:

HE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF
PRIMITIVE

MAN

XX

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D5 ALBERT

CHURCHWARD

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THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF PRIMITIVE MAN .

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F.The Origin and Evolution of Primitive Man Societies ecture given at the Royal Club St James's Street.P.D. M.. AUTHOR OF "ORIGIN AND ANTIQUITY OF FREEMASONRY" AND "SIGNS AND SYMBOLS OF PRIMORDIAL MAN " LONDON GEORGE ALLEN & COMPANY. etc.R.S. 44 LTD. February 1912 BY ALBERT CHURCHWARD M.G. RUSKIN HOUSE.C... and 45 RATHBONE PLACE 1912 .

.Ail Fights Reserved THE RIVERSIDE PRESS LIMITED. EDINBURGH.

The to more complete and slight additions made will render it (I trust) more interesting is my readers. The Royal Societies Club. R.B. The subject of the lecture now published constitutes a chapter in "The Origin and " the book Evolution of the Human Race I am now compiling but cannot hope to complete before another two years. been brought to the notice of the Public but the evidence in favour of my contentions is critically correct." that I have decided to publish it.A. hitherto. — Albert Churchward. on the "Origin and Evolution of Primitive Man. The matter . 1912. London. S. Mr I am greatly indebted Trevor Haddon. to my friend.W. kindness and patience he has displayed over the drawings of the types of men which he has reconstructed from my directions. 63 St James's Street.INTRODUCTION So many of my friends have requested a copy of the lecture I delivered recently at the Royal Societies Club.. and has not. for the skill. . practically all original.

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. 13 18 19 pygmies' anatomical features . 31 32 dawn of religion . haddon's observations . professor keith's opinion . • age of man . . pygmies' physiological features pygmies' spiritual beliefs . c. . . . . professor sollas' opinion haeckel's theory .22 . . .28 . major powell-cotton's observations 23 dr frazier's opinion magic and its definition egyptian opinion .CONTENTS PAGE divisions of primitive man . . . • . . . . . . . pygmy dances spirit worship . .26 . . . • • -59 . 41 . . • • -45 -49 -53 -57 • language pygmy words dr a. . • . . 27 . • • BUSHMEN masaba negro nilotic negro . . .40 . -3^ -37 -37 . . . . . ancient implements burial customs . 6o 7 . . . • • • 5^ . .29 • .

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14. 16. 9. 18. 11. Yucatan Prehistoric Tombs found at Harlyn Bay Pygmies showing Characteristic Features Pygmies showing Height and General Appearance Pygmies showing General Appearance Tasmanian Natives The God Bes Bushman showing Pygmy Characteristics Paleolithic 20. 22. Nilotic 25. 15. Nilotic 24. 21. 7. Methods Paleolithic Nilotic Paleolithic Nilotic Paleolithic Paleolithic 6. Nilotic Negro Woman 26. of Hafting 8. Paleolithic Pygmy Implements Pygmy Implements Pygmy Implements Negro Instruments Negro Instruments Nilotic Negro Instruments Nilotic Negro Instruments. Bushmen Masaba Negro Masaba Negro Masaba Negro Negro Children. Type of First Exodus 9 . Flint Dagger Prehistoric Tombs. 23. 5. Type of First Exodus Nilotic Negro. 4. 12. 27. 19. 13.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 1. 10. 3. Negroes showing Characteristic Features Nilotic Negro Woman. Paleolithic Paleolithic 2. 17. Implements Implements of the Stellar Mythos People Neolithic Implement. Stellar Mythos Man Prehistoric Tombs found at Uxmal.

The Gibraltar Skull 32. 31. A A A Reconstruction of Primary Man Reconstruction of Neanderthal Man Reconstruction of the Ipswich Man of Africa showing the Map Home of Primary Man Genealogical Tree of Man and the Anthropoids 46. Nilotic 39. Pure Egyptian Hieroglyphics A . The Neanderthal Cranium The Ipswich Cranium Modern English Cranium Negro.10 28. Negroes showing Pygmy Characteristics Negro of Second Exodus Nilotic Negro Woman. 43. The Lower Jaw of Neanderthal Skull 33. LIST Nilotic OF ILLUSTRATIONS 29. 36. The Spy Skull. The Cranium of Pithecanthropus Erectus 35. Skeleton found at Harlyn Bay 34. Type of Second Exodus The Neanderthal Skull. 45. 42. 44. 37. Nilotic 30. Europe Squatters 40. Squatters 41. Types of Big Heads found in 38.

human I will bring evidence before you which I ii . not all of which can yet be published as it will probably take another two years to complete my book on this subject. place and date —are — erroneous.LECTU RE Gentlemen. or any other part of the world." I accepted with pleasure. From years I studies I have am fully made during many convinced that the precon- ceived ideas of origin of the many scientists as to the human race as regards both the and that race did not originate in Asia. because one of the reasons for the foundation and formation of the Royal Societies Club was for the further- — ance of Science and for Social reunion. I thought that the Royal Societies Club should be the first place in which to proclaim publicly the result of my researches. but in Africa. Having been invited to give a lecture on " The Origin and Evolution of Man. As one of your original members.

until . North. presume not God to scan study of mankind is man. From here these little men spread all over the world. The proofs of my contention against all the learned men of the present day will be objective and subjective.— ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION sure 12 am you will acknowledge as critically correct. then thyself. style " Old Egypt " ). But. for the sake of brevity. East.000 his first — — years ago. Gentlemen. South and West." when and where did man make appearance here on this earth ? Biblical Scholars tell you About 6000 years ago in Asia. including most Scientists — In Asia. The poet Pope says " : Know The proper Therefore. or in All of some mythical land which has now Africa as the disappeared. The Aryanist School In Asia about 20. Many others. was in Africa that the little Pygmy was first evolved from the Pithe- canthropus Erectus or an Anthropoid Ape —in the Nile Valley and around the lakes at the head of the Nile (which in this lecture I will. them have denied it home of Man.

13 not only Africa. but Europe. 3. 4. . and that these types are still extant in some parts of the world. Asia. I shall divide the human race into the following groups of evolution. the Pygmy. and these again into lands where they have been isolated by the Stellar Mythos people into groups. North and South America and Oceania were populated first —the little red man of the From I. Masaba Negro. My contention that the -progress still and evolution of the human race can be studied from the lowest type of the original man as he advanced up the scale . Mongoloids. Nilotic Masi. He was the earth. where the primary race has been driven away into mountains and inaccessible forests by the Nilotic Negro. and then 2.— OF PRIMITIVE MAN by them. ist Group The Non-Totemic or Pre-Totemic People all — The Pygmy Group includes negrillos or negretos the so-called — all Pygmies. the so-called Aryanists. and 5. Negro. is. with little or no intercommunication with others. evolution continued : pro- gressively in the following order Bushmen.

They believe in a Great Spirit. and And although they have dances as Sign Language. They have no initiatory rites or Totemic — — marks. or They have no Totemic ceremonies the Totems. They have no folk-lore tales." which term as it is. in my opinion. They propitiate Elementary Powers departed Spirits. 3rd Group I shall use. Their implements are limited and primitive. but are the connecting links between Pygmy race and the Nilotic —Totemic — These have Totemic Negro. . cere- monies and Totems. and the second exodus of these have what Dr Haddon has termed " Hero Cult " instead of " Hero Worship. they have no Totemic ceremonies no written language they speak a monosyllabic language and have a Sign and Gesture Language. 2nd Group Bushmen and Masaba Negroes have dances like the Pygmies. more expressive. They have no magic.— 14 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION All these have no Totemic ceremonies.

the followers for the of Horus. Firstly. These were followed by the Lunar and Solar Mythos people. but only words they have learnt from the surrounding tribes of negroes. — — — All the foregoing statements are incorrect. All in the thrice-bent position. and the second. who are now giving place to the Christian. That they have no language of their own. That they have no belief in a future life or a Great Spirit. the remains of which may still be found in Africa. Their skill and knowledge may be gauged by the many great cities and the huge and marvellously fashioned blocks of stone. Two ages of these can also be separately identified the first exodus having Sut or Set . being buried with face to the north.000 years. It has been stated that these little people are a degenerate race. Primary God and being buried with face to the south.OF PRIMITIVE MAN 4TH Group existed 15 These were the Stellar Mythos people who as such for over 260. Central and South America and other places. Secondly. Thirdly. I will therefore commence with the evidence of the Pygmy being the first man and evolved in Africa. .

Here let me say that. For instance. and then grew large. His weight averages from three stone to seven stone. of these remains it is proved that they correspond to the Nilotic Negro. We find them as little people — following the well-known laws of evolution. that animals at first developed as a small species. and to the Stellar Mythos people. Those Pygmies who .16 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION this reason The Pygmies are not a degenerate race . for you cannot degenerate Anatomic- — ally or Physiologically. And in like manner the human was evolved from a little man. His Osteo anatomy is more primitive than the earliest skeletons (or parts of skeletons) that have been found in various parts of the I contend that in the reconstruction world. the first form of the elephant was as quite a little creature in comparison with its present size. there are lower and higher types of the Pygmy. The height i of the Pygmy averages from 15 to 1*37 metres. as one would expect to find after all these thousands of years of their existence. although they have been cut off from the world and from all intercommunication by being driven into forests and mountains where the Nilotic Negro did not follow.

