Professor of Applied Psychology and Director of the Psychological Laboratory, Northwestern University; President of the Scott Company, Associate

Director of the Bureau of Salesmanship Research, Carnegie Institute of Technology, Former President of the National
Association of Advertising Teachers, Colonel, U.S.R.;

Author of


The Psychology

of Public Speaking,"

Increasing Human Efficiency in Business," " Influencing Men in Business."




Copyright, 1902-1903



Copyright, 1908, 1910, 1921













Illusions of Perception Illusions of Apperception


31 41


Personal Differences in Mental Imagery
Practical Application of Mental Imagery




Association of Ideas

Ill 123




The Feelings and the Emotions Appeals to the Customer's Sympathy











The Will


an Analysis
in Action


The Will Variety



The Habit of Reading Advertisements The Direct Command The Psychological Value of the Return Coupon
Attention Value of Small and of Large Spaces











The Mortality Rate of Advertisers The Value of Advertising Space Next
Psychological Experiment




335 358

The Psychology of Food Advertising The Laws of Progressive Thinking

The Unconscious Influence

in Street

Railway Adver366



The Questionnaire Method in Advertising The Social Service of Advertising









Packard Piano Irrelevant Food Advertisements 76 78 Crawford Shoe Crossett Shoe . 79 Omega Oil . 105 Swan Fountain Pen Petoskey 105 Co. 32.. 28 367 37 36 42 Length Illusions of Size Illusions of Direction 34. 83 104 Dr. Wax 15. 35. Co Gold Dust 118 119 120 121 127 vii Rough on Rats Buster Brown Stocking Co Bisected Lines . 36. and Carpet 106 Wm. 49. 82. Ltd. Human Brain Rabbit-Duck Head Ambiguous Figures Emerson Incubator Co Vose & Sons Camera Co. F. Walton's Cigars 107 107 108 109 115 Racycle Great Western Cereal Co Quaker Oats Vitalized Phosphites Pompeian Mfg. Carola Inner-Player Blasius Piano . 51 70 71 72 73 74 75. Munsing and Oneita Underwear Portable Houses and Fountain Pens 44 46 47 48. Rug Mfg.LIST OF ILLUSTBATIONS PAGE Flame Proof Co. 50. 81. P. M. . Sleight's Fat Reducing Tablets Insexdie . Whitman's Chocolates Illusions of C. 17 26.. 33.

250. Millinery 167 168 Regal Shoe "What did the Woggle Bug say?" Lucas Tinted Gloss Paint Westerfeld's Superior 172 179 Pound Cakes 180 180 Kerr's Studios Yucatan Gum Oxygen Tooth Powder 181 182 183 183 184 190 191 178. W. 192 Arrow Calox. 146 Howard Obesity Ointment Dr. 249. 140 Square and Rectangle J. 255 Return Coupons Ballot Form of Return Coupon 257 . Bull's Cough Syrup Conklin Pen Co Pelman School of Memory Training Karo Corn Syrup American Reserve Bond Co Stevens Rifles 147 154 160 161 162 116. 165 Golden Fleece Yarns Wheat Brothers & Gage Cream of Co. Collars Hand "Say Sapolio it with Flowers" Triscuit. Butler Paper Co Thos. 251. Cook &.Son Hall Chemical Co 141 142 145 44.viii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE 130 134 138. Natural Food Co Holbrook's Sauce Jap-a-lac "Modern Eloquence" Cook's Flaked Rice 202 205 212 213 American Radiator Co Postum Cereal Wilson's Outside Venetians 227 228 Chicago College of Advertising George Mills Rogers. Advertising Schools Real Estate 229 239 248.

298 New York Central Railroad 299 300 327. 194. 328 American Waltham Watch Co Railroad Time-Tables California Fruit Growers Exchange 336 211. 297. 342 343 National Biscuit Co. 340 Ivory Soap Chickering Piano National Biscuit Co. 290 203.LIST OF ILLUSTKATIONS Burlington Route Dr.357 169.'s Extract of Beef Armour & Co White Star Coffee 352.. 344 348 351 Liebig Co. 341 Nabisco 77. Conn 276 Franklin Mills Flour Prudential Insurance Co Packer's Tar Soap Pears' Soap 278 280 289. Uneeda Biscuit Wheatlet Egg-o-See Franklin Mills Co. Meriden. 357 . 245. 274 Murphy Varnish Co American Lead Pencil Co The Press Co. 277.353. 354 Korn Krisp Malt Marrow 355 . 272. Slocum's Remedies ix PAGE 264 265 Ralston Purina Cereals 270 271 228. Franklin Mills Co.


will not allow us to run chances with such people.I INTRODUCTION SOME good "doctoring" was done when men "picked up" their knowledge of medicine from their practice. The state laws. ideals. he might pick up a good deal in actual experi- ence and might do a good deal of excellent work. luck. to decide avoid is and imagination. rule-of-thumb action. In this day and generation we are not afraid of theories. chance. systems. parrot or and the like. however. prohibit it. To-day the state laws require that every physician shall have a basis of theory for his practical knowledge. Advertising is a serious thing with the business man . but when it comes to the serious things of life we want to know that we are trusting to some- thing more than mere chance. What we do haphazard undertakings. the He must know the anatomy and the physiology of human organism. lawyer to defend us before the courts unless he knew office modern We something of the theory of law. We may be willing on unimportant things by instinct or by the flipping of a coin. Some states audacities require teachers to pass examinations on the theory of teaching before they are allowed to give instruction. He must know the exact chemical constituents of the drugs used. He must be a theoretical man If the laws did not before he can be a practical one. We would not call upon an architect to construct a building unless he knew something of the would not call upon a theory of architecture.

Ordinarily the business man does not realize that he means psychology when he says that he "must know his customers' wants what will catch their attention. of all this is unprofitable. Every business "man is anxious that no part of these unprofitable advertisements shall fall to his The enormity of the expense. men of the United States are spending $800. I have been in intimate contact with . etc.. will study psychology. the keenness of competition. publishers. the advertising world to the pressing need for some basis of assurance in its hazardous undertakings. and in all that I have read. the advertising writer and the teacher have one great object in common to influence the human mind. tising writer. professional advertisers.2 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING It is estimated that the business of to-day. The teacher has a . salesmen. I have never seen or heard any reference to anything except psychology which could furnish a stable foundation for a theory of advertising." etc.000 a year in Furthermore one auprinted forms of advertising. manufacturers. 1895. He is talking saying about the minds of his customers. and the great liability of failure have awakened lot. In Printers' Ink for October. like the teacher. and psychology is and lead them nothing but a stubborn and systematic attempt to understand and explain the workings of the minds of these very people. appeared the following editorial : Probably when we are a little more enlightened. the adverFor.000. In all these expressions he that he must be a psychologist. what will impress them is to buy. and in all my conversations. Nothing else is ever suggested as a possibility. however diverse their occupation may at first sight appear. I have attempted to read broadly on the subject of advertising I have taken an active part in various kinds of advertising. thority claims that seventy-five per cent.

1901. In Publicity. Previous to the appearance of this article (March. and the successful advertisers will be likewise termed psychological advertisers. appeared an article which even more suggestive than the editorial in Printers' Ink. The mere mention of psychological terms habit. imagination and. self. perception. reason. An advertisement has been written to describe the articles which it was wished to place before the reader. And this will come through a closer knowledge of the psychological composition of the mind. March. The so-called "students of human nature" will then be called successful psychologists. and will should create ception. 1901) there had been no attempt to present psychology to the business world in a usable form. and he who writes advertisements without reference to it is apt to find that he has reckoned without his host. Human nature is a great factor in advertising success. discrimination. conmemory. . The following is a quotation from that article is : The time is not far away when the advertising writer will find out the inestimable benefits of a knowledge of psychology. But the future must needs be full of better methods than these to make advertising advance with the same rapidity as it has during the latter part of the last century. association. a bit of cleverness. They contained a vast amount of technical material devoid of interest to the layman who tion made it struggled through the pages. emotion. or some other catchy device has been used. As far as the advertiser could see all psychologies were written with a purely theoretical end in view. an attractive cut. The preparation of copy has usually followed the instincts rather than the analytical functions. This condiquite difficult for the business man to ex- tract that part of the subject which was of value to him. a flood of new thought that should appeal to every advanced consumer of advertising space. instinct.INTRODUCTION scientific 3 foundation for his work in that direction. but the advertising writer is really also a psychologist. with the hope that the hit or miss ratio could be made as favorable as possible.

Addresses were made before advertising clubs upon the specific The leading topic of the psychology of advertising. Psychological laboratories were fitted up to make various tests upon advertisements. successful advertisers began to devote attention to a Investigators in the systematic study of psychology. the issue of July 24. . . As typical of this change should be considered such statements as the following. 1907: The successful chology. on the other hand.4 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING Several of the leading advertising magazines and advertising agencies sought to father a movement which would result in such a presentation of the subject of psychology that it would be of use to the intelligent and practical advertiser. "Scientific advertising follows the laws of psychology. taken from Printers' Ink. The changed attitude of the advertising world became apparent in a few years. either personally or through his advertising department. intelligent and issue. in America and Europe sought and advertising journals published articles on the subject. must carefully study psy- He must understand how the human mind He must know what repels and what attracts. Elaborate investigations were undertaken and carried through to a successful Psychologists turned to the study of advertising in all its phases while. various parts of the country and among different classes of society united in their efforts to solve some of the knotty problems which are ever before the business man who desires publicity for his commodity. These efforts on the part of the advertisers were successful in stimulating several professional psychologists to co-operate with practical advertisers in applying psychology to advertising. He must know what will create an interest and what He must be a student of human will fall flat. advertiser. acts.

" were not used in the original. important that they should be collected in a place and form such that they would be available to the largest European publications.INTRODUCTION nature. . In view of this condition of affairs the author has assumed the pleasing task of systematizing possible the subject of the psychology of advertising and of presenting it in such a form that it will be of distinct practical value to all who are interested in business promotion. work of the psychologist is not yet available to the business world because the material has not been prethe sented in any one accessible place. this head are of minor Some articles number of readers. At the present time the writers are asserting that the successful advertiser must study psychology and that he must do it at once. The psychology of adverhas reached a stage in its development where all tising that has thus far been accomplished should be reconsidered. the word Although "must" is here put in italics to draw attention to the actual emphasis used by the author. and he italics 5 must know the laws of the human mind. In articles appearing on the subject before the last few years. all persons had spoken of the study of psychology as something which might be brought about in the future. of the important contributions of advertising during the last Although the attitude of the advertising world has changed and even though much has been done to present psychology in a helpful form to the advertisers. Contributions are scattered through the files of a score of American and appearing under while others are so significance. The Bibliography at the end of this vol- ume contains the names made to the psychology twenty-four years. The worthless should be discarded and the valuable brought out into due prominence in systematic arrangement.

that is. the ears. and the skin.g. The function of the nervous be likened to the transmitter. For our present purposes the may be thought of as consisting of three parts the brain. The brain fills the skull and is about one-fortieth of the weight of the entire body. and also in the joints and muscles. the mouth. a corresponding wave is . the eyes.6 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING II PEKCEPTION BETWEEN our minds and bodies there is the closest The basis of this relationship possible relationship. but par- system may If air waves of a ticularly so in the case of the ear.. and of sufficient intensity strike against certain quality the transmitter of a telephone. threadlike bands. Here they reassume the form of air waves. vibrating from fourteen to forty thousand times a second. e. If air waves. the optic nerve is such a bundle of nerve fibers and it connects the various nerve endings in the eye with specific portions of the back part of the brain. the nerve endings (sense organs). striking in the case of all the nerve endings. the nose. and receiver of a telephone. is the nervous system. The nerve fibers are white. electric currents are set up. which connect each nerve ending with a particular part of the brain. and the fibers connecting the brain to these nerve end: nervous system ings. and when heard are what we call sound. The nerve endings are found in the so-called sense organs. strike against our ear. connecting The similarity is wire. They are propagated along the line till they reach the receiver.

the sensation.PEKCEPTION 1 propagated along the auditory nerve to the brain. The second experience is added to from the previous one and a perception. recWhen the term "perception" is used. . for its next sensation of sight will be seen in relation to the first sensation. Here a current is set up which is propagated to the brain. etc. there is no comparison of it with other sensations. It would be affirming too much to say that the child recognizes or compares this second sensation. In the case of a young child. but is perception is a fusion of sensations special reference is intended to the sensation or sensations which are received through the sense organs and which enter into the total product called a perception. Then a pure sensation of sight occurs. The first time a child opens its eyes the ether waves strike against the retina in which the nerve endings are located. The nature of the sensation depends entirely on the nature of the light and the current which it sets up. There is no recognition of the light. It will be sufficient to regard this and all other sensations as the direct result of the contact of the outer world with our nerve endings and particularly with our sense or- The more intense the contact the more intense gans. where by some unknown process a sensation of sound is awakened which corresponds to the air wave. and no fusing of it into former sensations. ognition. and the quality of the sensation changes with the quality of the contact. A with former experiences and embraces comparison. while former experiences play a small part. so is not a pure sensation. but it is quite certain that this second sensation is to a very limited degree modified because of the preceding one. perceptions are largely sensational. This is the only really pure sensation of sight which the child will ever have.

touch. we saw it merely as an object of a particular color. Now. Then we tasted and smelt it.. and becomes the object of the sensation itself unless it typifies to the persons something which they have met in their . as we see an orange in the distance. etc. experience increase till of an orange even if it of the first symbols to be perceived is the spoken word." awareness of to the senses is called a "perception. the elements added to perception by by sensation decrease and the elements added by former we can is get a good perception at a great distance from us and if it is in poor light. and then the printed word. of the fruit. The spoken word "orange" becomes associated with the sight.8 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING into contact with When we come into new experiences. The process continues and we begin to use symbols for the object and our perOne ceptions are of symbols rather than of objects. Then we touched it. and the former experiences add relatively a small part to the total product. one of sight. but our perception contains these other little we elements which Little we add from our former experience. weight. The first time we saw an orange. Whenever we hear the word taste. we immediately think of the fruit with its "orange" Our awareness special appearance. later the^ picture." objects present The symbol has no symbolic signification. new objects or come we depend upon sensations to form a large part of our perceptions. touch. taste. of the absent object is called an "idea. sation that is have. touch. etc. and our perception of it became the perception of an object with a particular color and a particulai shape and touch. odor. and each of these new sensations added a new element to our perception. we perceive it as an object having a certain The only sencolor. etc. as the orange is in the distance. taste.

in A toon. and the other sense We first become acquainted with objects organs. If an orange is before me. The letter awakens in my mind no idea because it has not been associated in in his of mind an idea my experience with any object or event. of present or absent obwhether our thought is in the form of percepjects. This would be the were impossible I might . cartoon of Woodrow Wilson awakens me an idea of the man rather than a perception of the few curved and straight lines composing the symbolic car- The distinction between the terms "perception" and "idea" is very small. Thus a Chinese letter is to me no symbol.PERCEPTION 9 former experience. and when we think through the sensations which we receive from them. of them afterward we think in terms If I should try to learn about a new of sensations. touch it. it is certain that a large part of our to Whether we are thinking thinking is determined by the sensations which come us through eye and ear. it. I could acquire the knowledge of it in two different ways I could secure some of the fruit and then receive all the : sensations from it. taste best way to learn of If this would look at it. kind of fruit which was discovered in Africa. The letter awakens some object or event which is symbolized by the letter. possible. lift it. me. but the perception is different because he adds more from his former experience than I do. I perIf a symbol of an orange is before ceive the orange. but is a group of lines. it it. I smell bite it. tions or of ideas. I may merely perceive the symbol that is present or the symbol may awaken in my mind an idea of the absent orange. As I look at it I receive the same sensation that a Chinaman does.

second. The latest products of civilized humanity in this direction are. This second form is the most convenient and is the one in ordinary use. in which the sensations play a leading part.10 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING it read descriptions and see pictures of and then I of it (have ideas of it) in terms of touch. and taste which were taken from former would think experiences in which similar objects were present to senses. In many instances the object of thought cannot be present to the senses and. and surest method of acquiring knowledge is through perceptions. easiest. not so clear. more perfect portraits and. It would be extremely difficult to deliver the scene and the commodity directly to these same people. or a . early in the history of the race. Later. weight. and interesting as is the original The great danger with the printed thing described. however. a form of printed language in which the original symbolic spoken word is represented by a symbol. a pictorial writing was invented in which crude portraits were made to symbolize objects. Thus. It is its sim- and ease scene easy to de- commodity and to reduce the description to printed form that will be accessible to thousands. The original. The printed word is an uninteresting thing in itself and is only used because plicity scribe a it assists perception on account of of manipulation. a spoken language was developed in which spoken words were symbols for objects of thought. smell. distinct. Whether we think by means of perceptions or by means of ideas. but it should be observed that our printed words are nothing but symbols of symbols. furthermore. first. the processes of thought are made more rapid by substituting symbols for tlie original. the original material of thought my and the forms of thought come to us in sensations. The description and illustration are.

ordinarily. for they are confusing to the eye and are not artistic in the full sense of the term. He has a choice between two kinds of symbols printed words and pictorial illustrations. but was abandoned because it \vas not so convenient as are the phonetic characters now in use. is compelled to rely on symbols in exploiting what he has to offer.PERCEPTION symbol is 11 that it will lose in perspicuity itself. the adver- thing symbolized. He cannot. provide the possible customer with that which he has to offer and thus allow him to become acquainted with the goods in the normal and direct way. but there no advantage in emphasizing the syma great advantage in emphasizing the In using printed forms. what it gains in convenience. the more interesting the advertiser becomes. but they have not remained in use. He is compelled to substitute the symbol for the thing symbolized. . Whether fortunately or unfortunately. all forms of type must be judged. There is is bol. The more the printed page has to say and the easier it is for us to interpret it it. According to the standard of ease of interpretation. Those forms of type and of illustration best perform their proper functions which are so easy of interpretation that they are not noticed at all. The first form of writing was picture writing. Type forms must not be regarded as a production of artistic demands. Picture writing could not be written or read so easily and quickly as the writing in the characters now in use and it was therefore discarded. but as a product of the demands of convenience. Hundreds of styles of "artistic type" have been brought forth. and interest The printed word has It almost no interest for us in becomes inter- esting only in so far as it symbolizes interesting things to us.

12 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING tiser supplies a very small part to the total idea which he desires to create. but in most series of A cases was black. The background for the white type was gray in some cases. The their attention The final results difference in the appearance of the type in many cases may be so small that even persons experienced in the . Scores of cards were constructed in which all the possible combinations of series of laboratory A same white and black were made and shown to a number of persons for such a short space of time that no one could perceive all there was on any sheet. Under these circumstances the subjects saw what first attracted and what was the easiest to perceive. In other cases one half of the sheet had a black background. It seems quite certain that. experiments were carried on to determine whether white or black type made the more attractive display in magazine advertisements. and he should therefore make this little mean as much as possible. showed that the black letters on a white background were seen oftener than the white type on a black background. Experiments were made with over five hundred persons. On part of the sheets black for one-seventh letters on white background and white letters on black background were shown. those advertisements will be the most often read which are printed in type which is the most easily read. and the other half of the sheet had a white background with words in black type. with words in white type. The results show that the ordinary more likely to notice display type which is black than a display type of the same sort which is it reader white. is experiments were made on the subject. other things being equal. Specially prepared pages were shown of a second.

and the writing. we are surprised that illustrations are not used more extenthis may more judiciously. means sider the value of be wise and even necessary. It may be a mere picture used to attract attention or it may be an "illustration" and printed words a real aid to perception by assisting the text to tell the In the first case it story which is to be presented. There have been several investigations carried on to determine the relative attention .PERCEPTION choosing of type the 13 not be able to tell which one and yet the difference in their values may be great enough to make it a matter of importance to the advertiser as to which type he shall may is more legible. use. The illustration is frequently used merely as a of attracting attention. At a single glance we can usually read about four words. would be called an irrelevant illustration. The first form of as stated above. At a single glance at an illustration we can see as much as could be told in a whole page of printed matter. The width of perception for illustrations is very much more extensive than it is for printed forms of expression. If the matter of the proper use of type is of importance to the advertiser. and its function as a In a few cases symbolic illustration is disregarded. in the second case it is relevant. that is to say. it is even more important that he should make a wise use of the illustration. most simple and direct form of graphic representation sively as well as through the picture and not through the printed word. was picture writing. which is the second form of symbol at his disposal. the width of perception for is is about four. The illustration may perform either one or both of two functions. but when we conan illustration as a symbol.

make a very decided sensation. yet it seems certain that the attention value of relevant illustrations is greater than had been sup- posed and that the irrelevant "picture" is frequently not so potent in attracting attention as a relevant illustration would be. To one unacquainted with the illustration and with the goods advertised. all. Although far. When the child becomes . for in that way we help We determine the perception. when in reality they may attract the attention of no one except the person who designed them and of the unfortunate man who has to pay for them. Similarly there are many illustrations produced and inserted in advertisements because they are supposed to assist the perception. in general. its value is enhanced and twofold. reached are not so decisive as might be desired.14 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING the results thus value of relevant and irrelevant illustrations.. Irrelevant illustrations are produced merely because they are supposed to attract attention. When we want looking letters. Which one of these functions is the more important might be a profitable question for discussion. The designer of the illustration and one familiar with the goods knows what the picture stands for. the illustration in an advertisement should have the double function of attracting attention assisting perception. but when these two functions can be united in the same illustration. to teach a child the letters of the we do not secure some "sketchy" and artistic but we secure those which are simple choose those which in outline and of a large size. They are supposed to tell the story of the goods advertised and to be a form of argumentation. the illustration is no illustration at alphabet. and so for him it is a symbol of the goods and tells the story of the special advantages of the goods. Under these circumstances it seems that.

sticks to try -After that 'cause 2. Those who forget this principle are likely to construct illustrations which do not illustrate.C The kind that keeps' - WAX WAX is the the iron CLEAN (&SMOOTH EEC. In forming perceptions there must at first be a large element furnished by sensation.P. NEW YORK No. pwwwwwwuwwywHW' F.never satisfy they can be had from your dealer FLAME PROOF CO. As an example of this sort of illustrations we reproduce herewith an illustration from magazine advertising. best Put up in little wooden tubes with an automatic handle that keeps the wax in position and and most economical prevents waste The neatest and nicest way that wax can be used for ironing purposes Laun- Wax dry AND for sold we 5 two-cent stamps will send you 2. 1 .PERCEPTION letters 15 more familiar with the alphabet. whether the perception be formed from an object directly or indirectly from a symbol. he can read small and those which are not printed so plainly. Their symbols are only symbols for those who are well acquainted with the goods advertised.

None of them had ever taken the pains to figure it out. zine readers. One of them thought that it was an advertisement of Bibles. The advertiser desires to produce certain perceptions and ideas in the minds of the possible customers. For all is sufficient to others the sensation is not sufficient to call up the necessary elements to complete the perception and it has no more meaning than a Chinese puzzle. P. The sensation which does not emwhich have something body a perception is of such little interest to us that we pay no attention to it at all. C. and the heavy black border. It has nothing which it seems to be trying to tell to those who turn over the pages of the magazine. wax (No. but when their attention was called to it.16 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING This advertisement for F. they agreed with me that that was probably what the "artist" had inWe were unable to interpret the white dots tended. None of the ladies had interpreted the cut in that way. When my attention was called to it. I saw the resemblance between the cut as a whole and the cover of an ordinary Bible. We to say notice those illustrations and say it plainly. I Wax" is intended for a cut of a stick of the wax. itself into The material means with which he may accomplish . We disregard in general those things which do not awaken in us a perception. and so does not attract their attention. translate it. C. 1) seems an attempt to tell a great deal about the goods by means of an illustration. It took me some time to to be and after I had interpreted it as far as showed it to some ladies who were magapossible. The white space is evidently intended to look like the bottom of an iron and the border containing the words "F. To those familiar with the advertisement the sensation aroused by the cut produce the desired perception. P.

wax (No. A specially wax it imported wax. P. 2) appeared several months later than the one given above. the latter is cleaned is orice all rubbed over the odor. these in turn em- body themselves into perceptions and ideas. It . chemically treated. C. NEW YORK No. These sensations seem so unimportant that they are frequently F. The newer cut is really an illustration. so that when iron. tide of it never loses shape. giving the as if my magic. and is good until the par- wax is tisecU The handle saves your substitute fingers from bunis. tteoiawaittxtspcih jour toning and jour temper. P. C Wax last is it an automatic wooden holder. which in the first instance awaken sensations. 2 forgotten and the place which they are to take in forming the desired perceptions and ideas is disregarded. \7 WHY A y II <) * Because each fine cut stick of in F. It prevents work that beautiful silky polish sought for by the laundress. which keeps from dripping.PERCEPTION this 17 end are printed words and illustrations. and is inserted here to illustrate how an advertisement may be improved in the particular point under discussion. This second advertisement of F. send to tab tor two sHcJo to fltt Wrior poor trie to > *&?* - FLAME PROOF COMPANY. P.

first of all. but there is danger that it will be regarded as meaningless scrawls by the laity. The advertiser is so familiar with what he has to offer that he cannot appreciate the difficulty the public has in getting a clear and complete perception by means It is of his advertisements of the goods advertised. . the designer. The text and the illustration should.18 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING helps perception by giving a sensation which is more It furthermore decided and more easily interpreted. attracts attention and tells the story better than could be done by any text. be clear and should in every way possible assist the mind of the possible customer in forming a correct idea of the goods being exploited. and so it will not receive a second thought from them. almost impossible to err on the side of clearA sketchy illustration may appear artistic to ness.

and by showing their mutual relations. and organs.APPERCEPTION 19 III APPERCEPTION ANATOMY is the science which divides the human body into its constituent parts. The attempt has been made to divide the mind into a definite number of separate faculties (anatomy). Physiology is the science which describes and explains the different functions of the human body. but no one function ever totally occupies the . It is not composed of memory. etc. but at certain times employed in reasoning it one time may be feeling more than at others. feels. and an thing quite attempt was made to define these faculties exactly and The function to describe their functions completely (physiology). knows. and in physiology we discover different functions. etc.. and by so doing are led into confusion. of each faculty has been described as somedifferent from the other faculties. wills. association. and at more intensely than at others. reason. The attempt has failed and has been abandoned. The mind is not a bundle of faculties. reasons. No one function is carried on to the exclusion of all others at any one time. It supplements anatomy by showing the function of each of the bones. During all of its conscious existence the it is mind feels. field. In anatomy we divide the body into distinct divisions. etc. muscles. but it is a unit which remembers.. We often try to think of mind after the analogy of the body. and is a completed science when it has all of these parts correctly described and labeled.

The mind does act in a particular and well-known manner. and many other functions play a more or important part. on the table. . The it is first thing to be said about apperception is that the act of the mind by which perceptions and ideas become clear and distinct. but feeling. perception. it is said to remember. No one mental process is a thing existing apart and independent of other processes. The is very clear and the objects near it are comparatively so those a few feet away are very indistinct I am said to apperceive the bottle. less memory. attention. and which carries on an independent process. assimilation. association. and yet is a simple and well-known process. of the mind which is of great practical and We theoretical importance. at the same time. As long as I continue to look at the ink bottle ink bottle the objects distant from the table are not visible. and even some which are not on objects it at all. and other actions of the mind. I may look at my ink bottle on the middle of the table. recognition. which we have called The term has been used for two "apperception. feeling. . percep- tions. It includes sensations. or entirelv invisible. or centuries. and association of ideas may have entered into this process of memory.20 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING When the mind recognizes an event as having occurred in the past. The functions of the mind are not independent activities of the mind. It can best be very understood if discussed and illustrated from its various attention. I see it very clearly and I can also see." and is applied to a well-known process. aspects. but in every function suggestion. The anatomical method can never be applied to the mind. will. function. other distinctly. have no "apperceiving" faculty which is to be distinguished from all other faculties.

Some things catch our attention so slightly (are so slightly apperceived) that we are not aware that we have noticed them at all. Our attention to an object or event is an act of apperception if the attention is brought about by means of the relationship of this object or event to our previous experience. while some of the objects on the table stand out plainly. Furthermore. but as soon as I entered it recently I knew that changes had been made. but there are all grades of clearness. It is quite evident that "clearness" does not draw a set line between the various objects. while others are entirely disregarded. from the most clear to the most obscure. but to which I had paid so little heed that they were merely perceived and could not be said to have been apperceived at all. Most intermediary class. however. The second thing to remark about apperception is that It is attention of a it is more than mere attention. there are all degrees of attention. 21 Certain parts of the bottle are not noticed particularly. but they might easily receive more or less. I did not know that I had ever noticed the walls of the barber shop which I patronize.APPERCEPTION but to perceive the more distant objects. and I missed certain details which I had frequently seen. feel We that the mental process connected with the ink bottle and that connected with the other objects are different and yet there is an uninterrupted gradation from one to the other. particular kind. Certain things demand our greatest attention. for what we attend to becomes clear and distinct to us. while that which is not attended to remains indistinct. are of the pay a certain amount of atten- tion to them. We things. Apperception has been defined as the bringing to bear what has been retained of past . When considered from this point of view apperception is simply an act of attention.

by previous training to see more. to give weight This aspect of apperception has experience. we same drop of blood and says that he round bodies. looks through the microscope. work(i. recognizes the small round bodies as corpuscles. is the same except The differences in the results of the acts of observation must be due to the differences in the minds of the children.22 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING way new as to interpret. been most clearly brought out in the following quotato the experience in such a tion from Dexter and Garlack child : not learned any physiology. The reason that the third child saw more than the other two was that he was fitted "In the three instances everything the children. "Another child who has. looks at the will "A who has says that he sees nothing. sees some small physiology. notes that the majority are reddish. This combination of action of object ing on mind and the reaction of mind on object is known as the mind adds imagination apperception. it is and so comes to the conclusion that a drop of blood that he sees. looks for "A third child who has learned a little and perhaps finds a white corpuscle. To sensations coming from without these vibrations.e. looks at a drop of blood under the microscope. image-making) from within." The third thing to notice about the process of apper- ... and who has not previously looked through a microscope. He probably suppose. In order that we may see a thing properly it is not sufficient that rays of light should come from the object to the eye and nerve vibra- The tions travel along the optic nerve to the brain. to understand mind must be in a position to interpret. studied botanical sections under the microscope.

event. Nothing is regarded worthy of our consideration which does not relate itself to our previous In fact. . In the use of the microscope. ^each child added to its store of knowledge in proportion to the amount of previous training which could be brought to bear at this point. An object. or situation which has no relation to our previous experience fails to attract our attention. We All our so-called new ideas are composed very largely of old elements. we can imagine nothing which is experience. Things and events are only significant in so far as they signify The slight difference relationships which we know. out of relation to all our previous experiences. The first child had had no previous training in this or in any related work. and adds nothing to our store of knowledge. and could not direct his attention to child saw. but would not be seen by any one unfamiliar with our alphabet. between the letters "O" and "Q" is immediately noticed by us. They are unimportant for us because they do not unite themselves with our previous stock of ideas. and so was unable to profit by this experience. but must concapable tent ourselves with adding new elements to our stock in trade. because they mean nothing to us. We interpret own standards (our stock of ideas) all we things by our observe only those things which have significance for us. is not apperceived. of forming entirely new ideas. makes no impression on us. but by uniting the old with the new. He did not focus what the third his eye correctly. There are many important characteristics about the Chinese alphabet which we never observe. as cited above.APPERCEPTION ception is 23 that it increases our knowledge by gradually adding new elements to pur previous store of experience. we increase our store of ideas not by adding new and independent are not ones.

