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SUBMITTED TOWARDS PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF POST GRADUATE DIPLOMA IN MARKETING MANAGEMENT (APPROVED BY AICTE, GOVT. OF India) ACADEMIC SESSION 2009-2011
SUBMITTED BY Akansha Srivastava (BM 09)
Dr. S.R. Dash BECG
Shalab Sharma (BM 09284). Priyanka Agarwal (BM 09276). Sahar Alam Barbhuiya (BM 09281) Riyaz Khan (BM 09280) Shobit Dixit ( BM 092) 1
This is to certify that we, the student of PGDM-MM(2nd year) have personally worked on the topic “Ethics of Advertisement” under the able guidance of Dr.S.R.Dash -Associate Professor of IMS, Lal Quan Ghaziabad U.P. The data's mentioned throughout the project are authentic and reliable. I have worked to the best of my efforts and capability.
Date: 22th November 2010 Place: Ghaziabad
Akansha Srivastava (BM 09250) Shalab Sharma (BM 09284). Priyanka Agarwal (BM 09276). Sahar Alam Barbhuiya (BM 09281) Riyaz Khan (BM 09280) Shobit Dixit ( BM 09287)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT we alone can never be credited for performing any extraordinary work successfully. It is only possible with the continuous and constant help and guidance that they receive from others . With due respect and regards we wish to express our deep sense of gratitude, indebtedness and sincere phrases of thanks to Dr.S.R.Dash , for his invaluable mentoring and exuberant guidance. We are highly obliged by the constant support that we have got from my faculty in the project. Starting from the initial stages to the end stages we have received continuous feedback with regard to the progress of the project. Finally we would say that the project has helped discover ourself. we could decipher that we had talents unknown to myself. Thank you, once again.
Akansha Srivastava (BM 09) Shalab Sharma (BM 09284). Priyanka Agarwal (BM 09276). Sahar Alam Barbhuiya (BM 09281) Riyaz Khan (BM 09280) Shobit Dixit ( BM 092)
To whom so ever it may concern
This is to certify that these all above mentioned students of PGDM-MM(full time) 200911 batch, IMS Ghaziabad, has executed their project small details, which were discussed with them. I wish them good luck and success in their future studies. under my supervision and guidance. During the project execution they were found to be very sincere attentive to
Dr.S.R.Dash Associate Professor IMS Ghaziabad
CONTENTS Sl No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12 13 14 15 16 17 Description Acknowledgement What is meant by Advertisement What is Ethics? Ethics of Advertisement : Introduction Ethics & Advertising Ethics of Advertising Some Ethical & Moral principles The Ethics of Behavioral Advertisement Attention, But at What Cost! Benefits of Ethical Advertising Harm done by Unethical Advertising Literature Review Objectives of study. Research Methodology. Conclusion Recommendations Bibliography Page No 2 4 5-7 8-9 10-17 18-21 22-26 27-30 31-38 39-42 43-48 44-45 45 45 46-48 47 50
for example. and — while these purposes are distinguishable — both very often are simultaneously present. made by this Pontifical Council a quarter century ago as part of an overview of the state of communications. and this in turn required a certain homogenization of consumer tastes for final products." That observation. involving sophisticated research and multimedia campaigns that span the globe. powerful force shaping attitudes and behavior in today's world. Advertising is not the same as marketing (the complex of commercial functions involved in transferring goods from producers and consumers) or public relations (the systematic effort to create a favorable public impression or ?image' of some person. In today's society. this involved seeking to create ‘world cultural convergence’.' phenomenon — or it can be very complex. “While now central to the contemporary global economy and the reproduction of global production networks. of course. group. is even more true now. it is only quite recently that advertising has been more than a marginal influence on patterns of sales and production. so that. Mass production necessitated mass consumption. advertising has two basic purposes: to inform and to persuade. especially in regard to their values and their ways of choosing and behaving.What do you mean by advertisement? Advertising is a form of communication that typically attempts to persuade potential customers to purchase or to consume more of a particular brand of product or service. using media as its vehicle. The field of advertising is extremely broad and diverse. 6 . is a pervasive. It differs according to its intended audience. though. In many cases. Advertising can be very simple — a local. it is a technique or instrument employed by one or both of these. advertising has a profound impact on how people understand life. At its limit. As that suggests. so advertising. especially for mass produced consumer goods. an advertisement is simply a public notice meant to convey information and invite patronage or some other response. These are matters about which the Church is and must be deeply and sincerely concerned. culture and behaviors among consumer segments across the world’. even ?neighborhood. the world and themselves. The formation of modern advertising was intimately bound up with the emergence of new forms of monopoly capitalism around the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century as one element in corporate strategies to create. organize and where possible control markets. to homogenize consumer tastes and engineer a ‘convergence of lifestyle. or entity). In general terms.” The importance of advertising is "steadily on the increase in modern society. Just as the media of social communication themselves have enormous influence everywhere. advertising aimed at children raises some technical and moral issues significantly different from those raised by advertising aimed at competent adults.
like the media of social communications in general. 7 . No doubt advertising. advertisers naturally seek to reach audiences. and sometimes it presents a distorted image of reality. does act as a mirror. promoting some while ignoring others. This economic dependency of media and the power it confers upon advertisers carries with it serious responsibilities for both. For example. For their part. it is a mirror that helps shape the reality it reflects. and causes. public service advertising on behalf of various institutions. Making allowance for the differences among the different kinds and methods of advertising. and — a phenomenon of growing importance today — political advertising in the interests of parties and candidates. the absence from advertising of certain racial and ethnic groups in some multi-racial or multi-ethnic societies can help to create problems of image and identity. But. Many publications and broadcasting operations depend on advertising revenue for survival. must shape their content so to attract audiences of the size and demographic composition sought. and the almost inevitable impression in commercial advertising that an abundance of possessions leads to happiness and fulfillment can be both misleading and frustrating. Advertisers are selective about the values and attitudes to be fostered and encouraged. This selectivity gives the lie to the notion that advertising does no more than reflect the surrounding culture.Not only are many different media and techniques employed in advertising. striving to deliver audiences to advertisers. also like media in general. Advertising also has an indirect but powerful impact on society through its influence on media. This often is true of religious media as well as commercial media. and the media. We disagree with the assertion that advertising simply mirrors the attitudes and values of the surrounding culture. programs. we intend what follows to be applicable to them all. especially among those neglected. advertising itself is of several different kinds: commercial advertising for products and services.
2. In the United States. false advertising and health-related ads are regulated the most. particularly for outdoor advertising. 8 . such as placement. pp.Western countries. It is also prohibited to advertise cars on the basis of how fast they can move and the relationship which the event has with the sport seen as a healthy pursuit. Rules can define a wide number of different aspects. Advertisement standards council of india.HOW IS ADVERTISING REGULATED? Advertising regulation refers to the laws and rules defining the ways in which products can be advertised in a particular region. ASCI. billboards or at sporting events is banned. Similarly alcohol advertisers in the United Kingdom are not allowed to discuss in a campaign the relative benefits of drinking. 1.1985 is a commitment to honest advertising and to fair competition in the market place. and there can be no advertisements five minutes before or after a children¶s program is aired.g.false. • ASCI has one overarching goal: “To maintain and enhance the public's confidence in advertising”. Code for self regulation in advertising. Two of the most highly regulated forms of advertising are tobacco advertising and alcohol advertising. misleading. religion. Bhatia 2000. Against Ads. timing. illegal. Sweden and Norway prohibit domestic advertising that targets children. and content. There are many regulations throughout the rest of Europe as well. 3. Many communities have their own rules. 4. Some European countries don¶t allow sponsorship of children¶s programs. Advertising Standards Council of India is a self regulatory voluntary organization of the advertising industry. In many non. a wide-variety of linguistic (Bhatia 2000. indecent. In the United Kingdom advertising of tobacco on television. no advertisement can be aimed at children under the age of twelve. 5. pp 280-282) are used to mock and undermine regulations. unlike smoking. The main role is to deal with Complaints received from consumers and industry. 217-218) and nonlinguistic strategies (e. in most instances therefore choosing to focus around the brand image and associative benefits instead of those aligned with consumption.
. 9 . c) Not used indiscriminately for the promotion of products. ASCI seeks to ensure that advertisements conform to its Code for Self-Regulation which requires advertisements to be a) Truthful and fair to consumers and competitors. to a degree unacceptable to society at large. . 3. c) Not used indiscriminately for the promotion of products. ASCI has one overarching goal: “To maintain and enhance the public's confidence in advertising”. ASCI seeks to ensure that advertisements conform to its Code for Self-Regulation which requires advertisements to be a) Truthful and fair to consumers and competitors. hazardous or harmful to society or to individuals. b) Within the bounds of generally accepted standards of public decency and propriety.particularly minors. b) Within the bounds of generally accepted standards of public decency and propriety. d) Objectives. 2.particularly minors. to a degree unacceptable to society at large. hazardous or harmful to society or to individuals.Mission 1.