" as you sometimes find amongst the later tribes. 4. Australia and Tasmania. The Banzungu. The Balia. New Hebrides. We will take their Anatomical features . the Philippine Islands. are not negroes. 6. 2. except when etc. North America. has had some effect. eight given The Akka. Outside Africa they still exist in New Guinea. They negretos. and in Northern India..OF PRIMITIVE MAN tribes 17 have not intermarried with the surrounding are always the same. but negrillos or first. but I have no doubt they are to be found in other places not yet explored. 1*36 metres. There are six distinct tribes well known in there is Africa alone. — They have been exterminated in Europe. The Tikki-Tikki. and thirty measured by Emin Pasha average i. The Wambutta. The Batwa. Japan. 3. the mountains in China. But no " throw-back. Average height of thirtyby Deniker 1*378 metres. the Sakais in the Malay Peninsula. 5. climate. the forest of Bolivia in South America.

It not woolly or kinky like the Negro's. and Radius are wider the European or the yellow race. although in some this varies to a greater extent than one could believe without seeing. is is —Ulna apart than in in some a little more. and is the same in length. of a lustreless appearance. rather reddish tint. — only the than It is important to notice this. this is at least i p. —Well formed. colour and section. strong-looking. The root of the nose is exceptionally The tip is broad and flattened very broad. Transverse section ovoid-elcptic. flattened and the alae greatly expanded. longer that of the European The bones Hair. but is forearm . Colour. shortnecked. and different from . — — Eyebrows.18 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION Some of them are broad-chested. muscular and wellmade. but rather of a peculiar very dark greenish -grey. both on the Pubes and Axilla. The hair of those that I have seen has not been black. the Negro's. but — rolled closely into little balls —discrete It is the same in the male and peppercorn. Nose. in the female all over the body.c. Their —Varies from a chocolate brown to arms — Look longer proportion in it to that of the European.

The chin is small in all. and rather large men. such ease. but rather long narrow lips. the Pygmy might be one of the late humans Abdomen. Physiological Conditions all the Pygmies and Pygmean an extraordinary prominence of the abdomen.OF PRIMITIVE MAN Teeth. Brain. Ears are small. The upper has a noteworthy subnasal projection and when drinking or speaking the combination of the flattened nose and the lips give a striking Simian appearance. The Lips are quite characteristic. which has been attributed to over-feeding and a large liver. In this I am sure you will agree with me that. little They crunch up bones with The Palate is elongated. Steatopygia. everted lips of the Negro. In some there is very distinct enlargement and development of the gluteal region as in the Bushman. 19 for —Well formed. and the mandible is narrowest and inclined to be pointed. They have not the massive. — Pygmy is 900 grammes. the lobules not well developed and in some the pinnia is crudely formed. —In races there is . — — . if it was so. Average weight in a healthy . fleshy.

and the iliac fossa. if my contention in this appearance. thus becoming largely distended. and It is owing affinity to the Anthropoid Ape. the reason for this is apparent. and more especially for the bacteria which feeds upon cellulose. these food stuffs would be lost to the body were not some other means provided for the solution of the cellulose. to the caecum being placed high up in the lumbar region from it the colon is bent downwards to the right. In the animal. the important processes of herbivorous digestion takes place in the large In such animals a very large prointestine. pursues a in evolution instead . These bacteria . portion of the food namely. It is a primal proves his near condition of man. resulting Now. sigmoid course across the abdomen. by no such modern reasons. The mass of vegetable matter which accumulates in the caecum is a breeding-ground for bacteria. the proteins and carbohydrates is shut up within the — — cellulose walls of the vegetable cells . This means is through the agency of bacteria. is right.20 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION of being one of the But this prominence is caused primary. and since none of the higher vertebrata have the power of producing a cellulose digesting ferment in their alimentary canal.

and he this intestine man. ing. by excising the whole of the colon has proved that the white man is just — . methane. so that the larger intestine has little or no work to do. for he has risen. cells are set free. Masi. Nilotic Negro.. it live in not being required. by evolution. Now. which do not exist in civilised Moreover. whereas in civilised man this condition is not found. White man. and prepares them by grindfor the process of digestion. carbon dioxide and hydrogen . etc. as we have advanced by evolution so this large caecum intestine : and large have become smaller. cooking. as can be seen in the following order Bushmen. Mr Arbuthnot Lane. to that state in which he selects the most digest- ible food stuffs. Yellow man. in any the Pygmy we find that the cacum and larger intestine are other more developed than in possesses bacteria in human. Masaba Negro. separating all the harder parts.OF PRIMITIVE MAN dissolve into cellulose 21 and ferment it with the production of fatty acids. and by this means the contents of the vegetable intestine." large intestine in the lower types of " who low conditions and depend for their nutriment on coarse vegetable foods . and can be absorbed by the walls of the large Thus we see the importance of the homo. Surgeon to Guy's Hospital.

some words from surrounding difficult — It is to say to what age they live. also agrees with me that they have a language of their own. in answer to a letter of mine in that paper in 1905. if they do not. and symbols. the Great Spirit will come and do them harm. that he was wrong. . This also is de- is not correct. although tribes. Johnston." as they reckon by Lunar time only. The second point is that they have no Language. Mr Tovey Cozens. That they have no belief in a future life or Great Spirit. They take great care of anyone who fective.— 22 cases the ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION it is as well without better. the reply was " Many moons. who lived amongst them for two years. it is quite possible that they may have learnt Age. as well as others. Sir H. but primary one. only speaking the words from surrounding tribes but afterwards he acknowledged in The Lancet. The third point. because they say. has stated that they had no language of their own. that the as with it. They have a limited monosyllabic language. also a language of signs . and in many The above proves absolutely Pygmies are not a degenerate race. When asked.

then. H. One evening. as they came to fetch me. and then goes away. remains a few days. The following statement by Major : P. Powell-Cotton contains further proof of their belief in a Supreme Spirit " It was during a forest storm that I received my first inkling that the Pygmies believed in a Supreme Spirit. a wind sprang up and dried twigs and leaves came rustling down. after lying throughout the day in the forest. With quick glances tree-tops. to right and left at the my head tracker hastened his steps. about five. while. G. little 23 Spirit Houses and put food there for their departed friends —a propitiation when They and told Mr Giel they believe that they die their spirit enters a great serpent.— OF PRIMITIVE MAN They build of the Spirit. he placed his . language. uttering a shrill whistle. They propitiate elemental power. as some have stated. This is their only way or mode of expressing their belief that they have a future life in the It is an expression in sign Spiritual world. The serpent does not harm them nor they it. and not a belief in reincarnation. every now and then a dead branch or limb crashed to the ground. this serpent comes to see them.

Gathering a bunch of these. wrapped the other up in it. to the accompaniment of shrill waved it round his head. of his ceremonies was an appeal to the Supreme Spirit to send away the tempest. he besought protection for us from falling branches torn off by the wind. This power was of necessity — . till he little shrub. with leaves like a willow. whistles. whereupon he hastily plucked a larger leaf. On return to camp I obtained from him an explanation The first part of these strange proceedings. he pressed them into the palm of his hand. as the storm continued. Presently a tremendous thunderclap burst overhead. but. and tied them to the top of a stick." Here we have the Pygmy " offering propitia" the first origin tion to the elemental power religion. made a sneezing sound into it and threw it above his head in an attitude of supplication. sneezed over them and again extended his hand in supplication over his head. As the storm grew and the thunder came nearer. The earliest mode of worship reof cognisable was in propitiation of the superhuman power. I saw him darting anxious looks on either side.24 left ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION hand to his mouth. which he then held aloft. and every espied a now and then.

believes that they received " a gift direct from the Supreme Being. obtained much interesting information regarding the existing of religious beliefs. a 25 of the living type was objectified by means and of necessity the object of propitiation. even amongst these Pygmies. power that . — ' ' we came across many curious little structures told —diminutive dwellings. I contend . during our wanderings in the forest. and not the types by which If it was imaged in the language of signs. nightly There the people disturb the Pygmy villages. until a resting-place is provided for them. invocation and solicitation was the power itself. and learnt that in some spot in the innermost recesses of the forest an imposing religious rite We an altar is erected. which we were were ghost-houses. Again. takes place on certain occasions. in his recent book on the " Pygmy. who. Dr Schmidt. we use the word worship. in which whereon offerings are laid while the Pygmies arrange themselves in a semicircle and perform their devotions. sacrifice and place food for the spirits of the departed." These were built to pro- pitiate the shades of departed chiefs.OF PRIMITIVE MAN elemental. it was the propitiation of the power in the thunder and the storm not the thunder or storm itself.

On this point we agree with Dr Schmidt. their all tribes is as erroneous as his opinion all their religious have developed Totems and Totemic ceremonies. Certainly we agree that the Great Spirit might have. Pygmies possess no magic. the natural selves are the objects of recognition.26 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION that they obtained their religious ideas direct from observation of the elemental powers. from own surroundings. for he was and is pretotemic. tion. but they do possess religious ideas. and this preceded Mythology and Totemism." Speaking of this evolution of thought. There are no legends or folklore tales connected with the Pygmy. Sign Language is far older than any other form of sociology. he states that he believes " those that practise . This was the beginning which preceded the Zootype and this they expressed in sign language. This proves that Dr Frazier's opinion of this " that ideas. With the Pygmy the elements of life them- tion and thinking . but on no other. no mythology. and probably did intend that their brain cells should be capable of observait would only be evolulaw of creation. He has no magic. and the elementary powers were (and are) propitiated.