An advertisement which is constructed upon the principle that all parts of it should be attractive at the same time will so divide the attention that no part of it will stand out prominently. but our seeing may be of the sort of those of whom it was I frequently turn over said. The things which we perceive do make a slight impres- sion on us. If.24 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING The practical importance of this subject for the advertiser is found in the three aspects of the process as discussed above. . and which would therefore be apperceived by me. "having eyes they see not. but had not apperceived them. I had perceived them. We cannot apperceive a large number of things at the same time. The designers of these advertisements had not been successful in concentrating my mind on any particular thing which had a special reference to my previous experience. and yet in ten minutes afterward I do not know that these particular advertisements are in the publication at all." fhe pages of publications and direct my eyes toward advertisements and hold them there long enough to have noticed all the striking characteristics of them. all. there are too many details be so distracted that none of it will be apperceived. but they are so unimportant in comparison with the things that we apperceive that we may almost disregard them entirely. In the first place. and so it will not be noticed at superfluity of details should be strenuously guarded against in both the text and the If a single point of an advertisement is illustration. although it may all be seen ( perceived ) the attention may . some advertisementsnever stand out clearly and distinctly in the minds of the possible customers. A apperceived it serves as an opening wedge for the entire advertisement. however. of a We may magazine and see every advertisement turn over the pages there.

cause a sensation of sight. almost entirely on the number and kind of former experiences which it awakens. aim of the advertisement is to call forth activity in the minds of its readers and. but that is the smallest part of the result of your advertisement. it might be added. Your advertisement and all other printed matter is composed of a few straight lines antf a few curved ones. The advertisement is not a thing which contains within itself the reason for its existIn and of itself it is perfectly worthless. but what he adds to it. The child had nothing in its former experience which was suggested by the appearance of the drop of blood. as cited above. and to such they tell their story accurately and quickly. These. The same advertisement will call forth different amounts of activity from different readers. of a few dots. action of a particular sort. and so made no impression on him.APPERCEPTION The second point 25 for the advertiser to consider is that the apperception value (identical with attention valne in this case) of the advertisement does not depend so much on what the reader receives from the advertise- ment. . The advertisement which is beautiful and pleasing to its designer. and which begets activity in his mind. That which happened to the children in looking through the microscope happens every day to the readers of advertisements. and so it was not interpreted and was not connected with the child's former life. The drop of blood in the microscope brought forth no activity on the part of the first child who looked at it. and perhaps one or more colored surfaces. These visual sensations are immediately enforced by the previous experience of The value of your advertisement depends the reader. may be perfectly worthless as an advertisement. when seen. Some advertisements have a meaning to those who are well acquainted with them. The ence.

The magazine . to others they have nothing to tell at all. As an example of such advertisements we have reproduced the advertisement (No. 1) of Whitman's chocolates. . but at the it fails two crucial points it neither attracts attention nor assists in forming a correct perception of the goods advertised. 1 This looks like a very neat advertisement.26 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING To some readers they tell a confused or erroneous story . 1316 Chestnut Phila. As a proof of this statement it is but necessary to refer to the result obtained with this advertisement in a series of tests recently made. WHITMAN & SON. No. CHRISTMAS WITHOUT A BOX OF WHITMAN'S is NO CHRISTMAS AT ALL For sale everywhere Whitman's Instantaneous Chocolate Made in a minute with boiling mil* STEPHEN F. St.

but thought the advertisement had the The first of picture of a lady eating a piece of candy. cal maxim of advancing from the known to the unknown finds its justification here. One boy remembered that "Whitman's candy" was advertised. It of these attracts attention because it has something to tell. It is very difficult to get the public to think along a new line. After they had looked at all the advertisements they were asked to write down all the advertisements which they had noticed and could remember. these two none of the 516 persons noticed the advertise- ment sufficiently to remember that it This second advertisement (No. more at a glance than could be told in many well-formed was there at all. of Whitman's ap- would create a desire on the part of many young people to send for or to purchase a box It is an illustration of such desirable looking candy. which illustrates by helping perception.APPERCEPTION 27 containing this advertisement was shown to 516 young people between the ages of ten and twenty-five. 2) peared in a later issue of the same magazine. but feel sure that if the 516 had seen this instead of the other advertisement a very large per cent. The third thing for the advertiser to observe in connection with apperception is that advancement in knowledge The pedagogiis made by joining the new on to the old. the two probably referred to Huyler's advertisement (Huyler advertised in the same issue) and the second Besides certainly confused the two advertisements. but could not remember whose it was or what the advertisement was. I have made no tests of this advertisement. of them would have noticed it and It attracts attention and tells have remembered it. One girl remembered that she had seen an advertisement of candy. and it also sentences. because they cannot connect th& new fact with .

2 to get themselves noticed at all. For sale everywhere. Old firms find it difficult to article on the market. 1316 Chestnut Street. they cannot apperceive This makes it very difficult to introduce" a new it. STEPHEN F.e. Established 1842.. WHITMAN'S Instantaneous Chocolate Made In a minute with boiling milk. Frequently firms have resorted to questionable means to get the public even to notice them.28 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING i. A Token of Remembrance Always in Good Taste. It seems to be impossible for them to their propositions until get a hearing for the details of the public become familiar with their they have let . and new firms find it difficult their previous experience. No. introduce a new brand. WHITMAN & SON. Philadelphia.

They have taken but one step at a time. 29 of The promoters Omega Oil have been severely criticised for their goose. and then tried to get the public to interpret arguments in the light of that previous experience. It is frequently wise to carry on an educational campaign and to present single arguments. and is called up to strengthen and impress It is their each succeeding argument. It is quite possible that the expense of keeping the goose before the public was an unnecessary luxury. presented at first. They first let the public know that there was such a thing as Omega Oil.APPERCEPTION names and know who they are. and they took great pains to make this new fact known. and now they are in a position to get a hearing and to present the arguments for their commodity. and this activity may be if of for presenting the new elements. In writing an advertisement the public to be reached must be carefully studied. but they have been wise in not advancing their argument faster than the public was willing to hear it. The reader must first be appealed to by something which he already knows. and thus activity on his part is awakened. which. In exploiting a new com- modity the writer should ask himself what there is about his goods which will fall into "prepared soil" on the part of the reader. but the goose has introduced them to the public. not always necessary or even wise to attempt to present all the arguments for a commodity at a single time. but each argument has time to be assimilated and to form a part of his experience. and in doing this they were acting in accordance with the principles of apperception. They first gave the public some experience of Omega Oil. In this way the mind of the possible customer is not crowded with a lot of new and disconnected facts. would have met with no response made use .

but as an improvement or substitute for something which is well known. The reader's interest can be best awakened by appealing to his past whatever/ experiences.30 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING Nothing should be presented as something absolutely new. .

" and nothing is so convincing as our percepus. It is marvelously well adjusted for the functions which it has to perform. etc. Although each of the sense organs is a source of . This dis- Many covery was emphasized and the certainty of any and all our knowledge was questioned till the extremest sort Such a condition was abnorof skepticism prevailed.ILLUSIONS OF PERCEPTION 31 IV ILLUSIONS OF PERCEPTION IF there of. but when we it certainly is a great shock to us discover that under certain conditions our senses are not to be depended upon. and yet it was not one of the first to be developed. "Seeing is believing. but it has certain weaknesses and defects which are surprising. All the sense organs are the product of a long evolution in which the various organs were developed as instruments of communication by means of which we might adjust ourselves to our environments. as it is. Of all the sense organs the eye is the most highly developed. it is anything in the world that we feel sure that our senses (eyes.) do not deceive is but that they present the outside world to us just Some have been so impressed with the truthfulness of their senses that they have discredited all other sources of knowledge and are unwilling to accept anything as true which they cannot see. ears. mal and transient. tions. centuries ago it was discovered that under certain conditions even our senses deceived us.

out walking. while those over which the eye moves with difficulty are overestimated. Lines or distances over which the eye moves readily are underestimated. The arrowheads which are turned out invite the eye to go even further than the end of the line. No.32 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING illusion. necessary to look from one extremity of the line to Under some circumstances this eye moveis ment facilitated and under others it is retarded. I have conthe eye ducted experiments with very finely constructed instruments which showed that as I looked at the bottom line my eye moved further than it did when I looked at the upper line. judge distances by the amount of eye movement which is We the other. Any one who has had occasion to walk on railroad ties knows that the dis- When tance which he thought he had covered was much . The line at the top seems much shorter and the explanation is as given above. this chapter will be confined to a presentation of some of the most striking illusions of the eye. we are inclined to judge the distance traversed by the amount of effort we have put forth in covering the distance. 1 No. One of the most glaring of the so-called "optical illusions" is the illusion as to the length of lines. 1 shows two lines of equal length. The arrowheads which are turned in stop movement before the end of the line is reached.

2 moves over it readily and without any delays.ILLUSIONS OF PERCEPTION 33 greater than the distance which he had actually covered. As seen' extents are estimated according to the amount B of energy necessary to move the eye over them. In the case of these walks the distance covered is judged according to the amount of energy which the limbs must put forth to cover the distance. A In No. although the eye seems to run over them smoothly. correspond to the railroad ties curs when the eye is called upon and the smooth path. There is a constant starting and stopping which calls for the putting forth of an excessive amount of energy". every tie must be noticed and its distance from the next tie must be roughly estimated. and this stopping and starting at each dot requires more energy than it does to move the eye over an empty space of the same size. is an open space bounded by two dots. B is a space bounded by two dots broken by three others. When we walk over a smooth and well-known path there is no starting and stopping at all. The other illusions is judged to be greater than A. In walking on the railroad ties. . but movement is continuous and easy. A similar illusion octo judge of distances which. and. 2 the extents indicated by A and B are equal. there is a slight tendency to notice each dot. and the eye A B minium illllll F lillllllllllll No. roughly speaking.

you will observe that it is much easier than it is to move them up and down. and F appears much shorter shown pears than E or G. you move your eyes from right to left and from left to right. but the left-hand one appears to be much the larger. In No. In every case filled No.34 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING much in No. and these stoppings and startings cause us to overestimate the size of the square. Our conclusion from this would be that if we judge distances by eye movement. 2 and 3 are but a few of the examples which might be given to show that and that empty space is space is overestimated underestimated. All eye movements are made by means of the three pairs of muscles which are attached to each eye. Nos. As the eye passes over the left square there is a tendency to stop at each cross line. 2 are explained in the same way C apshorter than D. They are so adjusted that they can move the eye in any direc- but the pairs of muscles are not symmetrically placed. 3 the cause of the illusion is found in the fact that we base our estimation of extents upon the eye movements which are necessary to look over the field or extent being estimated. If tion. and as a natural consequence it is harder to move the eyes in certain directions than in others. . 3 the two squares are of eqjial size.

" We expect to see the horizontal arms of a cross shorter than the height of it. The error of expectancy will be chapter. and the result is very striking. 4 the horizontal and vertical lines are equal. 5 combines several different causes of illusions. if its No.ILLUSIONS OF PERCEPTION we would overestimate vertical distances 35 and under- estimate horizontal distances. Such is the case. 4 square does not look to be square. and in addition we must mention the "error of expectancy. but it is quite certain that all the explanations given above apply here. but looks as vertical sides were longer than its horizontal ones. but to most persons the vertical line appears longer. more fully discussed in the next . The explanation of this illusion is more difficult to find than that of the figures above given. A No. Measurements made along the dotted lines show the horizontal line to be about one-sixth longer than the vertical line. and so we are inclined to see it that way even when the reverse is true. In No.

The explanation of this No. 6 shows straight lines which seem to be decidedly The four horizontal lines are two pairs of straight and parallel lines. 6 . No.36 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING In certain positions straight lines look crooked and crooked ones look straight. No. 5 warped.

ILLUSIONS OF PERCEPTION illusion is that 37 we underestimate size of and overestimate the tal line is crossed small ones. by the comparative size In the shown the large side of one is next to the small involuntarily compare these adjoining sides. and so the illusion occurs. each horizontal As we overestimate the size of the acute angles and underestimate the size of the large ones. but upon the way the different rays There is when of light affect the retina of the eye. The explanation of this illusion is somewhat different from the explanation of the other illusions as given above. but the lower one appears to be much smaller than the upper one. size of two objects we ordinarily judge of adjoining areas. In comparing the figures side of the other. 7 shows two identical figures. the size of large angles Each horizon- oblique line by a number of oblique lines and each forms two acute and two obtuse angles with line. the straight lines must appear crooked to allow for these misjudgments. 7 No. In certain positions figures may appear to which are the same be very far from being equal. We another class of illusions which do not depend upon eye movement. size No. the rays of light reflected from We "see" objects fall them upon .

was not counteracted by my knowledge of the perspective and was very striking. thin people dress in white. Nor is this illusion 4 Red. the eye is that certain colors look closer than others. as the red might have stood out. Because of this we have come to judge objects not only from the eye movement. upon the The rays of light reflected guess at the weight of animals. For this reason white objects appear larger than black ones. orange. Thus red objects look closer than green ones.38 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING the retina of the eye. reduce their "guess" on white animals and add to the apparent size o ? black ones. Corpulent people dress themselves in black or in the darker shades of blue or green. red. Another source of errors is found in the fact which. The stock buyers of the West are often compelled to eye. I remember looking at a church window which had a red disk in a green background. is that the eye is not corrected The result of this defect in for chromatic aberration. but also from the size of the object as it is reflected from some colors spread themselves out. orange. Small. but. They the illusion . The red appeared to stand out from the green in such a remarkable manner that I was not satisfied till. I am told that they always. and yellow look larger than objects of the same size which objects are green and blue. The red and the green were in the same plane. I went to the window and felt of it. Tailors and dressmakers have taken advantage of some of the sources of illusions as given above. technically expressed. or "irradiate/' and so the image of the object as it is reflected in the eye is greater than the image of an object of the same size but of a color which does not irradiate. or yellow. confined to white and black. From large objects more light is reflected than from small objects. after the service was over.

as is shown in No. as is the case with B. 5. nor are tall ladies in the habit of wearing vertical stripes. The cut in No. but the ingenious advertiser will find the application. cated in No. and G If the designer of might be checkered like the left-hand square might have its dimensions indicated by vertical and not by horizontal lines. as is shown in the lower figure of No. It . tal position. Corpulent ladies are not found wearing checks. 1. 6. It is not the function of this article to suggest how the principles here enunciated might be applied to any particular concrete case. Ordinarily the illustration in advertisements of fountain pens represents the pen in a horizon3. 3. advertisers have never made a conscious effort to profit by illusions in their illustrations and construction of display. As far as the writer knows. The cut of the article might be so constructed that the eye would move completely over it or even beyond it. It might be of such a nature that the eye would not move over it readily. It of No. 4. E. as is indiposition. impression of bigness to an advertisement desires to give the an article which he is presenting. I have recently noticed some of the illustrations in which the pen is represented in a vertical This makes the pen look larger. This illusion is illus- trated in No.ILLUSIONS OF PERCEPTION know how to cover defects *39 and to produce the desired appearances. in which the distance between the two parallel lines is increased and decreased by acute and obtuse angles. which make the packages look larger than they really are. Its size might be made to appear greater by the introduction of acute angles. The Purina Mills put up their goodc? in checkerboard packages. 2. D. he might make use of some or all of the illusions given above. as is shown in No. It might take advantage of the error of expectation.

Finally. the part of the cut which is to look large might be colored red. yellow. The advertiser . or white. 7. will be seen. the cause of all illusions of perception is found in some maladjustment of our normal sense oris perfectly justified in taking of this defect of ours. orange. and in some cases this advantage could be done to advantage. as is done in the upper figure of No. If several of these principles of illusions could be employed in a single cut the effect would be astonishing.40 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING might be brought into contrast with some other figure which would give the impression of great size. As gans.

As he took it out and looked at it again he was very much surprised to see "Winter's Grocery" in plain type at the bottom. Winter's Grocery offered to sell several lines of standard goods at a very great reduction from the ordinary As my friend was going down town that mornprice. who was the head of a had frequently noticed these bills in his mornfamily. having noticed at some time the name of "Robinson Brothers" on qne of the advertisements. checked off what his wife wanted. had come to the conclusion that all these hand-bills were from Robinson Brothers. two grocery firms are accustomed to advertise on hand-bills which are placed in morning papers before they are delivered by the A friend of mine. As he entered Robinson Brothers' store he held Winter's advertisement in his hand and read off to the clerk the order which he was commissioned to make. and went down town. When the goods were delivered he was taken to task by his wife for ordering the goods at the wrong store and thereby failing to save the special reductions for that day. him either to remember the was not comforting to the clerk had smiled when he had held the advertisement in his hand and It way . ing paper and. ing his wife handed him the hand-bill and asked him to order quite an extensive quantity of the special bargains offered that morning. He took the advertisement. Illinois. On a certain morning the carriers. It so happened that the advertisement was still in his pocket.ILLUSIONS OF APPERCEPTION 41 ILLUSIONS OF APPERCEPTION IN Evanston.

1 zine. Union Suits Sold By B:si Dialers Ewry No. but such has not been the case. that the cashier stopped work and scanned him the advertisement while the order was being given. page and the Munsing goods one-fourth. which appeared in Everybody's Maga- v&ASIlC RIBBED. the Oneita goods occupied three-fourths of the It seems that there should be no confusion about this.42 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING He even believed he remembered ordered the goods. The Munsing people received a num- ber of letters of inquiry concerning the Oneita union suits.. 1) of a full-page advertisement. and In the reduced reproduction (No. For persons desiring union suits this full-page .

assume that the two lower quarters are equally attracUnder these circumstances it will depend upon tive. portable houses if attention will immediately be attracted by the advertisement of Mershon & Morley. It does not the reader himself as to whether he will see the portable houses or the pens. The upper right-hand quarter it is of such a nature that arrests the reader's attention as he turns over the page. He wrote to the Munsing people. An advertising manager of a progressive magazine saw this page and. look down. Under these circumstances the lower quarter which appeals to the reader the most strongly We may for the present receives the most attention-. 2) the Conklin Pen the upper right-hand quarter page Company occupies left- and the lower hand quarter page. but the following illustration will show how naturally such an error could occur In the reduced reproduction of the full-page adver: tisement (No.ILLUSIONS OF APPERCEPTION advertisement was 43 all supposed to be an advertisement from the manufacturers of the Munsing underissuing wear. Confusions often arise between advertisements which present the most dissimilar kinds of goods. It might seem surprising that the advertisements for portable 7 houses should be confused with the advertisement of pens. like many other readers. but merely arrests it and causes one to left-hand quarter draw attention -to the lower more than it does to the lower righthand quarter. supposed that it was all one. making them rates on the full-page advertisement. It is of such an indefinite nature that it does not direct the attention to anything in particular. and enclosed the page from which the half-tone was made as shown above. and he will take it for he has been thinking of he wants a portable house his If .

Morley have positive proof as to very many such confusions and they are of the opinion that they have received as much benefit Mershon & Morley Portable Houses No.44 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING granted that Mershon Morley have used the entire half of the page. This conclusion is not right-hand for Mershon merely hypothetical. Mandel Brothers of Chicago advertised a special brand of writing paper one morning and during the day Mar- . 2 from the upper right-hand quarter as the Conklin Pen Company has. to very Department store advertising leads many more illusions of apperception than are ordinarily detected.

I have frequently observed that people misread advertisements." Hatter A has made his name so well known that when a possible customer sees an advertisement of hats he at once begins Last summer Hatter B advertised a to think of A.ILLUSIONS OF APPERCEPTION shall Field 45 & Company received forty orders for this brand from people who believed that Field's and not Handel's were advertising it. however. Hatter A is not willing to have his name or that of his competitor mentioned. Here is what she wrote: "What sensations are more agreeable after exercise than a hard rub with a towel and a rub with Armour's toilet soap. His name was on all the advertisements. particular style of hat very extensively. for he does not desire to see the present condition changed. Of two hat firms of Chicago one puts great emphasis on its own name and style of the hat sold. and a dash of water? Armour's soap may not be very . was not the important or the emphasized thing. I asked her to write down as full an account as possible of some of the advertisements in the magazine. After they had read the advertisement through many persons still supposed that it was A's advertisement. After a young lady had completed "looking through" a magazine. The name. the other emphasizes the For convenience' sake we shall and the second "B. In some cases the mistakes are astonish- ing. of course. Field's roughly estimated that they receive as many as thirty orders weekly which are known to be due to illusions of apperception in which Field's receive the benefit of competitors advertising. call the first firm "A" address. His position can be appreciated when we learn that he sold over twenty dozen hats last summer to persons who thought they were getting the hat which they had seen advertised by B.

3 All those structure and first present were much functions of the sight." What she had read was the following "What sensations are more agreeable than those following some good. interested brain. dred persons to write down a description of the adverThis confusion tisements which they had just read. in 1896.46 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING but it valuable. If the Ivory soap is not positively essential. is very refreshing after exercise. saw nothing unusual about the the position of but observed various Later it and fissures of the brain. a rub with a rough towel. Armour's soap may be bought at any store at five or ten cents a bar. is but one of scores of simiof Armour's and Ivory soap lar confusions which I discovered. have since that time shown the picture to various perconvolutions . 3) was exhibited. quick exercise. at picture. it was not a photograph of dawned upon them that I the brain at all. a scrub with Ivory soap and a dash of cold water? : . At an international congress of psychologists held in Munich. in the of Many the them. No. . but was a group of naked babies. it is at I asked several hunleast delightfully cleansing/' etc. . an alleged "photograph" of the human brain (No.

can see equally well No. The following cut (No. The figure itself represent equally well either a rabbit or a duck. When I see it as one it does not seem possible that it could ever look like the other. a rabbit and then look at it. time I could see Now as either a brain or a group of babies. 4 \ should be to represent a duck and then turn my eyes upon it. but cannot possibly suggest both to me at the same may time. 5) differs from the one given immediately above in several important par- . The following illustration (No. but other persons are likely to see the babies at once. it ceases to look like a it it If I look away from and think how duck and is the likeness of a rabbit. I find that I cannot see it as a brain at all.ILLUSIONS OF APPERCEPTION sons and have noticed that those 47 who are familiar with the brain first see a brain. behold If I think how it should be to represent it is a duck. for the two things are so totally different in appearance. but it it every time I look at I see the babies and there is scarcely any resemblance to a brain there. photograph of a brain I did not notice the babies for several seconds then for some first The time I saw this . 4) differs I from the one it last discussed in this particular. in two different ways. If I continue to look at it steadily for some minutes it changes from a rabbit to a duck and then back to a rabbit.

this way. for it is the one which takes the cut for just what it is and adds nothing to it. can be seen in at least four different ways. No. or oblique angles. however. but as a strip of cardboard bent at right angles plait like an accordion and situated in front apparent background. The one given below ticulars. but we see it much more readily in one way than in any other. to see it as a representation This latter inof the same stairs as seen from below. This fourth interpretation is the one that would apparently be the most natural. way It is quite possible. It is still more difficult to see the figure as a plane surface composed of straight lines without any perspective. . acute angles. not as a staircase of the at all. and we seem to have no preference as to which way we shall see it. and if at the same time you direct your eye to the point marked "a" in the terpretation is made easier if cut.48 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING either of The one given above is seen equally well in two ways. 5 The it easiest as a to interpret this figure is to regard representation of a staircase as seen from above. It might be added that the angles in the staircase figure It is difficult to "see" the figure may be seen as right angles. It is possible to interpret the cut. you think just how the stairs would look if seen from below.

. These changes are assisted by moving the eye from one part of the figure to another. but it is different in that the figure seems to change under the eye more rapidly No. the blocks seem to fall and to arrange themselves in a new way. If it is looked at steadily for some seconds.ILLUSIONS OF APPERCEPTION 49 No. 6 than the others. 6 is like the previous illustrations in that it can be seen in more than one way. In looking at solid figures or bodies our eyes usually rest on the nearest edge or surface. It comes about in this way that the lines at which we look are very likely to appear to be the nearest edge or surface of the solid. It assumes two or three different ap- pearances in a very few seconds. 7 consists of a group of either six or seven blocks. No.

If you look at No. 8. 7a No. the number changes. 7 you will probably find six blocks. 7b desired results are not secured." at first sight. If the No. 76 and retain its image in your mind you will be able to find seven blocks in No. . 7 an image of "it in your mind while you count the blocks in No. la and hold If at first there No. 7.50 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING were but six blocks. appears to most people as a book which is half opened and turned in such a way that the No. turn the page upsidedown and the blocks will then certainly "fall. however. If. you first look at No. for while they are counting. Many people find it very difficult to count the blocks. there may be seven there after they have fallen.

If we try to think how a book should look when opened and turned away from us. 8 and yet it appears to be flat. and is visible.ILLUSIONS OF APPERCEPTION cover alone T 51 To some it will appear as if the book was opened toward them and as if two of the pages w ere visible. we can of it as the of it as a then see the top of the figure as a book. appear red to me. The upper or feathered end of the arrow (No. If I put on green glasses all objects appear green. If we cover up the shaft of the arrow as shown in this figure. glasses which were before my eyes. if we then the book of which tion in look at the figure. but if book it immediately appears as a we think we think solid drawn in perspective. while No. The objects are colored by the In a similar way. 9 and head that one appeared as a solid. it will appear to represent we are thinking and also in the posi- which we imagined it. 9) is identical with No. If end of an arrow it is flat. If I . S No. the thoughts which are in my mind by apperception. We see things color all the objects at which I look. all objects put on red glasses and then look at a landscape.

We see most of which we happen to be thinking or of which we have had previous experience. The rose may be red. In a I fail to see the green grass when I am way thinking of the red rose and I fail to see the red rose I when am thinking of the green all grass. look.52 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING own eyes and with our through our is own minds. as illusions it assists and to avoid him to discern the causes of such them in his advertisements. For the practical advertiser the theoretical discus sion of the illusions of apperception has a special importance. but it will not appear so to similar me till I take off the green glasses. but we see with difficulty those things of which we have had no previous experience. although both are easily those things present the time. The first of these facts is the peculiar and distinctive cause most illusions of apperception. The presentation may be lacking in clearness because in some particular it is ambiguous. The second cause of such illusions is that the presentation of the case is not as clear and distinct as it should be. By observing the part which these two causes played of in the illusions given above we are better prepared to understand and therefore to avoid such illusions. This It is equivalent to saying that all we see is changed by the thoughts which are in our minds when we also equivalent to saying that we see everything 'in relation to our own previous experience. The principal cause of all illusions of apperception is found in the fact that the mind of the reader is not prepared for the reception of the case as presented. The reader's mind may be unprepared either because it is distracted by a competing thought or because the material presented is entirely new. Although the grass is green I am unable to see it as green till I remove the red glasses. The householder who misread Robinson for Winter had his .

The confusion by which readers supposed that the portable houses were presented by a full half -page ad- vertisement is a typical illusion of apperception." thought in mind they looked at the Oneita goods. The Oneita people are in part Knitting Company. Minneapolis. The readers of Everybody's Magazine looked at the lower right-hand corner of the page and read "The With this Knitting Company. which was given at the bottom. The readers had their minds preoccupied by the thought of portable houses." The Conklin Pen Company did not make it perfectly clear houses. Winter had not succeeded in occupying a place in his mind. In the confusion of hats referred Hatter A had made his name so familiar to the residents of this city that when they read a hat advertisement they did it with their minds preoccupied with the thought that it was A's advertisement. It came about in this way that when they read B's advertisement they read it as A's and failed to notice B's name. The more recent advertisements of the Oneita union suits have an address given and therefore are not so subject to illusions of this sort. and so the attention went to portable and not to "The Pen That Fills Itself. It is quite possible that B might have greatly reduced . to.ILLUSIONS OF APPERCEPTION 53 inind preoccupied with the thought of Robinson. responsible for the illusion in that they allowed their W. Robinson's and Winter's advertisements look as much alike as two peas and neither has a characteristic feature which would help to identify it. while Robinson had. On the other hand. N. but failed to notice that they were not sold by the N. W. that the hand was pointing to their space. advertisement to appear without an address and on a page with a similar advertisement which has an address.

The firms that advertise extensively and do not fail to put the proper emphasis on their names and addresses are the firms that profit most by . of the figures the reader can voluntarily preempt his mind with a thought and then can see in the figure that of which he is thinking. With slight changes all of these figures could be remodeled so that it would be much more difficult to interpret them in any way except the one which the author desired. The figures given above illustrate the same principles of illusions of apperception. interprets a written. They ai*e extremely ambiguous.54 the THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING number his of confusions if he had put more emphasis own name and address. if not in all. more ways. He can in this way interpret each figure in two or possibly do. These figures also show the need of clear and distinct presentation. printed. should also be observed that the soap advertisement did not emphasize the name of Ivory at all. and can with equal ease be interpreted in two or more ways. just as the inexperienced proofreader reads the proof as he thinks it ought to be and fails to observe some of the most glaring errors. upon The young lady who misread Armour's been influenced by for Ivory had extensive advertisements of Armour's which had appeared in her town. By means of these figures we can see the part the mind adds to a sensation when it. She had associated the name of Armour and soap so closely together that when she read of soap she naturally assumed that it was Armour's and failed to see Ivory. That firm which does the most and the best advertising is the one that preempts the minds of the possible customers and so gets the benefit of more advertisements than it pays for. but they make it clearer than any confusion of concrete advertisements can It In most. or drawn symbol.

Such a theory sounds well. and its address. weakness of the theory when applied to tisements. 55 New firms and firms that put little emphasis on their names and addresses would be much surprised if they knew how many possible customers read their advertisements and still fail to notice who they are. . specific adver- but the instances of confusion cited above indicate the In this chapter we have confined our attention to illusions in which the reader has confused one advertisement or one figure for another. to the specific arguments r of Since we have positive evidence that these extreme illusions are not uncommon. but are confined to confusions and misunderstandings as the advertisements. They assume that if any one wants the goods thus presented they will take the trouble to ascertain the brand of the goods. Ordinarily illusions do not go to this extreme. w e can well believe that illusions of a less extreme but serious nature are of all too frequent occurrence. the name of the firm. The number of such illusions would be materially decreased if the writers of advertisements would see to it that the minds of the possible customers are prepared for the argument which they are about to write and if they would present their arguments clearly and distinctly.ILLUSIONS OF APPERCEPTION confusions. Many advertisers believe that they should put all their emphasis on the quality of the goods.