Such situations can lead to ethical dilemmas. As with any complex social problem. we must act to discover and remedy the sources for our growing moral confusion. creating distrust and moral callousness. Different people have different beliefs about what constitutes ethical behavior. meanings which. The law defines what is and is not legal.What is ethics? Ethics is a branch of philosophy which seeks to address questions about morality. When we ask why individuals act unethically. compel us to believe that adherence is overwhelmingly in our common and individual self-interests. how moral values should be determined (normative ethics). we must agree individually and together on the basis for those morals. such as what the fundamental semantic. The significance of ethical formulations. this ethical crisis will resist simplistic attempts at resolution. In order for our ethical foundation to work. It is a mistake to equate a break-down in the function of the ethics with a deterioration of public morality. Our generation is not simply more self-centered or less moral than our predecessors. productively and in harmony. But within our generation there is the appearance of a growing disregard for the ethical standards we have been given. is in their power for shaping attitudes and constraining behaviors. 10 . of their own force. I contend that many of the ethical formulations of our time lack insight. scope and compassion. In the ideal. The erosion of these ethical norms is a source of social anxiety. The confusion we are faced with is the result of having ethical forms inadequate to our situation. But I also believe we must act carefully and thoughtfully. I contend that this appearance of moral degeneration is more accurately perceived as moral confusion. it is not enough to simply proclaim the wrongness or rightness of an act. but the distinctions between moral right and wrong are not always so clear. and what moral values people actually abide by (descriptive ethics). today. and epistemic nature of ethics or morality is (meta-ethics). In many situations lines between right and wrong are blurred. as in all times. ontological. As we confront our crisis in ethics we must ask whether the ethical norms we are attempting to sustain have meanings for individuals which are empowering. how moral capacity or moral agency develops and what its nature is (moral psychology). our ethics allow us to live together. we must also be prepared to ask why it is that our ethics make it seem to be in the individual self-interest to do so. how a moral outcome can be achieved in specific situations (applied ethics). Because our common morality limits our freedom to behave in ways we might otherwise choose to. Ethics provide for a basic social need by defining the behaviors we expect and will accept from one another. Our ethics must provide understandings which help compel us to act with intelligence. In order to prevent further deterioration of the underpinnings of our society. compassion and understanding.
chances are that your decision is an ethical one. 11 . it’s important to consider outcomes of the decisionmaking process. 3. Ask yourself how you would feel if your actions were published in your hometown newspaper. Is my decision a truthful one? Is my decision fair to everyone affected? Will it build goodwill for the organization? Is the decision beneficial to all parties who have a vested interest in the outcome? When these four questions can truthfully be answered with a “yes. 5. Another way of making sure decisions are truly ethical is by using the publicity test. If you would be comfortable having your parents. 4. and other people find out what you did. if you would not want these individuals to learn about your actions. One way of dealing ethical dilemmas is by using the four way test to evaluate decisions.” it is likely that the decision is an ethical one. you probably need to rethink your decision. However. grade school teachers.When faced with ethical dilemmas. This test involves asking four questions: 2.
The menace in the situation is underscored by the fact the woman is blankly unsmiling and some of the men appear to have slight sneers on their faces. Price. In future columns I will provide my guidelines. it certainly did not advance the image of the advertising industry. To the contrary. Please join in the discussion by leaving comments below. lies on her back.” Brandweek. and I would appreciate your suggestions. which markets upscale Italian fashions to women. Advertising ethics in my view also includes truthfulness and fairness. I believe this will enhance brand reputation and consumer loyalty. It is up to the company and its ad agency to internally articulate and practice advertising ethics for its brands.” a most difficult area of advertising ethics. which includes the nature of the audience and the nature of the product. Take the print ad for Dolce & Gabbana that appeared in Esquire magazine: “A woman. Yet. I know the devil is in the details. It is understandable that professionals and students of advertising stress the Four P’s of Marketing: Product. how often are the positive and negative consequences of advertising ethics proactively taken into consideration? Not often enough. multicultural marketing and other challenges presented by taste and decency. It must be persuasive and credible. Over the next few months I would like to open a dialogue on questions regarding children’s advertising.” It is difficult for me to see how this ad advanced Dolce & Gabbana. To do so it must compete for the consumers’ limited time and attention. and as I believe and urge—ethical—to build brand loyalty and trust. Women and women’s organizations quickly took offense. clients are forced to deal reactively with irate consumers who have taken offense from claims and depictions in their ads. and I would be the first to combat any attempt by government to regulate in this area.Ethics of Advertisement: An Introduction Advertising is the most competitive industry in America. It facilitates both performance and price competition among products and services. This ad ran afoul of what I would call “taste and decency. Moreover. 12 . But we must be very sensitive to the ethical concerns of our consumers. 2007. I want to make it clear that I do not believe in politically correct speech. Promotion and Place. hips raised as a barechested man holds her down and four other men look on. fully clothed in a tight dress and spiked heels. In my view not enough attention is given to advertising ethics. Take the time in advance to proactively discuss the ethical consequences of ad claims and depictions. February 20. The National Organization for Woman charged that the ad depicted “Stylized gang rape. I don’t want to suggest a burdensome process here.
to grasp from an ethical perspective how business is possible. such as fairness and honesty. trade.Ethics and advertising Human beings are world creators. the game could not be played. and the chief culprit is advertising. by the combined light of his valuational perspective and mine is seen as the thing to be done. In my recent article. exotic. a way of Being. Geoffrey Klempner The Business Arena (2004) To claim that in the business world 'normal ethics is suspended' is not to deny thevalidity of rules of conduct. bosses and workers. We can play the various roles assigned to us in the game. flashy. these obligations fall far short of the demands of ethics. I put forward three propositions. However. but only one. or move between worlds. or we can stand outside our economic personae and observe ourselves from an ethical point of view. these values. there are not two parallel processes of practical deliberation going on. Without these universal rules. I regard the business arena — the world of buyers and sellers. Within the business arena. producers and consumers. -. But it is not the only way of Being. (Contrast this with the case of a 'dialogue' between politicians or traders. Advertising: for good or evil? But how fair is the business game. of doing the action which. The marketplace is not a level playing field.) In opening myself up and addressing the other as a thou I am already committed to the practical consequences of agreement. as I have defined it here. To me. The Business Arena. is defined by the I-thou relationship: When I engage another person in moral dialogue. scary. really? On the face of it.Here are three charges levelled against advertisers: They sell us dreams. producers and consumers have a very different view. The only difference between us and the anthropologist is that. messy. It defines the way we relate to each other and to the world around us. I am fascinated by the idea that human beings can belong to more than one world. 13 . exchange. There are other ways. an arena defined by unwritten rules. Anthropologists who 'go native' in order to study their subjects more closely have an inkling of what I am talking about. We live in the marketplace and also outside it. The aim of a philosophy for business is to understand the rules that define the business arena. commodities. as a 'prolegomenon to a philosophy for business': Business and commerce take place in a frame. in other words. where each is privately deliberating how to gain the upper hand. his and mine. normal ethics is suspended. as understood here.Geoffrey Klempner The Ethics of Dialogue (1998) As a professional metaphysician. entice us into confusing dreams with reality. One of the worlds that human beings have created is the world of money. most of the time. It is not accidental to who we are. it's a world full of beauty and ugliness in equal proportions. Ethics. and the most fundamental of these is ethics. we don't realize that we are doing this. No-one who has made their home in this world would see this the way an outsider — and being a philosopher makes me by definition an outsider — can see this. the world of money — as nothing less than an ontological category.
They pander to our desires for things that are bad for us. Advertisers try to sell us material things. These codes may be adequate to curb the worst excesses of advertising. I don't feel I was cheated. What initially attracted me to philosophy was the life of Socrates. It is so easy to take the moralistic high ground. A world without fashion or style would be obnoxious. brutal — in the true sense of being fit only for brutes. 14 . In recent times advertising has become increasingly regulated by codes of practice. not as illusions that human beings fall helplessly victim to. Gilbert Ryle in his book Plato's Progress (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1966) argues that the dialogues were performed live. It is much harder nowadays for advertisements to get away with telling outright lies. if any Christians could live the way Christ lived. but as part of the scaffolding of human culture. They manipulate us into wanting things we don't really need. But they still fall far short of answering these three indictments. Living and breathing the atmosphere of the dialogues we become more. Anyone who is serious about deconstructing the dream world of advertising should start by considering the meaning of fashion and style. I knew this. Most people who express this sentiment. What would you have to do? Let's look at each of the indictments in turn. never ourselves. Philosophy is an ideal. The treasure that is the collected works of Plato has added to the value of philosophy. I was sold the dream of philosophy. with words of reassurance for his gathered friends.) That's a claim to take with a big pinch of salt. so quick to analyse. it is always other people who seem to have the wool pulled over their eyes. facing death with courage and dignity. one of those rare objects that attains the status of a 'work of art'. as I want to argue. so few if any philosophy students are capable of emulating the life of Socrates. In the same way that few. or as a tool with a function. not just through novel arguments or its addition to the storehouse of human knowledge but through the sheer seductive power of Plato's storytelling. The two could not be more different. We see through the ruse. possibly. look at an object as a mere bearer of physical properties. would add that the attempt doesn't succeed. we are enhanced. (Or. Philosophers. And I am glad for that. or. I totally disagree. A philosopher might object that my example of the 'dream of philosophy' is not fair. Selling dreams Let me start with a personal example. a bearer of sheer disinterested aesthetic value. The dream is not extraneous to the product. To say that the appearance that clothes create is a mere illusion is to class a well cut or well designed suit with cod pieces and false breasts. You can see audiences of Plato's dialogue Phaedo sobbing. where humans barter their love of material goods. Plato. we become better. alien. seduced me — along with countless thousands of students before and since — with his brilliant dialogues depicting the life of his mentor. All this can be summed up in the popular sentiment that advertisers cynically use a world of fantasy and illusion in an attempt to control us. succumb to the dreams that advertisers sell? It is very tempting to say no. Think of the clothes one wears as a kind of advertising. But is that also true out there in the commercial marketplace. at least. the greatest of all salesmen for philosophy. however. that would be a serious error. or swooning as Socrates calmly drinks the hemlock. That suggests the following question: suppose that you were an advertiser who wanted to be truly ethical and not just legal. Yet. It is part of the complete package.