Ta Urt of the Egyptians. The amulets.e. magical incantations which accompany the gesture signs.— — 27 and OF PRIMITIVE MAN magic represent a lower that it intellectual status." Now magic is very late in comparison with this evolution until religious ideas. but was a provider and life as represented by the seven elemental powers. and tokens of magical power that were buried with the dead afterwards become fetish on account of what superhuman . has preceded religion. and we do not meet to the Nilotic we come Negro. charms. which become the gods and goddesses in the later cults. of no sex. Magic is the power of influencing the elemental or ancestral spirits. The appeal is made to some superior force i. of food old Mother Earth. of these do Not find until the second . and even then amongst the most primitive it is questionable if it is used by them. one of the elemental powers in mythology. we it it was first exodus used when first the elementary powers were born of the Mother— the children.e. Magical processes were acted with the same intent i. who reproduces no male or female. probably thousands of years. Magical words are words with which to conjure and compel.

created Amenta. In the Egyptian Solar Mythos. and the trayed as the was recognised as primary homo. Thus the Pygmy Cults the representation was by Zootypes. Ptah was the great Architect of the Universe. Hitherto all Pygmy — at the creation of through the Stellar and Lunar Cult. Ptah was a Pygmy. type of homo by the the Solar Cult. The Pygmies represented form of the seven the earliest primal powers not giants . Let us now take into consideration of our argument What was the opinion of the Pygmies by the old Egyptians during the time they were working out their mythologies ? and how have they left a record of their ideas and beliefs ? This is answered in unmistakable language the Egyptians represented the first . or the Lower — human — — . During the Solar represented. man was first Pygmy was thus porGod Bes. but not the universe as a cosmological creation. and Fetishits Symbolism Sign Language in one of ideographic phases.: 28 they ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION imagined is symbolically. and with his seven assistant Pygmies. these giants were the Zootypes of the superhuman powers not human but the Pygmies are.

represented and that that type was primordial manby the Pygmies the old Egyptians knowing that they originated or descended from these. and was carried to the Celestial North by a superhuman power that was preanthropomorphically represented " by Zootype giants. the want is addition They expressed in act instead of (or in words which they do not possess. as an ideograph of the earth that was formed by Ptah and his seven Pygmies formed for the passage of the "manes" and the Sun and Moon for the — first time in the Solar Mythos. " In the Stellar and Lunar Cults the manes or soul had to pass around the earth. to) therefore these ceremonial words were .OF PRIMITIVE MAN 29 Earth. were too poor in articulate words. : Dances— Best Dancers in the Old World The Dance is Sign Language. see that the old wise first represented the Solar in Thus we men of Egypt human type. by which the thought. It was through the earth. which was represented by a passage hollowed out of the earth. and not around the earth as formerly in Stellar and Lunar Mythos. and is used and performed as sacred mysteries in various modes. the wish.

would appeal to him and having only a limited number of words to express his thoughts. these forces in nature. Moon. dramatically. the Ritual was exhibited and kept in ever-living memory by continued repetition.30 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION means to memorise facts Language. when there were not any established as the in Sign written records of the human past. In these dances the knowledge was acted. or something that he could see. the more to impress them upon the minds of the individuals concerned. How many thousands of years did man exist working out this Sign Language and formulating articulate sounds ? When man began to observe and think. and the mysteries. he would see different forces at work throughout nature he must have noticed the changes . a bird. he would naturally adopt an animal. the movement of the Stars. religious or otherwise. they having only this Sign Language to enable them to transmit from one generation to another their then ideas and beliefs as regards the departed spirits. or fish. Each of these powers. the seasons of the year and the different forces of the Universe. The of the . were founded on the basis These are acted symbolically and of action. Celestial and Terrestrial. the Spirit world and the life hereafter. .

Worship is of two Kinds Worship of elemen- The so-called Spirit tary forces. represented light and day. because to kill its prey before eating — it struck Its it with its tail. as we see in the Egyptian later. it Great Weeper. or the propitiation of elementary spirits or powers. they represent death and darkness by a crocodile's tail. The serpent was a representation of regeneration.OF PRIMITIVE MAN association with it 31 would convey to his mind the idea of one of the powers or forces. arose in the mind of man when he observed the various powers and attributes flowing and all of the forces of nature — water —trees growing—darkness and associated with —the heavens as the light. which he would thus represent by a sign or drawing sometimes a of the animal or bird or object — compound one. a new serpent. because it changed its skin and became. etc. so to speak. because it was the last thing to disappear below the water at night when the creature retired to bed and death. man would From imbibe . head and eyes. Thus. and light which was considered the source of life to these powers of nature man and all else. for the same reason. Spirit ist. as we see.

and the others would be attached as attributes or powers of The One. The belief in the resurrection of the Spirit was founded upon the faculties of abnormal seership. You must be careful to distinguish these spirits or powers. because i. and afterwards a name would be attached or connected with each power or attribute and one greater than all would become The One Great Power or Spirit. features of the religion (or religious idea) of the Japanese of the present day. or desire for another This belief in another life is founded on the resurrection of the Spirit. It was a worship or propitiation of the Ancestral Spirits. or — and the propitiawhich has been called Ancestral Worship. must include the idea 2. This was the dawn of religion.— 32 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION and so would lay the foundation or the beginnings of the later myths. . and is one of the typical leading of the Ancestors. Religion proper commences with and life. Each at first was given and recoghis Spiritual ideas. from the second class. which died and disintegrated. not of the body corpus. 4. which at one time led to Ancestor Worship in all lands. 3. nised by a sign and symbol . The Spirits tion of these.

the other five. The seven elemental powers were afterwards. rising again of the human emerging alive body of dead matter. and was represented as of both sexes and depicted by the Egyptians as the Great Mother Apt.OF PRIMITIVE MAN The Egyptian from the 33 the religion was founded on soul. Manetho. and were called The Glorious Ones in Stellar Mythos. There To these are two lists of these in the Ritual. divinised and represented by seven gods at first two. The Corpus could not. Horus and Sut. and had not been nor ever could be human. in the second exodus of the Nilotic Negro time. . The Glorified Spirits were the spirits of their ancestors who had lived here on earth. or make its appearance again in any form. then Shu. last . The first three were the heroes. these having once been man the former were mythical. and play the great part in the folklore tales found all over the world. . were given stars on high later. they represented the seven Pole Stars. come back. but the Spirit that arose from this was visible to seers. afterwards. was now divinised. as well as the Glorified Spirits. and risen again after the death of the corpus. and never did. Ta-Urt. and. The old Earth Mother. who gave birth to the heroes. So we have the Heroes and Glorious Ones of .

as also the Hebrew translators of the Bible when they mention that the " Sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair and they took them wives of all which they chose " (Genesis). Hunting — — i to obtain food. without understanding the gnosis. that Dr Wallis Budge. Religious ceremonies —the enacting over and over again. from generation to . was principally taken up in two things ! elementary ist. It is in the religions part of man's brain on which the greatest stability of the past is Primitive man's occupation photographed. The Hindus and others have gone wrong in their decipherment of the Ritual of ancient Egypt. in all his works on this subject. who had never lived or reigned as man or woman and never could. 2nd. or powers.34 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION the The Heroes and Glorious Ones were divinised Mythical Gods." The translator thus mixes the mythical gods with the human woman The worship and the propitiation of the Glorified Spirits is what is called Ancestral Worship. has confounded these divinised elemental spirits and thinks that these were human. and it is in the mixing of these. and " the Sons of God came in unto the daughters of men and they bare children to them.

which had taught and impressed upon him. sacred to him. but they have dances in which they dance in Sign Language the ideas and beliefs which their limited monosyllabic language cannot express. also primitive boats. They another are a palaeolithic nomad race. He had no books or writings as we have. so that if a stranger came to the camp he would be known whence he came by his dance. by tying together . which fact Professor Sollas in his recent work has ignored altogether. They use bows and poisoned arrows and little spears and clubs. Some use the nose stick. bundles of papyri in lots of three. others not. living in groups and passing from one place to —the greatest and the first hunters. those tenets. quartz and bamboo into knives and some tribes make nets.OF PRIMITIVE MAN his forefathers 35 generation. do They have no Totemic rites or Totemic cere- monies. They fashion stone. etc. . and danced the history of the past in various forms and ceremonies which all understood . They live by hunting and fishing. flint. He used sacred signs and symbols common to all.

They believe in a Great Spirit. The Bushmen are very little removed from " first the Pygmies. Projection of the jaws and lips. not Totemic and have no 9. 2. and. Elongation of the palate. Lobeless ears — ill-defined. Totemic ceremonies. different 2. The same peculiar odour : as the Pygmy. They have in common 1. not possess to the same degree having does 8. from that of the Negro. Large size of teeth for such little people. in fact. but have Sign Language and Sign Dances. A primary They are . They have no magic. monosyllabic language. 5. 4. 6. The same characteristic discrete pepper- corn hair.36 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION Thus we see that they are not a degenerate but the primary race." that they are the next type in evolution. . Flatness of the nose and its characterbroadness at tip and root. istic 4. They show the same skill This the Negro in dancing as the Pygmy. They believe in a life hereafter. They propitiate elementary powers. 3. 7. i. 5. claim to be There are many features to prove cousins. and after them the Masaba Negro.