I can hear in imagination how the piano and the violin sounded . The odor and . I know that there were several magashape. I can form a mental image of the window and the magazines. the violin. I cannot form a mental image of some of the notes which I heard from . I notice. etc. But recently I was talking with a friend while a comthem is pany of young people in an adjoining room was playing on the piano and violin and singing college songs. miles away from that window. and even they seem to be quite low and of much less volume than the originals. but all I can see I of them now of is the barest outline. I can hear in imagination the tunes which they were singing that is to say. Only the more striking parts of the tunes seem to be plain. tell They are so indistinct that I cannot image what they are at all. Only an hour ago I ate my breakfast. saw the front I sit in Now. as study. My mental very indistinct. I can still see the magazines with my "mind's eye" that is to say. I can form a mental image of the sounds which I had previously heard. my . however. that my mental image is not so distinct and pronounced as the original perception. As I sit here I can imagine how my friend's voice sounded .56 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING VI PERSONAL DIFFERENCES IN MENTAL IMAGERY YESTERDAY I looked in at a shop window where the I current magazines were displayed. type. zines off to the left side of the window. can describe some of the covers accurately as to color. outer cover of over a score of them.

but we are likely to suppose that his thinking is very much like our own. It was assumed that the normal mind could form images of every- my . As is indicated by the examples given above. can imagine how it smelt and tasted. at that time. At the time I did not stop to think how it felt to "put the puck/' but I must have felt the exertion of my muscles as I performed the act. heard. which is so strong that excessively contact on my skin unpleasant I can form a mental image of the it makes me want to stop writing to scratch. or touched (with In general it might be said that we can form skin) a mental image of anything which we have ever perThere are many exceptions to this statement. It was formerly supposed that such was the case. Now I can form a mental image of the act I can feel my muscles as they make the strain necessary Now I . tasted. I can form a mental image of that which I have seen. for the performance. It was further assumed that there were no personal differences as to the clearness and vividness of such mental images. as will be shown later. thing which it had experienced. The exercise was very vigorous and exciting. my woolen underwear became I felt the and now sensation. . but the images of it are not very vivid and are not strong enough to give me any pleasure in recalling them. felt (in my muscles). Almost all of our dreams and reveries and a large part of our more serious thinking are composed of a succession of these mental images of things which we have previously experienced. I was perspiring when I left the pond and soon unpleasant. Last night I was on the ice playing hockey.DIFFERENCES IN MENTAL IMAGERY taste of the coffee 57 were at that time very pleasing to me. ceived. smelt. We cannot see the images in the mind of our neighbor.

was out of his hearing. it is perfectly clear and bright think of it with my eyes closed. I could do it without the least hesitation. He also found that certain persons could form mental images of one class form no mental images of other classes. of anything that etc. while for others the past was veiled in indistinctness. Prof. but could . The more I learn by heart the more clearly do I see . There is very little limit to the extent of my images I can see all four sides of a room I can see all four sides of two. etc. One who a good visualizer writes "This morning's breakfast table is : is both dim and eyes are bright if I : it is dim if I try to think of it when my open upon any object. to recall color than any other one thing if. three. William James. I were to recall a plate decorated with flowers. Thus. Galton. or even more rooms with such distinctness that if you should ask me what was in any particular place in any one. continued the investigations begun by Mr. He collected papers from hundreds of persons in which each one described his own image of his breakfast table. one man could not imagine how his friends looked when he was absent from them another could not imagine how a piano sounded when the piano of perceptions. I could . All the objects are clear at once. four. The color : was on the table is perfectly vivid. for example.58 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING In 1880 Francis Galton discovered that there was a great difference in individuals in their ability to form these mental images.. reproduce in a drawing the exact tones. or ask me to count the chairs. . of Harvard University. yet when I confine my attention to any one I have more power object it becomes far more distinct. He found that some persons could form mental images which were almost as vivid and strong as the original perception.

When I first used to think it following "I can look down the mentally seen page and see the words that commence all the lines. iv. but my mind is so occupied in looking at my printed page that I have no idea of what I am saying. . from what I have studied of other people's images. "Unfleur . . . my them found myself doing because I knew the was merely lines imperfectly. a poor visualizer writes "My ability to form mental images seems. and from any one of : is really the fact is. but I have quite convinced myself that I really do see an image. to be defective is : One who The process by which I remempeculiar. I cannot shut my and somewhat . "Tons . "Quefit "Ceres . I it. yet there is every reason to suppose that there is no exaggeration about it. Example . . . the faintest impressions of which are perceptible through a thick fog. I think. . . "Comme . word for word. but a sort of panorama. . the these words I can continue the line.DIFFERENCES IN MENTAL IMAGERY images of I see 59 Even before I can recite the lines pages. . . . ber any particular event is not by any distinct images. The strongest proof that such of the sense of this. . so that I could give them very slowly. . : "Etantfait . easier to do if I find this much the words begin in a straight line than if there are breaks. "Avec . . .)" Those who are poor visualizers are likely to suspect the writer of 'the above paper as exaggerating the vividness of his visual images. "A des . etc. "(La Fontaine 8. .

In my most vivid dreams. also the other noises. although I used to be able to a few years ago. and a football game. I have found that there is not only a personal difference in the ability to form visual images." I if I could Every year I ask each of my students in psychology to write out in full a description of his mental image of his breakfast table. where the events appear like the most real facts. a railroad train. cannot say what I see. In these papers are examples of as good and as poor visualizers as those given from the papers collected by Professor James. and the faculty seems to have gradually slipped away. is I see nothing in detail. I am often troubled with a dimness of sight which causes the image to appear indistinct. imagery writes as follows : "When I think of the breakfast table I do not seem to have a clear visual image of it. only very much washed out. To come to the question of the breakfast table. such as a train which passes every morning . and could probably see the color of the wall-paper remember what color it was. but I happen to know that I there are ten. as far as I can recall it. but that the same differences exist for the other classes One student who has strong auditory of perceptions.60 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING eyes and get a distinct image of any one. I can see the length of it. The chief thing a general impression that I cannot tell what I do see. though I can't tell the color or shape the white cloth and something on it. I can very plainly hear the rattle of the dishes and of the silver and above this hear the conversation. could vague. Perhaps the only color I can see at all distinctly is that of the tablecloth. Everything not possibly count the chairs. can't see the pattern of the dishes or any of the food. there is nothing definite about is it. but I of these. the three chairs. The color is about the same.

I hear the stillness intent and then the loud cheering. for I had supposed that such persons were great I was truly surprised when I found so exceptions. but do not see clearly anything or anybody. in describing his image of a railroad train." Another." Another. The element of sound seems practically never to enter in. can see the bell move to . Only of each separately do I clearly see them." when every one Here is I notice the I had read that some people were unable to imagine sounds which they had heard. When I try to conceive of shouts I am like one groping in the dark. interspersed . or smell them. writes "When there is I recall the breakfast table I see it it. for I instance. When I think of a breakfast table or a football game I have a distinct image. and fro. and for an instant seem to hear the ding. when I think As for the with table. and the persons around only one of The number them on each of them is distinct. many of my students writing papers similar to those : from which extracts are here given "My mental imagery is visual. dong but it is gone before I can identify it.DIFFERENCES IN MENTAL IMAGERY while 61 I we are at breakfast. differences of pitch and tone. who seems to have no vivid images of any : kind. I cannot possibly retain the conception of a sound for any length of time. It is : am not able to state whether I hear the train or I am inclined to think that it is a noiseless one. But they seem like mere objects in space. for side of the table. feel. but hear no sound. hard for me to conceive of the sound of a bell. Again in a football game distinctly hear the noise. all I see is a general whiteness. writes "I not. I see colors. as I seem to see things and not to hear. but it had not impressed me.

saw our breakfast table. I can see the scene quite perfectly. though I have tried to do so. I have been unable to recall this fall. they are as they are represented in a photograph. the position of the actors and stage setting. even the action of a player who brought out the sound. their images. . I cannot tell his particular characterI istics unless my : attention was formerly directed to them. One sound from the play 'Robespierre. and indeed the whole indistinct it bewilders me when I think of mental imagery is very vague and hazy. They find it impossible to think of such a thing as motion." Quite a large proportion of persons find it impossible to imagine motion at all. the One writes : "When word 'breakfast table' was given out I table at home. Likewise. unless I have previously taken special notice of what I now have an image.' by Henry Irving. As they think of a football game all the players are standing stock still. but no motion is represented.62 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING is so objects. The cloth seemed to be the most I can see each one in his place at the distinct object. when I have an image of a certain person. the banners and streamers are all motionless. I can very seldom recall how anything sounds. thing it. especially the table and the white tablecloth. which I heard about two years ago and which I could recall some time afterward. For instance. They are in the act of running." Another writes "There is no sound in connection with any image. cipally Others find that the motions are the most vivid part of What they remember of a scene is prin- " movement. My hear nothing at all. In remembering I call up an incident and gradually fill out the details. I can see no color except that of the tablecloth.

difference in his etc. When the word 'railroad train' was given. I cannot hear the noise finding of the train. his age. I believe my mental imagery more motile [of movement] than anything else. a seat. I feel myself come in. his environment. I seem to feel the movements most distinctly. hear the rattle of the dishes or the voices very distinctly . on the train . and in the motives which prompt him to action. how a fly feels on one's nose. distinct feeling I had. make a manner of thinking. I can feel the motions which I make during the breakfast hour.DIFFERENCES IN MENTAL IMAGEEY The dishes are 63 I cannot there. though I imagery is for either taste or smell. but can hear rather indistinctly the con- which I see. sit down. They can imagine just how velvet feels. and sitting down. A man's occupation. but are very indistinct. In appealing to people we ordinarily think of these conditions and formulate our .." A very few in describing their images of the breakfast table made special mention of the taste of the food and I have discovered no one whose prevailing of its odor. is ductor calling the stations. the discomfort of a tight shoe. these people were very indistinct. and the pleasure of stroking a smooth marble surface. I can see the motions of those about was the most I believe the feeling of motion quite plainly. With very many the image of touch is very vivid. getting It is their motions rather than the people themselves I can feel myself getting on the train. I saw the train very plainly me I saw the people just stopping in front of the depot. It is a well-observed fact that different classes of soci- ety think differently and that arguments which would appeal to one class would be worthless with another. and begin to eat. but neither are very clear. the voices seem much louder than the dishes. Al- can see some things quite plainly.

Tennyson. in which the "eye-minded" reader sees the scene while the "ear-minded" reader hears that which is being described : . the following passages. persons find themselves bored even by Victor Hugo's description of the scene of the battle of Waterloo. for example. Take. It to is quite certain that a person can best be appealed to through his dominating imagery. smell. A person who has visual images that are very clear and distinct appreciates descriptions of scenes. say. Sir Walter o'f Scott. tute of visual images that they are utterly unable to appreciate the description of a scene when it is described in visual terms. Washington Irving. Browning appeals most often and most exclusively to visual images. To them the whole scene is unimaginable Many I have unintelligible and uninteresting. Of all the writings "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" of is Washington Irving one of the favorites. One element of strength in this is the manner in which the author succeeds in awakening the different classes of mental imagery in the reader. we address ourselves to a particular social or indus- The study of mental imagery makes it evident that there are personal differences apart from differences due to environment. and many the authors who are universally appreciated. Dickens. but which are inherent in the individual.64 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING That is to argument in accordance with these motives. interested in observing that the authors which are been and therefore read with universal delight are those wr ho appeal to all the various classes of mental imagery. touch. The same holds true for the other classes of mental imagery. appeal and awaken many auditory images as well as images of taste. and motion. person with auditory A imagery delights in having auditory images awakened. Some well-educated persons are so destitrial class.

the pigeons were snugly put to bed in a comfortable pie. a necklace is of savory sau- sage/' etc. which is one of the quietest places in all the world. among high hills." As an example of the way in which Washington Irving could awaken images of taste and of odor. relishing ham not a turkey but he beheld daintily trussed up. This author not regarded as one of the greatest^ but certainly the fascination for his writings is found in part in the fact that in his imagination he could see the woodland. . like snug married couples.. he could taste the pies. the geese were swimming in their own gravy. he could hear the murmur of the brook. is almost the only sound that ever breaks in on the uniform tranquility. or rather lap of land. there is a little valley. with its gizzard under . its wing and peradventure. In I is : . A had wandered into it at noontime. when all nature peculiarly quiet. small brook glides through it. or tapping of a woodpecker. with just murmur enough to lull one to repose. examine the following. and the ducks pairing cosily in dishes. and the occasional whistle of a quail.. and tucked in with a coverlet of crust. with a decent competency of onion In the porkers he saw carved out the future sauce.DIFFERENCES IN MENTAL IMAGERY "Not far from this village. sleek side of bacon and juicy. 65 perhaps about two miles. his devouring mind's eye he pictured to himself every roasting pig running about with a pudding in his belly and an apple in his mouth . he could feel the bumps as Ichabod Crane rode . taken from the same selection "The pedagogue's mouth watered as he looked upon this sumptuous promise of luxurious winter fare. and was startled by the roar of my own gun as it broke the Sabbath stillness around and was prolonged and reverberated by the angry echoes. he could smell the fragrance of the orchards.

might do writings to see what sort. it might be wise An advertiser. but he did unconsciously what for us to do consciously. as well as well to examine his own any other author. of images he is appealing to. way variety is given and each reader is apin the sort of imagery in which he thinks pealed to most readily and by means of which he is most easily for in this influenced. he could feel the muscle contract in the brawny arms of Brom Bones. It is not the old horse to be supposed that Washington Irving intentionally tried to awaken in his readers these various classes of images.66 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING Gunpowder. It is in general best to appeal to as many different classes of images as possible. . Having all these images distinct himself. he depicted them so well that similar images are awakened in us in as far as we are capable of imagining what he described.

they movements of their hands and arms as they wrote. to assist them in forming an image of it. In this way one of the cues was abandoned. Formerly children in school They saw the word printed in their did more or less writing. Some years ago oral spelling was displaced by written spelling. and then felt the books. but one has direct bearing upon our subject of discussion. When they were called upon to spell a word they had all of these three cues to assist them in remembering how it was spelled. The reasons for this may be many. and they heard it. word. and.APPLICATION OF MENTAL IMAGERY 67 VII PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF MENTAL IMAGERY THE young men and women of to-day are accused of being poorer spellers than their parents. spelled orally.. their spelling will be better than if they omitted one of the three processes. the buyer. i. hear. and They thus had three it. "cues" for the word they saw spelling is being brought back to the schoolroom. and the commodity were brought together. in this way.e. Because of this fact oral so heard it how sounded. they felt it. and it was found that pupils made more mistakes in writing than those who had spelled orally. the oral one. In a former age the seller. The seller described and ex- and feel the . The scholar knows the word better and can form a more distinct image of it if he has these three cues to assist him. An attempt is being made to have the scholars see. they were called upon to spell the word in class orally.

and necessity. and with the increased need for more economical forms of transacting business. In the two older forms of barter appealed of to. In this transition from the market place and the commercial traveler to the printed page. with the growing volume of business. He tested them by means of every sense organ to which they could appeal. felt. In these latter days the market place has given way to the office. but the be of such a nature that the reader's senses are appealed to indirectly through his imaginaof the great weaknesses of the present-day advertising is found in the fact that the writer of the ad- One vertisement fails to appeal thus indirectly to the senses. His perception of them was hibited his wares. In this way the buyer became acquainted with the goods. smelt them. the printed page. The con- sequent separation of buyer. of the senses except the eye. if the senses of the purchaser were possible. is. word of mouth is the only feature which is of necessity entirely absent. as a form of advertisement. heard of them. Indeed. as complete as it could be made. the advertiser must be on his guard to preserve as many as possible of the good features of the older institutions. tasted them. has superseded the market place. seller. displacing the commercial traveler. the printed page cannot appeal directly to call special attention to the any argument may tion. and lifted them. How many advertisers describe a piano so vividly that the reader can hear it? How many food products are . in many cases.68 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING The buyer saw the goods. and in addition to this the word all mouth of the seller was added to increase the im- pressions and to strong In the printed page the features of the commodity. and commodity made the commercial traveler with his sample case seem a But.

and make no attempt at such descrip- In the first of this deficiency is twofold. This second ground for failure in writing effective advertisements will be made clear by the following examples taken from good and from poor advertisements. advertisers of pianos slightest appreciation of this Many example of this. but still be very undesirable. It might be beautiful and cheap. this. the individual writers are deficient in certain forms of mental imagery. For convenience' sake these advertisements are called good which are good according to the single standard here under consideration. "Good" and "poor" are used here in a very narrow sense. and therefore are not adepts in describing articles in terms which to themselves are not significant.APPLICATION OF MENTAL IMAGERY so described that the reader can taste the food? 69 How many ment advertisements describe a perfume so that the reader can smell it? How many describe an undergar- so that the reader can feel the pleasant contact with his body? Many advertisers seem never to have thought of tions. Other than visual images are difficult to The cause awaken when the means employed is the printed page." The Emerson advertisement is not peculiar because . do not seem to have the fact. 1). A piano is primarily not a thing to look at or an object for profitable investment. but it is a musical instrument. with the single exception that the word "incubator" is substiis Emerson piano tuted for "piano. In the second place. in which an entire advertisement first As a of the reproduced exactly. it is not easy in type to appeal to any other sense than that of sight. The chief thing about a piano is the quality of its tone. read the following advertisement (No. place.

CHICAGO 195 Wabash Ave. EMERSON INCUBATOR CO. 1 said of these two advertisements would hold true of the advertisements in the current issues of the magazines of the Gabler piano. and of many others. No. the majority of piano adverThe following advertisetisements are equally poor.000 Emerson Incubators in use! Write for illustrated catalogue and our easy payment plan. must be right or there reputation for better than a repu- A would not be to-day over 76. snuff or sau- What has been . bicycles. of its deficiency. perfumes. These advertisements apply equally well for paintings. BOSTON 120 Boylston St." Emerson Incubators TF any one * offers good " you a "just costs. Our prices.70 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING In fact. In it the word "camera" is substituted for "piano. fountain pens. E. however. as Incubator at a lower price than an better EMERSON it you had it buy but make sure is " just as good. DEPT. ment of the Vose (No. 2) belongs to the same class." reliable tation for goods is low prices.

.. They are not specific. the picture of the piano recalls the sounds of the music to a certain The extent . Boston No.APPLICATION OF MENTAL IMAGERY 71 sages. they do not make us hear The the piano in our imagination. CO. The musical scale suggests music specifically. rhythm of music. for she is . Send for catalogue and full information. but The advertisement rep- resents a Carola as superior to a easier to play. the lady at the piano suggests music. our easy payment plan. We allow a liberal price for old instruments in exchange. every family in moderate circumstances can own a vose camera. J By I . way to the essential characteristic of a of They awaken no images sound. and would be equally poor if used to advertise any of them.. and do not describe or refer in any piano. 3) vose CAMERAS HAVE BEEN ESTABLISHED 50 YEARS and are receiving more favorable comments to-day from an artistic standpoint than all other makes combined.. and deliver the camera in your house free of expense. 4) was an attempt in the right direction. A VOSE & SONS CAMERA 1 63 Boylston Street. You can deal with us at a distant point the same as in Boston. drum because it is little antiquated advertisement of the Blasius (No. 2 depicts the joy derived from the it awakens no images of tone. reproduced advertisement of the Carola (No. WE ! Challenge Comparisons.

ediment. Call at any hour durine the <lay. even if the school had to be opened evenings for that purpose. On the other. but those delightful dances that are so graceful. who already have a piano of the rarely used type. with a few monthly payments added. write lor is at r least one Player-Piano fully illustrated art catalog YOUR NAME & ADDRESS Factory Distributor Set Up Here By Your Paper No.the children provide their own music and amusement. On one. They can dance at any time. you Keyboard. Perhaps not those highly artificial drawing room steps.. and full of rhythm. the eighty-eight flexible fingers strike with the accuracy of a trained pianist. and artist. would bring to your home the piano which even a child can play ately the Nfodern Piano You WITH EXPRESSION. The mMmimrn-IPSdim with the delicate touch of an play by hand. No other Player-Piano has this Miniature Piano has two keyboards. II impossible to call. said of them "I would have dancing taught in every school. You will remember what the great educator. Your instru' . And how they enjoy it! C. have gone a long way toward owning an Inner-Player. and let us prove to you that ther winch does not sound mechanical." Bu you want your 't children to dance at home 9 And the 8? Piano AND PLAY is first aid and best aid. 3 . as a perfect piano. Stanley Hall. inside and out of sight.

and who can form but indistinct images of musical tones. what the price is. These : "Excellent expressions appear in the advertisement "the sweetest tone I ever heard. and a brilliant. 4 melodious in tone/' "like a grand church organ for power and volume. no matter \vhere you reside No. is not a good tisements for a music house. man to write the adverHe might improve his style of writing by reading selections in which the author shows by his writing that he hears in imagination what he describes and his descriptions are so vivid that he makes us hear it too. The text also uses words awaken images of sound." "sweet and tone/' May we Md to easily purehw* explain our plan enabling you the Blasius piano." The man who cannot appreciate the tone of a musical instrument. but is intent whose sole function is to upon her playing. sweet-toned piano.APPLICATION OF MENTAL IMAGERY 73 not turning around to be looked at (cf. and whether it is nourishing or harmful to my . In determining which foods I shall eat it is a matter of some importance to know how the goods are mantlfactured. in one. an advertisement of Ivers & Pond pianos in the current magazines). how it is prepared for the table.

Ind. and so have. When element. Superior materials and skillful workmanship insure this permanence of tone-loveliness. One would suppose that the food was to be taken by means of a hypodermic injection and not by the ordinary process of taking the food into the mouth and hence into contact with the organ of taste. Becomes ampler and more sympathetic with use. is We lars will send catalogue and full particuupon request. that makes my mouth water. taste. Box C THE PACKARD CO.. Address P O. The advertisers seem to be at a loss to know what to say about their foods. When I order groceries I order what I want the food pleases and tickles my palate. Under these circumstances all other considerations are minimized to the extreme. is the I look over a bill of fare I seek out what essential I think will taste good. The Packard tone is singularly rich and of " Practice " will not degreat endurance. Fort Wayne. 5 In advertisements of food products prised to note that I have been surif many foods are advertised as they had no taste at all. however. No. in many . that makes me smack my lips. stroy it. Lasting Tone-beauty what one demands in a piano.74 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING The one system.

Some advertisers of food are evidently chronic dysoffer a prize to the person peptics and take it for granted that all others are in the same condition. Standard of merit Endless watchfulness during manufacture. The two reproduced advertisements (Nos. are samples of such meaningless generalities. one who should suggest the largest list of goods which could be equally well presented by these advertisements.APPLICATION OF MENTAL IMAGERY 75 cases. Extra care exercised in blending. expressed themselves in such general terms that their advertisements could be applied equally well to almost any product whatever. Corn shells and dirt are THE BEST removed. Use of most improved machinery. 6 have been changed in each case. They have nothing to say about their foods except that they have wonderful medicinal properties. Cost no more than others No. I would suggest to these firms that they might improve their advertisements by leaving off the name of the goods entirely and then were advertisements who could guess what they or else offer the prize for the of. our watchword. the single exception that the These two advertisements are reproduced exactly with names of the commodities arc __ Best beans only are used. To me a food which is only healthful savors . taken from recent issues of household periodicals. 6 and 7). Adulterations not permitted.

8) presents their product in the most tempting manner. They de- The Smile that Won't Come Off the Grocer said.76 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING and sickrooms. According to this advertisement "Nabisco" is something to be eaten. o'er his kindly features spread that won't The Smile come oft Look to Qa> Coupon to the t>adce. 7 scribe foods in such a way that we immediately want what they describe. No. . More Parlor Matches No And other brand will do instead . of hospitals well man or There are advertisers who appreciate the epicurean tendency of the ordinary man and woman. and is something which a woman would not want. Of all the advertisements in current magazines perhaps the one of the National Biscuit Company reproduced herewith (No.

or Mint. Strawberry. Orange. separated with a creamy flavoring of Lemon.overb about reaching heart of a the best man is exemplified with NABISCO Sugar Wafers A an Fairy Sandwich with upper and lower crust of indescribable delicacy. Ask for your favorite flavor NATIONAL BISCUIT COMPANY No.APPLICATION OF MENTAL IMAGERY 77 That very old pr. Raspberry. 8 . Chocolate. Vanilla.

-J. and DETTER *-* leather has never been tanned than goes into Craws ford Shoes. 9 Its statements could not be applied to This advertisement has character and individuality. They do not say that Nabisco is wholesome. heat. indeed. delivery charges prepa MErrs STORES r Crawford Shoe Makers Mail-Order Dept. but when I read them I feel sure that Nabisco would agree with me. anything but foods or. ' No. . touch. $3. and cold.A. Room 36 St. That whv they wear so long..78 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING it is presented in such a way that it would seem that one cannot read of it without being convinced that it is good and something that he wants and the quicker he gets it the better. handle Crawford Shoes. ** New Y. If not sold in your vicinity we can fit yon througfi our Mall-Order Depart- ment Price.75 per pair. i. to anything but Nabisco. The skin is the sense organ by means of which we receive sensations of pressure. Individual attention is gi.

and guaranteed to give comfort. Shoe friction and inequality of They support at every point the series of arches of which the human foot is composed providing an inner space which the foorexactly fills without restraint. deformed feet. 10 to imagine such sensations. In the efforts made to clothe nd protect it. pressure.OSSETT INC. MAKER. Having experienced touch. and that cerwhich is the essence of good style. together with fine wearing quality. NOR.. sprained ligaments ruptured end fractured liaibs are the natural result of defective. They can be manufactured at a low price owing 10 admirable methods and perfection of machinery In short they are a typical pressure cause preat mature wear particular points.. custom-made shoe is over. instead of making the feet fit the shoes. as well as serious discomfort 10 the feel. tain character time the practical value of Serviceableness The day of the highpriced. ICWIS A. The experience of surgeons proves that a large proportion of joints. No. Some people are very deficient in from the imagining the sensations which we receive skin. The name and price is woven in the strap at the back of every Crossen Shoe. we should be able CRQ1SSE' SHOE) Regarding Shoe: in general human body 'Crossett Shoes in particular Crossett Shoes fit the feet. CR. They go far towcrd securing a safe step. MASS. cold. They have an individuality of design. There is no reason why footwear should not be comfortable as well as styl- ish and have at the same American product. One of the prominent characteristics of all . a firm gait and a graceful carriage.TB ABINGTON. The workmanship and finish of each shoe is theresuit of nearly twenty years of constant improvement la materials and methods. and to seek the pleasant and to avoid tlfe unpleasant. as the Feet. and. strange to say. heat.made up upon correct anatomical principles.APPLICATION OF MENTAL IMAGERY and 79 it is the organ which gives more "comfortable" and "uncomfortable" feelings than any other. weakened. Modern shoe manufacturing uses precisefythe same kind of materials.. and the comforts and pains connected with our skin. No other portion of the is so tortured. not a few of these deficient individuals have been put in charge of the advertisements which have to do with these very sensations.

that it gives us either a pleasant or its an un- pleasant sensation by means of contact with our Shoes are sold for different prices. The writer of this advertisement seems to have feet. The writer is one who can appreciate the comfort of a good-fitting and easy shoe. Lastly. 9). 10) the text matter is most excellent. if a few insignificant changes were made. but not last considered by the purchaser. They are things that we see with our eyes. artist does not depict and the author does not describe what he cannot imagine. It well be the advertisement of a leather pocketmight book. In the advertisement of the Crossett shoes (No. shoes come into close contact with our skins. been able to imagine the uncomfortable feeling of sore and of the comfort which his oil would secure.80 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING is clothing bodies. therefore consider the fit and comfort of the shoe. 11) surely could The appreciate the situation in a striking manner. A deficiency in shoe advertisements is found in the failure of the advertiser to imagine the comfort of the shoe advertised. therefore the price is to be considered. and to express it in his argument. and sensations that are either pleasant or painful result we must . . he has been able to imagine the sensation. therefore their appearance style must be considered. the advertisement of the Crawford shoe described Oil is a liniment that is supposed to increase the pleasant sensations which we receive through the Omega skin. The artist who drew the sore feet (No. and he has it so vividly that the reader feels in imagination the comfort of a Crossett shoe. As a typical advertisement of this sort consider very common (No. They are things that wear out sooner or later. we therefore must consider their durability.

M. 12). and strengthen and comfort your feet in a manner that you I hivt bn trovblfd wltb wt fret for the relief I list nine months nd tin numerous remedies wfHtout ihy very tn-hly ol Omen Olrepresented By his advjcr I contultrd my dniscttU *hft decided to five it a CriaJ ynd be lull ai toohijhly. Oatj. and get pores. A but it does not go foot-bath before retiring far enough. No. . OU to {ooa for tvcrrtiuflj t hoimeoi <ra|tii w 6e t*t fo. but that single advertisement.(e". tired at ni^ht Thar is bum and The Oil will go in through the clean open pores. has done a great deal to help the readers to form a distinct image of the liniment. feet a all Then rub Oil. The kind tired feet of strength needed for sortfc the kind of strength to bt Oil. 11 that "It's green. Omega Oil is Green' 7 The man who cares but taken so little for odors would not have much space to say that it "smells nice" (No. you you If strained. good bathing in warnt the impurities out of tht the feet thoroughly with Omega That is why why your feet are sore and they ache. itch.APPLICATION OF MENTAL IMAGERY Omega and 81 Oil is not only a thing which can be applied to felt by the skin. but it is also a thing that can be seen and smelt. Did you ever stop and think tlwt your feet hold up that bif weight for hours at a time every day ? Give your water. found in Omega are doing remarkably well. tired-out ligaments call for something just as The muscles and strengthening your stomach is calls (Or food. (No. is helpful you want to realize how heavy that about those weights is. DICK up something ano see now long your hands and arms can bear the strain * ffcan stand it a full minute. To many it might seem a little thing Omega Oil for so/e FEET The average man weighs about 140 pounds and the average woman about 20.

12 It may. and 'it is green for curing pain. be questionable whether such minor considerations for liniment as color and odor should receive so much emphasis as is given them here. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING In these three advertisements and others like them the advertiser of Omega Oil has shown his appreciation of the human mind to which he has been ap- It's Green altn/frdSl til I V/lllt e>U. however. As was shown in the preceding chapter. m No. and yellow liniments. Oil it green contains a powerful green Wops brown pain in color. . It Nature makes herb that gives is its green colored green to make it Omega Oil is green because Omega. -There are plenty of white. but there is only one Omega it its There is nothing like Omega Oil Oil. and it is this same herb that peopled bodies. but that not so. V/JU color. One peculiar thing about Some people. Most people pealing. just as there is nothing like the sun For tnkking rcsl daylight.82 13). think is it is look nice. many people are deficient in certain forms of imagery.

the greatest care should be taken to awaken those more difficult images. advertised are things primarily perceived by other senses than the eye. but the body of it is a pure vegetaInto this ble oil. a green herb that stops pain good deal on the same principle that a puff of wind blowa out a lamp. lot. 83 can imagine with some degree of satisfaction how things Not quite so many can imagine how things sound or feel. It has a peculiar and pleasant odor. those of sound. touch. good No. i. 13 for appealing especially to visual images if the commodWhen the objects ity was primarily a thing of sight. It is not made of turpentine or ammonia. Smells Nice Omega Oil can smell of that it You tell by the Ofl.APPLICATION OF MENTAL IMAGERY look. it also the nicest to use. or water quenches Jor evcrythiojr a liniment ought to t* a fire. oil is put four other Vhich a ingredients. Besides being the best remedy is in tho world for stopping pains.e.. one of is. Omega different is from any other liniment you ever saw. Very many have difficulty in imagining how This would be sufficient ground things taste and smell. .