This is good advice. 'Eat our cereal because it's low in fat and high in fibre'. designed with loving attention to detail (most of the time. Maybe Martians are not so lucky. the value of the product is not just its beauty and functionality. 15 . it all-too easily becomes an attempt to brainwash. whatever our particular vice may be.' yet advertisers are only too willing to sell us as many chocolate bars as we can eat — or. one would have to be very careful in accepting a drinks account. while Mac users resented being patronised. not only because they function well. In today's climate. then advertisers would not waste time and money making them. A real man likes his beer and pies. it's OK to sell a dream if you believe in it too. offered.None of these ways of analysing an object explain why we love things. in the same way as we ought to be surprised at the capacity of the human imagination to be captured by storytelling. I am happy to buy into a dream I can believe in. Object-love is one of the most profound facts about our human relation to the world. we merely look for different things to attach ourselves to. there's no way you could accept a cigarette advertising account. however. They believe in the dream that they are selling too. Macs are good. a fireman — as everyday 'heroes'. a welder. This is normal. The campaign backfired because PC users found it offensive. as a would-be ethical advertiser. anyway — there have been occasional. to control. These are passing observations (as Wittgenstein would say) concerning the 'natural history of mankind'. not in a spirit of social conscience but as part of the sales pitch. Pity them. to project our emotions onto. But we're on risky ground here. But not one that has been cynically created with the sole aim of making me spend my money. Even if the dream selling is not done cynically. Ever-resourceful advertisers have even found ways to openly admit that their product is bad for you. A campaign which Apple ran a couple of years ago featured 'real people' explaining why they switched to Macs and recounting the misery of badly designed. I have yet to see a drinks advert whose message was. by fiction. A potentially damaging admission is turned round into something positive with the clever use of humour. We put away childish things. It ought to be seen as surprising. The image that the advertisers have created is not only true. but because they are beautiful. but the love that has been lavished on it. unreliable PCs. In the commercial world. 'You'll feel sick if you eat that second chocolate bar. If consumers were less sensitive to such appeals to improve their health and life style.' When a consumer buys an Apple Mac. We grow up. but also enhances the pleasure of using the product. Apple Macintosh is the best example I can think of. All parents know how children lust for toys. worthy of note. Consider the religious cults who send their followers on the streets seeking converts. stylish. We do not lose that lust. Pandering We tell a child. there are plenty of examples of manufacturers who believe passionately in their product. not pathological behaviour. They were rudely awakened from the dream. That is something Freud saw. So is this true? — 'As an advertiser. With the current problem of binge drinking in the UK amongst young people. A recent advert for meat pies portrays impressively overweight men — a construction worker. 'Enjoy our beer — but don't get drunk!' Advertisements can set out with the laudable aim of educating people. a tyre fitter. humorous exceptions when in the face of competition cost-cutting was allowed to take precedence over quality).
However. How can it be wrong to market the chemically enhanced product. The ethical marketing team now face a difficult dilemma. the reason why it is a ground for confidence is at least partly due to a belief or attitude which has itself been inculcated by advertising. Critics of deodorant advertising have pointed out.O. better than anyone had dared hope. because being offensive is part of its concept. This is more or less where we are now. So let's take our imaginary scenario from here: The ethical deodorant marketing team take the brave decision to question this assumption. and this is a ground for extra confidence. because they will not be able to detect your body odour. 16 . The design and advertising of the product will be based around the idea that there are pleasant as well as unpleasant bodily odours. or only some. if this was what people want? The argument for not doing so is that it was the success of the first campaign that created the demand for an added 'natural bodily smell'. where none had existed before. is unpleasant and offensive. embodying the concept that any natural human smell is. It is hard to question a belief when it has become part of language itself. 'Body odour' is one of the classic phrases invented by advertisers. It goes without saying that the deodorant has got to work effectively. After extensive research and testing. as claimed. the product is launched. while at the same time deftly deflecting criticism. But that begs the question whether all bodily odours are unpleasant. or ought to be regarded as offensive. If you have B. a new trend emerges from the on-going market research. The concept captures the public imagination. we smile at the irony — and we buy the product.This illustrates the important point that advertisements can be very knowing — showing an awareness of the ethical issues which marketing that particular product raises. We are not offended because we get the point. that is something bad. This is the very thing that the ethical advertising team had sought to avoid! Against competitors who show no such scruples. The chemists are asked to come up with a product which gets rid of the unpleasant odours while not masking the pleasant ones. Manipulating Suppose you are a deodorant manufacturer who has conceived the idea of an ethical advertising campaign. But what does it mean for a deodorant to be effective? On a hot day. The chemists identify a complex blend of chemicals. you will be more confident in the company of other people. some of which are capable of synthesis in a laboratory. It should not contain chemicals which are bad for your health (when the product is used according to instructions). however. however. A significant proportion of the people questioned express a willingness to try a product which enhances their 'naturally pleasant' bodily smell.O. B. in relation to current rules on advertising. by definition. The campaign is a great success. the ethical advertisers face a losing battle in the marketplace. that although it is true that the deodorant has the power to prevent odour.
Advertisers deliberately construct fantasies to serve their clients' needs. but necessary. advertising is not ethical because advertisers are not truthful. Viewed in this way. In the end. he says. It is a lot easier to document advertising effects than to arrive at universally accepted conclusions about its ethics. and links products with intangible rewards. Advertisers develop ads that make promises they know products can't deliver. They do not expect ads to tell them the way things really are in society. critics have argued that the test of ethical communication is whether it treats people as an end. more practically. happier life. Needed to differentiate and promote products that (truth be told) differ only trivially from one another. she notes that there are little lies and there are big lies. advertising's effects are ambiguous. shameless exploitation of cultural icons and values to sell goods and services. part of capitalist society. Adopting a deontological approach. but can lead others to reach for loftier goals. defenders of advertising note that consumers recognize that advertising creates untruths. Big lie: This beer makes you great. puffs up products. not to aid the customer in living a healthier. not documentary reports. its appropriation of language for use in a misty world located somewhere between truth and falsehood. cherished by immigrants that an escape from brutal poverty can be found through purchase of products and services not available in more oppressive economies. advertising defenders say. On the macroeconomic level. the portrayals of the good life presented in ads carry with them the implicit understanding that they are idealizations. If the decency of the communicators' motives is the criterion for ethical communication. All advertising tells lies. not a means or. Little lie: This beer tastes great. Judged in terms of consequences on society. Exposure to beautiful people or unimaginable wealth may cause dissatisfaction in some consumers. Judged strictly on truth-telling criteria. Advertising has been roundly condemned by those who despise its attack on our senses. From an ethical perspective. However. however. prosper. Almost by definition. critics debated the ethics of advertising. Responding to these criticisms.the notion that anyone with money and moxie can promote a product to masses of consumers. cars don't make you rich or famous. advertising rarely makes product claims that are demonstrably false. Don't worry.Ethics of Advertising Advertising has been universally praised and condemned. the verdict on advertising depends on the criteria we use to judge it. and making pancakes for your kids on Saturday won't assuage your guilt about neglecting them all week. It increases demand and allows companies to sell products. In the final analysis. In effect. Cigarettes don't offer hedonistic pleasure. It has been cheered by those who view it as emblematic of the American Dream . and employ managers and workers. it almost always exaggerates. despite the plaintive plea of a Bisquik pancake commercial. advertising keeps the engines of the free market economy rolling. an effort to give people an outlet for universal human fantasies. Long before the arrival of Old Joe Camel and the Budweiser frogs. whether the communicators' motives are honorable or decent. 17 . Advertisers want consumers to project fantasies onto products in order to hook individuals on the image of the brand. be happy. advertising plays an essential. advertising can fall drastically short of an ethical ideal. Advertising is capitalism's playful communication. advertising will remain an ethically problematic. Viewed from a deontological perspective. critical role in contemporary capitalism. advertising fails. and its relentless. advertising remains an uneasy persuasion. along with the promise.
Advertising works through different pathways under low and high involvement. The rest of us know better. When thinking about more personally consequential purchases. 18 . Critics argue that advertising inculcates a strange philosophy of life that puts great faith in the ability of products to satisfy universal human desires. and meshing with consumers' values. When viewing ads for low-involvement products. Budweiser. Little wonder that critics have charged that advertising's power comes from subliminally embedded messages that elude conscious awareness. it does not magically alter attitudes.Advertising is such a pervasive part of American culture that is difficult to conjure up images of products that are not influenced by what we have seen in commercials. When directing ads at highly involved consumers. and celebrity source endorsements are influential. but it persists because people cling to simplistic ideas about how advertising works. that's fine. to call to mind an advertising-free image of products. is a potent weapon in advertising campaigns. But if some of us want to think that things are riding us. Nike. contemporary capitalism. enhancing positive effect. Research finds that subliminal communications exert virtually no impact on attitudes. Association. if not impossible. or cars running the gamut from Mustangs to minivans. influencing cognitions. Yet even those who criticize advertising ethics acknowledge that people seem to have a need for the things advertisers promote. It is not apt to change attitudes on the spot. associational appeals. If you were asked to free-associate about Coca-Cola. it works gradually. taking into account the benefits products offer and the psychological functions that products serve. It is physically difficult. things are in the saddle. Whether due to human nature. advertising has been condemned by those who see in it a ready way to manipulate Americans into buying products they don't need. reinforcing. advertisers use factual messages and symbolic appeals targeted to particular attitude functions. Repetition. your mental images would undoubtedly contain ideas and pictures gleaned from commercials. consumers process ads centrally. even changing attitudes toward products. The subliminal notion is more hoax than reality. consumers process information peripherally. This is because advertising plays a critical role in shaping. lifestyles. the conscious belief that a message contains a subliminal message can influence attitudes. Although advertising is pervasive. As social judgment theory reminds us. Herbal Essence. However. Ever controversial. whose theoretical foundations run the gamut from classical conditioning to accessibility. advertising will not mold deep-seated attitudes toward products. and even fantasies about products. or a complex combination of both. Instead.
labels.Ethical Duties of Manufacturers Ethical Duties of Manufacturers: (1) Contract Theory (2) Due Care Theory (3) Social Costs Theory Contract Theory Firm’s duties to customer created by contract with customer 1.Duty not to misrepresent: don’t mislead 4.Duty to comply: product must be safe for use 2.Duty not to coerce: don’t exploit fear. stress. immaturity.Duty of disclosure: disclose relevant facts 3. gullibility. & instructions 19 . Due Care Theory • Seller has a duty to exercise due care to protect consumers from harm • Seller should protect consumers by: ◦ Design ◦ Choice of materials ◦ Manufacturing process ◦ Quality control ◦ Warnings. or ignorance .
