clamps. Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 18 . The fineness is calculated from the Micronaire value.Bundle Fiber Strength Principle of Measurement • • • The bundle strength is the breaking strength of the cotton fibers in grams per tex. With the space of 1/8-inch. the fibers will break at their weakest spot.

Evaluation Description very low low average high very high Pressley 1/8" Stelometer 1/8" g/tex g/tex 21 & lower 17 & lower 21 – 23 24 – 26 27 – 29 30 & higher 17 – 19 20 – 22 23 – 25 26 & higher HVI 1/8"* g/tex 21 & lower 22 .Bundle Fiber Strength .24 25 – 27 28 – 30 31 & higher * Calibrated to HVI calibration cottons Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 19 .

Evaluation Strength (gram/tex) Less than 21 22 to 24 25 to 27 28 to 30 31 and higher Description very weak weak medium strong very strong Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 20 .Bundle Fiber Strength .

Elongation Measurement • Measurement of the elastic behavior of the fibers in the bundle • The distance the fibers extend before they break is expressed as percent elongation Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 21 .

Determination of the elongation Clamp Clamp l x 100 = l0 Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 22 .

1 to 5.6 7.8 to 7.9 to 6.7 6.8 5.7 and higher Description very low low average high very high Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 23 .0 5.Evaluation Elongation (%) Less than 5.Elongation Measurement .

Micronaire Measurement Pressure change measuring device Measuring chamber with fibers Air measuring device Airflow Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 24 .

Micronaire Measurement Air flow coarse fibers. high air resistance (low Micronaire value) Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 25 . low air resistance (high Micronaire value) fine fibers.

Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 26 .Micronaire Measurement • A fiber sample of constant weight is measured by passing air through the fibers and measuring the drop in pressure. • Maturity has an influence on micronaire results.

g.Micronaire . • Environmental influences. fertilizer. For example Pima cotton has a lower micronaire value than Upland cotton. which have an influence on the diameter of the fiber. e. soil.Influences • Genetic factors of the cotton. duration of growing period Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 27 . humidity and temperature.

Consequences Low Micronaire High Micronaire • Can tend to the formation of neps in yarn and fabric • Mostly mature and strong fibers • Limits the yarn count • Fine yarns cannot be spun. they are fine and strong • If they are immature. they are weak • Immature fibers absorb less dye and can lead to problems in dyeing (shiny neps) Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 28 . • If they are mature.Micronaire .

0 and higher Description very fine fine medium coarse very coarse Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 29 .8 to 5.6 3.7 to 4.Evaluation Micronaire Less than 3.Micronaire .0 to 3.7 4.9 6.0 3.

strength .elongation • Indicates the degree of cell wall thickness Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 30 .Maturity Index • The maturity index is a relative value calculated from the HVI measurements of .micronaire .

7 0.Evaluation Maturity Index Below 0.70 to 0.85 0.00 above 1.00 Description uncommon immature mature very mature Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 31 .86 to 1.Maturity Index .

Evaluation smaller than 3. mostly immature 4.Micronaire & Maturity.0 to 5.1 to 3.0 = very fine small perimeter and mature or large perimeter and very immature 3.9 = fine different degrees of maturity and/or types.9 greater than 6.0 to 4.9 5.0 = very coarse mature fibers Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 32 . but often little mature = average medium degree of maturity = coarse large perimeter.

Micronaire & Maturity Medium Micronaire & “fairly mature” High Micronaire & “well mature” Low Micronaire & “fairly mature” Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 33 Medium Micronaire & “less mature” .

Color & Trash Measurement Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 34 .

Color Range of Cotton Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 35 .

HVI Color Grades for Upland Cotton Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 36 .

HVI Color Grades for Upland Cotton Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 37 .

HVI Color Grades for Pima Cotton Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 38 .

S. Upland Cotton Standard Description for Color and Leaf Color Grade White Good Middling Strict Middling Middling Strict Low Middling Low Middling Strict Good Ordinary Good Ordinary Light Spotted Good Middling Strict Middling Middling Strict Low Middling Low Middling Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Good Middling Strict Middling Middling Strict Low Middling Low Middling Strict Good Ordinary Tinged Strict Middling Middling Strict Low Middling Low Middling Yellow Stained Strict Middling Middling 39 Symbols GM SM Mid SLM LM SGO GO GM Lt Sp SM Lt Sp Mid Lt Sp SLM Lt Sp LM Lt Sp SGO Lt Sp GM Sp SM Sp Mid Sp SLM Sp LM Sp SGO Sp SM Tg Mid Tg SLM Tg LM Tg SM YS Mid YS Code 11 21 31 41 51 61 71 12 22 32 42 52 62 13 23 33 43 53 63 24 34 44 54 25 35 Leaf Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 2 3 4 5 2 3 Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM .U.

It corresponds to the Nickerson/Hunter color chart. Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 40 . • Yellowness (+b): This value expresses the yellowness of the light that is reflected by the cotton fibers. • The Color Grade (CG) results from these two values.Color Measurement The color is defined by the Reflectance (Rd) and the Yellowness (+b) of the cotton fibers: • Reflectance (Rd): This value expresses the whiteness of the light that is reflected by the cotton fibers. It corresponds to the Nickerson/Hunter color chart.

Trash Measurement Video image analysis results in:  Trash % Area (covered)  Trash (Particle) Count Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 41 .

if it exceeds the grayness threshold set in the camera. Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 42 . A trash particle is counted. The result is expressed in relation to the entire measuring area of the glass window and is expressed as “% Area”.Trash Measurement • Trash Count (TC) Sample is illuminated from underneath the glass window. Resulting from the TA. • Trash Area (TA) The area that is covered by a trash particle. the Trash Code (T) is determined. and a black and white CCD camera analyzes the changes in the pixels.

86 <= 1.34 <= 0.56 > 1.Relationship of Trash Measurement to Classer’s Leaf Grade* Classer‘s Leaf Grade Trash Measurement (% area) <= 0.18 <= 0.56 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 * 1999 USDA crop data (4 year average) Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 43 .08 <= 0.12 <= 0.55 <= 0.

Automated Moisture Measurement  Moisture is the amount (%) of water that is present in the sample being tested.      Patented resistance moisture sensor Direct measurement Sensor located underneath color/ trash hand Consistent pressure ensures repeatable moisture results No customer calibration required Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 44 .

Moisture .Evaluation Moisture Content % < 4% 4 – 6% 6 – 8% 8 – 11% > 11% Description very low low medium high very high Edas/schulungsunterlagen/HVI SPECTRUM 45 .