That advertisement of musical instruments which contains nothing to awaken images of sounds is a defective advertisement.84 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING The man who is taste. It might be well for a young man who expects to make a profession of writing advertisements to make a If he finds that he test of his own mental imagery. etc. feelings.. The sense organs have been called ceive He windows of the soul. That advertisement of foods which awakens no images of taste is a defective advertisement. The function of the nervous system is to make us aware of the the sights. and (if always blind and deaf) cannot imagine sound. sounds.. smell. tastes. of the objects in our environment. The man who cannot imagine how foods taste will be greatly handicapped in attempting to write advertisements for food products. blind and deaf is cannot perceive color or hear greatly handicapped. The man who cannot imagine how a musical instrument sounds should hesitate to write the advertisements of a musical house. so the advertisement which is comparable to the nervous system must awaken in the reader as many different kinds of images as the object itself can excite. be cultivated.g. sights and sounds. pictures. etc. and. is peculiarly weak in visual imagery he should seek employment with a firm that handles goods other than those which are particularly objects of sight. by giving special attention to the sub- . spond to defective. e. The nervous system which does not resound or to any other sensible qualities is Advertisements are sometimes spoken of as the nervous system of the business world. to a limited extent. Forms of mental imagery may. The more sensations we refrom an object the better we know it. As our nervous system is arranged to give us all the possible sensations from every object.



one with a weak form of imagery may greatly improve upon his former efforts, in which he followed out his natural bent without considering the forms of mental

images which could be appealed to by his particular
class of goods.




EVERY one has wondered how it happens that a thought or idea has suddenly and unexpectedly entered his mind. Not infrequently the particular idea had not been entertained for years, perhaps it had no apparent connection with the present line of thought, and yet here it is, seemingly unaltered and as distinct as it had
been years before.

appearance of lawcertainly is the flight of thought in these minds of ours. We can go from Chicago to Peking; from the present moment to the building of the pyramids or the creation of the universe. We can pick out any object or event included within the borders of space or time. We can go from any one of these objects or events to any other in an instant of time, and whole multitudes of them may be passed in review in scarcely more than a single second. It would be difficult to


anything in the world has

lessness, it

imagine anything less confined and apparently less subject to laws than the human mind. Furthermore, no two minds are alike. Men differ as to facial expression in a much less degree than in the manner in which they think. However hopeless the task may seem at first sight, it is nevertheless true that from the time of Aristotle down to the present day great thinkers have been engaged in trying to find laws according to which the mind acts. They have not been content with the surprise which they have felt when an idea has unexpectedly entered their minds, but they have gone further and sought for the



laws which regulate this sudden appearance. Much progress has been made, and the mind is gradually being
recognized as consistent and law-abiding as are all other things in the universe.
readily see why we are thinking of particular things at a specified time. As I walk down a busy street, unless I am oblivious to my sur-




we can

thought is determined for me by the objects which surround me. My eye is caught by an artistically decorated window in which sporting goods



are displayed. My mind is fully occupied for the time with the perception of these articles. The perception
of one object is superseded by the perception of another, and in most cases nothing but the present objects are thought of, and this perception of present objects does not recall to my mind any objects which I have

seen at other times.

see a sweater I think of the sweater

It happens, however, that as I which I used to

wear, and then of the circumstances which attended its destruction. My mind is next occupied with the perception of clothing/ millinery, etc., as these objects, one after the other, meet the direct gaze of my eyes. At the sight of shoes I am reminded of my need for a


I ordinarily

pair; then of the particular make of shoes which wear; then of the pair which I purchased

a few months ago and of the circumstances attending the purchase. So I may go on for hours, and in a large part my thoughts will be limited to the perception
of objects and events which surround me, but in certain cases (e.g., sweater and shoes) the perception suggests a previous experience. In the case of simple perception the mind seems to act under the ordinary laws

of cause



The objects on the

street affect

me and

perceptions are

What my


me by
the external

thoughts shall be are determined for
objects which affect


Under other circumstances

sense organs. the mind seems to be in-

dependent of surrounding objects and to supply the food for thought from former experiences. This is especially true in dreams, sleepless nights, and reveries.
Its working is clearly seen in all cases where we are not distracted by external objects and do not attempt


to direct the thought along

any particular



read President Roosevelt's decision concernthe Sampson- Schley controversy. After retiring for ing the night I found that ! was thinking of the Rocky Mountains, New Orleans, the Boer war, an Evanston dining-room, the siege of Peking, the recent action of
time ago

the dowager empress, the American army and navy, and then of the Sampson- Schley controversy again. The

interesting part of each idea tends to suggest, or to recall to the mind some previous experience with which

had been previously associated. Sampson- Schley controversy, the interesting thing just then was that it had been reviewed by President Roosevelt. The interesting thing about. President Roosevelt just then was that he had hunted in the Rockies. The interesting thing about that was that he had ridden a horse. In a similar manner the horse suggested New Orleans, where recent shipments of horses had been made to South Africa. This suggested the Boer war, this a conversation on war by a young lady who had returned to Evanston from China. She suggested Peking Peking suggested the dowthis interesting part As I thought of the

ager empress; she suggested her recent actions; these changed conditions suggested the American army and

navy and they suggested Sampson and Schley, and they

the controversy.



As I walk along the street the action of my mind, even when not confined to bare perceptions, seems different from its action on the sleepless nighf. As far as the association of ideas is concerned, however, the

In the first case the practically identical. of external objects (sweater and shoes) perceptions

are effective in calling up ideas or experiences with which they had formerly been associated. In the sec-

ond case the ideas are effective in calling up other ideas with which they had formerly been associated. The statement of the law as it applies to both cases and expressed in general terms is "Whenever there is in consciousness one element of a previous experience, this one element tends to bring back the entire experi:


Things thought together qr in immediate succession become "associated," or welded together so that when one returns it tends to recall the others. The
sight of a shoe suggested the entire "shoe experience," in which I had entered a store, purchased a pair of
shoes, carried

on a conversation with the proprietor,


The thought

President Roosevelt


an entire "Roosevelt experience," i.e., President Roosevelt mounted on a horse, attired in a particular costume, amid particular scenery, etc. But I had had many other "shoe experiences" and


How other "President Roosevelt experiences." that the shoe suggested the particular happen

shoe experience which


had purchased recently, had examined years before?

and not tennis shoes which or the wooden shoes which


did not President

Roosevelt suggest his trip to see his sick son, or his African exploration, or his death, or his literary productions? Each "one element in a previous experience"

has been one element in


previous experiences.



of these previous experiences will be sugthe "one element" is the problem which is gested by of interest to us.

Which one


we knew a person's past history completely, and we knew the present external stimulus and the present condition of his mind, we could tell with some deIf

is to

gree of certainty what the next idea would be which enter his mind. The laws upon which this certainty is based are the three following

The first law is that of habit based on repetition. According to this law the idea next to enter the mind is the one which has habitually been associated with [the interesting part of] the one present to the mind.

The sight of a shoe, the printed word "shoe," the spoken word "shoe," and the^felt need of a shoe, each calls to my mind this particular make of shoes with which I
have been familiar for years. I have perceived a shoe as a "Douglas"; I have seen "Douglas" and "shoe" printed together; I have heard "Douglas" and "shoe" spoken together; I have seen the portrait of Mr. Douglas and a cut of his shoe appearing together; I have met my need for shoes with a "Douglas." All these associations have been frequent and have become so welded together with constant use that when shoe enters






habitual associate,


The second law is that of recency. If two things have been recently connected in the
mind, when one is thought of again it suggests the other also. One day I read and thought of the exportation of horses from New Orleans. I do not know that horses and New Orleans were ever associated in my mind but this single time, but the next day as I thought of President Roosevelt as mounted on a horse, the thought of



horse immediately suggested its recent associate, New The recency of this association made it efOrleans.
If I had read of this exportation a month before instead of on the preceding day, it is not probable that this associate would have been suggested.

that of vividness or intensity. If my present thought has been associated with a thousand different objects, that one will be suggested

The third law

with which

has been most vividly associated. When I thought of the Boer war, war suggested the siege of Peking because the lady who had returned from


China described the siege of Peking in such a thrilling war and the siege of Peking were so intensely


thought of war, war suggested The association between war and Peking was not only vivid, but was also habitual and recent, even if these latter elements do not seem


this particular association.

so prominent.

Psychologists are practically agreed that these are the three special laws of the association of ideas and that the "idea which shall come next" conforms to these three

simple formulae. The law of habit
the 'other two.



very much more important than one element has been associated

with one experience habitually, with another recently, and with still another vividly, the chances are that the habitual experience (associate) will be recalled. If, however, the one element has been associate^ with a
certain experience habitually, recently,


vividly, this

one element will certainly call up this particular experience and none of the multitudes of other experiences with which it had been associated.

The application of all The merchant desires so

this to advertising is direct.

to advertise his goods that



brand or article will be the only one suggested whenever his class of goods is thought of. Let the reader of this article test the truthfulness of the preceding analysis. Test it and see whether the laws of habit, recency, and vividness cover all the cases of association of ideas in your own mind. Think over needs in wearing appareL Where would your possible you go to supply that need, and what quality or make would you get? As you think of these possible needs
his particular

what names, brands, or analyze these ideas and

Now qualities are suggested? see if they do not all conform

to the three laws given above. You are probably surprised to see how many of the ideas are those which

you have habitually associated with that class of goods. Try the same experiment with articles of food, luxury, investment, etc., and you will be convinced that the advertisements which are the most often seen have a great advantage over those which are less often seen. Long years ago you formed the habit of putting your coat on in a particular way. Perhaps you put the right sleeve on first, perhaps the left. You have formed the habit of putting it on just one way and you will put it on just that way as long as you live. If you put on the right sleeve first this morning, you will put it on the same way to-morrow morning and every other morning. Of course you could change and put the left sleeve on first, but you won't. do it. The mind forms habits of thought and when they are once established they are
controlling factors in the action of the mind. As a boy I associated certain names with certain articles of mer-

saw a particular soap advertised in various ways. Perhaps it was used in my home I am not sure about that. This name and soap were so habitually associated in my mind as a boy that when I think of

soap this particular soap
not been called to


the kind I

am most

to think of even to the present time,


my mind so often of recent years as other kinds of soap. As far as the association of ideas is concerned, that advertisement is the most effective

most often thought

of in connection

with the

line of goods advertised, but the associations formed in youth are more effective than those formed in later

Their effectiveness is lasting years. influence as long as the person lives.

and will still have Hence goods of a

constant and recurrent use might well be advertised in home or even in children's papers, and the advertisements might be so constructed that they would be appreciated by children. Whenever I think of photographical instruments I

think of one particular make of cameras. If I should feel a need of buying a camera, I would find immediately
that I

was thinking of this particular make. If I were upon to recommend a camera, this one would alfirst.

ways suggest itself to me diately and involuntarily.
advertisement of cameras
decided prestige over think out the reason
gested whenever

It is suggested



particular case this successful and for me has a
If I try to



other cameras.

why this particular one is sugneed or think of cameras, it seems to me that it is because it complies with both the laws of I do not remember to have noticed habit and vividness. any advertisement of cameras recently, nor have I had any occasion to think of them for some time. I do
know, however, that for several years


this ad-

repeatedly therefore it is with me an I also remember that at one time habitual association.
I read a booklet published



company and that


me profoundly


is for



vivid association.

This one time you had seen a very striking advertisement. For instance. you found that in some cases goods were suggested that were not the ones habitually thought of. This emphasizes the necessity of keeping up the repetition to make the habitual most effective. one vivid and intense association of hats and Smith was so strong that at the very thought of You hats Smith's name presented itself too. to form the most recent associate. You thought of Smith and hats at the same time. also noticed in your experiments that certain were suggested of which you had not recently goods thought and of which. the effectiveness of habitual associations is all the Although more lasting the longer the advertisement is maintained. or had heard the goods highly recommended by a friend. and in some cases they prevail over the merely habitual. and thus take advantage of the prestige gained by former adverOnly by frequent advertising are the habitual tising. but those which had been recently in the mind. Perhaps they had only been brought to your attention this single time. and the two thoughts were so vivid that they became welded together by the white heat of the mind. perhaps. associations formed and the recent associates constantly made. This shows that sometimes doing extraordinary things in advertising may succeed when It it is desired to make a great imthis pression and to have the associations formed under white heat. The recent associates are brought back to the mind with the greatest readiness. and so when hats are in the mind Smith must come with them. you had thought but once in your life. or had seen and used the goods. may be admitted that this sort of ad- . it gradually diminishes unless the repetition is continued.94 If THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING you made the test recommended above.

he will have such a prestige over all others that his success seems assured. If the and so the asso- merchant can make his name or brand to be the habitual. and vivid associate with his class of goods. I find that but yesterday I saw the words Burlington and Colorado together and thought the two thoughts together and so the association was recent. until now Colorado is no sooner in my mind than I find that Burlington is also there. and I gave it a large amount of attention or active thought ciation became vivid or intense. When I analyze this association to see how it has been formed. I find. consequently entire subject of association of ideas may be made clearer and more definite if. I remember that some weeks ago I had been attracted by the Burlington advertisement in which a book about Colorado was offered for six cents. This advertisement impressed me. and the association has become habitual. recent. The advertiser who attempts suddenly to take the world is by storm has "to go against nature" and at a very great disadvantage. in conclusion. In the third place. For years I The have seen the statement that the Burlington Kailroad goes to Colorado. is that the mind is in general gradually molded. In the second place. .ASSOCIATION OF IDEAS 95 The law vertising has been successful in some cases. The securing of this result should be one of the aims of the wise advertiser. I have thus thought Burlington and Colorado together. Lines of thought are developed and not suddenly formed. in the first place. I have thought the two ideas together repeatedly. its action in another concrete case is given. and every time they have entered my mind together they have become more tightly welded together. or associated. that for years I have seen the words Burlington and Colorado together.

The jokes stories told are appreciated and applauded. and to tell why he had enjoyed the occasion so well. I did not notice the fact that she was playing at all. jny library reading sister went to the piano and began playing some of the tunes which she had played years before. On certain occasions when friends are together all have a jolly good time. If I had paid strict attention to the short stories alone. them and had occasion to refer to them. they are so well told and so apropos The next day one is often that they are as good as new.96 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING IX FUSION was spending my Christmas vacaOne morning I was sitting in the my short stories. I was greatly disappointed upon reading them the second time to find that they were very commonplace and that ordinarily they would not have pleased me at all. been heard before. While I was reading. and which I had particularly enjoyed. A spirit of good fellowship The reigns. and every one is happy and contented. extremely pleasing. Even if they have all seem so fitting and pertinent. I paid partial attention to each and fused the music and the reading into one total impression which was I SOME years ago tion at old home. chagrined when he tries to relate the stories and jokes. they would have proved themselves to be very uninteresting. The stories may have been mere commonplaces and the jokes . As it was. but I thought the stories were The next day I remarked about peculiarly beautiful.



nothing but old standbys, but they did not stand alone they were enforced and improved by the spirit of good


fellowship which pervaded the company. The place, the stories, the jokes, the refreshments, the amusement, and the occasion all united their influences to make a

They were fused together, and their was what had so delighted us. Any one total-product of these things taken singly would have been insufficient to produce any\ pleasant result, but when taken collectotal impression.

tively each shines in a borrowed light. If I hold a lead-pencil vertically in my in front of my nose, the name of the



manufacturer printed on the pencil will be barely visible, if it is on the extreme right side of the pencil. If, however, I close my If I make a mark on the right eye, the name disappears. pencil directly opposite the name of the manufacturer and hold the pencil as before, both the mark and the


are visible.

my right eye I get a slightly different impression than I do when I look with my left are not conscious of these two eye, and vice versa.

disappears. As I look at the pencil with

If I close the right eye, the name If I close the left eye, the mark disappears.


partial impressions, for

we fuse them into one total imwhich gives us a better perception of the pencil pression, than is contained in the mathematical sum of the two
discussion of the result of this partial perceptions. fusion of the two impressions made upon the two eyes would be out of place at this point, but it might be


remarked that among these results are accurate judgments of the distance and of the thickness of the pencil.

we may be receiving impressions the eyes, impressions of sound through of sight through the ears, impressions of hunger or thirst from the body, and at the same time we may be thinking of former
At any point
of time



All these impressions, sensations, ideas, experiences. are fused together and have no separate existence. etc., Each plays a part in determining the whole conscious

impression or condition, but the parts do not exist alone. It is a general law of psychology that all things tend to
fuse and only those things are analyzed that must be analyzed. In the beginning we perceive objects as concrete wholes and then later analyze the wholes into

animal which a child sees should be would see the dog as a very different thing from what it would later appear to him. It would be a dog, but his idea of it would be so indefinite that he would not notice whether it had four or six legs, whether it had ears or trunk, nose or bill, or whether it was white or black. By later experience the child would learn that the dog was of a particular color, had four legs, two ears, that it barked, ate, and that it had certain other The expert in natural peculiarities and characteristics. history and the dog fancier each notice certain things
If the first

a dog,



about the dog that the rest of humanity never sees at all. grasp everything as a concrete whole first, and then by later experience we analyze this whole and add to it. The point to be emphasized is that we do not first
perceive the parts wholes, but that

and unite them



form the greater perceive the wholes and

has been comThere are cerparts. perceive pleted tain products of fusion which by most of us are never analyzed at all. This is the case with the sensations With every which we receive whenever we breathe.









diaphragm contracts and expands, the muscles raise and lower the ribs, the lungs receive and discharge a volume of air, the air passages in the nose and windpipe enlarge and contract. All these play a



part in making the total sensation which we call breathing, but we cannot with ease analyze the different parts. They are fused together, and as it would be of no particular benefit to analyze the product

we have never



and we never would have known that the

was the product




we had



We know

no object which

independent of

other things. In fact, the value of all objects depends upon the relationships which they have to other things.

think of things only in their relations, and these relationships fuse and constitute the object as we know Anthracite or bituminous coal,' yellow clay and it.
black loam, can all be thought of as pure and clean, but under certain conditions they become dirt. None of
these are dirt in themselves, but in certain abnormal positions they are nothing but filth. When bituminous
coal is on the face of the coal heaver
sible to think of it as coal. It
it is almost imposhas ceased to be coal and


has become dirt because of the abnormal environment
into which

has come.

The manner in which the environment fuses with an article and determines its value is well illustrated by food in a restaurant. The food may be of the very best quality and the preparation may have been faultless, yet if the waiter's linen is dirty and if the service is poor, the food does not taste good and his manner slovenly,
not appetizing. You may reason out that the waiter has nothing to do with the preparation of the food and that his linen has not come into contact with it, but all your reasoning will do you but little good. The idea of dirty linen and this particular food are in your mind indissolubly united, and now, instead of thinking of food

in the abstract, you are compelled to think of food in this



particular relationship, and the result is anything but

The same thing is illustrated in all places of business. Stores and offices have a tone or atmosphere about them, and everything they have to offer is seen through this
atmosphere. I heard a gentleman say recently that he had gone to a particular store to buy a certain article. The store was recommended to him and he was convinced that it was the best place to buy the merchandise desired. When he entered the store he found such a shoddy tone
to the entire establishment that he could not believe that

the goods which were shown him were desirable. If he could have seen the goods in another store he would have purchased them at once, but he could not convince

himself that the goods shown him there were what he wanted, so he left without purchasing them. We are

not able to look at things impartially and abstractly, but

we judge

of everything in the light of its environment fuses with its environment and the environment be-

comes a part of it. The principle of fusion

a subject which should be If carefully considered in placing an advertisement. we could think quite analytically and see the advertiseis


just as it


and as a thing independent

of its

environment, it might be profitable to place our advertisements on garbage boxes and in cheap and disreputable publications. As we are constructed, however, such

a course would be suicidal, even for a house dealing in The medium gives a disreputable and cheap articles. tone of its own to all the advertisements contained in it.
Personally I feel inclined to respect any firm that advertises in a high-class magazine, and unless there is some particular reason to the contrary am willing to
trust its honesty.

have always regarded handbills as



cheap and irresponsible, and usually think of the goods advertised in this way as belonging to the same category. In the course of a conversation, a very intelligent lady recently said to me that she never read the advertisements in any of the magazines excepting in her home
religious paper.

Here she read not only

all the


matter, but all the advertisements as well. I asked her why she read these advertisements, and she said that she knew they could be depended upon. She had the

utmost confidence in the editor and believed that he
firm advertising, and that by accepting its advertisement and publishing it he thereby gave it his stamp of approval. No advertisement appearing in this periodical was compelled to stand on its own merit
alone, so far as she was concerned, but had added to it the confidence inspired by this publication. The adver-

knew every

tisement and her confidence fused and formed a whole
in which the lady never suspected that any other element entered than those which were in the advertisement

The lady referred to did not read the advertisements in other magazines as a usual thing. I have seen
to see

her turn over the advertising pages of other magazines whether there was anything there that interested

She reads the advertisements in her favorite magaand merely looks over the others. In choosing the publications in which he should place

his advertisement, the advertiser should not only consider the circulation and the kind of circulation, but he should also consider the tone which each publication

would add

to his particular advertisement.

It is well to

have a large number of persons read your advertisement it is better to have those read it who are interested in it and have the means to purchase the goods advertised; but it is still better to have a large number of the right



kind of persons see your advertisement in a publication which adds confidence and recommends it favorably to

your prospective customers.

Your advertisement


to a greater or less extent, fuse with the publication in which it appears, and the product will not be your adver-

was prepared by you, but as it comes out of the mold into which you inserted it. The statement that a man is known by the company he keeps is not often challenged, and yet the statement would have been equally true if asserted of an advertisement as

of rascals,

If a



seen frequently in the


we think

at once that he has

become a

but do not suppose that he has reformed his associates. The honorable man loses his reputation by associating with dishonorable persons. An honest firm which advertises in a disreputable sheet

and brings its advertisement into association with advertisements of a dis-

reputable character lays itself open to suspicion. The firm may be so well known that it would not be greatly
injured by such a course, and it might by its presence Such raise the standard of the other advertisements.

a work of philanthropy


too expensive and dangerous


itself to the better





the other hand, a disreputable firm should place its advertisement in a high-grade publication and among honest advertisers, it would for a time at least enjoy

the confidence inspired by the publication and by the other advertisements. Every honest firm which advertises



however, that


dishonest advertise-

ments be


rejected, for, unless this is done, the honest The advertiselose and the dishonest ones gain.

ments of a publication are in the mind of the public all classed together, and if it is known that one of them
cannot be trusted,

are brought into disrepute.

Because of


this principle of fusion, it is imperative

that the advertiser should see that the make-up of the publication is not detrimental to his particular advertisement.

Your advertisement would be




the make-up, your advertisement of diamonds was placed among advertisements of a questionable character. If

should see an advertisement of an investment scheme

that guaranteed unusually large profits, I would suspect fraud at once and would assume a skeptical attitude.
If the

next instant I should read your advertise-

of diamonds, I would be suspicious and would hardly know why I was so. If the next moment I should


read the advertisement of a medicine that cured
of incurable diseases,

all sorts

and I on the other hand, I should see your advertisement placed among those which I knew to be reliable, I would be inclined to classify yours with the others, and would think that it was at least worth while to investigate the

my suspicions would be confirmed, be sure that your diamonds were paste. If, would

The cut here shown (No.

1) is a

good illustration of

the violation of the proper consideration of the principle of fusion in the make-up of the advertisements of a daily

paper. In a Chicago daily for June 22, 1902, appeared three partial columns giving announcements of deaths



Inserted in the middle column



advertisement for Dr. Sleight's fat-reducing tablets. It might be said that this advertisement would attract attention because of its position, but the effect of the

atmosphere of death and burials upon the fat-reducing
tablets is too apparent to need comment. Many of those who choose illustrations for their ad-

vertisements follow the philosophy of the Irish boy who said that he liked to stub his toe because it felt so good



when it stopped hurting. Many of us are unable to see how the boy had made any gain after it was all over, but he was satisfied and that was sufficient. The philosophic disciples of the Irish boy are found in advertisers who
have certain things to dispose of which will not do certain harmful things. First they choose an illustration which will make you believe that what they have to sell
DEATHSe residence June 24 at 9
Dif. A. G. A,


m. to

beloved husband of Dora Best, at Dearer, Col. and eon of Marie Best. Paulina .t. ; Funeral to-day at 1 p. m. from 413 Interment at Graceland. .Member cf Vemon 4.,Ro)il League,


^icncl by c^riages^to Mount QXlTCt O. H. 27. and Sila* Casej




Olivet, to-day.


Taylor it. bora

Jua. 23. at 1*0

William Malcolm,




*j^%fi^.M rsriJ




thence by








K.^S, '^
120 Dayton
papera please copy.


Dr, Sleight's


No. 1

Fat Reducing Tablets




what you do not want, and then in the

text they

try to overcome this false impression, and to that what they have to offer is not so bad after
of us are unable to see

show you all. Most



the advertiser has gained, he has succeeded in giving us logical proof that


his goods are not so

bad as we were at


led to think.

are not logically inclined, and we take the illustraThe best that tion and the text and combine the two. the text can do


to destroy the evil effect of the illustra-

Of course, when we read in the text that the

illustration does not correctly represent the goods,




ought to discard the illustration entirely and think only
of the text, but, unfortunately, we are not constructed The impression made by the illustration and that way. that made by the text fuse and form a whole which is the result formed by these two elements.

In No. 2 of the reproduced advertisements the advertiser wants to bring out the fact that his insect powder will not kill human individuals, but will kill insects.


line of his

of a picture of the skull of a person killed


argument would seem to be the exhibition by his insect He then confidentially assures you that his
ants moths,
all Insects


Roaebei. bed l,u B and


thoroughly exter-



through the'i?*b"ies haVn'J




for this reason


does not require a POISON to

'"iNStXDIE will also kill Insects on bird., chit-knit. plants, etc., and should be
fur g




and public institution? at 81, "). and fc Small package postpaid to any addresi

Put up ID cans for hotela

Jetterson Avc.,

Loui>. Mo.

No. 3

is "non-poisonous to human." Most people who notice the advertisement see the picture of the skull, but fail to see the "non-poisonous to human."



of No. 3 is trying to convince the pubthat his fountain pen will not blot. He shows us a cut of his pen doing just what he wants us to believe it

The "ad-smith"

will not- do.


we could look

at the cut, then forget

entirely and read the text without being biased by the cut, this form of argumentation might be successful, but that is not the way in which we think.

Advertisement No. 4 apparently illustrates the proprietor of the rug company as an escaped convict. The text makes no reference to this fact, but tries to impress

we make it a point to funjish homes complete with floor coverings that are proper. Carpet cleaning and laying. 5 the advertisement of a sweet- smelling cigar. but I would not have read that part of the advertisement unless I had had an abnormal interest in poor advertisements. Oar plan of selling all carpets from Admin- isters. sweet smelling is to show us Uncle Sam smoking a cigar which evidently has a very bad odor. is Advertisement No. 6 represents the "restful racycle. One of the most un- . that's onr specialty. The way the designer of the advertisement goes about it to convince us that his cigars are LEFT BEHIND.106 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING this is the upon us the idea that gentleman with whom we should deal. Ingrains. Rugs from old carpets. and Carpet Co. Moqnettes. Velvets. PetoskeyRugMff. In small type he. Advertisement No. feather renovating. 455 Mitchell No." and does so by displaying a lady on such a wheel being chased by an infuriated bulldog. Brussels. Davonnierres. manufacturer to consumer leaves OUB competitors out of the race. If it's Rugs. asserts that his cigars are not so bad. and we do not dupli- cate fine patterns.. are all on the list. to fact. Lid. 4 Street.

7 the author is trying to bring out the point that insects do not infest this particular brand of rolled oats. is this fact that bicycle riders are liable to be chased by dogs.ou^ don't :BlftTHDAY want a 'stlnkain: a' Riders Remember RACYCLE Reduced Rates to Resi- fo your country. although the insects do have a particular liking for this kind of oats. 6 customer to hesitate before she buys this wheel.O. No. SAiyi'S Do honor X. esearch Reinforces Racycle's Reputation.FUSION 107 pleasant things that can happen to a bicycle rider. because. they cannot sible To my mind this get at them till the can is once opened. practically tells every pos- II DE THE RESTFUL Racycle RIGID REASONABLE RADICALLY RIGHT FOR UNCLE anniversary dora. The writer of this advertisement. In his illustration he shows great crowds of insects swarming about it. . MIAMI CYCLE & MFQ. she is likely to be chased by dogs. COMPANY . if she buys it. WAI TON. If you examine the advertisement you see that. de Q I Representatives. Try the hi by all means. and sweet smpke on July 4th by smoking one of oil? exquisitely! delicious Request Rates and Reprints of Royal Racycles. flavored Billy Walton's 6c Straight dad Grand Duchesse Cigars They are the best cigars 'to be found In tswn and. &Ute A WM. In advertisement No. and one of the things which might deter some ladies from buying a bicycle. brand of rolled oats and insects are so firmly united that I cannot think of the food without thinking of the insects. M. by means of this illustration. Allddletown.. aro just what you want for a holiday treat tor your friends. 5 No.

and my idea was determined in part by associating the food with the Quaker. 7 and the product is something which is not appetizing and is a food which I do not care to taste. He THIS IS THE ORIGINAL HPACKAGE OF CEREALS Sanje_Quan(iJy as corjtairjecl iff usual(wo-ounc( Package (COLD MEDAL I For Sale by Grocers Everywhere The careful preparation given the contents of this package. He looks In No. and upon serving. Directions for Opening And Cooking on Each Can Chicago. portrait of a man who is disgusting in appearance. No. unequaled by any cereal ever offered to the public. justifies the manufacturers in claiming that it will keep indefinitely in good condition. THE GREAT WESTERN CEREAL COMPANY. .108 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING identified Ordinarily the Quaker Oats advertisement has been by the presence of the good Quaker. 8 we have a strong. fuses with oats. clean. DIs. hardy. and honest. I have always thought of Quaker Oats as something particularly clean and healthful. present a flavor and bouquet.