20 .Social Costs Theory Strict liability Seller should bear all the costs when a consumer is injured by a product. Product price now reflects all costs. consumer injuries including costs associated with Seller has incentive to protect consumers Costs spread across all users of the product .
the dignity of the human person. in light of Jesus Christ. broadcasting executives. Either they help human persons to grow in their understanding and practice of what is true and good. For Christians. the law of human nature has a deeper dimension. to the call "to form our conscience. binding upon all because it is "written on their hearts" and embodies the imperatives of authentic human fulfillment. and others in the communications world.Some Ethical & Moral Principles The Second Vatican Council declared: "If the media are to be correctly employed. and this is a responsibility also shared by publishers. corrupt and corrupting methods of persuasion and motivation. as well as by those who give commercial or political endorsements. to make it the object of a continuous conversion to what is true and to what is good. or they are destructive forces in conflict with human well being. if it seeks to move people to do evil deeds that are self-destructive and destructive of authentic community." In this context. In this regard. prepare or disseminate advertising — are morally responsible for what they seek to move people to do. This applies also to the means and the techniques of advertising: it is morally wrong to use manipulative. having taken on human nature. definitively illumines it in its constitutive elements and in its dynamism of charity towards God and neighbor. it is essential that all who use them know the principles of the moral order and apply them faithfully in this domain. Within this very general framework. we note special problems associated with so-called indirect advertising that attempts to move people to act in certain ways — for example. Against this background. we can identify several moral principles that are particularly relevant to advertising. the media of social communications have two options. we point to this fundamental principle for people engaged in advertising: advertisers — that is. 21 . moreover."The moral order to which this refers is the order of the law of human nature. persons involved in it do what is morally good. to the extent that they are involved in the advertising process. a richer meaning. That is entirely true of advertising. The techniques involved here include showing certain products or forms of behavior in superficially glamorous settings associated with superficially glamorous people. those who commission. We shall speak briefly of three: truthfulness. purchase particular products — without their being fully aware that they are being swayed. exploitative. it may even involve the use of subliminal messages." Here we comprehend the deepest significance of human freedom: that it makes possible an authentic moral response. and only two. then. in extreme cases. and social responsibility. "Christ is the ?Beginning' who. If an instance of advertising seeks to move people to choose and act rationally in morally good ways that are of true benefit to themselves and others. they do evil.
by what it implies. it intrudes upon the parent-child relationship and seeks to manipulate it to its own base ends. in the hope that they will put pressure on their parents to buy products of no real benefit to them. but that it can distort the truth by implying things that are not so or withholding relevant facts.. the culturally disadvantaged. envy and greed." 2. the manner in which it is advertised — and through the impact it seeks to make upon its audience. The Catechism of the Catholic Church. The Dignity of the Human Person There is an "imperative requirement" that advertising "respect the human person. Included here is the obligation to avoid any manipulation of truth for any reason. there can be no authentic exercise of freedom. within the limits set by justice and charity. starting point and criterion of discernment. vanity. the problem of truth in advertising is somewhat more subtle: it is not that advertising says what is overtly false. We have spoken already of such things as appeals to lust. his interior freedom. choice and action. within the limits of recognized and accepted practice. all these goods would be violated if man's lower inclinations were to be exploited. truth and freedom are inseparable. the content should. some of the comparatively little advertising 22 . on religion and on morality — an outlook that does not respect the true dignity and destiny of the human person. Also. Much advertising directed at children apparently tries to exploit their credulity and suggestibility. judgment. be communicated "honestly and properly.1. People take for granted some rhetorical and symbolic exaggeration in advertising. the elderly. Advertising can violate the dignity of the human person both through its content — what is advertised. insists that the content of communication be "true and — within the limits set by justice and charity — complete". Truthfulness in Advertising Even today. or his capacity to reflect and decide compromised. the poor. or by what it fails to say.. this can be allowable. In such circumstances. advertisements readily become "vehicles of a deformed outlook on life." To be sure. complete. quoting the Second Vatican Council. whether it does that by what it says." These abuses are not merely hypothetical possibilities but realities in much advertising today. has its own conventions and forms of stylization. like other forms of expression. and these must be taken into account when discussing truthfulness. advertising. ." This problem is especially acute where particularly vulnerable groups or classes of persons are concerned: children and young people. But it is a fundamental principle that advertising may not deliberately seek to deceive. "The proper exercise of the right to information demands that the content of what is communicated be true and. moreover. Advertising like this offends against the dignity and rights of both children and parents. though. some advertising is simply and deliberately untrue. and of techniques that manipulate and exploit human weakness. As Pope John Paul II points out. Generally speaking. on both the individual and social levels. without truth as the basis. on the family. his rightduty to make a responsible choice.
When people fail to practice "a rigorous respect for the moral. The ecological issue is one. solidarity is "a consequence of genuine and right communication and the free circulation of ideas that further knowledge and respect for others." 23 . like people engaged in other forms of social communication. as though it did not have its own requisites and a prior God-given purpose. subjecting it without restraint to his will. based on the dignity of the person and on the proper identity of each community. as the Catechism of the Catholic Church points out.." Advertisers. . Indeed. destructive vision of the human person harmful to individuals and society alike.directed specifically to the elderly or culturally disadvantaged seems designed to play upon their fears so as to persuade them to allocate some of their limited resources to goods or services of dubious value. the two things — communication and solidarity — are inseparable. a true expression of solidarity. cultural and spiritual requirements. "In his desire to have and to enjoy rather than to be and grow. Advertising that reduces human progress to acquiring material goods and cultivating a lavish life style expresses a false. have a serious duty to express and foster an authentic vision of human development in its material.. 3. because. beginning with the family and religious societies. among other things. Advertising and Social Responsibility Social responsibility is such a broad concept that we can note here only a few of the many issues and concerns relevant under this heading to the question of advertising. Advertising that fosters a lavish life style which wastes resources and despoils the environment offends against important ecological concerns." As this suggests.31 Communication that meets this standard is. man consumes the resources of the earth and his own life in an excessive and disordered way." then even material abundance and the conveniences that technology makes available "will prove unsatisfying and in the end contemptible. Man thinks that he can make arbitrary use of the earth. which man can indeed develop but must not betray. cultural and spiritual dimensions. something more fundamental is at issue here: authentic and integral human development.
the search queries they enter. And Web visitors routinely benefit from the product information that stems from online behavioral targeting. Recency counts a lot too—data from two weeks ago is far less accurate at predicting interest than from two days ago.3 What is the right way for businesses to treat consumers? Is it right for marketers to give total control to consumers of the collection and sharing of their information? Or is it right for a business to be able to provide consumers with more relevant. Behavioral targeting segments consumers according to the interests they express in online activities. including Internet protocol (IP) addresses. Recent consumer research shows that. the content they view. there are not laws that currently prohibit online marketers from collecting and using personally identifiable information (PII) or other possibly sensitive information.1 But this issue isn’t merely a regulatory question. While there are privacy laws that protect consumers’ medical and financial information. according to the eMarketer findings. marketers are interested in using behavioral targeting to send relevant and cost-effective ads to online users. Yahoo! and Microsoft (MSN) use information about a person’s online activity to tailor advertisements or content based on a person’s hobbies or interests. who bear the benefits and burdens of behavioral targeting.2 An ethical analysis centers on consumers’ feelings that behavioral targeting infringes on personal privacy. Pepsi recently launched its new low-calorie Aquafina 24 . the ads they click on. length and frequency of visits. both the advertising industry and the government have turned their attentions toward online behavioral advertising. This is the approach the government would follow in determining the costs and benefits of laws and regulations. but at what cost? Opting in at every Web site or even disabling cookies could make online commerce and transactions burdensome for the consumer. Central to the Federal Trade Commission’s focus is consumer concerns that behavioral targeting compromises personal privacy. This data is combined with the time. an ethical analysis by marketers as to the use of behavioral targeting will build consumer trust. But this issue goes beyond legalities to the ethical question of what is the right and fair way for businesses to advertise to consumers. or behavioral targeting. is one of the factors holding back the growth of behavioral targeting by marketers. On the other hand. eMarketer recently completed an analysis on the scope of this marketing process: Behavioral targeting segments the audience based on observed and measured data—the pages or sites users visit. Giving the consumer total control over sharing his interests and online activity with marketers would protect his privacy in an absolute sense. “A six in ten majority (59 percent) are not comfortable when Web sites like Google.The Ethics of Behavioral Advertising Recently. targeted information about products and services?4 We start by analyzing the consequences of these two sides to the issue—the positive and negative impact upon consumers.” Consumer concern. the information they share on social internet sites and the products they put in online shopping carts.
It would be difficult to administer and enforce an absolute prohibition on the collection and sharing of all consumer information. in terms of both the nature of the product and the nature of the audience and the manner in which they’re treated. Next. we can determine if there is a universal rule that could guide our ethical analysis. 5 The Federal Trade Commission has proposed for discussion behavioral advertising selfregulatory guidelines. And behavioral targeting is one of the most effective ways for marketers to reach the right audience. Footnotes: 1 The AAF and other industry associations have filed comments with the Federal Trade Commission on behavioral targeting. 4 My analysis is aided by an ethical process refined by author Rushworth Kidder in his book. 2 Behavioral Targeting: Marketing Trends. Once advertisers commit to using behavioral advertising ethically.Alive drink by advertising on sites that were visited by users who were interested in healthy lifestyles—a strategy made possible because of the assistance of behavioral targeting.5 The research conducted by the Harris Poll found that consumers’ level of confidence with behavioral targeting went up slightly after being exposed to information on how their information would be shared and protected. businesses engaging in behavioral targeting should first review research on consumers’ attitudes and beliefs about the issue and then develop online advertising policies that demonstrate their commitment to protecting the privacy of their customers. To my knowledge there is no such rule in existence. 25 . 3 My definition of ethics includes fairness. June 2008. Advertising is at its best when it’s helping consumers make informed decisions about their purchases. both marketers and consumers can benefit. But this practice is contingent on the protection of consumer privacy. A better rule would be for the consumer to receive specifics as to how his information will be shared and protected. How Good People Make Tough Choices. In order to ensure that their marketing practices are ethical. e-Marketer.