14. From the evolution of the Nilotic Negro. as the Negro. low brows. but are bigger in stature. gluteal steatopygia region — caused — greatly in young developed by the primitive which fashion was changed by the Nilotic Negro. etc. he would discontinue the habit of dancing the They have the same convexity Occasionally. Spiritual World. ii. the Nilotic Negro. They have long forearm and large colon.. was the next man that left . Now. . who possessed Totemic ceremonies. intended to be conveyed. the superciliary like the men with arches.OF PRIMITIVE MAN object. strongly projecting flat noses these followed Pygmy. and mostly women. 12. etc. Their sacred signs and they propitiate elementary are the same powers and believe in after-life and the mode of copulation practised. of the subnasal space. 37 more articulate words to express his meaning. 10. Many words are identical. ceremonies 13. and have more developed religious ideas and mythical beliefs than the Pygmy. The next after in evolution is the Masaba 15. They live the same kind of nomad life Pygmy.

is still The children all have the very pro- stomach of their ancestors the later on this is not so noticeable. . although the casual observer would be very likely to describe it as such. which in some tribes. But still more prominent is the great proportionate width of the nose as in the length.. posed to certain climatic conditions. the supraborital ridges are strongly marked. and the adult chocolate colour. 38 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION Africa and followed the Pygmy throughout the world. . ex- darker. in some cases. Their noses are very depressed at the root. but never woolly or kinky as in the true Negro. its breadth is more than its and the end is flattened. as in the Pygmy in later years the lower one projects more and more. There is very considerable difference in the hair in some it is wavy or curly. Pygmy. When they . The children of these Nilotic Negroes at birth are red or copper-coloured. Until about twenty to twenty-five the upper lip projects beyond the lower. in some tuberant Pygmies . cases it is very distinctly curly or frizzled. but graduassumes a ally darken. and he is a peculiar type distinct from what is commonly understood as the true Negro.

and are still found all over the world. of course. driving him in front and away to inaccessible regions. spread over South Africa. The Nilotic Negroes were the race that followed. it 39 alae still renders the Between the Pygmy and the Nilotic Negro wide difference of evolution which is filled up by the Bushman and Masaba These two types are the connecting Negro. for this is The reason Because. 4. . i. the left Africa. as some of the Pygmies travelled south. but wish to emphasise these points. 2.— OF PRIMITIVE MAN wear the nose stick wider. They are still found all over the world. but they still are found in Africa. never be The Bushman and Masaba Negro. 3. where the Nilotic Negro could not or did not follow. in evolution they further developed into the Bushman. I will return to the Nilotic Negro later. connecting links. as I shall prove to you. and cannot found in any other part of the world. The Pygmies were the first men that went there is a fairly out from Africa. links in every way and on every point. And I will just say here that the Nilotic Negro left old Egypt and followed the Pygmy throughout the world.

until they were exported as slaves. but drove them back south. but the Nilotic Negro kills all the Bushmen and Pygmies he can. The Nilotic people. and the same with the Masaba Negro. I am pleased to see. where we find him to-day and if he had attempted to go north he would have found that evolution had taken place to the Masaba Negro and further to the Nilotic Negro. The Bushman and Pygmy do not fight each other. and would not allow these to come north of this. were taller.40 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION but could not get beyond on account of the sea. stronger and more developed on every point.000 years But what does he mean by this stateago. and would have been driven back again south and kept there. Now. So the Bushman remained here. that Professor Keith has also arrived at the conclusion that man must have existed on the earth over 750. let us see what evidence we have of his great antiquity. never left Africa at all. The true Negroes. having given you proof that the — Pygmy was the first man and that his home was inner Africa. as you understand them. who as they developed travelled farther north. from recent extracts and articles. .

S. Oxford. Schimper and Keith ignore the Sun's revolutions around its centre and the Precession of the Pole Stars. etc.. The — recent existence of a Great Ice Age was dis- covered by Schimper (? !). Pro" fessor Sollas' " four complete oscillations were four different glacial epochs. one of which was of much longer duration than the rest the Great Ice Age. i. Professor of Geology.000 or 400. F. If one believed what they have written. The Quaternary cannot have exceeded some 300.. as regards man and his past history.000 years. after which they returned to their fit ordinary routine again Can anyone for a moment suppose that such a thing could have taken place? It is simply preposterous. in his recent book.R. The old Egyptian Wise Men kept the time ! ! . during which period there have been four glacial epochs. So Professors Sollas. there could be no other explanation of this question but that the Sun and Pole Stars had taken a into their head and gone for a prolonged holiday. " Ancient Hunters and their Modern Representatives ") That the world is now as it has always been. states (ch.— OF PRIMITIVE MAN 41 ment. " that the glacial period extended through hundreds of thousands of years in Europe " ? Professor Sollas.

and imaginations of some geologists have apparently never taken into account that the Sun travels round its centre once in every 25. There is no proof.000 years. conclusions arrived at. and have left the fact recorded. and will explain the differences and the causes of the bone of contention amongst geologists.827 records that . this forming "The One Great Year. in my opinion.827 years is a sufficient argument and proof of all that we find. I have been able to find. would be useless to enter into any argument when the above has not been taken into con- sideration. years. Great Autumn. That the glacial period recurs every 25. "and that during that period the Northern Hemisphere is frozen down to 56 latitude for part of the time. up to the end of the Stellar Mythos. There is a Great Summer. that the North of Europe was submerged under the .42 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION stage. and marked down every and have left records of the same. The arguments. Great Winter and Great Spring in It the Sun's year as in our year of 365 days. for at least ten glacial But although I have studied all the epochs. there is no mention that the Sun or Pole Stars ever went for a holiday and the Egyptians recorded time and the revolution of these for over 250.

OF PRIMITIVE MAN The amount must have fallen sea. on a smaller scale." but we have the remains of a human skeleton found a mile north of Ipswich. In his Chapter states : II. and the is evidence of the sea-bed not there. 43 of in ice and snow which the North would be huge boulders we find Europe away from their parent rock. The boulder alone remains. as we find in the Australian continent. The form of the mountains in Norway and Sweden alone are sufficient proof that they have not been submerged and upheaved. The Boulder Clay was formed by the retreat of the Ice Sheet.. and therefore these remains . beneath the Boulder Clay. Professor Sollas " The dawn of the human race is supposed to belong to a past more remote than the beginning of the Great Ice Age yet of the existence of man antecedent to that epoch not a vestige of evidence forcible enough to compel universal belief " has up I do to the present time been discovered. in the glacial sands. 29. in the glaciers which are melting and sufficient to carry the in some parts of travelling along or receding at the present day. such as we find. not know what may be the standard of his " evidence forcible enough to compel universal belief. p. .

We have the fact that the Osirian Cult which was Solar Mythos was at its perfection at Abydos 15.000 years If the above ? compel universal is ago only cient " to facts are not suffibelief . We have the remains of a human found eighty feet beneath a bed formed by running water in Germany the skull found at Gibraltar and others.000 years ago. which existed before the Lunar or Solar Cults.44 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION man lived here are distinct evidence that before the last two glacial periods. We have the fact that the Sun revolution once in 25. we find definite implements . during which time we have one Great Ice its makes Age or Glacial Epoch and. We have the fact that the Egyptian Priests had recorded the time of the Sun's revolution and the Precession of the Pole — — Stars for over 258.827 years. We have the fact that Manetho stated that the Great Pyramids were built by the followers of Horus during the Stellar Mythos. in the of man Tertiary formation. as far as science concerned. in my opinion. up to the Stellar Mythos. that all Can Professor Sollas say the above was formed 26. the present humans ." then. and that it existed in Heliopolis and other nomes before Abydos was built.000 to 20.000 years.

of the precession of the heavenly bodies the climate would as the old Egyptians did not allow this. bring forward. . This will — not bear examination after I all the proofs to the contrary that after day. Asia and North America) as well as in the Southern how could the origin of man be in Asia ? He could never have worked out his Astro Mythology in Asia. when the whole of this was frozen and covered with ice down to the ignorance. And the Egyptians have left . as latitude of the South so of France.: OF PRIMITIVE MAN will still 45 continue to wallow in the mire of they have in the dark and degenerate age we have passed through. during the rainy season. since the downfall of the old Egyptian Empire. where you have the whole of the heavens obscured for weeks at a time. and America in the East a centre in close proximity to Polynesia and Java. if we placed his original home where Haeckel and his followers have Nor could he do it placed —namely. and year after year. Haeckel could not take the observation day month after month. from critical a centre which in- fluenced Egypt and Babylonia in the West. This Glacial Epoch occurs in the whole of the Northern Hemisphere (Europe.

is 2nd. amusing as he if would be most he was not a professor at Oxford very. very sad to see such state- is.000 years. and so one cannot be surprised. it is ments. also the Nilotic Negro. Professor Sollas' division of the his three different kinds of hair human by . and in this way alone ever remembering that Old Egypt was sending out men more developed in mind and body with . it is perfectly straight. He groups 1st. That in which twisted to an . As a Glacial Epoch occurred. — each exodus. the connecting links of the Bushmen and Masaba Negroes are not here. so man (who had gone North) would be driven back South and as the epoch passed away he would go North again. are in this part of the — world. Then again although the Pygmies. Only in this way can any geologist give a definite and final answer to what he finds. follow the But then the present anthropologists same line of thought. neither is the true Negro. divides the : humans thus is into three twist —that One in which the hair it without any is. proving that their observations were continuous and accurate.46 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION records showing how patiently they must have worked for 250.

comparing it with that of the Chinese and Japanese. tell me where he finds the missing link. the Eskimo. like the Negro and most other races with dark skins. He finishes up with this remark " The Tasmanians. all belong to the same — race or class. section of the Pygmy's then. the North and — South American Indians. . Compare the . could he tell me where he would find any to correspond ? I think not but the same hair would be found in all the Nilotic Negroes. coarse hair. If he took a section of the straight hair of the Eskimo and American Indians." He never mentions anything about the difference in section of hair. these including the Australian Ainu. as well as the Nilotic Negro in Africa. yd. make a section of these. as in many Europeans. He evidently does not know that an existence in a cold climate for prolonged periods produces straight. Those in which the hair isonly twisted enough to be wavy. as in the Negro or are 47 Bushman (who two quite different classes).OF PRIMITIVE MAN extreme. Australian's with the European's then Let . and tell me where and him make a Professor Sollas finds the missing link.