In an advertisement of food products the cut is corn- Short-sighted / He is man lacks penetration. ijnTcf yon ere A. that give* every food Quaker No other food has ever been granted that steadfast &voi in which Quaker Oats it held It ( mffijoa well-served breakfast tables. ot brain. it fills The way to preserve The one natural food that the strength of natural digestion better the digestion the better the prospect is to offer it only natural food. In a similar manner we know that the cut in an advertisement has is nothing to do with the food advertised. and we will not enter a restaurant if the waiter looks repulsive. yet he know is that the rep- resentative of the kitchen. SHORT-SIGHTED MAN. Cannot ee the other end bf the medical breakfast food nibfc .FUSION When this advertisement is before 109 me. No. fcealth. but even the strongest foods. I think that Quaker Oats are fit to eat only on condition that I abstract the thought of the food from that of this filthylooking specimen of last by sheer lack of exercises Any food that coddle* digestion A strong digestion might not be greatly weakened by a diet of rich foods. but the cut . 8 parable to the waiter in a restaurant. You'll see the reason. j digestion cannot withstand the weakening effects of laboratory Only a short-sighted man will deny that natural digestion must be relied on after all for assimilation shorwfghted man indeed all who the time roust weaken digestion of the food elements which the body demands. and the every need of body and nerve tnd clement in exactly the proportion* demanded by the human system. We the waiter does not prepare the food.

arguments.110 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING want the the representative of the food. in the association of advertisements. If those construct and place advertisements would consider this principle of fusion. they would be more careful in their choice of mediums. critical logical thinking. and are influenced by events in their totality without being able to analyze the ele- who ments which have united to form the whole. and events in their entirety. in the make-up and in the construction of the individual advertisements..g. (e. and each plays its are not able part in forming the total impression. They fuse all the impressions of a particular situation into one total impression. to think of the text without thinking of or being and the We influenced ~by the illustration. and we do not food if its representative looks repulsive. They are more inclined to take objects. in the first advertisement the deaths and funerals tablet advertisement) fuse. . All the advertisements here reproduced seem to be constructed in total disregard to the great principle of fusion which plays an important part in all our thinkIn all these advertisements the cut and the text ing. The ordinary man and woman are not accustomed to They are not accustomed to consider an object or argument on its own merits and independent of all other things.

and has faded rapidly. contain all the details of the actual ex- Immediately after crossing the street I could . has faded. the rattle and the roar of elevated trains ^ I saw the people. see their faces or hear their voices as I did yesterday. as I do so I recognize the experience as belonging to my past. cannot re- the teamsters looked nor what sort of were uttering. In short. we can live over the same experiences and can recognize them as related to our past. This is an act of productive imagination. Yesterday I was on the corner of Fifth avenue and Lake street in Chicago. in imagination. and of passing vehicles. I heard the shouts of teamsters. This knowledge of former impressions. in my imagination. I am therefore remembering my past experience. live over the same experience. To-day I can. or states of mind. I remember that there were teamsters and that they were shouting at their horses. can imagine how the jungles of Africa must look. so that.MEMORY 111 X MEMORY IMPRESSIONS once received leave traces of themselves. my memory It is not likely that original any memory neither does perience. is what I is known as memory. which have already once dropped from consciousness. in imagination. and the cars. the wagons. but I cannot. is it so vivid as the experience. As that I try to recall the street scene of yesterday I find I many member how cries they of the details have escaped me.

and his and their results are fairly well established and definite. write it. as the memory fades very slowly after the first for twenty minutes and what day. the observance of a few well-known and thoroughly established principles. Professor Ebbinghouse. Since he published his thesis many others have taken up the work. their best place. A year hence I shall probably have forgotten all about Our memories gradually fade with time. First. We forget very rapidly during the first few seconds.112 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING I could Lave described the scene much better than now. so that in twenty minutes we have forgotten more of an experience than we shall forget in the next thirty days. we can get others to remember for that time is of great concern. What the practical business man wants to know about memory can be put in two questions. how can I improve my own memory? Second. think how it sounded w hen r . of Germany. was the first to try to find out exactly how fast our memories do fade. minutes and hours. They have found that our memories are at two seconds after the experience has taken After two seconds the memory fades very rapidly. but every one can improve his memory by is repetition. it. What we remember a day is a very small part of our experiences. say it over to yourself Repeat it in all the ways possible say it over aloud. but it is the part which persists. look at it after it is written. for it is what we and they remember for longer What we remember times also. how can I so present my advertisements that they will be remembered by the public? It is not possible for a person with a poor memory to develop a good one. If The you want to make first principle sure that you will . remember a name.

and so cost me great effort of attention and frequent repetition before I had it As thoroughly memorized. and saw that these men and these events were all contemporaneous and together sance. unconnected dates would have cost unprofitable effort if I had been compelled list of them separately. Dtirer. Titian. If you want to remember a name. the invention of printing. In this way the process of learning will be so reduced that a single repetition may be enough. I connected them with the date of the discovery of America. and still the name may be retained. the time of the activity of Copernicus. details of a business or professional life which are connected in a series are not hard to learn. recall it at frequent periods and until it has become thoroughly fixed in your mind. The things which we think over. then you should pay the maximum amount of atname.MEMORY 113 you heard the name. tention to every repetition. pay the strictest possible attention If you apply the first principle and repeat the to it. are the things which we commit most easily and retain the longest. etc. classify and systematize. associated with anything else. As it was. The third principle is that of association. and made what is known as the Renais- The . for a long period of time. and thus get associated with our previous experience. The second principle is intensity. Holbein. At that time It was not this was to me an entirely disconnected fact. a boy at school I learned by repetition that Columbus discovered America in 1492. the application of the compass to navigation. Such a me much to learn all Michelangelo. At a later time pelled to learn the approximate date of the I was comCon- fall of stantinople.

I rememMiss Low. principle used by most persons who have "memory train ing" to sell. how to construct an ad- . I remember a friend's telephone. When the question arises. cannot possibly change it by any method of training. by thinking how unfortunate it is to have such a number to remember 13 is supposed to be an unlucky number. It is. dates. details of his business or profession. however. which is 1391. a method which was used by the Roman orators and has been used more or less ever since. A man may have no trouble from forgetting the yet may associated. for she is a short woman. All he can do is to improve on his method of acquiring and recording knowledge.114 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING are not soon forgotten. There is probably no one who does not make frequent use of it in attempting to remember names. The fourth principle name of and 91 is seven times 13. yet it is the frequently. The fourth principle is the one of least general cation. and similar data. We all appreciate the value of a good memory. indeed if an attempt is made to apply it is the appliit too becomes worse than useless. figures. training" a profitable business for the fakir. have a poor memory for all events not thus ber the is that of ingenuity. and are willing to pay any one who will tell us how to train This condition of affairs has made "memory ours. This method is applicable only to disconnected facts which we find difficulty in remembering by the methods given before. The third principle given above association one by far of the most importance. It is fairly well established now that one's native retentiveness is One who has an unretentive memory unchangeable.

The best remedy tooat. SSAJft Ox an< (be tbe Brain mat. 1) is of Vitalized Phos- We too frequently repeated in identical form.MEMORY 115 vertisement so that the reader cannot forget it. vigorous application of brain and nervous power is required. worry. It may be a crude and an expensive method. If not found at DruflcrfslX ** *>V m(M <** CROSS rS COLD AND CATARRH CURB. Embryo ol Has been used more than thirty years by thousands of active business men and women. but it has taken repetitions to secure the desired results. effect but it seems to be effective. nervous excitepression tnent. May we send you a descriptive pamphlet t PREPARED BY West 25th Street. Brain and Nerve Food. The advertisement that is repeated over and over again at frequent inter- vals gradually becomes fixed in the memory of the VITALIZED PHOSPHITES. Thus the reproduced advertisement phites (No. 1. and sore Xo. In existence for cold In the head By'matl. This method gains added by repeating one or more characteristic features. and by changing some of the features at each appearance of the advertisement. 60 cents. from whom sustained. from overwork. we find that the question is answered by the proper application of the principles enunciated above. on the This advertisement is engraved memory by the expensive process of mere repetition. many . cannot forget this advertisement. New York aty. and sleeplessness. increasing activity and vital force by feeding the brain and nerves with the exact food they require for their nutrition and normal action. promptly relieving the dc-. reader.

At no matter how little 'you it A drlivhtful No. and hence the effect of repetition is secured.116 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING of The reproduced advertisement (No. The advertisement which makes an intensive impression is one which the advertiser does not easily forget. This characteristic feature causes us to associate all of the series. This series of advertisements represents the central feature. but always in a new form. because the is never represented in the same way in any two of the advertisements as they appear from month to month. 2) of Cream of Wheat is but one of a series of advertisements in all which the colored chef appears prominently. the same colored chef time. . there is sufficient diversity. Similar statements could be made of a host of other excellent advertisements. 2.

and even to be seen by those who do not look at the advertisements in the back of the magazine if such persons still exist The intensity of the impression which an advertisement makes is dependent upon the response which it The pedagogue would call secures from the readers. 3) will not soon be forgotten by those who are induced to send the name of their dealer to the Pompeian Manufacturing Company. Such ! action is vital in assisting the memory of the readers. The back cover-page is valuable because when the magazine is lying on a table the back cover-page is likely to be turned up. In any experience it is the first and the last parts of it that impress us most and that get fixed most firmly in our memories.MEMOKY / 117 The methods for securing this intensity are many. Likewise the first and the last parts of any particular advertisement (unless very short) are the parts that we remember best. Pompeian Massage Cream (No. this action the "motor response/' even though it were nothing more than the writing of a postal card. The second cover-page is valuable because it is so likely to be seen first. advertisement which secures a response sufficient to lead to the writing of a postal card has a chance of An being remembered which is incomparably greater than The advertisement of that of other advertisements. because they make a greater impression on us. The first and the last advertisements in a magazine are the most effective. The bright-colored inserts and advertisements run in colors are remembered better than others. but in addition to that it is a valuable page because it is likely to be the first or the last seen by most readers. . Bright colors impress us more than dull ones. but a few examples will serve to make the method plain.

the result is ludicrous and futile. tration of a successful application of this psychological fact. But unless the attempt is successful. There much poor alliteration must be excellent. 3. who answer this advertisement will not easily forget it. Anything humorous or ridiculous even a pun is hard to forget. and even when we do not want to remember them the rhythm may make such an impression that we The "Spotless Town'' is an illuscan't forget them. and the advertisement flat. else they make the whole falls attempt seem ridiculous.118 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING Rhymes and alliterations are rhetorical forms which seem to be of great assistance when we attempt to commit verses. advertising being done at the present time in a futile attempt to produce a successful imitation of the "Spotless Town. Those. Furthermore. that . Cre No." The rhythm and the is.

can convince the reason at the same time that is forgotten. hard water soft 4. 5) . The reproduced advertisement of Gold Dust (No. <k GOLD DUST and you buy best TO"" U * t\tt 1 I . K. it is unwise to attempt Gold Dust Stands Alone In the washing powder Held either It has no substitute. while others think it funny. but does not to others. Advertising is a serious business. The reproduced advertisement of Rough on Rats (No. Tom must use GOLD DUST something Buy. GOLD DUST makes No. Anything will be remembered which awakens our emotions. Those who laugh at this advertisement will remember it. 4) seems funny to some. 4) pleases me and convinces me that the product is good. The advertisement of Gold Dust (No. The advertisement of Rough on Rats (No. ^ to present the humorous side of life. causes us to smile or to sympathize with the sorrows That which excites an emotion is not easily a good form of advertising. although it is highly valuable when well done. Inferior there is no middle ground. CUeaR-Mibn 0> FAIRY SOAP. 5) impresses some persons as silly.MEMORY 119 which impresses one person as funny may seem silly to another. whether the thing be ugly or beautiful. it and hence if it stimulates the feelings. whether it of others. and unless the advertisement is extremely clever. FA1RBANK COMPANY.

even if he suctf in my memory. I find that both advertisements have made an intense impression on me that they have stuck I see no prospect of being able to them soon. . does not convince me of the desirability of the goods. interest is not forgotten by the capitalist for he immediately associates the bond of which this statement is made with the group of similar bonds. and so the statement is remembered. forget The writer of advertisements must consider the principle of association. An evident attempt to be humorous. This is best done by appealing to those interests and motives which are the ruling principles of the reader's Personally. I should forget a recipe for a thinking. 5. and ordinarily does so.120 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING it is amuses me because so excessively silly. . The statement that the bond bears four per cent. cake before I had finished reading it. not as an isolated fact. and does not stand out as an isolated but as a modification or addition of something already in his mind. He should present his argument in such a form that it will naturally and easily be asso- No. It does not please me. cook it is full of interest. and does it unconsciously. ciated by the reader with his own former experience. fact. but to a.

Stocking Co. 346 Broadway.or EVERY THIJ COUPON . The arguments of an advertisement should be such as are easily associated with the personal interests and with the former experience of the majority of the readers.l. The wrong associations suggested. and if they were the purchasers of boys' stockings.. . it would be an excellent It advertisement.. and appeals to men as being a good advertisement. X No. New York * . . 6) is in direct violation of this prinThe advertisement was evidently written by a ciple.S itf... ings.o rOWBUk - ! M . (Eo. except those who pay .n.T TAJTE>|EP*-5TOCXPAIR I.t.GOLD KtHt. I. would be remembered by men... 6. THU? |&6W&^ 1 1 WORTH 01 CWJPOKJ mrt'/iBE REDIEMABUI Bymc THAtf AX/ MJ/K PAYJ 1THIU Here Is the opportunity to give your boy a lesson in the value of money and the growth of interest Buster Brown Stocking Co.MEMORY 121 but in connection with a whole series of facts which are constantly before his mind. .. The reproduced advertisement TXKRE of the Buster Brown w MONEY m 3 .JfloOLD BE _ I/CT C00PON WPRtJZttrs YoOR WVEJTXEVr OF 25* WKtrf YOO HAV8 r COOFOX FOR Befiy ARI TUT BtJT 2.jii>E.. man.. In reality the men do and so the advertisement appeals not buy the stockto those who have nothing to do with the business for the advertisement.

The number 33 stood out number was 33. and is neither impressive nor pleasing. It pleases by its very ingenuity. and will not disappoint any. although the product is a name for tools which of Figs" is a name contains no figs. cine which is not easily for a patent medi"Syrup is easily remembered. but not to a mother : a "Five per cent. 7 "Keen Kutter" forgotten. advertisement and forget the essential features of number was the same. for they are the laws which have been found to govern the minds of are concerned. and the cost of his suits. The principle of ingenuity can have but an occasional application. and at the same time fixed in their minds his name and address. more than any bank pays." "Give your boy a lesson in the value of money and the growth of interest/' "This is one per cent. He sold a business suit for f 33. Thus "Uwanta" is recognized as an imitation. Thus "Uneeda" is a name which cannot be forgotten. There were 33 letters in his name and address. and allows you the use of the principal. allowing you a share of our profits/' etc. all persons as far as their memories . but there are instances when it has been employed with great effectiveness. his telephone prominently as the striking feature of his advertisement and impressed many as being unique.122 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING to The following expressions appeal powerfully manufacturer. A His tailor in in such an ingenious street Chicago advertised himself and his shop way that no one could read his it. gold bonds/ "Clip your coupons and make money. The four principles enunciated above for impressing advertisements on the minds of possible customers are capable of unlimited application. although most of the attempts in this direction have been futile.

by These feelings and emotions are not grief. of the person experiencing them.THE FEELINGS AND THE EMOTIONS 123 XI THE FEELINGS AND THE EMOTIONS is meant by pleasure and pain. of these changes. etc. benevolence. better understood after we have attempted to define WE all know what joy and them. antipathy. even though significant. such as fear. and we are In the present chapter we are interested in the effect which pleasure and pain and the different emotions have upon the mind and the body familiar with them. love. hate. For the sake of brevity we shall use the word "pleasure" not merely to express such simple pleasures as tasting an appetizing morsel. is a feeling of expansiveness which . The word "pain" or "displeasure" will likebe used to express simple painful sensations and wise also emotions which involve pain. etc. and. sufficiently These effects are not recognized and yet they are of special sig- nificance to the advertiser. Every pleasurable and every painful experience has a direct reflex effect on the bodily functions and also on the action of the mind. all They are known only by experience. pride. are not directly detected without the use of Pleasures actually delicate recording instruments. accompanying the physical change. Some cause the limbs to increase in size. but also to express such pleasurable emotions as joy. These effects are widespread and important. jealousy. gratitude.

which greatly enhances the already pleasing experience. and gives a feeling of being stifled. Under the influence of pleasure the efficiency of the heart-action is greatly enhanced. Being pleased with what we are receiving. and this is accompanied by a feeling of depression. Pleasing experiences. we become receptive and expand that we may take in more of the same sort. Pleasure assists the rhythmical action of the lungs and adds to the depth of breathing. interferes with the normal action of the heart. Displeasure. We become extremely sug- . but they affect directly the action of all the voluntary and involuntary muscles of the body. Pleasures not only give greater strength to the voluntary muscles. and gives us a feeling of weakness and lack of confidence. This increase of blood supply gives us a feeling of buoyancy and increased vitality. hindered. These changes serve but to the already pleasing experience. increase our muscular strength and cause us to feel like men. We feel more like under- taking great tasks and have more faith in our ability Pain decreases muscular strength to accomplish them. and checked in carrying out our purposes. In pleasure the hands go out from the body. Pain interferes with the rhythm of breathing. the shoulders are thrown back and the head elevated. In pain the hands are drawn in towards the chest and the whole body draws in within itself as if to These actions protect itself against outside influences. This gives us a feeling of sluggishness and depression. pleasure our minds expand. With pain the limbs shrivel ia size. In of the body are reflected in the mental attitude. on the other hand. makes the lung to add action less deep. We open up and become subject to the influences in our environment.124 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING serves to heighten the pleasure.

If the juryman were discontented and hungry. well-breakfasted juryman is a capital thing to get hold of. In "Pickwick Papers. "jolly up. The modern business man does his utmost to minister to the pleasure of the customers in his store. . Dickens says "A good. When in pain we question the motives of even our friends and only suspicious thoughts are called up in our minds." of the one from whom means the pleasing by it is flattery desired to obtain a favor. of men have not been slow in profiting : by these facts. contented. light. The same pains must be The merchant attempts to please the taken by the advertiser in his attempts to please those The methods open to the to whom his appeals are made. In pain we are displeased with the present experiences and so withdraw within ourselves to keep from being and are We acted upon. he would be feeling pessimistic and suspicious and would believe in the guilt of the defendant. He knows they will place a larger order if they are feeling happy than if they are feeling otherwise. 125 likely to see everything in a favorable are prompt to act and confident of success." speaking from the viewpoint of the defendant. by courteous treatment. The American slang expression. are not easily influenced.THE FEELINGS AND THE EMOTIONS gestible. but that his thinkinfluenced by his present state of feelings. and are in a suspicious attitude toward everything which is proposed. Discontented or hungry jurymen always find for the plaintiff. These brief statements of facts serve to call to the reader's attention the mental attitude in which the person is Keen observers placed by the influence of pleasure and pain." that man is ing is Here Dickens expresses the fact not pre-eminently logical. and by every other possible method. customer by the appearance of the store. We refuse to receive suggestions.

It seems almost absurd to suppose that the position of the to . To be beautiful a thing must possess certain characteristics which awaken a feeling of appreciation in. It is true that the artistic judgment is not equally all.126 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING advertiser are relatively few and hence all available means should be employed most assiduously. The although they are able to appreciate his work. The colorist knows how produce pleasing effects with colors. certain combinations of sounds which are universally called harmonies it is not possessed equally by or at least and others which are called discords. but he appreciates the harmony of tones when he hears it. the normal person. He has acquired this knowledge which others do not possess. however. There are. In the present chapter the importance of pleasing the advertiser by appealing to his esthetic sense will be em- and suggestions will be given of concrete methods which are available to the advertiser in appealphasized. artist knows how to produce pleasing effects with symmetry and proportion of space forms. The musician knows what tones will harmonize and which ones will not. and others which are displeasing. The uninitiated does not possess such knowledge or ability. There are likewise certain geometrical forms or space arrangements which are beautiful. There are certain combinations of colors which are regarded as pleasing and others which are displeasing. Perhaps the simplest thing that could be suggested which would have an element of esthetic feeling connected with it is the bisection of a straight line. The man without a musical education does not possess such knowledge. ing to the sense of the beautiful. developed in all. although he is able to appreciate the work of the artist and can distinguish it from the work of the novice.

look feeling is not very pronounced. at No. 1. appears to be divided into two slightly unequal parts and the lower section seems to be the smaller. the esthetic As an illustration. but. is certainly the case. G. Look at the lines carefully and you will probably feel that the lines A. B. Such. but it divided at a point slightly appears to be divided into two is . 1. The line D above the middle. For this reason the line E. however. if a straight vertical line is to be divided into two unequal parts. and C are divided in a more pleasing manner than F. A series of bisected lines. is Which bisection the most pleasing? have the division come above the middle. In other words. This is not an altogether unimportant discovery. you prefer to ABCDEFOH No. In judging of vertical distances.THE FEELINGS AND THE EMOTIONS 127 point of division in a straight line would have anything to do with a feeling of pleasure. which is divided into two equal parts. we overestimate the upper half. as might be expected. Here we have a series of straight vertical lines divided by short cross lines. and H.

Line D seems to be perfectly symmetrical its two parts appear equal. The symmetry about this division pleases us. which is section. line that they destroy the feeling of unity in the line.618 times as great as the upper. it is the arithmetical expression of a simple proportion which is this the short section is to the longer : section as the longer section is to the sum of both sections.128 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING D is Many persons would say that the more pleasing than E.618. Although this fraction seems very formilong. which is divided symmetrically. Any division of a line which approximates this golden section is pleasing. B. which is known as the "golden The exact ratio is that of 1 to 1. and most persons would say that this line. C. so the divisions give diversity. The ratio of the smaller section of the line to the larger section in C and F is approximately that of 3 to 5. The parts are not so different exactly equal parts. while E appears as if an unsuccessful attempt had been made to divide the line into two equal parts. dable. which are not divided symmetrically. The two parts of the lines A. is more pleasing than A or H. the result is pleasing if the line is divided into two sections which are respectively 3 and 5 inches Exact experimentation and measurements of artistic productions show that there is a remarkable preference for this ratio. A line is divided most artistically. if the lower section is 1. for D appears to be divided into two equal parts. but a division which approxi- . That is to say. line is pleasing if its two parts are not too much alike and A not too different. They have equal. and H appear too unequal and the two parts of line E appear too nearly Lines C and F are very pleasing. if a vertical line is eight inches long. divisions which do not seem to be too much alike." approximately that of 3 to 5.

lines is most pleasing. we seem to prefer the emphasis on the diversity." The most pleasing relation. In fact. Unity and diversity are essential elements in all esthetic pleasures. or unity. 1 sideways. which are divided according to the ratio of the "golden section. while in horizontal lines the exact symmetry." In these divisions of straight lines into two equal parts unity is secured in the divisions according to the ratio of the golden section diversity is secured. In vertical . for most persons the symmetrical divisions of E seem to be more pleasing than those of even C and F. the lines will all be changed from vertical to horizontal. assume a new cease to be C division of a horizontal line is that of perfect symmetry and the next most pleasing is that of the "golden section. The divisions will now The divisions of lines A. G. The discovery of the most pleasing proportion between the parts of straight lines would be of decidedly more importance if we should find that the same ratio holds for the parts of more complicated figures.) to decide this question times without number. By ina very large number of such decisions we vestigating may be able to discover something of value.THE FEELINGS AND THE EMOTIONS mates the symmetrical division (and is 129 not quite sym- metrical) is displeasing. and the unity is not entirely lost. B. Is a rectangle more pleasing than a square? (For the sake of brevity of expression we disregard the fact that a square is a parMen have been called on ticular form of a rectangle. The architect is called upon to decide this question every time he constructs a building in which the artistic effect plays . and more pleasing than those of F. and H. If you hold No. E now seems to be divided symmetrically and is more pleasing than D.

playing cards. and all other objects in which the shape is determined to a greater or less extent by artistic demands. Look at the square and the rectangle height of the rectangle is to its base as 3 to persons say that the rectangle is have a preference for the square. mirrors. palaces." In fact. Which is the more beautiful V the picture frames which you have ever seen. museums. cottages. of all Think of the shape No. cathedrals. In most of these objects we find a very decided tendency to make the height equal the width. 2. books. A square and a rectangle. quently bear the same ratios as the height and width of the entire building. it was tecture. or else the height is to the width approximately as 3 is to 5. 5." because tecture. Careful measurement of such structures has revealed a striking tendency to approximate what we have learned as the "golden section. sheets of paper. The Most the more pleasing some in No. Think of the temples. periodicals. of window panes. . The individual rooms not infreequal to the width. 2. and all other structures in which the artistic element plays a large In a great proportion of these the height is not part. originally called the "golden section of archiit was discovered so uniformly in archiof the flags of all nations. envelopes.130 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING and it any part always should. In the square we have .

A is very careful investigator of the esthetic value of the different space forms gives some interesting results as the fruits of his labors. dimension of the rectangle exceeds the other approxi- becomes as great as forty per because the difference is cent. we have and the result is the ratio of the "golden more pleasing than it is for any other ratio of base to height. This is accounted for be- cause we overestimate than is its per cent. straight line 131 A Each line is equal to every drawn through the center of the figure from any angle divides the figure into two In the rectangle the height is not equivalent parts. The rectangle possesses both unity and diversity. When we consider that the ratio of one dimension to the other is but a minor element in the total esthetic . greater or less than its base. the effect is mately sixty per section/' cent.THE FEELINGS AND THE EMOTIONS a very decidei] symmetry. other line. the result is not satisfactory.. to the length. the figure is dis- pleasing because it looks like an imperfect square. The two dimensions seems to become too great and the unity of the figure is weakened. greater than the height is more pleasing than the perfect square. The square seems to possess much symmetry but little diversity. Thus the rectangle whose base the height of a square about three is three per cent. If one dimension of a rectangle exceeds the other by more than two hundred and fifty difference between the per cent. Thus. If the height of a rectangle is approximately eighteen per cent. If the difference in the twa dimensions of the rectangle pleasing great enough to make it evident If one that the figure was not meant for a square.. greater height appears to be a perfect square and so more pleasing than the perfect square. a rectangle whose base three per cent. but a line drawn through the center equal of the figure divides it into two equivalent parts..

is to 5. page and the "ordinary quarter-page (the upper right. upper left. Buildings that exceed in height the ratio as given here do not look beautiful." Next in jthe approximation to the standard is the division into upper and lower halves.132 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING effect. although he may be Thus in an entirely unconscious of any such intention. we are not surprised that we find exceptions to the conclusions reached in the foregoing. That which has been said of the square and the rectangle holds equally true for the circle and the ellipse. and lower left) approximate most nearly the "golden secordinary magazine the full tion. but the surprising thing is the lack of more exceptions. we call the buildings skyscrapers and regard them as eyesores to the American cities. lower right. . The fact that a right or left half-page may be next to reading matter makes this division more popular than it otherwise would be. The space used by an advertiser is usually a rectangle. In choosing this space. does the advertiser take into consideration the relation of the height and width which will produce the most pleasing effect? He certainly does and the space he chooses meets the conditions of esthetic pleasure as given above. This order of esthetic effect is also the order of frequency of choice of space. next comes the horizontal quarter. A building whose width is many times its height is usually ugly and is designated as a shed. A circle is a pleasing form which pleases because of its symmetry and regularity. and if the disproportion becomes great because of the excessive height. An ellipse that is too much like a circle is much less pleasing than an ellipse in which the smaller diameter is to the greater one as 3 The same holds true of a triangle also. and last the division into right and left halves.

) Some advertisers have used narrow spaces which extend entirely across the page. symmetry and proportion as given above. Dotted lines are drawn to indicate the vertiIn this we see that the subdivisions are cal divisions. is certainly more pleasing of the vertical subdivisions . It is to be hoped that no publisher will allow the pages of his magazine to be chopped up into vertical quarters. No mention has been made of small advertise( but what has been said of the larger spaces holds ments. for the effect would be most laws of inartistic. Every subdivision of the display and of the text is The horizontal divisions are strictly bilateral centered. As a typical example of bilateral symmetry as well as pleasing proportion in an advertisement we reproduce herewith the advertisement of the Butler Paper Company (No. The effect has not been pleasing.THE FEELINGS AND THE EMOTIONS 133 Turn over the pages of advertisements in any magazine and look at the different spaces to see which class of spaces pleases you most and which least. The artistic subdivisions of spaces follow the Almost every artistic production can be sub-divided into two equivalent parts by drawing a vertical line through the middle Such symmetry as this is called bilateral symof it." which serve*to divide the text into two unequal divisions which are related to each Such an arrangement other in a pleasing proportion. but increase from the bottom upward in a pleasing proportion. and you will probably choose the spaces in the order as indicated above. not equal. words "Snow Flake. although such shapes might be striking. because of their oddity. 3). metry. The line drawn vertically through this advertisement divides it into two symmetrical parts. true of the smaller also. A marked display is found in the symmetry.

There are twelve different kinds of . The symmetry is pronounced in the twenty-four crystals or stars which are used as a decoralarge tion in the border.134 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING than equal subdivisions would be." As a result. number of figures which are symmetrical and many more which are arranged on the ratio of the "golden section. pleasing unity and diversity are both secured. An example of bilateral symmetry. It should be observed that this advertisement of the Butler Paper Company has employed an unusually No. 3. and diversity is secured. By such subdivisions as we have here the unity of the page is not destroyed.

The white rectangle on which the text is found is slightly too long to be in the exact ratio of the golden section. It is no accident that the conventional ellipse at the top of the advertisement is in the same ratio as the rectangles.e. which are of importance in giving a pleasing effect to a page. while the darker border is too wide to meet the conditioji. if the reader has become impressed with the importance of pleasing the possible customer and with the sigwill not . It is not necessary to exaggerate the importance of these laws of They consymmetry and proportion. appropriate point of orientation and utility. i. 135 but each star has six main subdivisions and six diversity. its pro- portions would vary from that of the "golden section/'' and the results would be recognized by the ordinary observer as less satisfactory. There are enough stars to give and the stars are sufficiently alike to give unity to the border as a whole.are as near to the ratio of the golden section as could be produced in such a complicated figure as this. tribute an appreciable amount to the beautification of the advertising page and hence to the production of pleasure in the mind of every possible customer who sees Inasmuch as the pleasure of the custhe advertisement. minor subdivisions. but these rectangles. ease of eye-movement. Among such laws might be mentioned' ease of comprehension.. r tisement w .ere If this adverthat of the golden section.THE FEELINGS AND THE EMOTIONS stars. either lengthened or shortened. tomer is of such fundamental importance the advertiser cannot afford to neglect any element which contributes There are other laws to the total pleasurable effect. admit of a presentation of these prinSpace but the purpose of this chapter has been attained ciples.

and an appreciation of their importance by the advertisers of the land would lead to a beautification of the advertising pages of our publications and hence to an increase in their value to the advertiser. .136 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING nificance of such simple laws as that of proportion and symmetry in accomplishing ^the desired result. These laws are of universal application in laying out advertisements and in choosing spaces.

laughing. The feelings awakened sympathetically are intense enough to cause weeping. namely. I sympathize with animals because I believe that they have feelings or for the horse that . To a certain extent we seem to tal attitude By sympathy we mean imagine ourselves as in the condition actually experienced by those about us and hence feel as we assume they must feel.APPEALS TO CUSTOMER'S SYMPATHY 137 XII APPEALS TO THE CUSTOMER'S SYMPATHY IN the last chapter we saw the significance of pleasure and pain in inducing the proper attitude in the minds of the customers. and all the ordinary forms of expressing the emotions. and I weep because I see my friends weep. In the present chapter we shall continue the effect of general discussion of the benefit of awakening the feelings and emotions and will confine the discussion to a single emotion. We also saw how a pleasing could be produced by the judicious use of the laws symmetry and proportion in constructing advertisements. in general a particular menwhich is induced by the realization of the fact that some one else is going through that particular form of experience. are not indifferent as to the objects upon which we bestow our sympathy. I may feel sympathy for the mouse whose nest is is destroyed cruelly treated. Thus I laugh and feel happy because those about me are rejoicing. I feel no sympathy with the We tree that is struck that is by the woodman's axe nor for the stone crushed under the wheels of a traction engine. that of sympathy.