” This is an assumption that is often heard in the industry: “It’s good to get the customer’s attention even if it makes them mad. Paul Ashworth. they demonstrated against it. lives where Reason meets Desire.com article: “According to Mr. 26 . Clearly they were aware of the negative implications. a veteran spirits industry consultant. “The brand is donning fishnets. It was the idea of Coke and their experiences with it and how those experiences were connected to so much of what we imagine life in America should be like. Ashworth. It's about how we feel about things. From the same AdAge. Advertising isn't just about the things we buy. “We want to be sexy. No consumer product had ever been so thoroughly tested with so many consumers.Attention. It doesn’t necessarily make a good impression. like human beings. opines “One way to stand out at a crowded party is to put a lampshade on your head.” In my previous column.” Perhaps the Spirits category is different from other brand marketing. The CocaCola Company invented a better product. including ourselves. This new Coke was probably much better. That's what makes it interesting. and we want to be provocative. ‘are you with us or with them?’” But did they consider the ethical consequences of a campaign that may offend woman vodka drinkers? Women constitute 49 percent of the luxury vodka market1. said the campaign is meant to make consumers take sides: “Brands need to say. said of the new $20 million campaign. Years ago. several cable networks refused to run the original spot. which was still risky in its depiction of women but was also developed with them in mind. I defined ethical advertising to include Taste and Decency and counseled that the client and agency should proactively consider the ethical consequences of advertising that could be considered offensive by the brands customers. Advertising. Berlin Cameron executive creative director. But consumers not only didn't buy it. Arthur Shapiro. but it does make one. Apparently in this case client and agency agreed on the shocking portrayal of women to attack competitor Grey Goose’s “uptown” image. getting spanked in public and otherwise behaving lewdly in an attempt to stand out in the increasingly crowded luxury vodka category. Outtakes— including several shots using the bottle as an explicitly sexual prop—will be featured on a new Web site set to launch in early December.” But how can we conclude that a potential customer angered by advertising will purchase the brand? I believe that women searching for an upscale vodka would be more attracted to a brand connecting to them through ethical advertising. Because a lot of what they loved about "real" Coke wasn't inside the bottle.” Ewen Cameron. Moet’s senior VP – Belvedere. This seems to have been proven by Dove’s very successful Campaign for Real Beauty. But at What Cost? Belvedere Vodka has introduced a new provocative print and television campaign to compete against Grey Goose in the luxury vodka market.
they'd be the fifth largest advertiser. Times have changed. General Mills' "Spoonfuls of Hope" campaign features Lance Armstrong promoting cancer research. thanks" to working on certain businesses. Incidentally. advertising people working for free because they believe in the cause create MADD's ads. Tobacco Advertising Ronald Reagan once appeared in ads touting the health benefits of a cigarette brand. the company spent over a million dollars to advertise their good deed to American audiences. But do they make rational sense? The Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) probably don't make the same distinction between beer and bourbon that advertisers do. advertisers themselves have made these "ethical" choices. Wal-Mart focuses on community efforts of their associates and stores. And tobacco isn't the only legal . 3. Two thirds of us say we'd be inclined to switch to a brand that we identify with a good cause.has been running a campaign to help promote nursing as a career: Does the extra business and good will these companies stand to gain compromise the good that the causes do? What are the ethics of enlightened self-interest? Not long ago a major advertiser donated a quarter-million dollars in food aid to Bosnians in the wake of the war there. Does that make them more ethical? And although there's the same amount of the same chemical in a can of Bud and a shot of Jack Daniels. got over $1. "No. Public service campaigns. Now the space in which tobacco can be promoted in any form is growing more restricted every day. Later. But would you turn down the Kraft Macaroni and Cheese assignment because another division of the same corporation makes Marlboros? That's a tougher question.always at the top of polls as a socially responsible company -. What decision would you have made? 2. not to mention public policy questions for us.5 billion dollars in free media last year. Alcohol There are hundreds of beer commercials on the air. Ad folk like to work pro bono for nonprofits and good causes. you don't see hard liquor advertised on television. Johnson & Johnson . including anti-smoking messages. but not one of them shows somebody actually drinking the beer. Cause-related marketing Speaking of feelings. In the case of alcohol.product that poses ethical. It's why American Express put on the Tribeca Film Festival in lower Manhattan to help bring people back to the area after September 11th. the aid did a lot of good. Many say. Ad agencies and individual advertising people make their own decisions about categories like tobacco and guns. 27 . Altogether. 80% of Americans say they feel better about companies that are aligned with social issues.and potentially lethal .1. By all accounts.
It's a malt beverage.you're not alone. is that an ethical issue? Do you show the real truth and take the consequences? ADVERTIEMENT TARGETING VULNERABLE GROUPS Companies design the advertisement of their products in such a way that even if a person has no need for the product will buy it. When I say the word "Smirnoff". rapidly moving 28 . And in what context? One example of context is that people in condom ads usually wear wedding rings. 4. Are you being fooled here? And if you thought Smirnoff Ice contained vodka. Should they be advertised? Most networks won't accept condom ads because they might offend certain audiences. it's being examined by the ATF (Federal Bureau of Alcohol. hence. Children’s Exposure to Advertisement Commercials are highly effective in presenting the formal features of products. the elderly. Companies take "Persuasive advantage" of vulnerable groups such as Children. Even where condom ads are okay. If you were the Creative Director on the Trojans account. Children Ads for kids serve as training for consumer culture. Condoms I assume these are not unfamiliar to you. Does the name "Smirnoff" mean "vodka" or is it just a name? Many of you are in the target audience. Things which they learn in their early stages of life are reflected in their later life stage. what do you think of? . As children are the emerging seeds of any civilization hence it should be seriously considered that they are exposed to what kind of ethics. the truth about where all those condoms are really going raises some touchy issues. it's the brand name on the bottle (Smirnoff Ice). The impact of advertisement on their behaviors and attitudes is highly affective. did you also think it contained ice? You don't have to take time from your studies to decide this case. to attract children’s attention. there are ethical choices to make about what kind of product demonstration is appropriate. 5. As we speak. Tobacco and Firearms). to sell their products. Because even though the biggest market probably lies outside the Marital Bed. Following topics will further elaborate this concept. their role in culture formation and socialization should not be underestimated. A rival company says this commercial is misleading you because there's no vodka in Smirnoff Ice. such as unique sound effects and auditory changes. and people in developing countries etc.The ethical issue isn't the alcohol in the product.
a commercial featuring Ronald McDonald dancing. hypertension.images. This practice has lead to the obesity of children specifically in United States of America. Almost twothirds (60%) of overweight children have at least one cardiovascular risk factor (e. hyperlipidemia) and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing in youth. The most common persuasive strategy employed in advertising to children is to associate the product with fun and happiness. For example. and smiling in McDonald’s restaurants without any mention of the actual food products nutrition available. Effects of Food Advertisement on children It is evident from the available sources that children are highly influenced by the food advertisement and that they are highly important for the marketers to be targeted. singing. As done by McDonald which shows entertaining toys provided with the package of burger. Cause of Obesity Currently 15% of US youth are overweight. and audiovisual gimmicks and special effects.. The children are shown those eatables which are unhealthy for them but still they enjoy purchasing them and they force their parents to make those eatables available for them. in this way. Celebrity Endorsement in kids’ ads Kids are targeted through the celebrity endorsers for making their purchasing decision more influential and strong. a prevalence nearly twice as high in children and three times as high in adolescents compared to 1980 prevalence rates.g. Unhealthy Eating Habits It is found that kids are attracted by entertaining products that’s why companies are showing them the enjoyable advertisements instead of focusing on the nutrition of the products. rather than to provide any factual product-related information. It becomes unethical when certain problems arise as follows: 29 . reflects a fun/happiness theme. children start buying burgers without considering the amount of calories and other nutritious in those eatables.
Advertisement of Violence to Children The research conducted on the media exposure to children found that children have high adaptability and acceptability towards the violence. 1993. Materialistic Attitude Materialism can be defined as the view that products and their acquisition are the basis for determining one’s personal worth. in another (Atkin. softness. (1980) found stronger materialistic values among fourth to seventh graders who were heavy television viewers than among their lighter-viewing classmates. Sheikh & Moleski. Through certain surveys it is found that kids are more influential in their decision than adults. he observed child disappointment and anger in response to the majority of parent refusals for cereal requests at the supermarket. and adventures than are girls. In this way the genders are polarized in their behaviors in very early stages. 30 . Other studies confirm these patterns (Goldberg & Gorn. 1982). Through several researches it is concluded that boys are more inclined towards aggressiveness. 1978. whereas girls’ inclination is towards innocence. others have reported that 6th through 12th graders’ viewing of advertising was positively related to materialistic values (Greenberg & Brand. Atkin (1975) found that more than half of children reported arguing or becoming angry when a toy request was denied. Similarly. Material possessions become the source of judgment by others as well as the source of one’s own self-evaluation. In one study. and care. Adler et al.child conflict Some ads are so influential that they stick to the kids’ mind and then they influence their parents to buy it. violence. 1978). 1977). The problem arises when parents refuse to purchase the toy or any kids’ product and they consistently insist to buy it. It is interesting to observe that degree of advertising exposure correlates positively with children’s acceptance of materialism. aggression hostility and other antisocial behaviors.Parent. Moschis & Moore.
These kind of ads are not ethical as adolescent are trying to practice it after watching the ads. and Pizza Hut have created campaigns to promote eating more food. Such kind of products contains huge quantity of fat which is unhealthy for the consumers (youth). the food and beverage industry has viewed adolescents as a major market force. Youth As everybody knows that a large part of consumers are consisting of youth. Another issue regarding food advertisement is that. adolescents are now becoming the target of specialized food marketing and advertising companies. We find that to a large extent these restaurants’ healthy menus are not at all fit for a healthy lifestyle. Restaurants such as KFC. 2) Food Advertisements 3) Promotion of negative behavior 4) Promotion of foreign culture We will discuss these issues one by one. There are many issues regarding unethical advertisement to youth. For example in the ads of Dew. McDonald’s. 31 . As a result. Marketers are taking interest in youth as a consumer because of their purchasing power and as future consumers. Food advertisement In last few years.6. So business advertisers are making their ads in such a way that are mostly targeting youth. advertisers are showing aggression in their ads which is directly targeting youth. Another issue regarding fast food is there is no description of nutrition of the food in the ads or bill boards. But the most of the ads are unethical. Food advertising campaigns have presented information to the public that has been warped to create a false image of apparently healthy products. advertisers are showing aggressive attitude of boys in a way that after drinking dew they can do unrealistic things. and providing the unhealthy food for less money.