He classes them with the Negroes/ which they are not. He also states rate. iv. Then he is entirely wrong in his descripThe tion of the character of those he quotes. and that is is true of his ideas about them." Well. or Nilotic Negro. and that of the White Race still more different. Professor Sollas takes the Tasmanians as (ch. and quite different from that of the The Nilotic — curly. Negro has not it is frizzy and it almost straight and that of the true Negro. but the climate accounts for the change that has taken place. and came after and was evolved from the Masaba Negro in Africa. have developed a straight Pygmy hair . all that . and never were. Tasmanian and Pygmy race have a discrete peppercorn hair. who never left Africa. who travelled north during the past thousands of years. Nearly all the Nilotic Negroes. at the oldest people any about they are Palaeolithic.). and states that they may be called " Eolithic. may be described as woolly or kinky.48 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION The hair of the Chinese and Japanese and all the earlier Stellar Mythos people is different in higher formation. some of . some of these are frizzy or curly. except the Ainu.

on to a but held the stone in the hand. D . as a class of Professor he never mentions them as such. . — to the stage of the Nilotic of hafting a stone Negro (Australians) stick.c. where the Nilotic Negro did not follow them. Pygmies have a cranial capacity of 900 c. Their hair was discrete peppercorn. capacity averages 1199 ex. they had no Totems or Totemic ceremonies. From the evidence left.c. These originally inhabited Australia. These were a highly developed Pygmy. cranial This is also absolutely wrong. Their . although they were the first and greatest hunters. the human evidently unknown to Sollas. They used the They primitive club and spear of wood. but were driven out by the Nilotic Negro and crossed over to Tasmania. The Tasmanian was a highly developed — Pygmy in every sense of the word. average difference nearly 300 c. had rudely chipped stone implements for knives viz.OF PRIMITIVE MAN that the cranial capacity is the lowest of 49 any the humans. Their stone instruments are of the same Palaeolithic form that one finds all over the world they are the Pygmy implements. scrapers and had not advanced — .

where we find these flints flaked roughly on the sides and hafted into sticks. because they are found in gravels capping the high plateaux of Kent and elsewhere. Then in the next stage we find an advancement. scrapers. because they are very important : The Chillean industry instruments.. These are the implements of our forefathers the Pygmies. In . to which the geologists give the name of the plateau instruments. particular attention to these. The oldest evidence of man's existence on the earth are his imple- — ments. These were very primitive at first —some of a them probably only just a big stone.. broken piece of flint. or a piece of quartz then flints rudely chipped into flakes. etc. Then there is a further development. Ancient Implements. a higher perfection in the formation I wish to draw your of their instruments. Nilotic These were and are the implements of the Negro race who followed and drove out the Pygmy. thus forming a primitive axe. 50 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION geologists as plateau imple- and classed by ments.

— Now. so as to form a kind of over the world : stone knife with a double edge. . This very important fact is specially to be noted. These are found nearly in Africa. Europe. Tasmania. Therefore we must take this — — . whilst his osteo-anatomy would disintegrate or decompose. because of the absence of instruments where these Pygmies and Totemic people still are to be found. New Guinea. first with the earliest Stellar Mythos reached who never So that Australia and Tasmania. proved by extant tribes of the present day namely. although we have not found any remains of the osteo-anatomy of man below the Quaternary Period. of how the different races of our forefathers travelled over the world. extreme South America (and Oceania"?). New Hebrides. Tertiary even here in the later and early Quaternary periods we have evidence. It shows that the Chillean knives were associated people. in Australia. we have found some flint knives and of his implements eoliths scrapers these would not perish.— OF PRIMITIVE MAN these examples the off flint 51 flaked or quartz is on each side. geologically. with the following exceptions Australia. Asia. all and North and South America.

Thus the cults bear out and prove in a most remarkable and perfect way their co-relation with the geological records found. roughly flaked on both sides and hafted. and not hafted belong to the Pygmy race. made from a — and — those that the These have Totemic ceremonies. but they repre- sent different peoples and wide stages in the evolution of man. flake. which idea he appears to scorn. Nor can he do so without taking the evolution of the cults and their anatomical condition into consideration. belong to the Nilotic Negroes. up together and certainly are Professor Sollas has mixed all these tribes They calls them Negroes. The further developed forms of those instruments. I would wish to draw attention to the . The plateau instruments are with only one side chipped. There are no Totemic cereThey are pre-Totemic.52 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION as objective evidence that the human race existed so long ago as the Tertiary Age. which Professor Sollas does not differentiate. whilst further developed Chillean belong to Stellar the Mythos people of the first exodus. monies. all Palaeolithic .

The corpse was bound up in the thrice-bent position in the fcetal likeness of the embryo in utero. with fetish figures of a protecting power. He has given pictographs various of all these in their perfect and will forms.OF PRIMITIVE MAN Sollas' 53 beautiful illustrations of these in Professor work. were founded on the faith that the departed still lived in the spirit. It did not denote a resurrection of the body corpus but was symbolical of rebirth in — spirit. in in and (as discovered Saints. Elaborate preparations for the spiritual rebirth were made. and — . 1 metre in breadth. In the Stellar Mythos many symbols of reproduction and resurrection were buried in the tombs as amulets. rites and ceremonies. find at Harlyn Bay. They were buried for rebirth. 1907) at La Chapelle aux The grave of one of the prehistoric men was found here in a cave a shallow pit 1*85 metres in length. and placed in the earth as in the mother's womb. from the remotest times. as we Cornwall. We The now take into consideration the Burial Customs burial customs.

I have not found which way it faced. were just within reach of his left hand. broken bones. In March 1909. but I believe it was south. and all : this implies alread}^ in existence the last episode of the Great Ice Age. and the left arm extended. both sides and beautifully worked. a later type than the Nilotic Negro. etc. in depth. It was almost with a shock of surprise that we discovered this well-known custom. " This was eviProfessor Sollas states dently a ceremonial interment. lying on his right side with face the right arm bent under the to the south head. carefully dressed on the skull. occupied by offerings of food and implements. fragments of ochre. Burnt — . The body was lying from east to west. another skeleton was discovered in the lower cave of the famous Moustier itself that of a man about sixteen years of age. The sacrifices offered to the dead are made . bones and implements were deposited about Bouchers. He was a Stellar Mythos man. Around it were a great number of wellworked " mousterian " implements.54 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION about 30 cm. for the use of the deceased in the Spirit World." This was the interment of a Stellar Mythos man.

Now. Thus the foregoing evidence shows and proves that they were early Nilotic Negroes and Stellar Mythos people. The Stellar Mythos were divided into two periods. 2nd In the Egyptian History of the Creation of the World.000 years. It 55 —not was a fear that the ghost might return and manifest displeasure or revenge a dread of the spirit that caused the pro- — pitiation. and in the B organ Codex. version B. I must turn to the subjective evidence. having given you the objective evidence that the Pygmy was the first and oldest human. From the monuments of Ancient Cities in . I have given you objective proofs now let me turn to . As regards my chronology.— OF PRIMITIVE MAN to propitiate the living spirit of the dead the corpus. Those with their faces to the north were of later date. Those with their faces to the south were the Stellar Mythos people of the first 51. when Sut was the Primary God. when Horus was the Primary God. the subjective proofs that 1st we find In the Ritual of Ancient Egypt.000 or 52. and I will ask you not to treat it with that contempt and scorn that possesses our friend — Professor Sollas.

years.827 years. and for two periods he was covered up.000 years before Horus came. of the Ritual. this is borne out by Chapter XXXII." would represent a period of 51.616 years that he had then been existent as the Great One.270 This record was written during the " Mythos time.' 56 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION the Central States of record written namely " They covered up my eye after them with : — America." This and the monumental evidence proves that the Stellar Mythos was first worked out in the Southern Hemisphere. They covered up my eye twice after them. " They covered up my eye twice " = 51. leaving at that time 206. over 50. we find the same bushes (or hairy net) twice for ten great periods. therefore.654 years represents the time that Set or Sut was the Primary God El Shaddi of the Phoenicians. would be 258. A period was one great year of 25. ' Ten periods. Stellar therefore. as I have previ- — .654 years that they had recorded time and the Precession of the Pole Stars before Horus came into being. in their reckoning of time he was the " Hidden of the Khas. Sut or Set existed as Primary God. ously shown —that it existed at least over .

This would give the lowest estimate.000 „ Sut [51.OF PRIMITIVE MAN 57 51. the Pygmy.654 years \ ] 3. say 250..000 years Totemic Sociology. our chronology we have : ii Primitive who 2. 7. and lived all _ over the world.270 „ 6.000 years for the Quaternary and Recent Periods. the Nilotic Negroes following after the Pygmy through all lands .A 35.270 ys. travelled man. when Horus became the Primary God and took his place with all the attributes So in reckoning hitherto attached to Sut. Geologists give from 300. and this would soon disbut some of the " Eoliths " found integrate .000 years before it was transferred to the Northern.270 ys. 5: Stellar Mythos - Y J - - 258. 2. man . and some think it is uncertain if man existed during the Tertiary Period. - - „ 758.000 820. is find tive any human remains in this strata. as it not certain when the above quotation was written during the Stellar Mythos. 25.000 ys. Horus 1206.616 Lunar Mythos Solar Mythos Christians - say .000 to 400. 4.000 . I fully We should not expect to believe he did.250. primi- only buried the corpus a few inches under the earth.°°° » f 62.

although they have no some anthroand ethnologists have added these all monosyllabic . that it is difficult to gauge whether they are distinctly primitive words. etc. or a particular sound acascertain accurately. How many distinct words the Pygmies have. or Sign Language. The Nilotic Negro's language I able to ascertain fairly well. because they have not understood the gesture sign. But if not to be classed as distinct words. . articulate companied by a gesture sign. Language. as Sign Language. "fifee" or socalled hiss of a snake for the the " su — ' . these sounds undoubtedly became words afterwards for example. I have not yet been able to in the Tertiary Strata are human workmanship. Roth is amongst the number to are indebted for much information. goose. whom we Walter E. The first have been exodus of these possess about 900 distinct words.58 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION I undoubtedly of would add at least another 100. These are pologists prefixes or suffixes. The second exodus a few more.000 years to the time of the Quaternary period. and — because some of the sounds are so accompanied by gesture signs.