Cook's Nile Steamers from Cairo to the First and Second Cataracts./natter. easily directly by many Secure Jjerths apply Jo' THOS. etc.THE tfKttl/enfc. Philadelphia. season 1904. QreachedW and r the - ori<?.jand to Egypt. . I have a certain amount of sympathy for all humanity. 1. January. Khartoum. with those who think the same thoughts that I think and who are in every way most like myself. Boston. 'A Select Tours and high class Cruises from New^York. )? luxurious Transatlantic Jinrrb from New York and Boston to Alexandria.\. COOK & SON New York. For plans_of *sti:amers*prJDld. my sympathy If I is greatest for those whom I might call my ideals. for I believe that their feelings are more like mine. (for the Sudan.. Thirty Spring and jSummer /Tours -to Europe for. sympathize most with those of my own set or clique. Chicago* San Francisco.. is WINTER RESORT. After but I those of this inner circle of acquaintances. I do not share their pleasures.) leave lour times weekly November lo March.138 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING similar to mine. etc. I feel more sympathy for the higher animals (dogs and horses) than I do for the lower ani- mals. No.' February and M*rch. .

In the advertisement of Thomas Cook & Son (No. They are not my ideals and I therefore have comparatively little sympathy with them. but to The illustration is supposed to be ludicrous. 2) should be considered. 1) I do not think of the old lady and gentleman as being of my class. The two persons depicted in this second advertisement approximate my ideals. thize. If I am ambitious to be a well-dressed man. The action of these young people stimulate me to imitate their action by purchasing a ticket from Cooks and starting on the trip. 3 is a reproduced advertisement of a fat-reducing compound. me it is ridiculous. The fat lady in the illustra- tion does not seem to make the best of a bad situation. I seem to be immune from all their pleasures. I have no desire to imitate their actions and become a member of Cook's touring party. They are enjoying themselves immensely and probably never had a better time in all their lives than they are having as members am of this touring party. I feel sympathetically towards who are well dressed. She dresses in plaids. as every corpulent person . I feel If I desire to attain a cer- tain station in who appear to sympathetically with those have attained my ambition. Their pleasure is not contagious so far as I am concerned. I feel keen 139 sympathy with the man 'who those appears to be prosperous. No. Incontrast with this first advertisement of Thomas Cook & Son their advertisement of "Niagara to the Saguenay" (No.APPEALS TO CUSTOMER'S SYMPATHY desire to be prosperous. which. but as I look at them I not pleased at all. I believe that they have good taste and if cruise for their vacation the same trip they choose this would be desir- In every case of sympathy we imitate to a certain degree the persons with whom we sympaable for me too. life. They seem to be enjoying the trip immensely.

COOK & No.140 THE PSYCHOLOGY OP ADVERTISING Cruises 1 i Latitudes NIAGARA TO THE SACUENAY Fourteen Delightful Vacation Days. CHICAGO 203 South Dearborn . clusively reserved Lakes Champlain and George and the Hudson River conclude a tour of beautiful scenic routes unparalleled on this continent. Alexandria Bay. 2 SON. Ask for Particulars of Escorted and Individual Tours to CANADIAN ROCKIES ALASKA PACIFIC COASTNATIONAL PARKS EUROPE BERMUDA SOUTH AMERICA JAPAN CHINA THOS. Tours start from Chicago July 17th and 31st. Then A WONDERFUL SIX-DAY CRUISE on the magnificent steamship "Cape Eternity" exto the Saguenay River! Quebec. From Early reservations Niagara Falls one day later. Lawrence and its thrilling rapids to Montreal. St. among the Thousand Islands by daylight and moonlight. advisable. down the noble St. including such points of interest as Toronto. August 14th and 28th.

porary. send us yOar you address and 4< to covet postE^cli boK is niAiled m a plain Co De^t. Mann. he shuts his eyes to ttie (act. Three years ago 1 'reduced since.wlio havednlicd into ilns situation. not by elab* oraije and expensive reduction remedies. of F in 3 utonlla* b. Asa rule. la. wnte*} giving away barrels and Barrels of II Sample Boxes Free just to prove and i<de ilrts rrighi how eflecnve. 63rd City. Ridiculous but not ludicrous.HI* rear* Jwco I lw*l7O !>. pleasant remedy is. 3. Correspondconhdeninl. Mrv! S.r ilio not. St Louis. til m-liO<l <nn4 I A when he i-l Mr Si ounce iii !* weight Hugo Horn. H. We can briitf down your weight. who are far from our ideals and who present but few elements of likeness to ourselves. but that is no reason for me to imitate their actions and become one with them in any line of action. yes thousands of tesnmonab to this effect. and are the best guarantees of our signal success H ere are rwo of many. 4'J9 E. SI rnce it contains. M No. we can offet truilu iliat are beyond the shadow ot questioning. If she is going to . laige 00 postpaid. o LaMotte." 40 We a/e Ibs. Our hies are filled with hundreds. strictly .. to reduce ani une. The material advertised might be good for such persons as TOO FAT person generally know* is becoming too neshy. 4 is making the best of a bad condition. She is apparently No. but by simple treatment that brings health and strength in iu train. however. m took a lour month*' treatment and wa^ 1 have not gained any in werghi weight. and the illustration is that of a lady who at once begets my sympathy. a reproduction of an advertisement of a fatreducing tablet. until he suddenly realizes' that he has rained many pounds' and no remedy appears to be forthcoming lo you. the illustration depicts.APPEALS TO CUSTOMER'S SYMPATHY 141 knows. aod believes it to be only teni-. . etc sealed wrapper wuti no Advertising on it n^mc >iid <to indicate what fii/e but. serve but to increase the apparent size. Pnce. writes : . Mo. Hall Chenuc. New York . Both the lady and the gentleman are the kind of people whom we do not admire.

\ a J plicity itself. and consequently it is easy for me to imagine myself in her stead and to feel the need WASH YOUR FAT AWAY Howard Obesity Ointment Simple. : y AH CprrespiW'denre Considered < onflJential. . She certainly feels about the matter just as I should. and to take the necessary steps The tragedy and the comedy are forms of literature and of dramatic representations which have always been popular. No nauseous . no change of habits whatever.'\ . You merely apply the ointment to the part you wish reduced. She begets my sympathy. No.tf6. Harmless and Inexpensive External It Remedy _( removes fat from that part "of the body to which it is applied -^restoring the natural bloom of youth.j.}:'- Suite 4Of.. but it is true that the ordinary . leaving no wrinkles or flabbiness. . ruin the stomach no diiet' ing. which gives cases. . There are probably more great tragedies than comedies.eW. it certainly must be worth considering. There is scarcely a tragedy without its comic but frequently there are comedies without any parts.. for relief from obesity to secure such relief. We ' Guarantee . THE HOWARD CO. >.. The > I . - drujjs that . . I feel sorry for her and sympathize with her in her affliction.tTefepJ'oneiTasiftfi.. then literally " u-as/l the fat au'ay" without injury to the most delicate skim | application is sim-.142 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING use the Howard Obesity Ointment.and facts of On the new discoverya cure absorption.Results receipt of request we will send you our book on obesity. astt St. 4. element of the tragic.

. or else he may tell of the joys which the institution will bring into the -lives of the persons concerned. or else he may tell of the wonderful successes of the missionaries al- may ready on the field. and appeal for funds to continue the already successful work. should follow. and that the same holds true for their attendance upon dramatic representations.APPEALS TO CUSTOMER'S SYMPATHY 143 men and women read more comedy (including the comic in a so-called tragedy) tnan tragedy. or else he may tell of the prosing party perity and good cheer brought about by his own party. As far as my personal observations go. The hero (if it be the hero who suffers) is first introduced. It certainly is questionable which method the politician. In a political campaign the politician may relate the wrong and oppression for which the opposis responsible. it is more effective in . and then after we feel acquainted with him and have an interest in Mm. it seems to me that when sympathy for sorrow is successfully awakened. In appealing for funds to carry on the missionary work in Africa the minister v describe the deplorable an6 almost hopeless condition of the natives. In tragedy the reader or the spectator is usually inr troduced gradually into the emotional tone of the whole. In a comedy the rollicking fun may be introduced immediately. and the reader or the spectator may be brought into the spirit of the whole at once without danger of any shock to the sensibilities because of the suddenness of the introduction of the emotional element. the minister. the philanthropist. In raising money to found a charitable institution the instances of philanthropist may tell of the squalor and misery of the persons in the district in which the institution is to be located. we are called upon to enter into his sorrows and to feel with him. etc.

and is taken so much as a matter of course that we feel offended when persons seek to festation. and the creating of this interest may be the product of a long process of education. We are not allowed to It the gaze of the public. that the persons for whom the appeal is being made in all these cases are those for whom the hearers have more than a passing interest. than for those who give way to their feelings. It must be remembered. it is not in good form to express grief at all. but restrain it. This attitude towards the manifestations of sorrow often causes us to be offended by manifestations of suffering. subordinated to apparent attempts to stifle such maniWe weep more readily with those who seem to have great cause for weeping. . parade our sorrows before seems to be assumed that every one has sorrows enough of his own and therefore should not be called upon to share the sorrows of others. most would be avoided in the who had been moved most The depiction of the darker sides of life may is be very effective. shall not express our griefs in the sight or hearing of others. however.144 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING bringing about the desired action than is sympathy for the joys of the persons concerned. It is said that savages laugh more loudly than persons in civilized countries. awaken our sympathy by any form of external maniEven in dramatic representations the expressions which accompany sorrow or pain are largely festations. It may also be true that these successful pathetic appeals future by the very persons effectively. and in general loud or boisterous attractive to more expressions of pleasure are not regarded as in good Culture and good breeding have decreed that we taste. In fact. Thus in No. but the depiction of the rosier hues most people. This attitude towards expressions of grief seems to be quite universal.

t the world orr a* a faooo* Cough Sjrnp. hu Poo' t delay me sow ue BOW bef oro too before late. scarcely turn As far as the attention value is concerned. la tt the ol6nta4 cetot Dr. equally effect is . tf Dot promptly corrected. will affect roar lungs tod io a short on tb TOO will be oa the road to consumption.' . tions is to attract attention.' chlat affection. You may have cipient consumption btlon! you realize \L Th following are vital qutiou : Have you caught a cold? Jiave you a severe. tod Dob' me relief I ucbed ao chlMn M> u i No. which. Thus No. 5.APPEALS TO CUSTOMER'S SYMPATHY 5 there 145 is an appeal made to our sympathy in such a rude manner that we feel angry toward the advertiser. The smile is very contagious and the whole so clear and so pleasing that I can the page without stopping to look at it. aa<J thu fed iroubitd very tadlr wtin It. ailments. for allowing us to be insulted by such an audacious attack upon our sensibilities. consumption: There i* a ear* car for cold tad all the atxnw. 6 is one of the most attractive advertisements in the current issue of our magazines. It is tW i ' bwi cues. ji Cough Syrup ' ( neull. if not with the publisher. An outrage upon the reader's sen- sibility. Bull's . Jor would Kl*e centbt a tnJ cold. even in Dr. know tor'a prescription that cored thoiutndi ot It i* prescribed by physicians became tbef ft has aa?ed many people from an earlr frtr*. One function of representations of feelings and emo- DISEASED LUNGS are (he result of ntjltded coojh or col Kit a grave mUtake to ntgfect any bntof in.71 . far ttooir I rn n. racking anight Is your throat hoarse and sore I Do you cough up mucui ? Are you^iaggard and lotingjteth?^ These are aeYiou condition*. BalT Incipient couumptioa.

. pretty nr" to 1C they were . highest quality. I'iieCoDklinPenCo. Tour pens would be once really kaowtu have large sales here Princeton. GreVer Cleveland Says: . 1903. tuost perfect fountain pen. and each awakens its appropriate kind of sympathy. O. Personally. which represent the opposite sorts of feelings. Nos.146 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING may be secured by representations of sor- good results row.jtectlBg tfve further Convinci evidence. 7 sorrow is depicted in such a way that it succeeds in attracting the attention of the most Thus casual reader of advertisements. Mrs. A successful appeal to sympathy for pleasure. and fifty original suKi?f-"<tion forc commoo errors in handwriting. and yet it is difficult to tell which advertisement has the greater attentive value. the only fountain pen that can oe filled automatically or that successfully feeds copying ink. No. in No. I enter into the pleasure of the smiling young man more fully than I enter into the sorrow of the grief-stricken one. March 12th. T29MrfI Toledo. a century ahead of the dropper filling tbe world. 6 and 7 are reproductions of advertisements He trill bo delighted If you present him He knows it is the.OUR FREE BOOKS . 6.

APPEALS TO CUSTOMER'S SYMPATHY 147 These examples are sufficient to show that appeals to the sympathy. with hearts in our breasts and blood in our veins. Whether the dark or the bright side of life most material for the advertiser may be quesbut there is certainly no question as to the tionable. either for pleasure or for pain. advisability of appeals to the sympathies. We are not cold. sympathy for No. but we are all human beings. 7. when the advertising pages of our publications must be edited as offers the . The time is coming. and indeed has come. logical machines. and we r 3 m i Pelmaa Systeny>f Memorf Training The Pelman School of Memory Training. A successful appeal to sorrow. enjoy the depictions of real life with all its joys and sorrows. may be used with great profit by the advertiser.

If such is the case. 1. but he should refuse all objectionable advertisements. . by accepting it. It may be attractive to such persons as need the cough syrup. Bull. It is quite possible that an advertise- ment which might be good for the individual advertiser would be injurious to the many who are occupying space in the same publication. it is the duty of advertising managers to see that the advertising pages of their publications are rendered attractive. It might be a very profitable advertisement for Dr. has reduced The effect the value of all other advertising spaces. The advertisement reproduced in No. and 7 might also be questionable. 3. but the advertising manager. but it may be so dis- gusting to all other persons that it renders them an- tagonistic and unsympathetic to all the advertisements seen for minutes after they have looked at this one.148 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING carefully as the pages of the literary department. The advertising manager should not only refuse objection- able advertisers. 5 may be good for the firm placing it. which one would you pick up and look through? I believe that most persons would choose the magazine advertisements that present only the more cheerful aspects of life. If you knew that one magazine carried advertisements which were pathetic in their illustrations and descriptions and that another magazine carried only bright and cheerful advertisements. which would be produced on adjoining spaces by such advertisements as are shown in Nos.

without fore- An sight of the ends. and without previous education in the performance. on the other hand. Man possesses many more instincts than the animal and in addition has reason. and we do not usually speak of the actions of the actions of animals without being impressed with both the similarities and the differences between human and animal actions.HUMAN INSTINCTS 149 XIII HUMAN INSTINCTS WE are all accustomed to think of the actions of animals as instinctive. but we are inclined to object to the application to human actions of anything which would obliterate the distinctions between human and animal actions. but in the presence of environments unusual to his species he is at a loss as to his actions. In a new environment and in the presence of unfamiliar objects. No one can carefully observe The animal has but few instincts. and these few are sufficient for his ordinary environment. although such actions are fundamentally instinctive. It is in this sense that the term is used throughout this discussion. man as being instinctive. the animal displays a stupidity which is most astounding. In his native and ordinary enyironment the animal shows a cleverness of action which is hardly to be distinguished from that of a man. . which can control his instinctive actions and thus obliterate their instinctive appearance. instinct is usually defined as the faculty of acting in such a way as to produce certain ends.

down. when taking his dinner. instead of revering you as a philosopher. and that every creature likes its own. for example. Science may come and consider these ways. He eats because the food tastes good and makes him want more. in the presence of such outlandish stimuli? Why does the hen.150 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING will : The following quotation from Professor James undoubtedly prove of interest "Now. Not one man in a billion. when they their utility that they are followed but because at the moment of following them we feel that that is the only appropriate and natural thing to do. unless she has some sort of a prophetic inkling of the results? We can only interpret the instincts of brutes by what we v Why do men always lie on soft beds rather than on hard can. he would probably laugh at you as a fool. and find that most of them are useful. so far as to ask for the . floors? Why do they sit around the stove on a cold day? Why do they prefer saddle of mutton and champagne to hard-tack and ditch-water? Why does the maiden interest the youth so that everything about her seems more important and significant than anything else in the world? Nothing more can be said than that these are human ways. The connection between the savory sensation and the act it awakens is for him absolute and needs no proof but It takes. what Berkeley calls its own evidence. a mind debauched by learning to carry the process of making the natural seem strange. ever thinks of utility. why do the various animals do what seem to us such strange things. submit herself to the tedium of incubating such a fearfully uninteresting set of objects as a nestful of eggs. If you ask him why he should want to eat more of what tastes like that. But it is not for the sake of know of instincts in ourselves. and takes to following them as a' matter of course.ways. in short.

lioness which is made to be loved. that beautiful soul clad in that perfect form. To the broody hen the notion would probably seem monstrous that there should be a creature in the world to whom a nestful of eggs was not the utterly fascinating and precious and never-to-be-too-much-sat-upon object which it is to her. classifying instincts. or is of service in any way. and is the response of an individual directed toward some There is a great diversity in the methods of object." Every instinctive action is concrete and specific. appear no less mysterious to them. our instincts will that. . to the bear. the she-bear. 'Of course we smile. pleased. of course our heart palpitates at the sight of the crowd.HUMAN why of INSTINCTS act. of course we love the maiden. does each animal feel about the it tends to do in the presence of par- To the lion it is the. so palpably eternity to be loved F and flagrantly made from all "And so. probably. its own sake exclusively. and any method is justifiable if it is true and if it is helpful in making clear the nature The classificaof instincts. And we may conclude that. every impulse and every step of every instinct shines with its own and seems at the moment the only It is done for eternally right and proper thing to do. sufficient light. and not scowl? Why are we unable to talk to a crowd as we talk to a single friend? Why does a particular maiden turn our wits so upside-down? The common man can only say. 151 any instinctive human To the metaphysician alone can occur such questions as: Why do we smile. particular things ticular objects. tion we propose is justified in that it is true to the facts. to the animal which obeys it. "Thus we may be sure animals' instincts however mysterious some may appear to us.

This is so intimately mine that the distinction between it and myself or me cannot be first interest of The I avoid extremes of temperature. and that the knowledge thus may secured may be utilized. and that As was toward some said above. not definitely drawn. because I think that thus I can preserve and further the development of the body. and decayed vegetables and . perhaps. but because I like the I do taste of running water and not of stagnant water. the rather than upon the furtherance.152 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING it groups these actions in such a way that they be better understood.toward his victim in such a way that he makes the victim ests of the individual or of the species. manner of the preservation and the individual which is instincand furthered is his material possestively preserved sions. I do not refuse to drink stagbest for nant water and seek running water because I think it is my bodily health to do so. which are preserved and furthered. but the effect of the action is to bring the object into a relation which will make it helpful toward the preservation or furtherance of the inter- Thus when an animal acts according to his "hunting instinct" he acts . The individual acts instinctively toward every material thing which he may call "my" or "mine" Of all the material things to which I apply the term my or mine. there is nothing to which the term seems so applicable as to my bod]/. every instinctive action is directed object. but because it is pleasant for me to act that way. serve his interests in providing food for himself and. not refuse grass. our classification will be based upon the interests of individual. for others of his species. If instincts may be classified according as they tend toward the preservation and furtherance of the interests of the individual. green fruit.

because these things seem pleasant to them. but their instincts guide them so I shall eat me accurately that it seems to us they must do some of these things with that in view. I find instinct is stronger than my reason in choosing . He believed that. the right companions. irrespective of their tastes. etc. I do not stop to consider whether If it tastes good. and. drink. I decide on what and drink according as it pleases or displeases in the eating. they will act wisely in the presence of the appropriate stimuli. They choose the right food.. and it might be supposed that I would select from the different foods those which were best for that my my health. etc. of necessity. rest.HUMAN INSTINCTS 153 seek beefsteak. ripe fruit.. He would hold that if that which is good for the body be presented in the proper light.. we shall. If I think anything would taste good. in general. Herbert Spencer was of the opinion that mankind could follow instinct in the choice of food. that it would be good for me or not. exercise. I cannot keep from desiring it. and that under normal conditions the choice would be such as would most certainly conduce the highest preservation and development of the body. etc. I am a reasoning creature. and fresh vegetables merely or principally because the former are injurious and the latter beneficial to my bodily health. temperature. and that the bodily interests will best be furthered by passively fol- lowing such instincts. choose it and make the appro- priate effort to secure it. tive desire to eat any and every thing that tastes good. Nature has provided me with an instincis sufficient. the right drink. The lower animals probably never do anything for the sake of the preservation and furtherance of their bodies. and so true when that our instincts are so strong not perverted. such an instinct works wholly good.

" and also I should this: ". ". and ordinarily such things tend to the preservation and furtherance of the welfare of the body. emphasizing more and more the taste of the food. gives a relish you can't resist. smell. 1) : makes you eat. but we choose them simply because they appear pleasing and not for ulterior ends. it eat it even if If I my better judgment told me I should not. sound. taste. An appeal to the instinct of bodily preservation.154 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING I shall eat. for they are Breakfast Treat That Makes You Eat A No. but most persons have not yet been thus afflicted. while price is being emphasized less. . what is In the advertisement of Karo (No. The senses (the organs of sight. temperature. and touch) are the guardians of the body." buy Karo at once if I believed it would be so enticing that it would make me go contrary to my reason and this sentence . 1. . . and are making health qualities secondary. and whatever appears good to these sentinels is instantly desired. . years with indigestion I might do otherwise. and I feel confident that food advertisements afflicted for had been have greatly improved during recent years.

Magazines devoted to fashions. and it has been discovered that all forms of clothing can be advertised with profit by means of the printed page. and they seem good to us. To say that the young bee has a prophetic insight of the coming winter is to attribute to it wisdom process. The most careful observers of the actions of bees assure us that the little industrious bee gathers and stores away the honey simply because she enjoys the and not because she foresees the necessity for the honey which will come upon her during the wintry months. advertisements of clothing all these have an unending attraction for us. We How come to a small child will cry if his hat blows off or is taken! In our weakened the fact that we have so many clothes and change by them so often that we hardly have time to become atof civilization this instinct is modern forms tached to any article of raiment before it is discarded. if asked to "We choose between having a beautiful body clad in raiment perpetually shabby and having an ugly form always T spotlessly attired.HUMAN My INSTINCTS 155 clothes are in a special sense mine. shop-windows decorated with beautiful garments. which is far above human wisdom. is Likewise the squirrel said to collect nuts and store . think of them almost as of our very bodies. but such are our human ways. w ould not hesitate a moment. The close personal attachment which we have for our clothing is beautifully brought out by Professor James : so appropriate our clothes and identify ourselves with them that there are few of us who." We are all greatly attracted by the protection and ornamentation supplied by clothing. Clothing advertisements are read with avidity. The amount of time which most women and some men spend on the subject of dress might seem absurd to a critic.

forks. The squirrel does not store the nuts so that he will have them to eat during the winter. terlaced with the spikes were the following About two dozen knives. matches. posed of in one part of the pile. In: composed of finely divided fibers of hemp-packing. three in number a large carving .156 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING them away simply because that is the very action which in itself more delightful than any other possible action." There are very few persons who at some time in their The little lives have not made a collection of some sort. and the works in still another. so as to present the points of the : nails outward. Professor Silliman thus describes the hoardings of a woodrat in California made in an empty stove of an unoccu- pied house "I found the outside to be composed entirely of spikes. but he did not store them in order that he might not be reduced to starvation. . fork and steel . was far as the individual squirrel is concerned. If he had not stored them he would is have starved during the winter. the glass of the same watch in another. nearly all the tools from the tool-closets. as they were originally stored in different parts of the The outside casing of a silver watch was dishouse. . all of which must have been transported some distance. it purely accidental that his storing the nuts provided As against starvation. In the center of this mass was the nest. knife. and tobacco. an old purse containing some silver. all laid with symmetry. and spoons all the butcher's knives. but when the winter comes on and nothing better is at hand of course he will eat them. There are many species of animals which thus collect and store away articles. and in some cases in an un- usual environment the results are very peculiar. several large plugs of tobacco. with several large augers.

the old man had . shelves were filled. and bushels of such miscellany as is to be found only at the city 'dump. every hole and corner was filled. empty barrels. It is rather make remarkable how all the children of a neighborhood may become interested in collecting such things as cancelled postage-stamps. incapacitated umbrellas. wrapping-paper. but is is not confined to Occasionally common to all adults. if possible. pieces of common wire. Some had been actually worn in two. of course. the old man had never thrown away a saw-blade or a woodbuck.HUMAN girls INSTINCTS of buttons 157 who make collections become exceedingly enthusiastic in their endeavors to large collections. As a coal-heaver. pieces of iron. fractured pots. The bucks were rheumatic and couldn't stand up. If all the girls of the neighborhood are making collections too. some individual becomes absorbed in the process more than others and the results seem to us to be ludicrous. Such a thing would hardly be possible if the children did not have an instinctive desire to make collections. and hung the ropes as full as they could hold of his curious collections. but the ends were carefully saved and stored away. As a wood-sawyer. canes. and. The following is a description of the hoardings of a miser's den which was emptied by the Boston City Board of Health : "He gathered old newspapers. and the saw-blades were worn down to almost nothing in the middle. 'the hermit' covered his store-room with a network of ropes. to secure the most beautiful. There was nothing one could think of that wasn't in that room.' The empty barrels were filled. and in order to make more storage-room. Making collections and hoarding children. the interest is greatly heightened. battered tinware. cast-off clothing. but they are instructive rather than ludicrous. old bones.

miser. to' a not the ground of increase the tendency. He had too a zeal for collecting and hoarding. fur. such a state- business man to tell him that he was labor- ment would ordinarily be but partially although the proprietary instinct true. He does not desire that which money will secure. even difficulties greater every acquired dollar makes by adding new responsibilities. cloth. and there were dozens of the remains of the old things. He may think that each thing he in collects will come handy some emergency but that . may play a part. We all seem inclined to keep to.158 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING never cast off a worn-out basket. There were at least two dozen old hats. for. No miser is aware of the fact that he collects for the pleasure he gets out of the collecting and the keeping. and he allowed great his zeal to obliterate the other possible interests of life. bits of useless finery and The desire is often not yielded and the objects are thrown away because their presence becomes a nuisance. and the fact that it is useful and that others collections too merely tends to increase the instinctive desire to collect. etc. The octogenarian continues are making to collect childless money with unabated and the chief dread zeal. Indeed. but the obtaining and holding the money if is sufficient stimuhis lus to him. He imagines that he collects these things because of their usefulness. although he may be of his life is that his despised relatives may secure his money when he is gone. pieces of useless apparatus. his collecting. silk and straw. patched up with canvas and rope-yarns in the store-room. it cer- . although it may and also make it seem reasonable to himself." The man who could make such a collection as this is a and he is despised for being such. is It might be insulting ing for money merely because of the pleasure he receives in the gathering and keeping of it. We all like to collect money.

the act he is perfectly indifferent to his health. It is not uncommon for a sportsman to give away his game as soon as he has killed it. Our proprietary instincts may be made use of by the advertiser in many has been able to The irresponsible advertiser play upon this instinct of the public ways. The remarkable thing about this is that the public should be deluded by such a pretense. 2) is an attempt to appeal to this instinct. ery. What he wanted was the pleasure of killing the game. and might often make it possible to minister to it with great profit. All persons everywhere are tempted by a possibility of gain. or hold a baited hook for hours in the burning sun? It certainly is not because fish are valuable neither does he do it because he his Why will a man endure and incur great expense. which he might thus interest in what he has to offer. as is so frequently done in the cheaper forms of advertising media. We like to hunt and to fish because we have inherited the hunting instinct from remote ancestors. The following advertisement of the American Reserve Bond Co. Why will a man wade in streams from morning till night. (No. by offering something for nothing.HUMAN tainly is INSTINCTS 159 not a complete explanation. . hardship for days. of a shot at a poor inoffensive deer? It certainly is not because of the value of the venison or of the hide. and such a thought would be incongruous to the whole situation. endanger for the chance life. merely . both to himself and to the public. For the civilized man such an instinct is often worthless. but to our ancestors it was necessary for the preservation of life. The desire to gain seems to overcome the better judgment of the more ignorant public and they become the victims of all sorts of treach- The reputable advertiser should not disregard this instinct. While engaged in believes that it is good for his health.

\Ve have assets of over three and a half millions of dollars. No. d. Co. and then we like it. the fiercer the struggle the better and the "gamier" the fish. 3% guaranteed. fishing boats. <By our plan. draw large semi-annual dividends. and one half millions of money-savers of this countryl The earning power 'of noney is so much greater than 3% a year. our plan will interest you.. you get all of the principal and a share of the Surplus earnings of the 1 turns it over and over. you get your lull share of dividends. 2. American Reserve :pt 14 Chamber of S&lle and Wa Commerce. and earn a handsurplus. Drop a postal today for free book "MORE DOLLARS. We have taught over 200. soon grows rich from the profits that pile up on top of the amount given you Already distributed over three follars to the for we have your share. fishing tackle. the greater is our The conflict may be with a man. J If you have a $10.v>dsds. Because he has inside knowledge of its earning power. Our business is under the direct control of various state laws and subject to periodical official Company FREE examinations. we stand ready to start you on the right road to financial independence.160 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADYEKTISING for an- a civilized The charm which a gun or a fishing tackle has man is a most remarkable thing. and it grows with every turn. This is a great clearing house for savings-profits. nual sale of revolvers. If you honestly want to save. He uses that knowledge for'his own private gain. A street- .00 "nest egg' 'and want to see youFthoney rapidly. A successful appeal to the hoarding instinct... The hunting instinct shows itself in our fiendish desire for conflict." . with the largest State Deposits of any Bond in the World. that a banker who has the "use of savings fop that paltry sum. is beyond anything which could be attributed to their practical need. Write us and full information will be furnished by mail.000 people how to make savings grow flnd yield la. The rifles. VVe are guided by the experience of over fourteen years in the handling of savings investments. A $10 Nest Egg Starts grow some You Saving and Making Money > . and he company. The more ferocious the animal delight.