Promotion of negative behavior Advertisements not only educate consumers regarding the usage. And they know more about their options before seeing the doctor. advertisers are promoting foreign culture in the ads of different products of companies. you must also reveal any significant risks or side effects. In this ad they show that with the help of fresh up bubble boy easily deceives his mother. consumption and disposal of the products or services rather they also educate consumers to build their attitudes and behaviors. right? But of course the drug companies don't advertise their cheapest products. Such type of behavioral learning is unethical and companies should not portray these kinds of utilities of their products. So we have them to thank for the now legendary disclaimer for a weight-loss drug. Consumers tend to learn different behavioral aspects from advertisements and these behavioral aspects change the lifestyles of consumers. but it comes with a heavy dose of Point-of-View. if you promote the benefits of your medicine. You probably never heard of it before you walked in. The FDA requires that. Advertising puts more information in people's hands. There's more information out there. They promote the big moneymakers. only a doctor could tell you about a new medicine. Not long ago. For example in one ad of fresh up bubble a young boy comes while having cigarette. The medicine worked miracles. Pharmaceutical advertising Information is ethically neutral. Now advertisers spend millions of dollars telling you about their medicines. That's good. you didn't know if it was the only one in the world or one of dozens that did pretty much the same thing. In an academic setting like this. with the result that the drug turned into a national joke! Does more information elevate the national dialogue? 32 . Sometimes there are two points of view in the same commercial. we welcome more information because the marketplace of ideas enables individuals to form their own judgments . These kinds of activities promote foreign culture in the minds of youth. 7.which brings us to advertising about prescription drugs. We can see in the ads of telenor that they are showing different dancing activities and free mixing of boys and girls. Now days. Promotion of foreign culture Marketers portray the culture of the society in which they are selling their products or services through different marketing tools. as soon as he reaches the front door of his house he throws the cigarette and starts chewing fresh up bubble. but the company was also obliged to mention it's unpleasant side effects. For example telecommunication companies are promoting different activities which belong to foreign culture. Studies show that drug ads raise awareness of some conditions so more people seek treatment.
Volvo's demonstration was rigged. In the theatre we have no way of knowing whether the director chose those cars because they fulfilled his artistic vision . If you believe subliminal advertising exists. they won't lie. This kind of "product placement" happens in real life. But the difference between something that's just a prop and something that's a product promotion is getting murkier all the time. If you ask them directly if they are actors. Made-up brands break the spell because they're obvious fakes. too. They won't disappoint you. They're also actors and this is a gig for them. Audiences like realism in movies. But if you don't ask." Try this experiment. 9. In case you missed it. This is the reverse of the Volvo story. If you're curious. subliminal advertising is one of those "urban legends. With this cell phone. Take a photograph of a glass of ice water or the beverage of your choice and make a fake ad out of it.or because the car manufacturer made a deal with the producer. The phone is very cool.8. you don't any more because I embedded a convincing subliminal denial in this talk. the hero and the bad guy are going to need some kind of car to drive. but the scene in the club is pure theater. Their job is creating the impression that using this phone is The Next Trend. you might see some particularly good-looking young people using a new kind of cell phone. And the people are what advertisers call "aspirational" because they're way cooler than you are. they won't tell. 33 . Subliminal advertising There's one more thing I know you want me to talk about. They're people you want to be. on TV shows as well as movies. It lets them shoot pictures of people to their friends across the room: "Here's a cute guy . no question. If you go out to a club tonight. but what viewers saw on TV was the truth. maybe they've taken your picture and they'll be happy to show you the phone and let you try it.want to come and meet him?" Fun stuff like that. If a bunch of students can create subliminal messages. (Note: This new "guerrilla" marketing campaign for Sony Ericsson has received a great deal of negative publicity already for being deceptive in its approach. imagine what the pros on Madison Avenue can do. Then invite people in your Psych department to find the subliminal messages in your ad. Product placement What are the ethics of advertising that doesn't look like advertising? In a movie chase scene. The car people get exciting exposure for their brand and she saves a nice piece of change on her production budget. the demonstration is the absolute truth.
Developing Countries Companies who are looking to expand their business beyond current markets sometimes see opportunities in developing countries with fewer trade and product restrictions. These days the marketers are trying to persuade consumers by showing attractive 34 . Later in this report various ways of deception will be discussed to clarify the unethical practices. where as Competitive advertisement points out features of a brand which may not be available in other brands. and South America that are banned in the United States and Western Europe. Eastern Europe. Misleading messages or images are just lies and unfair. For example Pharmaceutical companies have been accused of advertising their products in developing countries which are banned in the United States for advertisement. and customs that serve to direct the consumer behavior of members of a particular society. Deception in Advertisements The miss-presentation or omission of the product’s features in the ads is a routine practice of companies to deceive consumers. Ethics have some power in deceptive and misleading advertising. specifically mentions a competitor by name for the express purpose of showing why the competitor is inferior to the product naming it. The aim of this type of advertisements is just to deceive the consumer. Comparative and Competitive Advertisement Comparative advertising is an advertisement in which a particular product.10. but does not directly name a competitor. or service. Tobacco companies come under criticism for using advertisements in Asia. CULTURAL ADVERTISING Culture is defined as “The sum total of learned beliefs. Companies adopt these kinds of unethical practices to get benefit from the fewer trade and product restrictions in developing countries. values. The culture of a particular region consists of values and norms which are developed and followed within the society.” Culture plays an important part in shaping the behavior of the consumers.
They are showing that boys want a special friend in their life and that friend should be a girl. They don’t take care of the values of a particular region regarding advertisements. In Pakistan many national and multinational companies are violating the norm and values followed by the society. All these ads are actually portraying different kinds of cultural aspects which are unacceptable in our culture. Many multinational companies are using these practices to promote their brands.attributes of foreign cultures in their ads. For example Zong telecom is an international brand and they are directly targeting the kids in their new ads. Multinational companies are actually trying to put foreign culture in our society. They are trying to narrow down the difference of men and women. 35 . The youth and kids are very adaptable to the ads in which foreign culture is shown.
which companies use to advertise its products. For example. include competitive and comparative advertising techniques. they have specifically targeted their main competitor "Wheel washing powder" which is unethical. This strategy is also adopted by many other companies as well like Ufone telecom. This behavior is called unfair competition and is protected with competition laws in every country. brand logo. In advertisements it is forbidden to use the competitors product. but it is very clear from the use of their language and pictorial presentation of the other product that they are trying to compare their product with a well known brand.” In this ad. But a lot of company use unfair competition to show itself or its product strong and better than the competitors. "Let me put the Wheel out of the house. brand name. 36 . By using these strategies companies get into unethical and unfair competition. we see in the ads of washing powers that a company who is advertising its product compares it with some other washing power without disclosing the brand name of the other product. In their advertisement. service. They use comparative strategy in advertising their product. symbol etc.ETHICAL ISSUES IN COMPETITIVE AND COMPARATIVE ADVERTISEMENT The most common strategies. Arial washing powder etc. they have shown the benefits of their product but at the end of their ad a man comes and says. Brite Total is a very famous brand in washing powers.
Research shows that subliminal stimuli can cause some types of minor reactions. There are many arguments in the favor of subliminal advertisement as well but the fact is that playing with the unconscious receptor cells of consumer's mind is unethical which is why the practice of subliminal advertisement is banned in many countries. In many books. it resulted in 58% increase in the sales of Popcorn. A subliminal message is conveyed in such a manner that a person who is exposed to such a message is not consciously aware of receiving that message. However. These kinds of messages are called subliminal. it has been declared that marketers use subliminal advertisement techniques in their ads to persuade consumers to buy their advertised brands. such as a "like-dislike" response. research hasn’t proven whether a subliminal message is capable of affecting the public's buying behavior. This means that the symbols shown in the message are too brief or too faint for the consumers to clearly recognize them or they are below the threshold of conscious awareness of the consumers. and 18% increase in the sales of Coke. They flashed the words "Eat Popcorn & Drink Coke" on the screen during the movie.ETHICAL ISSUES IN SUBLIMINAL ADVERTISEMENT Messages are generally seen and heard consciously but consumers also get motivated by stimuli below their level of conscious awareness. 37 . Subliminal advertisement was first used by Coke in the drive-in-movie theater.