though without the gnosis of the cults or Sign Language. also that wild plants Pygmies and Nilotic . The Stellar Mythos people from being hunters became shepherds. Therefore Palaeolithic man must be divided into three distinct classes at least. Yet man was superior to all other created things in nature he could make fire and form clubs from sticks and stones. generally on the and surrounded these with ditches and mounds to keep off the wild animals. were hunters from necessity. I am the only all he sees person up to the present time who has . All the list of the true Pygmy words men. camps or villages. published a or language. winning a precarious existence from the chase of wild beasts and the collection of food. etc. They found that they could tame animals. which is a great pity. both anatomically and by his primitive imple- . and probably the early Stellar people. They first settled into hills. could be grown. and thus is quite unable to arrive at a true interpretation of and hears.OF PRIMITIVE MAN 59 as he has always been an accurate observer. because he has devoted much time and study to these people and he is trying to read without learning the alphabet first.

except myself that I who has observed the difference of is Dr Haddon. Reader of Ethnology at Cambridge. who (I believe) was the head of an expedition that went out these two types. the first without " Hero Cult. The advance. Now know of. to Torres Straits. Negro race are also Palaeolithic. as well temic. The These first and primary are the Pygmy peculiar are non-Tot emic.60 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION as ments. not only in a higher art of manufacture. Their implements show a great Nilotic but they are Totemic . and anatomically one race is superior and higher in evolution than the other. the only man. and there are at least two distinct types of evolution in their Totemic ceremonies. Their anatomical features prove also how much progress the human race had made in evolution up to this point. have and distinct anatomical features. but also through their possession of the knowledge of making others that the primary race had not acquired. non - Totemic and Torace. He has published the result of his observations in his reports of the . and their imple- ments are characterised by a very primitive form." and the second with it.

but they would discover that their geological researches would agree critically on every point with it. signs . If you make no distinction between these two exodes. etc. This is what all writers hitherto have done.OF PRIMITIVE MAN Cambridge Anthropological 61 Expedition to Torres Straits. not only history would these writers be able to trace the of man on a firm and definite basis. I am certain that if Professor Sollas and other writers on this subject took into consideration the evolution of the Cults. with their anatomical and physiological conditions which they now treat with scorn. He has described distinctly the differences in a great many particulars of these two different exodes of the Nilotic Negro. you have missed the key with which to unlock the mysteries of the past. and his observations are true and accurate. I will now draw your attention to the illus- trations of the osteo remains found of primitive man and the various reconstructions of him that have been made. the sacred and symbols.

a piece of wood.— Some Pygmy Words (See " Signs and Symbols Egyptian of Primordial Man in ") English Pygmy Hieroglyphics Equivalent O-be Mai A-do-da Bacchate vwwv VWWV vww/ 1TJT fl anb to dance. to be straight Tzi-ba Pygmy Xerpu-baa a bow. right. food Massouri maau good. Native bell This word is sometimes macchate. the " ch " hard used Dagger . to do well. Equivalent in English O-be Maria-ba Tath-ba Oct-ba Di-p6 A-do-da A-pe Tzi-ba Pipe of Bamboo to smoke Whistling into a reed Wood Spear Sleep Arrow Bow Water or drink Mai Massouri Good. to rejoice mu -s5&- water to sleep - &==> ax or za J Kw o\ A dance baak grain. well Clothes of any nature Kon-pe Ma-di La-gou-ma Kalli-Kelli Hunting horn Bristle head-dress Bacchate A-foie Bread. etc. to be good. fruit. bread.

I am greatly indebted to Mr Hugh and Mr John Allen for placing their beautiful collection I of implements at my disposal. . have selected the following from their cabinets for illustration in this work.

.

and from whom developed the Nilotic Negro to the N." remarks on the very ape-like appearance of the wild mountainous tribes in the Bauchi country north of the River to denote those human who were Benue. We describe them as short of stature somewhat however. and N. prognathous. he does not differentiate the two. and S. than the Pygmy. long forearms. and which now exist under various names. with long bodies and short legs. beetling-browed. e 65 . Sir Harry Johnson also remarks upon these. Dr Robinson.W. Pygmy taller. in his " Travels Through Haussaland..E.— MASABA NEGROES I have used the term " Masaba Negroes " Prognathous types of the evolved from the true Pygmy. which he mixes sometimes with the Pygmies.. and the true negro to the W. and although he classes them as somewhat of a different type.

Africa.E. large abdomens. colour dirty chocolate- brown. Africa the Doko to those of the Andorobo. long upper lips. They are called by other negro natives Banande or Munande. They practise circumcision in some cases. in the vicinity of Lake Stephania. also to the west of Semliki on western slopes of Mount Elgon. Some have short.E. mixing with the Bakonjo and Tribes. — — . countries west of Ruwenzori. They do not knock out their teeth. The resemblance of these Masaba Negroes in West Elgon to the Congo Pygmies is very striking.66 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION noses. and those of the N. Hair very much as the Pygmy peppercorn. At the present time these are met with all down Central Africa in groups and nomad tribes. from . and Congo Forest. and amongst the nomad tribes of the Andorobo. in the forests of Kiagwe. They have bows and arrows and live to a Baamba River. scrubby beards. the Bahr-al-Ghazal to the Portuguese Guinea. Most of them bore the upper lip with holes. from the Bahr-al-Ghazal to the upper waters of the Zambezi and westwards. and may also be found at the present day between Lake Kewn and Lake Albert Edward on the East. and in N.

reptiles get these. 67 raw flesh. and and signifies their Great after One —their Chief One. when they can Osteologically they show a type between Negro. The the first is a Pygmies two tied sacred sign amongst {one upright stick across). I will now show some of the sacred signs and symbols of these primitive people. " These the Pygmy and Nilotic people never left Africa. you can then go amongst them and be received as a brother. you all They will not injure you. veloped.— OF PRIMITIVE MAN great extent on grubs. carried on in the Stellar It was Myths and is one of the Ideographic symbols of Amsu . North and North-East To the west the True Negro deof Africa." From these were developed the first Nilotic Negroes to the East. wild honey. but will give they can and protect you from harm. climate and environment being the cause of differences in the different types that were evolved. beeand bananas. which if you will use as I will now demonstrate.

e. The meaning the same one much older than the other. sign is this a double surrounded and guarded by four I have here one of the oldest — triangles "Scarabs" in the world. with the above and serpents on one side (i).e. ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION the risen Horus —and still later amongst the Christians verted into the has been condouble cross. . it A still more sacred (i) triangle serpents. and this outside with earth in i.— — 68 i. and of on the other (2) the representation island surrounded by water. an at the their sacred island The earliest Ideograph for the Khui Land or Land of the Spirits or Gods a lake. — another and later form as © © © ^ V ^© © © © by conis three triangles (double) surrounded centric circles.

pointing to the north. Nilotic The indication is that the spirit goes down into the west. or.e. in the east. the arms on the breast. will carry you through all the tribes in North and South America. their you. and show this as well. raise your hand with palm towards heaven. and. Some give this sign — pointing to the west. Amongst the Negro tribes. all If you know Mother Totem the Sacred Totem i. and point downwards. who have the Hero Cult. raise it above your head. to the underworld. raise your right arm with closed hand. which should point to the Celestial North. and then bring it. holding them in the right hand. and then travels to the Celestial North. or to Sothos. from which the tribes descended. with crossing up. as if to heaven. or green leaves. you may ask for anything and nothing will be refused and others that I know of. with a wide sweep. Time will not permit me to go into the . if you cannot get any bush or green thing. after the above signs. except index finger.— OF PRIMITIVE MAN When — 69 approaching these people take a green branch of a bush. travels through this and comes up again as a white spirit in Sothos. sweep down and around and then bring the arm and finger This.

— thank you for your attendance here and the kind attention you have paid to me. only give you It is here. . the origin of "Totem." not American. evidence of my contention. and this is the ideograph for the same as can be seen in Bunson & Pierrot's Dictionaries. as some have stated. but Egyptian. and I trust that I have not only interested you but given you proofs on " the Origin and Evolution of Primitive man " that you have not heard before. Lunar. the two halves that is a moiety or division into two halves.— 70 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION origin of meaning and ceremonies. as the last. Stellar.e. off i. and which you will agree with me are conclusive I to-night. and I will now leave ology. and comes from Tem-tu foj\. to the present generation. Totems and Totemic I shall a future occasion happy to trace the human where I Nilotic On be Negro —through Totemic Sociand Solar Myths.

and over the cist was a triangular stone with apex pointing north therefore a Stellar Mythos man." The position of burial proves him to be a Stellar Mythos man. at the time that Horus I. in Cornwall (with many thanks for permission to reproduce the same to Mr Reddie Mallett) This human . thirty-six divisions — " ).e. He time and built those temples. the remains of which I found in the west of England. North and South. and these were years older than those of the Three Circles (Solar Mythos). and . . and after the Nilotic Negroes.OF PRIMITIVE MAN I give here the 71 in photograph of the skull found one of the cists at Harlyn Bay. in Cornwall at the was here representing the division of heaven in two divisions. a good example of which may be seen at Rough Tor. The whole form and convolution of the cranium and jaws show a " modern man type. who were Solar Mythos people. was Primary God. in Cornwall. with Two Circles. therefore he lived here before the Druids came to this country. and represent the division of the heavens in three twelves many thousand — we can gauge of the time Egypt into and Symbols of Primordial Man and by that of the division thirty-six nomes (see " Signs i. was buried in the thrice-bent position facing North.