161 fails to attract The prize-fighter always accompanied by the admiring glances of the populace. The following advertisement of Stevens Eifles (No. The advertiser of guns.conscious of a strong desire to build a house. and is likely to be abandoned. 3) is a good illustration of an appeal to the hunting instinct : No. fishing tackle. We construct things. if he has built it himself he If it is may make improvements upon it an- not so that he can make more changes nually. The constructive instinct shows manner in the bee and the beaver.. The accounts of atrocious crimes are read by those who are ashamed to confess it. itself in a well-known instinct is The same common to man. 3. There is hardly a man who at least once has not been all like to . but the results are not so uniform. the home loses interest. structed. then he is not content purchases till he has remodeled it in some way. If he one already constructed. etc. meets with a ready response from the youth because he appeals directly to his powerful instincts. As soon as the possibility of improving a home has passed . if they are already conthen we want to remodel or improve them. Indeed. A successful appeal to the hunting instinct. revolvers.HUMAN brawl never is INSTINCTS a crowd.

In our urban civilization the men are deprived of one of the great pleasures of life. and are not allowed to "make a muss" by our attempts at construction. some opportunity to make things should secure the best possible form of recreation and diversion from the anxieties of business we had with our hands we If life. Philadelphia Manufacturers No. L R. BLANKENBTTRG & CO 617 Chestnut Street. We are shut in as children. B.162 it THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING seems that both the host and hostess seek excuses for going north or south or traveling abroad. A successful appeal to the constructing instinct. The women have all sorts of fancy-work with which they may amuse themselves. and in our maturity the in- Dept. 4. Manual-training and domestic science are an opportunity to school-children to use their offering . stinct is held in check by lack of exercise.

but wrote of this instinct an excellent description of the facts : "As soon as a wife becomes a mother her whole thought and feeling. it is in all unspoiled. It is nothing to her that she rest. and thus it is with all the higher animal mothers. human infant is willing The description which a German by is clearly the name of Schneider is German. so long as she sees that the child's sleep is not disturbed the moment it stirs she awakes. in one word. transformed her entire egotism to the child. Thus. but her child. however. and as far as possible fulfil her wishes. Until then she had only thought of her own well-being. and lives only in it. One of the most striking instincts in the entire animal kingdom is that of maternal love. everything that went on about her was only noticed so far as it had personal reference to her. . The mother of one of the higher animals or of the to sacrifice all for her infant. her whole being. Now. though far stronger noises fail to arouse her . is altered. Golden Fleece yarn is such that it makes a woman's fingers tingle with a desire to knit. she asked of every one that he should appear interested in her. the center She of the world is no longer herself. and needs She has. of the satisfaction of her vanity.HUMAN INSTINCTS 163 hands and give expression to this instinctive desire to construct things. The advertiser can appeal in many ways to this instinct. naturally bred mothers. pay her the requisite attention. now. at least. the whole world appeared made only for her. does not think of her own hunger. and is sure to find ready attention and a willingness to pay for the opportunity to exercise this much- The preceding advertisement of neglected instinct. she must first be sure that the child herself is tired is fed.

and why the look of the child and the care of it are so agreeable. and is so happy when she is Few mothers. still its or to hunger. any more than the young man can give an account of why he loves the maiden. in caring for their children. The latter feels only that it is an everlasting delight to hold the being which she has brought forth protectingly in her arms.164 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING "She does not herself know why she is so happy. No one chooses solitude for a long period of time. to dress it. We prefer the best of companionship. for it is enforced by the maternal instinct as inherited from countless generations. near. in that of the mother. in the father's mind seldom . to wash it. The advertisement of Cream of Wheat (No. but as men think lightly of expense when satisfying their hunt- ing instincts. Solitary confinement is a severer form . The matter of expense has to be considered by many mothers. so the mothers look upon expense as of secondary importance when supplying the needs of their children. to rock it to sleep. Adververy successful in appealing to this instinct. think of the proper purpose of maternal love for the Such a thought may arise preservation of the species. An article which in any way administers to the appearance or comfort of children needs but to be brought to the attention of mothers and it is sure to be desired by them with a desire which is much more than a passing fancy. but in the absence tisers are of the best we accept the best available. 5) is but one of many advertisements which thus appeal most forcibly to all mothers. Robinson Crusoe took great comfort in the companionship of his man Friday." (Condensed from James's "Psy- chology.") Anything that is will administer to the needs of the child a necessity in the eyes of the mother.

should I care for myself as I appear in the minds It is not necessary for me to explain the origin of such a regard for the opinion of others. 5. Indeed.HUMAN of INSTINCTS 165 punishment than any other employed by civilized We are gregarious and want to be able to see other human beings. A successful attempt to appeal to the parental instinct. if an in- . nations. Not only do we want to see others. but of other people? it Why would hardly have been possible for the race to have developed without such a preference. but we want to be seen and noticed by them. No.

We are all afflicted as the young man and the boy. The reproduced advertisement of Gage Millinery (No. an advertiser represents his goods asthat preferred by a despised class of individuals. and he does not know why he is doing it. presence of young girls. We consult not only our preference but also the opinion of others in purchasing our clothes and our homes. that is a great argument in favor of such goods. it is doubtful whether he would be able to survive for any considerable period of time. the effect produced is distinctly harmful." When. into the class of persons here represented. It is possible for the advertiser of all classes of clothing advantage of this characteristic of human nature and to present his garments as if they were being worn by this preferred set.166 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING dividual should become wholly oblivious to the opinion of others. but he does not know The young boy always tries to "show off" in the why. 6) makes us believe that by selecting a Gage hat we should be brought. in the eyes of our acquaintances. on the contrary. When he comes into the presence of the young girl he his best before the is seems compelled to undertake something bizarre which sure to attract her attention. We seem compelled to strive for those things which will make us rise in the estimation of others. is If a particular style of clothing the class of society whose esteem we preferred by court. and in choosing our friends and our professions. . and in purchasing and choosing we select those things which are approved by those whose esteem we most covet. It is often ridiculous that he should do so. Indeed. at the present time. The young man seems compelled to attempt to be at young lady. there are many classes of goods which are being preto take sented as the preferred of the "veritable swells.






I feel that by buying a Gage hat I should be brought into the social class of such ladies as the one here shown.



The advertisements of Regal Shoes (No. 7) and of White Star Coffee (No. 8) make us avoid them, for we do not want to be considered as in the class with frogs and peasants. The coffee and shoes may be all right,

by using them, I am to be thought acquaintances, I will have none of them.

less of




I refuse to admire the Regal 7. shoe, for it will bring me into the class with this fellow.

Our limbs would be

useless unless with

them we


herited a desire to exercise them.


do not exercise

our limbs in order that we may develop them but, nevertheless, the chief value of such exercise may be the devel-

With every organ we inherit a desire to exercise it in a way which makes for its development. The child's mind is but a potential affair. If It must be exercised in order that it may develop. the child exercised only when it realized that such exercise was necessary for the development of the body, it is
of the limbs.




quite certain that there would never be a fully developed adult again. Along with our bodies we have inherited a psychical

nature with all its diversified possibilities. The psychical nature is, however, but little more than a possibility which needs vigorous exercise for its realization. We have a moral nature, which, in the beginning, is in the crudest possible form, but we have an inherited This liking for the consideration of moral questions.

may be of the actions of the hero in a story, of the nation's leaders, of a seller of merchandise, or of



if I

What poor advertisement. acquaintances think of me preferred the same brand of coffee



as that which delights the frogs?

a personal friend.

Such consideration

of actions of

most beneficial in the development of the moral and when moral questions are presented in a true
they are intensely interesting to


classes of


all persons would prefer the whenever they saw it, and that all evil actions were right from ignorance. Such a view is evidently an exaggeration, but we certainly do prefer what we regard to be the right, and reject what we regard to be the wrong.

Socrates believed that


are disgusted and repulsed by what
especially true in regard to the actions of others. we regard as


wrong in others. If an advertiser's argument, illustration, and condition of purchase are such that they offend
the moral sense of the reader, the advertisement is of or no value. It may be difficult to appeal especially to the moral judgment of the possible customer in

presenting most goods, but any offense to such a moral judgment must be scrupulously avoided. In the advertisements of books, periodicals, and schools, the moral judgment can safely be counted on. Whether the religious nature be developed from the moral or not, it certainly is true that the two are very closely connected, and that they must both be regarded with care by the advertiser, whether they be appealed to directly by the advertisement or not. The avidity with which we seek
r things w hich appeal to our religious nature is illustrated by a circumstance related in the September, 1904, issue


of the Atlantic Monthly. book was offered to the pubwith the title, "The Wonders of Nature," but the sales


were disappointing.



was changed



of Nature, the Architecture of God,"

"The and the

were immediately increased and a second edition



have even as children an embryonic, esthetic naThings beautiful have a fascinating effect upon the unperverted individual. We need but to have objects of beauty brought to our attention and we desire them without being taught their desirability. Furthermore, the beautiful affects us without our


of the fact. We stop and look at a beautiful advertisement, but may not be aware that it is the beauty that attracts us at all. The best works of art


are such that the attention


drawn wholly






represented, and not to the


"The advertisement which

of the representais most artistic may

be one which never affects the public as being artistic at all, but it is the one which will be most effective in

impressing the possible customer. One reason why so much attention is given to the advertising pages of our magazines is that they are so artistic. We have an intellectual nature, but in the case of the child the intellect is little more than a spark which, however, is sufficient to indicate the presence of that

which The child is may prompted by curiosity to examine everything that comes
be "developed into a great light.
into its environment.
It tears its toys to pieces that it


learn of their construction.

At a

later age the

youth takes delight in the acquisition of knowledge independent of the utility of such knowledge. The curiosity

human race is the salvation of its intellect, and at same time makes a convenient point of attack for the advertiser. The public wants to know what is offered It wants to hear the story which the advertiser for sale. has to tell. There are other stories to hear, and the advertiser must not have the most uninteresting one if
of the


he expects to take advantage of this instinctive desire of the individual to become acquainted with all novel objects and to learn all he can concerning new aspects
of familiar ones.


Occasionally this characteristic of curiosity may be use of by the advertiser in what might seem to be

an absurd manner, and yet the results be good. As an illustration, observe the reproduced advertisement of


did the woggle bug say?" (No. 9). This advertisement seems to be extremely absurd, and yet, in some way, it has been able to arouse the curiosity of many


it is

quite possible that


has been a success-

ful advertisement.



We have seen above that we have instinctive
to act for the preservation

and furtherance

of (1) our

bodies, clothes, homes, personal property, and family (also the hunting and constructing instincts which are

more complex than others of this as we exist in the minds of others




(3) our

(2) ourselves mental facul-


lines it is not necessarv to

have seen that to secure action along these show the value of such action


nn -oo OUU=



An advertising freak 9. designed to arouse curiosity.

or the necessity of it, but merely to present the proper stimulus, and the action is forthcoming immediately.

The advertiser should study human nature

to discover

these hidden springs of action. He desires to produce the maximum of action along a certain line with the

find a

and expense to himself. If he can method whereby his efforts are seconded by some of the most powerful of the human instincts, his task will be simplified to the extreme. The discovery of such a method is a task for the leaders of the profession of
of effort





process known as "Suggestion" is in bad repute because, in the popular mind, it has too often been associated on the one hand with hypnotism and on the other with indelicacy and vulgarity. Hypnotism in
the hands of the scientist or of the fakir is well
to be a

THE mental


story which does not from that which conforms to the specifically depart standards of propriety but which is so constructed that
of suggestion.



leads the hearers to conceptions that are "off color"


said to be suggestive. In this way it has come to pass that the whole subject of suggestion has been passed by

with less consideration than is due it. There is no uniformity in the meanings that are attached to the term suggestion even among the most careful writers. If I were sitting in my office and considering the advisability of beginning a certain enterprise, I might say that one idea "suggested" a second and this second a third, etc. A scientific definition would not allow this use of the term but would substitute the ex-

Thus I should pression "called up" for "suggested." that one idea "called up" the second, etc. Suggessay tion must be brought about by a second person or an



musings and deliberations


should not

say that one idea suggested another, but if the same idea were called forth at the instigation of a second person

upon the presentation of an object, I should then call suggestion if it met the second essential condition of
This second condition


that the resulting



conception, conclusion, or action must follow with less than the normal amount of deliberation. Suggestion is
difficult to

thus a relative term, and in many instances it might be say whether or not a particular act was sugIf the act followed


a normal amount of conit

sideration after a normal time for deliberation


not be suggestion, while if the same act followed too abruptly or with too little consideration it might be a
true case of suggestion. Every normal individual


idea of

subject to the influence of which we think is all too

liable to be held for truth,

and every thought of an action which enters our minds is likely to result in such action. I do not think first of walking and then make up my mind to walk. The very thought of walking will inevitably lead to the act unless I stop the process by the thought of standing still. If I think of an object to the
east of

me my whole body sways
is so slight

slightly in that direc-

Such action



ordinarily do not

without the aid of accurate recording instruments. Almost all so-called mind-reading exhibitions are nothing but demonstrations of the fact that every thought which we think expresses itself in some outward action. Thought is dynamic in its very nature and

every idea of an action tends to produce that action. The most perfect working of suggestion is to be seen under hypnosis and in crowds. In hypnosis the subject holds every idea presented as true, and every idea suggested is acted out with no hesitation whatever. Here the mind is so narrowed by the artificial sleep that no contradictory or inhibiting idea arises, and hence no
idea can seem absurd and no action seems out of place. There is no possible criticism or deliberation and so we

have the extreme case of susceptibility to suggestion.



The effect of a crowd upon an individual approaches that of the hypnotizer. The individual is affected by every member of the crowd and the influence becomes
so overpowering that it can hardly be resisted. If the crowd is a "lynching party" the whole atmosphere is

one of revenge, and everywhere is suggested the idea of "lynch the culprit." This idea is presented on all It can be read from the faces and actions of the sides. individuals and is heard in their cries. No other idea has a chance to arise in consciousness and hence this one idea, being dynamic, leads to its natural consequences. It was once supposed that suggestion was something abnormal and that reason was the common attribute of men. To-day we are finding that suggestion is of universal application to all persons, while reason is a process which is exceptional, even among the wisest. We reason rarely, but act under suggestion constantly. There was a great agitation some years ago among advertisers for "reason why" copy. This agitation has

had some value, but

it is

easily overe'mphasized.


sionally customers are persuaded and convinced, but more frequently they make their purchases because the act is suggested at the psychological moment. Suggestion and persuasion are not antagonistic both should be kept in mind. However, in advertising, suggestion should not be subordinated to persuasion b'ut should be sup;

modern advertisThe individing a crowd is not aware of the fact ual swallowed up by that he is not exercising a normal amount of deliberaHis actions appear to him to be the result of tion.
plemented by

The actual

effect of

not so


to convince as to suggest.

reason, although the idea, as presented, is not criticised at all and no contradictory or inhibiting idea has any
possibility of arising in his mind.

In the same

way we

as in my case. While in the shop I happened to fall into conversation with the proprietor and he asked me if a friend had recommended him to me. Thereupon I tried to recall Some time ago a who the friend was and finally came to the conclusion that this shop had never been recommended to me at all. I discovered that all I knew of the shop I had learned from advertisements and I doubt very much whether I ever read any of the advertisements further than the display type. Later. Doubtless many other customers would have given the same reply even though. hence the way unknown to the purtailor in Chicago was conducting a vigorous advertising campaign.176 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING we are performing a deliberate act think that when we purchase an advertised commodity. Some months after the advertising had begun I went into the tailor's shop and ordered a suit. no friend had spoken to them concerning the shop. I forgot where I had received my information and assumed that I had received it from a friend who patronized the shop. enforces the suggested idea. The idea is suggested by the advertisement. while in fact we may never have deliberated upon the subject at all. I had seen his advertisements for months and from them had formed an idea of the shop. and the impulsiveness of human nature desired result follows in a chaser. Advertisements that are seen frequently are difficult to distinguish in their force from ideas which are secured from the . Ideas which have the greatest suggestive power are those presented to us by the actions of other persons. The second most effective class is probably the ideas suggested by the words of our companions. I replied that such was the case. I did not suppose that his advertising was having any influence upon me.

Street railway advertisespecially effective at this point because the suggestion is presented so frequently that we soon forget ing is the source of the suggestions and end by attributing to the advice of friends. in the reproduced advertisements of Jap-a-lac (No. it In advertising some commodities argumentation is of more importance than suggestion. In the most successful advertising argumentation and forms of reasoning are not disregarded.SUGGESTION words of our friends. however. but the emphasis is put upon suggestion. the emphasis where the most can be accomplished and subordinates those mental processes which hold a second place in determining our actions. and for such things booklets and other similar forms of advertising are the most effective. to the psychological situation. Thus. 1). as I see this young lady using Jap-a-lac the suggestion to do the who overpowering. Inasmuch as more of our actions are induced by suggestion than by argumentation. He has also taken advantage of the fact that we soon forget the person who and become subject to illusions originally suggested the idea upon the matter. Such commodities are. As stated above.and has put . 177 We Advertising thus becomes a great attribute to our social environment that which in reality has been secured from the advertisements which we have seen so often that we forget the source of the information. advertising conforms. Many a woman has looked at these pictures has been immediately same thing is overcome by a desire to do the same thing. The successful advertiser seems to have worked upon this hypothesis in constructing many advertisements. the exception and not the rule. in It puts this particular. social illusion. those suggestions are the most powerful which we receive from the actions and words of other persons.

178 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING "sX ll Orill! .14 No. The actions of this young lady are compelling in their suggestive power. . 1.

As a matter of fact I was affected in just this manner." The suggestion would thereupon be in an extreme form and be liable to cause me to imitate what I assumed every one else was doing. even though nothing than the display and the picture is noticed. for Jap-a-lac had been a household commodity for years. chalk hard glossy surface. and I feel sure that many women are con- vinced of the adequacy of this paint by these same adver- tisements. Soon after the purchase I began to write this chapter and I am unable to recall any instance of having seen Jap-a-lac in use. even though I cerning this paint. It Is crumbling It comes off tfway. A suggestion to rub your finger. I should assume that "every one is using Jap-a-lac. LUCAS TINTED GLOSS won't crumble. Apparently I had never heard an argument in favor of the paint but had acted upon mere suggestion. although at the time of the purchase of the paint my knowledge of it seemed to me perfectly - Rub your finger on white lead paint several months old. Women are. I had seen pictures of the Jap-alac paint can and had seen pictures of persons using the paint. more susceptible to sugges- tion than men. like chalk. If I 179 had seen these and simihad never seen any one actually using the paint.SUGGESTION her desire into execution. When occasion arose to purchase some paint for household use I called for Jap-a-lac under the assumption that I had seen it used frequently. more . adequate. Be sure you get It. but I know of no other source of information conlar cards for a few months. in general. No. reproduced above. and it seemed to me that I was running no risks. The can looked familiar. 2. PAINT It develops wont c yean It lasts Moisture or heat won't affect it longer than other paint.

What could be more absurd than Westerf eld's advertisement? The fact that this adverfor its use. 3. and even though the action it is difficult to resist. tisement was highly successful is sufficient justification Kerr's studio was flooded with answers to suggestion of "Guess who?" The Yucatan sign language does not affect me. Tinted Gloss Paint. may be absurd. The four following reproduced SOLVE THIS and well send you one of our Superior Pound CoKes to last month's Don't miss our -"Certainly neJn" Wednesday Special Sale I WESTERFELIKS No. New Martiosville and Smlthflcld. No. A suggestion to solve this. The suggested idea haunts one. Many persons doubtless feel the suggestion to be irresistible to rub the end of the first finger when looking at this advertisement of Lucas A SISTERSVILLE GIRL GUESS WHO? To the first Successful Guesser we \vffl give One Dozen of our $5. .00 Photos.180 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING It seems that no form of action can be suggested by an advertisement that does not successfully challenge the reader to do what is proposed. but I cannot look at the beautiful girl saying "Yu"-"ca"-"tan" without a prothe . The action suggested by this advertisement makes it effective.4. ^^^~"~ KERR'S STUDIOS Slstersville. Eastman Kodaks and Supplies Everything for the Photographer. advertisements depend upon suggestion and are said to be extremely successful.

SUGGESTION 181 No. 5." . The movements of her lips literally force me to repeat the word "Yu-ca-tan.

Thus in the reproduced advertisement of Postum Food Coffee the picture of the venerable doctor 7 becomes associated in our minds with the statement. On the contrary. the words of our friends have strong are not cold. to give greater suggestive power. As stated above. by a logical process.' these words seem to have issued from a responsible . we are so We highly susceptible to suggestion that the words of our companions are ordinarily held for true and the actions proposed by them are hastily carried out. but this relationship seems to be" suggested and it adds greatly to the value of the advertisement. use Postum Food Coffee. who take data in and then. suggestive power. The advertiser does not state that the words are those of the person depicted. tiveness of the words of companions is The suggesa force available to the advertiser. 6. The suggestions in these four advertisements lead the readers to desire to nounced tendency to imitate act in the ways suggested. and that of necessity leads to an interest in the goods advertised. come to a reasonable conclusion. to recom- ment and then. The washerwoman seems mend Arrow collars. Later "If coffee don't agree.182 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING her. He places before the public a state- ARROW No. he shows the likeness of a person whose face indicates the possession of a judgment we should be willing to take. logical machines.

aids the natural skin. you ought to use Calox. Don't infer. Tooth 7 ' Pjosvderj : . and imparts new vigor CL Don't HAND SAPOLIO own V method changes of its cleans the of the and life. SHOULD BE ON EVERY WASHSTANO No. more tooth powder just now. I don t wait for further 7 evidence but accept uncritically the words which she is by pores. 7. A good is gestion advertisement in which sugsubordinated to argumentation. but the absurdity of the situation does not de- tract from the practical value of such forms of sug- gestion. Try it! CIt's a lightning change from office to parlor with Hand Sapolio. 77 " As I happen to need Yes. is represented as using. J 'I whiten your teeth. ! THE 'OXYGEN DO ES\IT. argue. When we stop to think of it.h''ne\V' scientificdentifrice that will.SUGGESTION 183 person and come to have undue weight with us all. The portrait doubles the suggestive power of this advertisement. Likewise in the reproduced advertisement of Arrow collars the genial washerwoman seems to assure us that " Arrow Collars don't shrink in the wash. No. beautiful girl points her finger at me and seems to say. it absurd to place credence in these words of the ad- vertiser simply because of the presence of an appropriate picture. . 77 In the case of the Calox advertisement I am convinced when this The "OXYGE> ". 8.

No. a few hours." the Your local florist.the tt/yy 'Qift ^ccehtatte have been entertained by a gracious a little dinner party perhaps to which you have been invited by a business friend. The Flowers Florists. it . J[ T T'OU hostess A gift of flowers next day will express the appre- ciation you feel The girl you danced with. 9. can deliver in the in any or town city fresh flowers United States and Canada through 1 the Florists Telegraph Delivery Service. "Say with Flowers" is one of the cleverest suggestions in current advertising. gift For every occasion when some thoughtful attenon your part is hard to express in words it tion " Say with Flowers. within gift acceptable. who was good to you in finding other partners a of flowers next day is the tribute you owe. florist " displaying die sign "Say it with member of the which enables him is a Society of American to serve you better when you buy flowers.

We have but to consider the millions of persons who at least glance at advertisements. the application of the two in the same advertisement often increases the value of each. successfully. of Hand " Hand Thus in the reproduced advertisement (No. These reproduced advertisements are presented as mere illustrations of a few of the many ways in which suggestion may be used by the advertiser. Sapolio Sapolio should be on every washstand. Indeed. in addition to those presented above. to be impressed by the possibilities opened to the man who can present his advertisement in a form that suggests powerfully the purchase or use of his commodity.SUGGESTION 185 The reproduced advertisement of the Society of American Florists (No." is " strengthened by the reasons why/' and the reasons why are strengthened by this suggestion. Many forms of suggestion. with Flowers " is one of the cleverest phrases in current advertising. There* is also no necessary divorce between suggestion and the presentation of arguments. 9) is one in which suggestion is used The picture tends to beget imitation. are available to^the advertiser. 8) the direct suggestion. The reminder of occasions demanding a gift of flowers becomes an irresistible sug" Say it gestion. .

viz. DURING feeling. and voluntary actions. all and willing are the three universal aspects activities. Sometimes our condition is one of intense another it is primarily intellectual grasp of a situation. and striving. and there is something for which we are We know something. . Knowing. such as impulsive. all Under the esses will may be included all the active proc- This activity may express itself either in bodily movements or in some such mental processes as attention or volition. the line of thought which I am carrying out. and the necessity of completing my task in a given time I feel pleased with . we have a particular thing tone of feeling. the comfort of the situation and the excitement of composition I am putting forth activity of will in striving to accomplish a certain end and to express myself on a . voluntary actions.186 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING XV THE WILL: AN ANALYSIS all the waking hours of the day there is someabout which we are thinking. instinctive. Under the bodily activities are of the mind.. yet typewriter. feeling. Although each of the three aspects of consciousness may for a time predominate. At this time it will be well to confine our attention to but a part of these activities of the will. we feel somehow. of our mental As I sit in my chair I am conscious of the furniture in the room. at it is probable that all three activities are present at moments of our conscious existence. and at other times it is especially a putting forth the will in attempting to accomplish some end or to reach some conclusion. we strive for something not yet attained.

and all after consideration. but here the term is used in an unany technical sense and includes such . (c) imagination the pleasure of possessing the new the delights connected with the trip. and the distance to be covered to reach the creditor. voluntary actions. start for the ticket (e) I decide to take the trip and office. (&) I think of the trouble of going to the tailor shop. the trip that I might take. It includes a A actions performed mental process and the resultant. faction of having the debt paid. Voluntary actions may be analyzed into (a) an idea of two or more attainable ends. bodily activity. the inconvenience of waiting for the train. and the satissuit. and of the debt that I might pay. (d) a comparison of the values of the different ends and of the difficulties of the means. (e) a choosing of one of the ends and striving to attain it. ( c ) a feeling of the value of worthiness of the different ends. A and. but it is because of the existence of voluntary action that the advertiser finds it necessary to proceed logically and to appeal to the reason of his customer. finally. It is probably true that a majority of our actions are performed without such consideration. ( ~b ) an idea of the means to attain these ends. (d) I compare the difficulties of possessing each and the pleasures derivable I feel in from the possession. careful consideration of the elemental processes involved in such actions is of great advantage in enabling the advertiser to bring about the decision desired. If this is a correct analysis of voluntary action the . processes in a voluntary action may be illustrated as follows (a) I think of a suit that I might five : These buy.things as decision.THE WILL: AN ANALYSIS 187 definition of volition would not make the subject clearer to us. choice.

that the public may know exactly how to secure the piano ( 5 ) the exact cost must be presented the method .188 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING question which naturally arises in the mind of the advertiser is this: What can be done to cause the largest number goods? of persons to decide in favor of my particular Suppose that the article of merchandise under consideration be a piano: now how may the advertiser proceed in accordance with the analysis presented above? (a) The piano must be brought before the public in such a manner that the idea of it will be clear and distinct minds of the potential purchasers. (d) The value of the piano must be presented in such a way that. the language used should conform to the mode of thinking of the public appealed to. immediate decision and action on the part of the public in favor of the particular piano. well be included in the statement of the ad- The the piano (c) by feeling of value may be awakened for advertising it in the highest class of media. (c) The piano must be presented in such a manner that its value seems great. Elaborations of each of these five points will sugThat the gest themselves to any thoughtful advertiser. (5) The pubmust be informed exactly what is necessary to secure the piano. the type used should be easily read. in the lic when compared with other forms of action. by empha- . the description should be as brief as is possible for comIn order pleteness of presentation of essential features. of sending the money. the of the piano seems the most desirable. idea of the piano may be clear and distinct (a) illustrations may be used to advantage. by having a beautiful advertisement. the delivery and setting up in the home might vertisement. The purchase means of securing the piano must be made to appear (e) Pressure must be brought to bear to cause easy.

and although an ideal advertisement would be so constructed that it would assist the customer in completing each of not to be assumed that each it the five processes. and by any other means which would tend to associate the It is assumed that piano with feelings of pleasure. On the other hand. how it is manufactured.THE WILL: AN ANALYSIS 189 sizing the elegance of the instrument and the perfection of the tone. it is quite true that many advertisements are ineffective because the writer has not paid attention to these fundamental psychological processes of voluntary actions. 1) the first step of the act of volition (a) is emphasized. by indicating what a joy it is in a home. is made it is how it looks. other pianos will be considered by the possible purchasers and that when others are considered they will suffer by comparison (d). and what good for. That the choice may be made at once and effort put forth to secure the piano (e) reasons for avoiding delay might be presented or the suggestion to action might be so strong that the tendency to procrastinate would be overcome. "This advertisement gives the reader a clear and vivid idea of the product advertised. That this may be true it will be ' necessary to describe the strong points of the piano in such a way that the value of the piano seems great. No one can read the advertisement without knowing what the product of. and the cost of it and the means of securing it seem less burdensome than those connected with competing pianos. . In the reproduced advertisement of Triscuit (No. Although every customer who is induced to select any particular line of goods after consideration must inevi- tably perform the five processes as described. yet it is advertisement should be constructed so that would be well adapted to promote each of the five processes.

but inadequate as to method of securing them. Adequate description of goods. After examining this advertisement carefully I am still at a PERFECT FOob The Natural Fond Co* No. Such a can be justified only on the assumption use of space that the public is already familiar with the sauce. or that this is to be but a single link in the chain and that later or preceding advertisements supply what is deficient in this single advertisement. In all this space nothing is shown or said which gives us an idea of the real nature of the product advertised. know Many an because it otherwise good advertisement is weakened gives no adequate idea of the means necessary . 2) occupied the cover page in a British magazine which is about twelve by sixteen inches in size. 1.190 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING of Holbrook's The reproduced advertisement Sauce (No. loss to the real nature of the product.

are widely distributed are advertised on the assumption that everybody knows that they are to be secured at all It is not wise to assume any such knowledge on the part of the general public. 2. large proportion of goods that is A No. Inadequate description of the goods and of the method of securing them.THE WILL: AN ANALYSIS 191 for securing the goods advertised. . and many persons assume that Triscuit can be had only at the address given at the foot of the advertisement. In the adver- dealers. In the advertisement of Triscuit no mention is made of the fact that it can be secured from all first-class grocers. The advertiser is so familiar with his goods and the means of securing them that he forgets that others know nothing of them. It needless to reproduce any particular advertisement to illustrate this point.