For example if a company which manufactures a fairness cream claims in its ad to make the skin of the consumer fair in 15 days and its product fails to do so then this advertisement can be called as deceptive. The most common example in this regard is the ads or billboards shown by the Telecommunication companies. We see many billboards across the road that does not give full information about the product to the consumers to allow them to make an informed choice. Untruthful or fraudulent advertisements are practiced more at the local level and in specific areas such as telemarketing and other forms of direct marketing. Yet there are many examples of large corporations which are accused of misleading consumers with their ads and promotion activities. The difficulty regarding this issue is in determining what is deceptive and what is not deceptive. A study was conducted by Binwari Mittal which revealed that consumers are of the view that less than one-quarter of the TV commercials are honest and believable. Here lying about the features of the products simply means deception. It is our common observation that advertisers usually present only information that is favorable to their position and do not always tell consumers the whole truth about a product or service.DECEPTION IN ADVERTISEMENT It is not only illegal to lie about the features of the products in advertisement rather it is unethical as well. 38 .
not only does advertising have no value of its own. and we shall make criticisms of our own." Advertising does this. We do not agree. Some critics view this state of affairs in unrelievedly negative terms.. but its influence is entirely harmful and corrupting for individuals and society. It is a necessary part of the functioning of modern market economies. They condemn advertising as a waste of time. and stimulating economic progress through the expansion of business and trade. entertainment and inspiration to people around the world. a) Economic Benefits of Advertising Advertising can play an important role in the process by which an economic system guided by moral norms and responsive to the common good contributes to human development.The Benefits of Ethical Advertising Enormous human and material resources are devoted to advertising. There is truth to the criticisms. a culture — other people — affected for good or ill by advertising messages and techniques of every sort. guarantees to the governed the possibility both of electing and holding accountable those who govern them... talent and money — an essentially parasitic activity. b) Benefits of Political Advertising "The Church values the democratic system inasmuch as it ensures the participation of citizens in making political choices. higher incomes and a more decent and humane way of life for all." Even people who are not themselves exposed to particular forms of advertising confront a society. But advertising also has significant potential for good. which today either exist or are emerging in many parts of the world and which — provided they conform to moral standards based upon integral human development and the common good — currently seem to be "the most efficient instrument for utilizing resources and effectively responding to needs" of a socio-economic kind. and sometimes it is realized. prudent consumer decisions." 39 .[F]rom this point of view she encourages advertising. programming and productions — including those of the Church — that bring information. as Pope Paul VI remarked. contributing to efficiency and the lowering of prices. which can become a wholesome and efficacious instrument for reciprocal help among men. In this view. and of replacing them through peaceful means when appropriate. helping them to make informed. Advertising is everywhere in today's world. "No one now can escape the influence of advertising. so that. and also on the ever widening network of relationships and exchanges between persons and social groups. "The Church looks with favor on the growth of man's productive capacity. Here are some of the ways that happens. among other ways. by informing people about the availability of rationally desirable new products and services and improvements in existing ones. advertising can be a useful tool for sustaining honest and ethically responsible competition that contributes to economic growth in the service of authentic human development. It also helps pay for publications. All of this can contribute to the creation of new jobs. In such a system.
aesthetic and moral quality presented with the public interest in view. advertising can itself contribute to the betterment of society by uplifting and inspiring people and motivating them to act in ways that benefit themselves and others. with a vivacity and elan all their own. so political advertising can make its contribution by informing people about the ideas and policy proposals of parties and candidates." While much remains to be done. use advertising to communicate their messages — messages of faith. tasteful and entertaining. d) Moral and Religious Benefits of Advertising In many cases.Political advertising can make a contribution to democracy analogous to its contribution to economic well being in a market system guided by moral norms. This they do by supporting material of excellent intellectual. compassion and neighborly service. messages concerning health and education. too.. Advertising can brighten lives simply by being witty." 40 . including advertising. and particularly by encouraging and making possible media presentations which are oriented to minorities whose needs might otherwise go unserved. know how to make opportune use of them in order to spread the Gospel message in a manner which answers the expectations and needs of contemporary man. and the rest — and also her participation in secular media. Some advertisements are instances of popular art. of charity toward the needy. The media "can and should be instruments in the Church's program of re-evangelization and new evangelization in the contemporary world. including those of a religious nature. c) Cultural Benefits of Advertising Because of the impact advertising has on media that depend on it for revenue. of tolerance. constructive and helpful messages that educate and motivate people in a variety of beneficial ways. involvement in media-related activities.. Moreover. of patriotism. benevolent social institutions. is today a necessary part of a comprehensive pastoral strategy. For the Church. This includes both the Church's own media — Catholic press and publishing. including new candidates not previously known to the public. Pope Paul VI once said that it is desirable that Catholic institutions "follow with constant attention the development of the modern techniques of advertising and. As free and responsible media in a democratic system help to counteract tendencies toward the monopolization of power on the part of oligarchies and special interests. advertisers have an opportunity to exert a positive influence on decisions about media content. television and radio broadcasting. With reference to advertising itself. many positive efforts of this kind already are underway. film and audiovisual production.
If it can have. too. More than this. The practice of "brand"-related advertising can raise serious problems. to cause people to feel and act upon cravings for items and services they do not need. and which wants to have more." Sometimes advertisers speak of it as part of their task to "create" needs for products and services — that is. must be shunned. "sex appeal. if false assertions are made about goods for sale. patronize certain institutions. what is wrong is a style of life which is presumed to be better when it is directed toward ? having' rather than ?being'. and often does. Advertising also can be. without shame. More often. an instrument: it can be used well. Often there are only negligible differences among similar products of different brands. though. and it can be used badly. if less than admirable human tendencies are exploited.. "If ." etc. have a negative..Harm Done by Unethical Advertising There is nothing intrinsically good or intrinsically evil about advertising. and the like. it also can." This is a serious abuse. and advertising may attempt to move people to act on the basis of irrational motives ("brand loyalty. unremitting pressure to buy articles of luxury can arouse false wants that hurt both individuals and families by making them ignore what they really need. Communio et Progressio contains this summary statement of the problem: "If harmful or utterly useless goods are touted to the public. the information function of media can be subverted by advertisers' pressure upon publications or programs not to treat of questions that might prove embarrassing or inconvenient. an affront to human dignity and the common good when it occurs in affluent societies. This is where particular abuses can occur.) instead of presenting differences in product quality and price as bases for rational choice. exploit the sexual instincts simply to make money or which seek to penetrate into the subconscious recesses of the mind in a way that threatens the freedom of the individual ." a) Economic Harms of Advertising Advertising can betray its role as a source of information by misrepresentation and by withholding relevant facts. a direct appeal is made to his instincts — while ignoring in various ways the reality of the person as intelligent and free — then consumer attitudes and life-styles can be created which are objectively improper and often damaging to his physical and spiritual health. harmful impact on individuals and society. But the abuse is still more grave when consumerist attitudes and values are transmitted by communications media and advertising to developing countries. And those forms of advertising which. It is a tool.." as Pope John Paul II delineated it when he said: "It is not wrong to want to live better." status. and sometimes does have. fashion. "It is true that a 41 . beneficial results such as those just described. those responsible for such advertising harm society and forfeit their good name and credibility. advertising is used not simply to inform but to persuade and motivate — to convince people to act in certain ways: buy certain products or services. Sometimes. a tool of the "phenomenon of consumerism.. where they exacerbate socio-economic problems and harm the poor. not in order to be more but in order to spend life in enjoyment as an end in itself. and often is.
" Similarly. In the competition to attract ever larger audiences and deliver them to advertisers. the dignity and welfare of society's poorer and weaker members are at stake. aided and abetted by advertising. but it also can obstruct it. to racial and ethnic prejudice and the like — rather than to a reasoned sense of justice and the good of all. political advertising seeks to distort the views and records of opponents and unjustly attacks their reputations. Consider also the cultural injury done to these nations and their peoples by advertising whose content and methods." The indirect but powerful influence exerted by advertising upon the media of social communications that depend on revenues from this source points to another sort of cultural concern. ignores this crucial fact. or require that office-seekers compromise their integrity and independence by over-dependence on special interests for funds. bias and hostility toward others. subtly or not so subtly — to set aside high artistic and moral standards and lapse into superficiality. 42 . Today this kind of "domination and manipulation" via media rightly is "a concern of developing nations in relation to developed ones." as well as a "concern of minorities within particular nations. for example. and genuine development falls behind. It is necessary always to bear in mind that there are "goods which by their very nature cannot and must not be bought or sold" and to avoid "an ?idolatry' of the market" that. The problem is particularly acute when. We have spoken of the economic harm that can be done to developing nations by advertising that fosters consumerism and destructive patterns of consumption. reflecting those prevalent in the first world. state-controlled systems is made more difficult by advertising that promotes consumerist attitudes and values offensive to human dignity and the common good. The result of this is that they waste their resources and neglect their real needs. But serious harm can be done them if advertising and commercial pressure become so irresponsible that communities seeking to rise from poverty to a reasonable standard of living are persuaded to seek this progress by satisfying wants that have been artificially created. the task of countries attempting to develop types of market economies that serve human needs and interests after decades under centralized. b) Harms of Political Advertising Political advertising can support and assist the working of the democratic process.judicious use of advertising can stimulate developing countries to improve their standard of living. are at war with sound traditional values in indigenous cultures. as often happens. It happens when advertising appeals more to people's emotions and base instincts — to selfishness. communicators can find themselves tempted — in fact pressured. c) Cultural Harms of Advertising Advertising also can have a corrupting influence upon culture and cultural values. tawdriness and moral squalor. instead of being a vehicle for honest expositions of candidates' views and records. Such obstruction of the democratic process also happens when. the costs of advertising limit political competition to wealthy candidates or groups. This happens when.
but it also can be vulgar and morally degrading. perverse. both in and by advertising. for instance. habits of buying and consuming. certain special problems relating to advertising that treats of religion or pertains to specific issues with a moral dimension. and a problem which at one time was confined mainly to wealthy countries has now begun." We note. income. and occasionally even morally uplifting. Frequently it deliberately appeals to such motives as envy. pornographic nature. they have taken on new dimensions and have become serious social problems. with the advertising of contraceptives. education. via the communications media.) of the kinds of audiences advertisers want to reach. At a time of widespread and unfortunate confusion about moral norms. In cases of the first sort. some advertisers consciously seek to shock and titillate by exploiting content of a morbid. All too often. acceptable ways. advertising contributes to the invidious stereotyping of particular groups that places them at a disadvantage in relation to others. In cases of the second sort. the very old. compassion.Communicators also can find themselves tempted to ignore the educational and social needs of certain segments of the audience — the very young. too. Today. but the practice is obnoxious and offensive when it involves exploiting religion or treating it flippantly. deplorable abuse. is a frequent. This often is true of the way advertising treats women. commercial advertisers sometimes include religious themes or use religious images or personages to sell products. and the exploitation of women. the communications media have made pornography and violence accessible to a vastly expanded audience. including young people and even children. "How often are they treated not as persons with an inviolable dignity but as objects whose purpose is to satisfy others' appetite for pleasure or for power? How often is the role of woman as wife and mother undervalued or even ridiculed? How often is the role of women in business or professional life depicted as a masculine caricature. a denial of the specific gifts of feminine insight. That is the case. In the past quarter century. to corrupt moral values in developing nations. which so greatly contribute to the ?civilization of love'?" d) Moral and Religious Harms of Advertising Advertising can be tasteful and in conformity with high moral standards. In this way the tone and indeed the level of moral responsibility of the communications media in general are lowered. abortifacients and products harmful to 43 . It is possible to do this in tasteful. status seeking and lust. however. the poor — who do not match the demographic patterns (age. pornography and the exaltation of violence are age-old realities of the human condition. too. advertising sometimes is used to promote products and inculcate attitudes and forms of behavior contrary to moral norms. and understanding. etc. What this Pontifical Council said several years ago about pornography and violence in the media is no less true of certain forms of advertising: "As reflections of the dark side of human nature marred by sin.