have high foreheads. And yet quite easy alphabet of the past. as long as they continue to believe in the present fallacy of Oxford. The tall race of Europe. who'came^up from Egypt. which is still taught by the professors Cambridge. whom we may term modern men. a fine race of These Nilotic Negroes are still found in men.— 72 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION Professor Keith appears not to under- stand (i) Why the existence of the tall Cromagnon race should have appeared and died out. large eyes. Africa. mouths not very . were an exodus of the Turkana. (2) Why the Neanderthal type have been found in a higher or more recently formed strata than the Ipswich and Galley Hill men. some of them over feet in height. and big brain type come from ? (4) Where the These questions. London and other the solutions of these questions are when you learn to read the true great universities. rather high cheek-bones. can never be solved by our present geologists. or Professor Keith. (3) Why the Tibia in the Ipswich man differs from the others that have been found. very muscular and seven powerful. anthropologists. and many others.

the I . which must convince him. But he has to take the typical types by this I mean. Galley Hill man. cannot follow Professor Keith in his idea of the differences found in the Tibia. as an anatomist. will produce the condition he finds. if Professor Keith will examine the bones of these living types. lips rather The Cromagnon man of Europe. except the posture they adopted in " sitting. must feel that it cannot have any other effect upon this bone than that which we find. and. : " . like the Ipswich man. when from infancy the tribe adopts this particular position. " Uganda. and it has that. He will find examples in Sir Harry Johnson's book. in the posture adopted." Anyone who will observe the different modes of sitting.— OF PRIMITIVE MAN large 73 full and well shaped. of shorter stature." He was followed by another race from Egypt." as well as the photographs I have given here. after. that these natives have adopted. that the constant strain and action of the different muscles of the leg. photograph of which I here reproduce by kind permission of I am sure he will be as convinced as I am (who have examined some of them). being any point to be taken into consideration of the evolution of the human race.

" and thicker grey matter. possessing greater depth of " sulci. which is the representative of clever men. You may have a large brain with the grey matter very " thin." or amount of grey matter. did not possess a larger cranium. although of a higher type anatomically and mentally. and no depth in the " sulci. Johnston and Messrs Hutchinson & Co. who followed." clever race — it is and another with smaller brain." man . there was no progressive evolution of them outside Africa. The latter man would be much the higher type of the two intellectually. as a distinct race. These are the extant representatives of the " big-headed " or " big-brained " people whose osteo remains have been found in Europe. I might here remark that the size of the head is not always the indicator of a clever man.).74 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION give We here the photograph of two Nilotic Negroes (by kind permission of Sir H. and they died out in Europe and Asia. The Turkana and Masai. or a the " grey matter. As in the case of all other Nilotic Negroes.

under my direction. . I think the cranial capacity is critical evidence viz. the cranial capacity of this is 850 c. the highest cranial taken into consideration the cranial capacity of the Pygmies.. over which there (ist) A discussion and differences in undoubtedly this is part of the opinion.c. But remains of primary man. in such an elegant and accurate form as he has done in these. which must be considered. R. and I am greatly indebted to Mr Trevor Haddon for his patience and skill in reproducing all the details.c. Therefore this would be the cranial capacity of a low type of Pygmy.B. (Pithecanthropos Erectus) found by Professor Du Bois in Java in 1890. capacity of any and the average Anthropoid is Pygmy is 900 c. as instructed. Reconstruction of Primary Man.c. 600 c.A. and I quite agree with Professors Du Bois and Keith in their has been much opinion that it is so.OF PRIMITIVE MAN I 75 by give here three reconstructions Trevor Haddon. although Professor Keith says — that this is probably too low an estimate. Professor Keith and others have never Now. As further proof of what Professor Keith has already pointed out.

but probably he was a little shorter. .76 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION ' these being the first "human' formed from the Anthropoid. I have placed his height as about four feet.

or Asia proper. up to the present time. it is possible such relics lie hidden in these countries. Remains of him have been found widely distributed over some parts of Europe. . geologically. although. Although the remains have been found in a more recent formation. and is lower in the scale of evolution. America. It appears probable that the whole of Europe and Asia were populated by this type immediately after the extermination of the Pygmies. Italy. under of Man my the direction). but. and in Australia types of them may be found amongst the Arunta tribes to the present day. here reconstruction Neanderthal Man. as in Australia. none have been brought to light in the British Isles.B. as these remains form part of the osteo-anatomy of those primary Nilotic Negroes who first left old Egypt and followed the Pygmies. a R.A. The type is still extant in Africa. than those of the Galley Hill and Ipswich men. yet the original prototype left old Egypt thousands of years before the Galley Hill man..OF PRIMITIVE MAN (2nd) 77 A reconstruction of Neanderthal (by I Trevor give Haddon. whom they drove before them.

They would then return south until the cold ice period had passed away. when they would again advance northwards. The primary. How many times these migrations occurred before a higher race came up from old Egypt and fell upon these we cannot saj'. when they had taken the Pygmy women in — marriage. tons in the lower strata (Pliocene) their burial customs. until driven back by a glacial period. For these Neanderthal men would doubtless retreat from their enemies in isolated groups. would propagate a true breed until the last man was extinct.78 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION find their skeleis The reason that we do not due to tion. except. . is not surprising. nor is it possible to form an accurate estimate of the time that must have elapsed before the type was extirpated probably many hundreds of thousands of years. when not molested. and. probably and disintegra- skeletons in isolated places. who left old Egypt thousands of years after. travelling north. leaving their old home. of course. would spread over Europe and Asia. in a That we have found part of their more recent formation than other higher types of the human.

would take the females of the inferior race. have gone deductions. from finding these osteo remains in a strata of more recent formation. prove them to be of a higher type in evolution than the Pygmy. all these points will be fully set forth. of the superior race . dealing with the Negro and their evolution. and in which Professor Keith. the superior on the other hand. than those remains found of a higher type of this human. This is a representative instance of misjudging the type and class of man by the geological formation his remains have been found in. The implements found with the (or parts of skeletons)." wrong in their In my Nilotic forthcoming book. while exterminating the males. as well as Geologists and Anthropologists. skeletons and also their cranial capacity and other features. The reason I have fully set forth under my " reconstructions. .OF PRIMITIVE MAN They would not be allowed 79 to take the women race.

Probably this is the skeleton of a Nilotic Negro. it can be proved. without these details I cannot say if this was a man of a late exodus of the Nilotic Negro." whereas the Neanderthal man would not. this man would have " Hero Cult. but was buried in the thrice-bent it has not been stated if he faced north or south. whom we must classify as belonging . but of a much later date. had none he could send me positively fore. as Mr Reid Moir.B. Originals of this class are still extant in Africa earlier and isles of the Pacific. but also by his He cranial capacity and burial position. He is an type of homo than the Galley Hill man. Besides Totems and Totemic ceremonies. position. . not only by the worked flints found with. R. under (3rd) Man my direction). to whom I therewrote. and higher in the scale of evolution than the Neanderthal man.80 (by ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION Reconstruction of the Ipswich Trevor Haddon. If this Ipswich man is a Nilotic Negro.A. or near him. or one of an early exodus of Stellar Mythos. and I have not been able to obtain any photographs of the flint implements found near..

Asia. these different types of humans did not develop one from another in Europe. so exodes took place. The Aborigines. when no facilities existed for travel. Up to this period of evolution. members of an exodus making their camps and homes secure as they went north. would thus escape . It was in Africa that evolution. before another step in the advance could take place. At first they would travel along the easiest routes where plenty of food could be obtained. from instruments found near him. In these early times. the races migrating north.OF PRIMITIVE MAN to the Stellar 81 Mythos period. east and west. between the period of the Galley Hill man and that of the present time. As each type attained a higher standard. and would not trouble to attack the primary race so long as the latter did not interfere with their avocations. or anywhere else. the whole distances to had be traversed on foot. but in Africa. retiring to mountains and forests where the invaders would not follow. We can reckon 200. The records mentioned before prove this.000 years at least. from the first man lowest in the scale —developed — up to the Stellar Mythos people.

— 82 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION my all annihilation. and certainly 300. might have sprung from the Gorilla. whereas the Galley Hill man is a Stellar Mythos man. reasons and proofs I have shown. as witness." The Neanderthal man was in Europe probably over 300. and was the first type of Nilotic Negro that left old Egypt. the instruments.000 years later in time of evolution. and osteo-anatomy with those of still extant tion of that made by tribes I found in various parts of the world. It is firm opinion that the reconstruc- we find can be fairly accurately taking into consideration. on account of the great difference in the Osteo-Anatonvy found . Neanderthal type. and comparing. namely " The Galley Hill man. lived in England long before the Neanderthal man lived in France and Central Europe. cranial capacity. the Pygmies in New Guinea and other places at the present day. Professor Keith thinks that this branch of the human. who is one of the modern build of body.000 years before the The Galley Hill man was in England. He was evolved from the Masaba Negro. cannot let Professor Keith's statement pass without the greatest protest. and that the others from the Gibbon.

Sir Harry Johnterm " Bantu " is also very misleading. Nilotic Negroes and true Negroes all together. from whence did they come." page 474) where he states " Because white races may have arisen twice or thrice or four times independently from Mongol. or — from two different sources ? ? ? To me his statements (supra) are as absurd : as Sir Harry Johnson's (" The Uganda Protectorate. Stanley. whereas there is a wide difference in time of evolution. " The tion of the ate. and. No one could ever follow the true evoluson's use of the human race forth in his book. and Australoid type " ! the Neanderthal- ! ! Then. M. Negro. and evolved ? And what facts can he bring forward for such a theory ? None. because under this term he mixes some Masaba Negroes. quite wrong in every way. in my opinion. and here I quite agree with the late Sir H." by his ideas as set Uganda Protector" Even in his ideas of the Bantu Language " .OF PRIMITIVE MAN 83 in this primitive man but why ? Does he suppose that a cart-horse and a thoroughbred horse were evolved from the same original. Such a statement is too unscientific for any how argument or consideration.