Women are ‘comprehensive processors’ who try to gather all available information about the product. As Reichert(2003) stated that the great saga of sex in advertising starts far back in the 1850's where the nude female form was used to “sell” products ranging from corsets. They said that this may be explained by the fact that females have a greater tendency than men to consider external information and information related to others. children have become convinced that they're inferior if they don't have an endless array of new products. The problem with trying to regulate the use of psychological principles is that "people acting in ways psychologists find objectionable probably aren't members of APA anyway." Kanner(sept 2000) has said"Advertising is a massive.(2003) has said thatAdvertisers must remember that advertising messages are interpretend differently between different genders ."Psychologists who help advertisers are essentially helping them manipulate children to believe in the capitalistic message. They said that of • • • • • • 44 . and with government-sponsored advertising campaigns for artificial birth control. he says." says Kasser. Thanks to advertising. multi-million dollar project that's having an enormous impact on child development". and similar practices. From that days to today advertisers never gave up to use sex to advertise their products or services. 1994). "That's unethical. Tansuhaj & Muehling. They concluded that undesirable reactions and consequences may result from the use of strong overt sexual appeals (LaTours and Henthorne. so-called "safe sex". Curtis P. but also something he calls "narcissistic wounding" of children. worse relationships and less connection to their communities.The result is not only an epidemic of materialistic values among children. Haugtvedt(2000) has said “We can't stop alcohol or tobacco companies from using the basic research findings and theories found in textbooks and academic journals". tobacco to beverages in America (2003). He said that having general guidelines as to appropriate uses and areas of concern would be beneficial to all parties. when all the evidence shows that believing in that message is bad for people. Maldonando. LaTours and Henthorne(1994) stated that in consider of the complexity of the issue their research shows that both men and women have potential ethical concerns about the use of strong overt sexual appeals in advertising. Hogg and Garrow (2003) found that women paid more intention about the details of the characters of an ad when asked to analyze advertising messages. Literature Review: • Kasser( september 2000) has said that people who strongly value wealth and related traits tend to have higher levels of distress and lower levels of well-being.health.
1993. The indispensable guarantors of ethically correct behavior by the advertising industry are the well formed and responsible consciences of advertising professionals themselves: consciences sensitive to their duty not merely to serve the interests of those who commission and finance their work but also to respect and uphold the rights and interests of their audiences and to serve the common good. Fetto. & Belch. 1990 cited by Reichert. Wise. 45 . sex-negative. Research Methodology For our study we have taken secondary data from various websites. 1990. 1986. although many of these findings are in response to stimuli consisting of “scantily clad females” . • • Objectives of Study: • • • To study the ethical practices in the Advertisements. men have more favorable responses to sex in advertising than women. Severn. journals. sex in advertising can be evaluated favorably and these feelings can influence attitudes toward the advertisement and the brand (Alexander & Judd. 2000. • (LaTour. context. Reichert. and intensity of the sexual content.concern to advertisers is determining the point at which a sexual appeal may be viewed as unethical and therefore become counterproductive. CONCLUSION: SOME STEPS TO TAKE 1. King. or older typically respond less favorably to sexual appeals”. 2003) has stated that People Depending on the audience. & Merenski. 1974) stated that “people who are conservative. Belch. Mittal & Lassar. books and magazines and the list of these materials are given in references. 2003) has stated that “Generally. (LaTour and Henthorne. To study the effects of the Advertisements on the behavior children’s . youths etc. 2001. To know the customer preferences about the Advertisements done by the companies.
5. Voluntary ethical codes are one such source of support. Many women and men professionally engaged in advertising do have sensitive consciences. The public representatives should include ethicists and religious people. such as children and old people. can and should extend beyond banning false advertising. These already exist in a number of places. That underlines the need for external structures and systems to support and encourage responsible practice in advertising and to discourage the irresponsible. On the other hand. "It is up to the directors and managers of the media which carry advertising to make known to the public. 3. On the one hand." 4. public authorities should ensure that ? public morality and social progress are not gravely endangered' through misuse of the media. high ethical standards and a strong sense of responsibility. narrowly defined. as well as the content of advertising directed at groups particularly vulnerable to exploitation. For example. already existing in many places. Individuals do well to organize themselves into such groups in order to protect their interests in relation to commercial interests. any more than to other sectors of the communications media.2. as well as representatives of consumer groups. especially in broadcast media. though. But even for them external pressures — from the clients who commission their work as well as from the competitive internal dynamics of their profession — can create powerful inducements to unethical behavior." 6. We emphasize the importance of public involvement. application and periodic updating of ethical codes. Representatives of the public should participate in the formulation. to subscribe to and to apply the codes of professional ethics which already have been opportunely established so as to have the cooperation of the public in making these codes still better and in enforcing their observance. Public authorities also have a role to play. Welcome as they are. they are only as effective as the willingness of advertisers to comply strictly with them. "By promulgating laws and overseeing their application. government should not seek to control and dictate policy to the advertising industry. government regulations should address such questions as the quantity of advertising. the regulation of advertising content and practice. Political advertising also seems an appropriate area for 46 .
10." 47 .. but also by public authorities. "It is also necessary to integrate that message into the ?new culture' created by modern communications" with its "new ways of communicating. insofar as that is possible: for example. This question of ?reparations' is a matter of legitimate involvement not only by industry self-regulatory bodies and public interest groups. 7. "In this witness to the absoluteness of the moral good Christians are not alone: they are supported by the moral sense present in peoples and by the great religious and sapiential traditions of East and West. This is a duty for Christians. it is largely up to advertisers themselves to ensure ethically responsible practices in their profession. just as they do other groups whose activities have a significant influence on society..regulation: how much may be spent. But people who want to do what is morally right must always be ready to suffer loss and personal injury rather than to do what is wrong. where freedom of speech and communication exists. Where unethical practices have become widespread and entrenched. 8. Besides avoiding abuses. etc. new languages. new techniques and a new psychology. but not only for them. conscientious advertisers may be called upon to make significant personal sacrifices to correct them. by publishing corrective notices. how and from whom may money for advertising be raised. and the like. The media of news and information should make it a point to keep the public informed about the world of advertising. followers of Christ. important as that is. Besides using media to evangelize. certainly. Considering advertising's social impact. advertisers should also undertake to repair the harm sometimes done by advertising. In the final analysis." 9. it is appropriate that media regularly review and critique the performance of advertisers. This points to a "deeper reality" than simply using media to spread the Gospel message. compensating injured parties. increasing the quantity of public service advertising. however. the Church for her part needs to grasp the full implications of the observation by Pope John Paul: that media comprise a central part of that great modern "Areopagus" where ideas are shared and attitudes and values are formed.
48 . However some steps can be taken to resolve this crucial issue. Advertisers should keep the following points in their mind while advertising the products of companies: 1) They should only promote the culture of the society in which they are advertising their products.RECOMMENDATIONS Advertisement is an important source for the marketers to advertise their products hence it is not possible for them to totally quit this source for vanishing the ethical issues.
E.A. E. 3. 2. & Belch. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies. Advertising and Promotion. 5) Subliminal advertisement tools should not be used to advertise the products of well known brands. (2006). 49 . E. & Ozdemir. (2007).. Balkas. A. Inc. especially the ones which are targeting youth. G. The journal of Applied Business Research. Advertising Ethics: A Field Study On Turkish Consumers. Belch. M.). (5th Ed. 3) 4) They should not deceive about the features of their products or services. WHICH ONE IS MORE IMPORTANT IN ADVERTISING? CREATIVITY OR ETHICS IN DESIGNS? WITH CASE STUDY. 67-80. H. E. They should not teach negative attitudes and behavior in their ads. Bibliography 1.2) They should give complete information about their products so that consumers can make informed choice.. (2001). 23(4). Istanbul Ticaret Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 5(9). 17-26. Ergin.
(3rd Ed. 13.S.. F..google . John G.A. 16 (1).. Johnson. S. Pauline. Inc..4. India: Dorling Kindersley. Thomas C. www. Aaker: Prentice Hall India. & Kanuk L. 8.R.. Advertising Management: Rajeev Batra. Gendered Voices in Children’s Television Advertising. M. S. 461-480. (9th Ed. Myers & David A.. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity.L.yahoo. D. WEBSITES 1. & French.). C. k. Johnson S.in 2. 6. ETHICS & BEHAVIOR. & Guinn.K.wikipedia. 9. 1(3). & Young. (2nd Ed. Critical studies in media communication.). www. 10. Ethical Issues in Exercise Psychology. R. L. Business Ethics. (2009). & Gamble G. & Cohen. Ohio: Thomson South-Western. (1995). (2002). George. T. 7. Australian Business Ethics. 1-17. (1998).). (4th Ed. Schiffman. New Jersey: prentice hall. Consumer Behavior.co 3.co. O. Chris Moore of Ogilvy & Mather 12. Pauline G. Grace. J. Food advertising and marketing directed at children and adolescents in the US. www. 9(4). Philip kotler's Marketing Mnagement. Story.. 61–76. 11. (2003).T.G. (2004).. 5.). ADVERTISING AND INTEGRATED BRAND PROMOTION. UK: Oxford University Press.org 50 . (2007).
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