" Mu. etc. /vww\ /*%&* Pa or Pu. Ideographs with prefixes and suffixes were in later languages added —for example J or Ba or Bu. as " " " are namely. and Ma and Nga rendered in the old Egyptian hieroglyphic language by the Ideographs as proof of this. I might add many others. and **** Nga (this is a very /www sound to pronounce as the Pygmies pronounce it. These words then became the name of the subjects or objects . the goose hissing. Most of his were original Pygmy words and in have been brought on Negro languages. Isn." Pygmy words. for instance. The Greeks could not do so. prefixes ™^ /vww\ and w**. Su ^AAA^^ Mu or Mua. and arise words. Sa . The oldest " prefixes.84 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION (page 892) and the origin of this. the first articulate from the observation of the sounds made by the water running. and changed it into Ch). These are some of difficult the original Pygmy words of man. the duck in flight and the Ba or Bu of an animal like the sheep. he calls them.

preceded writings. philologists. and no syllabary can be found from which the vowel sounds are absent.OF PRIMITIVE MAN as expressed 85 this by the sounds emitted. There could be no reason for it these were the originals which have never been taken into account by Words Signs preceded words. — . Their Ideo- graphic signs were expressive of syllables. and of was the origin language.

86 ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION c s o to <u H .

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. No. » » • » * • • • • • ' . . . chipped on one side only. 3 Paleolithic Pygmy implements. • .

.

- . • 1 • .

.

:.. chipped and worked roughly on both sides. 5 Paleolithic Nilotic Negro instruments..-:\: No. .•./.:: ..• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • * • .

.

but showing a great advance on the rough work of the first exodus. . and worked primary sides.No. chipped. somewhat roughly. flaked off. 6 Paleolithic Nilotic on both Negro instruments of the latter exodus.

.

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Tasmania or Oceania and are only associated with the Stellar Mythos people. into knives. Asia. 9 Implements of the Stellar Mythos People of the First Exodus These are flaked. and some parts of Central. some very beautifully. and are only found in Europe. They are not found in Australia. who never went to these latter countries. North.No. spear-heads. chipped. etc. and fashioned on each side. But I am of the opinion that these will be found in Java and the Caroline Islands as there are other remains. Africa. arrow-heads. H . and proofs that these people went there. and South America..

.

Length

9>|

inches
'

Width
Thickness

2 "' v'of.an

.irk'h'.

/>';

J

P
No. 10

Neolithic. Stellar Mythos People The most perfect and beautiful specimen I have seen of flint dagger or large double-edged knife, beautifully worked on each side and polished. The above illustration represents each side, and the edge is portrayed in the central figure.

1

»

1
>

1
1

»

Egyptian Prehistoric Tomb.

Stellar Mythos Man

Buried in the thrice-bent position facing N. with many amulets around him. Time during which Horus I. was primary God.

No.

1

Stellar Mythos
Found buried
in thrice-bent position in cist at

Man

therefore at time

Horus

I.

Harlyn Bay, Cornwall, facing N., was primary God.

.

a 5: <u J3 s T3 O as 3 o ._. 3 CD ° o 4-1 o T3 T3 <D C O fa U . cd O ' 3 "^ (/> • u r S C .5 — x *^ 13 O u O o G •- 3 C/3 £ p 7. o ft J S . > <3j o 3 ~...

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No. 14

Pygmies showing

characteristic hair, nose, lips, etc.

.

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.

5 -a a o a c o « 6 55 C O <u fcJO a o c/> 'u o 55 I ° |- 1 IB & & c v C/5 S3 >> a. .

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etc. 17 Tasmanian Natives. who were highly developed Fygmies. • • • v » : » v No. Note lips. . nose.• . peppercorn hair.

.

No. who was the Pygmy. so that the above shows that the ancient Egyptians left an indelible proof in their mythology of their descent from the first human.depicted it is the primitive human form The human of Horus I. Bes-Horus being the earliest type of the Pygmy Ptah. 1 The God Bes The first god anthropomorphical!}.8 • . . : . type was not given to any before Ptah..

:

'

'

'

No. 19

Bushman, showing Pygmy

hair, lips, nose, etc.

depressed nose. . peppercorn and long forearm. hair. • • • • No. showing large abdomen.> I . • •'. 20 Bushmen.

.

. 21 Masaba Negro — Profile.- No.

.

22 Masaba Negro. showing long forearm. .1 •> O ' 1 '. *> ' 1 ? TOT -> No.

.

wjL. No. . showing Pygmy lips. and large abdomen. long forearm. 23 Masaba Negro — Full face.

.

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.

and the hair Note also cicatrisation— no tattoo. . No Hem-cult.No. also the incisor tooth knocked cut. 26 Type ok First Exodus of Nilotic Negro Note Pygmy nose. lips. tied up.

.

which change later a NeanShows cicatrisation all over front of body. No derthal type of man. Hero-cult. showing Pygmy nose.> » » 1 No. A — . 27 man of the first exodus of the Nilotic Negro. He has Pygmy lips early in life.

.

2 fe .3 U o e- 3 .

.

not cicatrisa- . This is a higher type of development of the They have Hero-cult. Nilotic Negro of Second Exodus The markings here are tattoo and paintings.1 tion. human.

.

but finer type A little cicatrisation shown.Type of Second Exodus of Nilotic Negro Tattoo marks. . They have Hero-cult. and further developed human.

.

c. I should place it as that of an early Stellar Mythos Man or the latest exodus of Nilotic Negro. 4. From the burial position. 2. however. and the implements found with this Skull. average 1190 c. but many Nilotic Negroes have a cranial capacity of 1100 c. The Gibraltar.1. In the absence of any knowledge of the implements found with this I should put it as a highly developed Pygmy's. the cranial capacity The average Pygmy's is 900 c.c. .c. Those of the Tasmanbeing 1080 c. 3.c. These Skulls are those of Nilotic Negroes. who were highly developed Pygmies. The Neanderthal Skull with the heavy massive supra-orbital ridges. ians. The Spy Skull.

.

The Lower Jaw . showing the massive bony structure for the attachment of the muscles for the setting of the teeth and mastication.j No. 32 of the Neanderthal Man.

.

o. •• . . Cornwall. . .'. • • : :• . • •• &*&T-'^P-*'* jj ' >< Skeleton found at Stellar Harlyn Bay. Mythos Man.. .

.

showing the frontal lobe and the greater development of the posterior part of Cranium I have given in fact.c. development of the supra-orbital ridges. 34 Pithecanthropus Erectus found in Java I have during 1S91 by Dr Du Bois. .— No. given a reconstruction of this Cranium here as that of Primary Man. a reconstruction of the man. 850 c. 35 The Neanderthal Cranium (% natural size) orientated on the same It demonstrates the enormous plane as the Modern English Man. The Cranium of the No. that of a primary type of the Nilotic Negro. Cranial capacity.

.

Showing the higher development of the frontal lobes of the brain and the lesser development of the posterior part. I have given a reconstruction of this man. but much less than in the Neanderthal Man. bones are fragmentary.• I No. 36 The Ipswich Cranium profile drawing after Professor Keith. The frontal lobe is not quite so well developed as in the Modern Man. In this Cranium there is a greater supra-orbital ridge than in Modern Man. . The Intercranial mass forms a cast of the brain on which the third The frontal and occipital frontal convolution is well marked. Modern English Cranium (§ natural size) after Professor Keith.

.

O 8 r> 00 d .

.

3 T a v o 2 IS rrt 6 3 1) O o C/) C/3 .

.

40 Squatters.No. affecting the tibia in a different way. Showing modes of posture .

.

. Pithecanthropus Erectus.• . > > 1 m i » 1 » » fahi No. 41 A Reconstruction of Primary Man.

.

42 A Reconstruction of the Neanderthal Man.>»L No. .

.

43 A Reconstruction of the Ipswich Man. No. .t.h.

.

.

44 Map or Africa Showing the home of Primary Man.No. .

Map of Africa
the two Great Lakes only, as from all geological evidence there were then only two Great Lakes the Victoria Nyanza and Tanganyika, now separated, were then only one. This is borne out by the ancient part of the ritual of the Old Egyptians, as also in the engraving on the scarab shown as an illustration. The dotted line around the Lakes shows the home of man those to the North, East and West, the spread of the Masaba Negro ; to the North and East, the spread of the Nilotic Negro ; and to the West, the true Negro. Those to the South show the Bushmen and their evolution into the Hottentots. The tables following these illustrations will give the reader more explicit information, besides being a further guide to the evolution of primary humans.
I

here give a

Map of Africa with

;

N. N. T. N.

= Nilotic

Negroes.

=True Negroes.

M. N. = Masaba Negroes.

Present Type. Lunar and Solar Mythos

Galley Hill.
Stellar

Mythos Men
Late
Nilotic

Ipswich.

Negro.

Totemic and

Hero Cult
Heidelberg and Neanderthal. Early Nilotic Negro. No Hero Cult

— Totemic

Masaba

Negroes and Bushmen. Pre-Totemic

Pithecanthropus Erectus. Pygmies. Pre-Totemic

Human

Primates

Common

Stock

No. 45

A
Time from
first

Genealogical Tree of
to present date

Pygmy

Man and the Anthropoids. = from one and a half to two

million years.

.

.

Ireland and Great Britain No. as above . 46 Found in Pure Egyptian Hieroglyphics many parts of the world and tabulated by the Author.

tabulated and comparative list of pure Egyptian Hieroglyphics discovered and thus depicted by me. assist you in following the human race from their birthplace (Old Egypt) throughout the world. they are from North. Wales and England. I am sure. and from Egypt. As you will see. Scotland. Central and South America. A . These will. Ireland.

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' .