" This state- ment we most persons. hardware and drug dealers. 3. The writers of the advertisements have assumed that the public knows more of these goods than the facts warrant. 2) no address is given and nothing is said of the place where it can be secured.50. All sizes from 15c to $2. of leaves no doubt in the mind of the public as to the means of securing the paint. The reproduced advertisement of Jap-a-lac (No. but not for all. 3) No. and "If your dealer does not keep Jap-a-lac send us his name and lOc and we will is sufficient for find this statement in addition ? : . "For sale by paint. Adequate description of the method securing the goods.192 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING tisement of Holbrook's Sauce (No.

and to every agency which furthers our social instincts. 4) presents the product as particularly worthy. This fact is means accomplished by most advertisers but not by all." The greatest feeling of worth attaches itself to those things which are the objects of our most fundamental instinctive desires. The advertisement is intrinsically beautiful. The absence of such information is very common and impresses the writer as one of the weakest points in modern advertising. The cut and the copy harmoThe young girl depicted could be nize completely. . It is not sufficient to have a clear idea of of the an end and a definite idea of securing it unless there is an accompanyof value. afford the hostess opportunity for many original con. The fourth process in our analysis (d) is the com- ." and "airy lightness and exquisite composition" is characteristic of the entire cut.'' idea of the 193 means necessary This advertisement gives us a clear for securing the advertised goods and hence facilitates the second process in a voluntary action and increases the chances of securing the desired action. The third process in our analysis of voluntary action is the feeling of worthiness or value (c). ceptions in the serving of desserts. described as "a fairy. No advertisement should ever appear which leaves any doubt in the minds of possible customers as to where and how the goods advertised can be secured. and also appeals to the femito nine social instinct by the following words: ". feeling of worth inevitably attaches itself to every savory A viand. The advertiser is thus compelled ing feeling to make his commodity appear valuable. The reproduced advertisement of Nabisco (No.THE WILL: AN ANALYSIS send free sample. The copy appeals to our instinctive desires for savory viands in a most enticing manner. to every beautiful object.

he NABISCO No. and it is my place to give the reader such . but ordinarily it is self-destructive. as an advertiser. lic to which he is appealing will compare his goods with is tempted to resort to the showing the weak points of his merchandise or method of sales. be instances in which this method is justifiable and even necessary. This advertisement arouses a feeling of appreciation. I know that my goods will be compared with the others. may to the advertiser and his function is to minimize it. The' act of comparison (d) is a process in volition that the adIt is a hindrance vertiser should not seek to encourage. am offering goods in competition with other goods. If I. 4.194 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING parison of competing ends as to value and means of When an advertiser realizes that the pubacquisition. There competitor's questionable method of those of his competitor.

psychological fact that at the moment of final decision all competing ideas are usually banished from is centered on the idea (the merwhich is chosen. commenced the competing ideas are kept from the mind and the action gets put There are therefore two distinct into fulfillment. This one has seemed better than the others and it is held to and acted upon. We and eliminate one after compare another till but one is left. The last point in the analysis of the process of volition (e) is that of choosing one of the ends and striving to attain All the other stages of the process are but subsidiary to this. and in this way I get attention to those points at which my goods of will gain by comparison. I must emphasize the strong points of my merchandise and especially those points in which my goods are superior to competing goods. The one line of action is before us and the very act of attending There to the one idea results in the appropriate action. things which the advertiser can do to facilitate this final In the first place he fills the mind of his potential step. . may have been no but now that the action has conscious choice preceding the action.THE WILL: AN ANALYSIS a clear and vivid idea of 195 my goods (a) and to make the of securing them so plain (6) that my goods will not suffer by comparison. The process is different lines of action acting upon it is often a part of the choice. The known the mind and attention one of elimination preceding the choice. At the moment of final chandise) choice we do not hold competing lines of action before us and then choose the one that seems the best. What can the advertiser do to secure or to facilitate this part of the process? It is a wellit. purpose is best served by means My holding my goods up to the attention of the potential purchaser and not by emphasizing the weaknesses of those my competitor.

") The advertiser who fails to state the method of securing his goods fails' to give one of the strongest possible suggestions to action. (5). the direct command. this point see chapters etc. The mind of the customer is filled by the processes described in (a). If it were even possible that every reader of the advertisement of Jap-a-lac already knew the price of it and where it could be secured. The suggestion to action might be strengthened by additional details but not by substituting for them. and in the second place he suggests immediate action. V and VI (For a fuller discussion of of "The Theory of Ad- vertising. and (c). Immediate action is suggested by ( & ) and by some such device as the return coupon. still the advertisement is strengthened by giving these details in that it gives the suggestion to action as nothing else could do.196 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING customers with thoughts of his own particular goods. .

In the case of a single individual the most diverse methods are employed at different times and under different circumstances. moment we hit upon a conception which lets us apply some principle of action which is a fixed and stable part . . The unhesitatingly in a certain stereotyped way. Individuals are different and employ divers methods in performing their acts. : which the arguments for and against a given course seem gradually and almost insensibly to settle themselves in the mind and to end It is that of those cases in by leaving a clear balance in favor of one alternative. William James that it seems useless to attempt any improvement upon his presentation of the five methods of deciding or choosing "The first method may be called the reasonable type. . of authority.THE WILL: VARIETY IN ACTION 197 XVI THE WILL: VARIETY IN ACTION IN the preceding chapter an analysis tion was given without reference of a typical acto the fact that actions are not ordinarily typical. carry with them a set of heads of classification. these cases usually is the discovery that we can refer the case to a class upon which we are accustomed to act . our state of doubt is at an end. . who have to make many decisions in the day. . No two acts are exactly alike. . Persons of our Ego. which alternative we then adopt without effort or con- The conclusive reason for the decision in straint. The personal differences in methoad of deciding questions and resultant actions have been so beautifully expressed by Prof.

As soon. that we feel most at a loss. . although an opposite accident at the same time might have produced the opposite result. and under these they seek as far as possible to range each new emer- gency as it occurs. will upset the balance in the direction of one of the alternatives. as we see our way to a familiar classification. We grow tired of long hesitation and inconclusiveness.198 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING each bearing its volitional consequence. The . we might as . "A stable 'reasonable' character is one who has a store of and worthy ends. concrete dilemmas do not come to us with labels gummed on their backs. after all. supervening at a particular moment upon our mental weariness. The wise man is he who succeeds in finding the name which suits the needs of the particular occasion best. and the hour may come when we feel that even a bad decision is better than no decision at all. we are at ease again. and who does not decide about an action till he has calmly ascertained whether it be ministerial or detrimental to any one of these. Either seems good. In the next two types of decision. It is where the emergency belongs to a species without precedent.' It often happens that no paramount and authoritative reason for either course will come. and are distressed at the indeterminateness of our task. with the conviction that. and there is no umpire to decide which should 'yield its place to the other. to which we then feel ourselves committed. . to which consequently no cut-and-dried maxim will apply. We may name them by many names. "In the second type our feeling is to a great extent that of letting ourselves drift with a certain indifferent acquiescence in a direction accidentally determined from without. however. the final fiat occurs before the evidence is all 'in. Under these conditions it will often happen that some accidental circumstance.

that find ourselves acting. but it comes from within. "In the third type the determination seems equally accidental.' etc. in consequence of some outer experience or some inexplicable inward change. The consequence is an instant abandonment of the more trivial projects with which we had been dallying.. 'though the heavens this sense of fall. and that things are in any event sure to turn out sufficiently right. solemn ones find theirs multiplied many fold. in the out. is But so motion after our intolerable exciting pent-up state that we eagerly throw ourselves into it.' 'awakenings of conscience. and an instant practical acceptance of the more grim and earnest alternative which till then could not extort our all mind's consent. All those 'changes of heart.' and deliberation ^omes to an immediate end . we suddenly pass from the easy and careless to the sober and strenuous mood. when the absence of imperative principles perplexing and suspense distracting. which make new men of so many of us may be classed under this head.THE WILL: VARIETY IN ACTION 199 well stand by this course as by the other. When one of these affects us. The whole scale of values of our motives and impulses then undergoes a change like that which a change of the observer's level The most sobering possible agents are objects of grief and fear. and we as if by a spontaneous discharge of our nerves. which often ends deliberation as suddenly as the third form does. It often is direction of one of the horns of the dilemma. as it were. automatically. The character abruptly rises to another 'level. 'Forward now!' we inwardly cry. It comes when.' "There is a fourth form of decision. produces on a view. or possibly the other way. all 'light fantastic' notions lose their motive power. and not from with- happens.

till all the reasons for and against a line of action are before him belongs to the first class. seems powerless to make the act discharge. as wilful act inclined the and that reason has balanced the present or absent. its chief difference from classes. . But in either if : we ourselves by our own in the former case by adding our living effort to the weight of the logical reason which. in deciding. The man who is impulsive and who acts "intuitively. belongs to the third class. Every one has probeach of them at some time. The slow dead heave of the will that is felt beam in these instances makes a from class of them alto- the four preceding If examined closely." of deciding are methods which we all use to a greater or less extent. yet some ably experienced These five methods people habitually decide by one method and others by The man who habitually waits in deciding another. whereas here both alternatives are steadily held in view. in the latter by a kind of creative contribution of something instead of a reason which does a reason's work. books." but who does not know why he acts so. may be either case we feel. The man who a copper" whenever anything is to be decided "flips belongs to the second class. in the very act of murdering the vanquished possibility the chooser realizes how much in is and that instant he making himself lose. These three classes are known to us all. There is probably no one who decides questions habitually after the manner described in Professor James' fourth and fifth classes. the former cases appears to be that in these cases the gether different subjectively all mind at the moment of deciding on the triumphant alternative dropped the other one wholly or nearly out of sight. the feeling that the evidence is all in.200 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING fifth "In the and final type of decision. taken alone.

in deciding. but when the mood is changed the same advertisement might be most effective. homes. of the store. an appeal to the artistic and sentimental might awaken her emonot recognized by the tional nature sufficiently to cause her to decide.THE WILL: VAKIETY IN ACTION Of these five 201 of little methods of decision some are significance to the advertiser although of primal significance to the psychologist. and other forms of merchandise which appeal to the higher nature of man. then. passes from the easy and careless to the sober and strenuous mood. which is mainly a form of suggestion. is of no significance to the advertiser except that it is the form which he seeks to obviate. then suddenly this same advertisement becomes all-powerful. To accomplish this he makes no mention of competitors. The reproduced advertisement of Modern Eloquence (No. and . the decision is dependent upon a sudden spontaneity of an emotional nature and leaves but little for fines his the advertiser to do. This accounts for the fact that certain advertisements may be seen and read frequently with no effect for years. Women decide after this fashion more frequently than men. but con- argument to his own commodity. He tries to get the public to dismiss all thought of competing articles. 1) might not appeal powerfully to readers while they are in a careless and easy mood. This is true in advertising such things as life insurance. In the third type. The fifth. If a lady were debating the although question as to which goods she should order. in reality it is. The appearance erf the advertisement. In the fourth of Professor James' divisions the person. or of the salesman is woman as the deciding element. Here the advertiser can do most by appealing to the artistic and sentimental natures of the possible customers. good books.

but is one which approaches action upon suggestion and hence anything which the advertiser can do to suggest action aids in securing the results which come This class of persons will not.202 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING would be likely to that which awakens the emotion be chosen. 1. The effect of this advertisement depends upon the mood of the reader. ing type. at the critical moment. under this . The second method of decision is not strictly a reason- rreparmg for j Greater Opportunities No. search through the back files of magaclass.

neither will they" exert themselves to find a store not centrally located if a more If I is passed at the critical moment of debelong to this second of Professor James' convenient one cision. salesman.THE WILL: VARIETY IN ACTION zines to find 203 an advertisement. and if I am trying to decide which watch I shall No. A poor advertisement. I will purchase the one which presents itself to me at the psychological moment. but one which under certain circumstances might be fairly successful. buy. This statement is . 2. classes. or store. An extensive advertiser recently said that any kind of advertising would succeed if the advertisements were large and if they appeared frequently enough. whether the presentation be by advertisement.

Furthermore. tising. and many other advertised articles. 3) is similar to that of Pears' Soap. The reproduced advertisement of Pears' Soap (No. to make an insuperable obstacle to reasoning with groups of people by any such means as to the . but it no justification of poor adverhelps to explain why poor advertisements This is first are sometimes successful. If these two advertisements (and others equally poor) were given extensive publicity they would undoubtedly increase the sale of the goods ad- persons decide accordIng to Professor James' second class and because so many unimportant questions are decided by us all according vertised simply because so many to this method. 2) is so exceedingly poor that it would be defended by but few. added apparent complete freedom of the human will. advertisement of Cook's Flaked Rice (No. the persons who frequently use this first method of deciding are so numerous that it is " reason " of the public in exessential to appeal to the ploiting any kind of merchandise. but especially to those who offer goods of a high price and of such a nature that the same person purchases but once or a few times during his life.204 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING certainly not true but it does find some justification based on the decisions of such persons as are assigned to James' second type. If a man were debating of soap he should purchase and if at the critical moment he should see this advertisement it might which sort The reproduced possibly induce him to order Pears'. combined. would seem. automobiles. life insurance. The great diversity in individuals and the numerous motives which influence the same individual. Professor James' method of decision is of the greatest significance to advertisers of all sorts of merchandise. Among such goods would be included pianos.

and sex of the person . Human choice has always been assumed to be unknown. The suicides character of crimes remain constant. even as to the age. social. come to see that human No. ciety and the influences all at work prophecies may be made within curate for certain limits which are sufficiently ac- Under given popractical purposes. distribute themselves in a most remarkable manner. 3. occupation. and industrial conditions the number and litical. but one which under certain circumstances might be fairly successful. A poor advertisement.THE WILL: VARIETY IN ACTION 205 the printed page. to be the one indeterminable In spite of all this we have action is governed by known laws and that by carefully studying the nature of sofactor in the universe.

and the reputation of the medium. social. and confidence is an unusual absence of the same tendency. but the manner of presentation meets with marked differences in the response of the public. ferent ways. the make-up. Suspicion is nothing but an exaggerated tendency to call up possible evil consequences. from the political. is the relations which it has and the funcevery object The presentation of these relations which it fulfills. Despite all the uncertainty of human choice he knows that there are certain conditions which determine the will choose his it. The same goods may be presented in a score of difThe goods remain the same. It is his duty to know the commodity to be exploited and the public to be reached. and functions in a way that will cause the tionships possible purchaser to respond is a task that is not likely to be overestimated. The text and illustration of the advertisement. is and the manner ber of marriages each year the country that there will be increased or decreased demand for individual lines of goods. Famine increases the number of crimes against property and decreases the number of The wise merchant knows to a certainty marriages. all unite to increase or decrease this tendency to hesitate and call up possible evil consequences. Even though the commodity to be sold may seem very The essential thing in simple.. in reality it is not so. and industrial condition of committing the crime.206 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING of The nummore regular than the number of deaths. etc. One presentation may invite suspicion and another confidence. The advertiser cannot be too careful in scrutinizing every- . number who and take the^ains to secure commodity The advertiser is the diplomat of the commercial and industrial world.

THE WILL: VARIETY IN ACTION 207 thing that goes to make up an advertisement to see that nothing is present which would increase the tend- ency to recall from the past experience evil consequences which have accompanied other actions. although there has been no additional ground given for such action. for it requires more effort than it would if the public were given a longer time in which to allay their Advertisers are frequently surprised by the few responses which they receive at first from their advertisements and by the great response which they secure at a later time. in the frequently hesitate to allow time for the suggestion of possible evil consequences. They could not be induced to respond at once but at a later time they do respond. even if such suspicions were ungrounded. is inestimable in its value to the advertiser. A publication which has been taken manager home for years. but also all those which would tend to make readers suspicious. There are persons who will answer an advertisement the first time they see it. We are all a little suspicious of hasty actions. although the first advertisement was in every way as good as the second. The advertising of a publication should refuse not only all dishonest advertisements. but if such consequences do not suggest themselves in too great a number and with too great vividness. others will wait till they see the second or third of the series and suspicions. and the older we grow the more suspicious we become. action may follow. but there are many others who will not de so. which has become trusted because of long years of reliable service. There are some who will answer the first advertisement but will wait a week or so to answer. . Thus We persons often respond to advertisements long after they first read them. It is frequently wise not to attempt to secure immediate response.

goods as might be purchased. and the advertiser should in general make no references to comThe buyer may. and the mere fact that the advertisement had begotten a desire upon its first appearance serves to increase the desire upon the second reading of the same or a similar Continuous consecutive advertising meets the method of response both of those suggestible creatures who act without hesitation and also of those advertisement. was pointed out above that deliberation often oc- curs because the presentation of one line of action suggests to our minds another similar and incompatible This sort of deliberate action. who are too cautious to respond till after sufficient time has elapsed for all the evil consequences to preIt sent themselves. The first time they saw the advertisement there was a personal desire for the goods advertised. If the advertisement can be so constructed that reader's attention to the goods advertised it holds the and does not . but would consider each make in relation to others. In puraction. Thus in purchasing a piano or an automobile it is to be expected that no one would be satisfied with the presentation of one make.208 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING then answer. instead of those presented in the advertisement. but the advertiser cannot afford to occupy space in furthering this tendency. yet it is the function of the advertiser to get the of the public to think of one particular article. Although this is true. but the fear of hasty action was enough to restrain action. At a later time such fear is diminished. as also that resulting from a suggestion of evil consequences. indeed. is common in actions where large interests are at stake. think of such peting goods. chasing an article that costs some hundreds of dollars most persons would deliberate and consider other goods same class.

and he can do this by so presenting his goods that they occupy the attention completely. " He who hesitates is lost " is a frequent quotation. is to help the reader to get rid of the necessity of decision by effort. The parts of an advertisement may weaken instead One part of the advertiseof strengthen each other. Such a decision is made with its from having conscious effort. it has done much to shorten the period of deliberation and secure decision in favor of the goods advertised. and hesitation and procrastination follow until the initial desire for the goods has vanished. Every slur and every remark intended to weaken the opponent's argument serves to call attention to the goods criticised and thus to divide the reader's attention and so keep the advertisement due weight. advertiser must do. with both thus attended to. loses the contest. ment may offer a substitute which causes us to hesitate about acting upon another part. but it it to. We may debate between two courses of action and hold both clearly in mind for some time. but at the moment of decision one course has usually occupied the mind completely and the other. would be more applicable if we should change "The possible customer who is caused to hesitate . It is possible to hold two lines of action before us and. by dropping from the attention. to decide for the one and against the other. Under such circumstances decision becomes easy and prompt. is unpleasing and is not common. and action in favor of the What the object occupying the mind is commenced.THE WILL: VARIETY IN ACTION 209 suggest competing goods. little description is given of the articles adis In such a case the reader unable to make up his mind. It is possible to present two articles which seem equally desirable because too vertised. therefore.

convenient.210 is THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING lost. chance to win. An attractive and frequently repeated advertise- ment. our state of doubt is at an end. The moment we hit upon a conception which allows us to apply a principle of action which is a fixed and stable part of our Ego. his make argument make up is given In Professor James' five methods presented above. The goods supply a present need. Healthful. 6. reason for the decision in these cases usually is the discovery that we can refer the case to a class upon which we are accustomed to act unhesitatingly in a stereotyped way.. : 2. thousand perso'ns were examined. Among the effective motives or conceptions the following were prominent 1. e.. 4. Stylish. Money considerations. Labor-saving. The result was most interesting and instructive. 3.g. but he must use the greatest skill to discover the conception which in any particular possible for the reader to to act at once. the most significant thing in the discussion is the following: "The conclusive case will lead to action." Recently an attempt was made to discover the conceptions which actually are effective in leading persons to answer advertisements and to purchase advertised Upon this point the statements of several goods. investment. . cheapness. 5. 7. or useful." A it single advertisement should not present sufficient competing goods unless to mind and Not only must the advertiser avoid presenting suggestions of evil consequences and possible substitutes for his own commodity. Reliability of the goods or the firm.

iind ffne.. In the reproduced adIf the right vertisement of Ivory Soap (No. texture arc* delightful to the skirt.refinements. gre. ':'-'Soap finif'> leaving a clean absence No. time they were needed and the purchase followed without further consideration. the desired action will follow. . the . conception is presented at the right time. 4) it is assumed that women purchase the soap and that for many of them. iniUiTiify. 4. was chaser was influenced by the constant suggestion which offered by the frequently recurrent attractive ad- vertisement. who care raosl'-for .THE WILL: VARIETY IN ACTION 211 Of these seven reasons it will be observed that the second and last should not be included in the reasoning In the second the goods were suggested at the type. including such as the one shown in the cut.satisfaction' in hofy Soap. pEOPLE toilet take *. I'. In the seventh the pur- |i jjr . Us fniooif.. Purity as the controlling conception.

pure and reliable which will sell it. A furnace conceived as a good invest- ment. purity and reliability of the article is the quality of Hence the conception of Ivory Soap as No. 5. the question is settled at . Therefore if radiators are presented satisfactorily as a good investment.212 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING greatest concern. is the one conception above all others With very many persons it was found that a good investment is the conception which leads to immediate action.

SCHOOL TEACHER. -raOd mucb to keep mo op.rn Food Coffee. success. Suipend judgment until we have made it atrictly according to direction!.' II Menu had made the Poitum like . or useful. and with great 5) . diamonds. My slp waa badly broken at oi(ht and I *ai all onHrung. remembered. Suter aaid it waa better coffs to tut taite.he alwayi made coffee. Very many goods are advertised. appearing in women's magazines. appeared to reli." Flajltr. of Poetnm Food Coffee. The reproduced advertisement 6) is of Postum Cereal (No. to it Iron the tnt. When it became evident that I wai in a very bad condition. Hiving Been told tlul It wa hardly knew whit to do when I found tt waa really pulling OM dotill. It should be however. magazines. open to severe criticism. and hundreds of other . My work teaching acbool. The reproduced advertisement of the American Radiator Company (No. Battle Creek. who look We were all greatly improved in health and a now itroog advocau. CoL NUB* can bo {Ins 07 Poatum Cereal Co. than the old.b the Poitum aa well aa my 1H|1 brother. cxuedinclr awwoa. 6. ah. was evidently constructed on this principle. 'We were all amazed at the difference. convenient. Ltd. but none of ua could cadura I u to throw the package away. She proposed to boiL No. I wai Induced to Urn 00 coffee and try Po. bat I Mid. Mich. This series of advertisements assumes the effectiveness of the conception. Pleaae omit my name from publication. Mother made It int. it was to flat and latteleii.. life. who ia an elderly gentleman >nd had uaed nil** all hi. allow it to boil (all fifteen minutee after the bulling begini. For such this advertisement might be irresistible. that it. It. health. Pulled coffe* to 1 Down Hill. Clothing. taking it off the Hove ai toon aa It began 1 got inter to mike the Poitum neit morning atrictly according to direction*.THE WILL: VARIETY IN ACTION 213 once and the radiators are purchased. and breaking down ( and father. as being labor-saving. that there are many persons to whom the conception of health is all-powerful.

It is a wise advertiser that can select the conceptions that will fit into the principles of action of the greatest number of possible customers.214 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING things are successfully advertised by emphasis upon the stylishness of the goods: upon the social prestige enjoyed by their possessors. .

but should be compelled to record all my habitual actions and thoughts it would keep a sterecently to if I nographer busy all day and a camera would have to be directed toward me for every move I made. I put my left shoe on first I always do. I found that I got out of bed in the morning in a way peculiar to myself. cream my breakfast food first and added The manner in which I rose from the table.HABIT 215 XVII HABIT THE term "habit" has been so frequently confined to a few questionable or bad habits that the broader sigWe are all nificance of the term is ordinarily lost. I put my coat on by putting on my right sleeve first. This is my habitual method of . creatures of habit and have some good and some bad ones. I picked up the morning paper and glanced over the first page then I turned to the last page and from there looked through the paper from the last to the first page and so ended where I had begun. I put on my clothes in a stereotyped order. My manner of walking was such that my put sugar on later. an interesting study for any one to observe his own actions and thoughts and to see what he does habitually. although I had not observed the fact I till that time. It is I tried found that make such a study of myself. reading the morning paper. and when I tried to reverse the order I found it very difficult. . put on my hat and left the house was peculiar to myself.

I took up my work and went they through it in a regular routine. There is a most intimate relation between our brains and our thoughts. but an explanation of the phenomenon has been left to modern psychology. it retains it." for the nerve substance is plastic. seeing down town by same street in such a manner that they recognized me even when did not see me. It is easy . or slight " crease. The paper is plastic. The fact of habit has been a matter of marvel and wonder for centuries. The actions as described above were not reasoned out and followed because they were the most rational. Every time we think there is a change taking place in the delicate nerve cells which compose a large part of the brain. the crease will remain. Throughout the day I found that the great majority of my actions and thoughts were merely habitual and were performed without conscious desire mine. If I bend a piece of paper and crease it. but when the new form is once impressed upon it. I observed my brother's actions at all these points and found that at every point his habits were different from His actions were as reasonable as mine but not more so. Every action among these cells leaves its indelible mark.216 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING me in the distance. but once formed the plasticity of the paper preserves the crease. Some effort is required to overcome the plasticity of the paper when the crease is and to form the crease. even if the paper is straightened out again. the knew me. I walked which I had been going over for years. or deliberation. and plasticity means simply that the substance offers some resistance to adopting a new form. I addressed my friends friends. although there were several other streets equally good and convenient.

unless they have acquired the art in their youth. That is why it is so easy to think our old habitual thoughts and why it is so hard to think new thoughts or to perform new movements. the crease becomes so well established that thinking and acting along that crease are easier than other thoughts or actions. and so these easier ones are said to have become habitual. and then when they are once formed (creased) they determine what we shall tried to be We and who have do and be. It is ordinarily true that no one ever learns a language after he is twenty-five years old so well that he can speak it without an accent.HABIT 217 for the paper to bend where it has been creased and it is likewise easy for action to take place in the brain where it has taken place before. Some person or paths some animal walks along in a particular direction and . This relationship of the mind to the brain in the formation of habits may be illustrated by the paths in In the densest forest there are still some a forest. where you can walk with ease. As far as language is concerned a person seems to be fixed or creased by the time he is twenty-five and he can never get rid of his former Few men ever learn to dress well habits of speech. all know men who have acquired wealth in middle life good dressers. and then when the brain is formed its plasticity is so great that it determines our future thinking and acting. This is well shown in the case of language. When a thought has been thought or an action performed many times. In all these things we see that we first form our brains. but in vain. but something about them betrays their former habits. They go to the best tailors. In a very real sense the thoughts and the actions form the brain.

He thinks and what he does. The success of the advertiser depends to an exceptionally great degree upon the confidence of the public. even in private. and we . to do the old things and how new ones As habits play such a large part in all of our thinking and acting it is important that the advertiser should understand what habits are and how he can make the most should observe the working of the laws of habit in his own life. In all the other places the briars have grown np and made it almost impossible to walk through them. We a forest. while to think We along the old lines is like following the old paths where advance is easy. If he could realize that everything he does leaves on his brain an impression which is to be a determining factor in all his future. path it becomes easier. he would be extremely careful as to what he of the situation.218 breaks THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING down some of the weeds and briars. Some one and every time that any one walks in this else follows. it is We the old path see how easy to think the old thoughts difficult the and are. Here the weeds and briars are trampled on and kept out of the way. A habit in the brain is like a path in know how easy it is to take and how hard it is to form a new one. Every thought we think forms a pathway through our brains and makes it easier for every other similar think along certain lines and that is the thought. If -we know that a man acts uniformly in an honest manner we have such confidence in him that we call him an honest man believe that he will not break his habit of honesty in the future and we are therefore willing to trust him. It is easy now to think these habitual thoughts. but to think a new thought is like beating a new path through a forest. same as saying that we have formed certain pathways of thought through our brains.

Some people have formed the habit of looking at the last pages in magazines before they look at the others. their habits of thought. many cases to make the necessary otherwise he is doomed become an " old fogy. is that passed by without The wise advertiser . Habit gives regularity and persistence to our actions. The He must know advertiser must know his customers. The advertisement should conform to their habitual modes of thought." The public which the advertiser addresses. is subEach ject to the same laws of habit as the advertiser. Some people look more at the right page than at the Some glance first at the top of the page. there are no incentives to right actions comparable with the inflexible laws of habit when these laws are fully appreciated. for it is too difficult to attempt to get them to think along new lines. and then the customers can read it and understand it with ease. The advertiser is likely to " get into a rut " in his line of thinking and consequently in his presentation of his commodity before the public. of the potential customers has formed a rut in his thinking and thinks along that particular line or lines. left. He should see to it that he does not allow his habits gradually but surely to make impossible to him new forms of expression and new lines of thinking and writing.HABIT 219 Thus. He must present his commodity in such a way that the readers can understand it without being compelled to think a new thought. It takes great and determined effort to overcome an old habit or to form a new one. and if does not look interesting the page a glance at the bottom or middle. but the advertiser should in effort . whether we think of single actions as determining our future characters or whether we think of them as determining the estimation in which we shall be held by others.

any markssuccessful in bagging game. When game man may be however. but after a few repetitions the act becomes almost automatic and requires little or no deliberation. of actions. but to-day no man can be successful who does not plan his cam- paign according to the habits of the public which he must reach. his discovery.220 is THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING always alert to detect these habits and to profit by is plentiful and hunters few. As soon. If an advertisement can get persons started to purchasing a particular brand of goods it has done much more than sell the goods in the immediate present for when people do a thing once it is easier to get them to do it again. any printer or reporter might have been successful in advertising. as competition becomes keen only that marksman is successful who understands the habits of the game sought and who plans according to his method of approach adver- the habits of the game. One great aim of the advertiser is to induce the public to get the habit of using his particular line of goods. and there is a uniformity and a certainty about them which differentiates them from other forms deliberation. In the first instance the purchaser may have been induced to act only after much hesitation. The action by making of habit gives great value to advertising the effect of the advertisement to be not merely transient but permanent. and habits are formed by just such repetitions. It often takes extensive advertising to get the . When the habit is once formed it acts as a great drivewheel and makes further action easy in the same direction. Habitual acts are always performed without . When tising was more primitive than it is to-day and when competition was less keen.

The advertiser of Pears' Soap quoted a great truth when he put this at the head of his advertisement. but since a habit formed is a positive asset such campaigns may be profitable. and the amount of sales may not warrant the expense during the first year. thus taking advantage of the habit by securing prompt responses and at the same time taking care to preserve the habit." be an active agent in inducing the customers to continue to buy the soap even long years after the advertisement had ceased to appear. of.HABIT 221 public into the habit. and so the advertisement would use doth breed a habit. . It takes so much effort to form the habit that when it is once formed it should be made the most Many This can best be done by continuing the advertising. There is much truth in this but also a great error. "How If he could by advertising get to using Pears' Soap he would get them into persons the habit of using it. advertisers work on the theory that as soon as have got the public into the habit of using their they goods they can stop their advertising and the sales will go right on.

Thousands of magazine readers read advertisements more than they are aware. when. and that they put these men assured me that all persons who . and yet within an hour after making such a statement she was engaged in a conversation about articles which she knew only from state- ments appearing in the advertising columns of her I observed her reading magazines and periodicals. The fact that this has become habitual gives it a permanence and regularity similar to that of our other habits. found that she seldom slighted the advertisements. One lady told me that she was sure she never paid any attention to advertisements. we are all One of the habits which most of us have acquired is that of reading advertisements. People have told me that they never look at the advertising pages of a magazine. Like other habits. I had formed a fixed habit of putting on my right sleeve before the left one. in the preceding chapter. I asked several professional advertising men as to the number of persons who read advertisements and the time which people in general devote to them. too.222 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING XVIII THE HABIT OF BEADING ADVEBTISEMEOTS As was shown creatures of habit. we are frequently not conscious of it. Some of pick up a magazine look at the advertisements. they scarcely ever take up a magazine without "glancing" at the advertisements. in fact. and yet for years I did not know it would have denied it.

the day one hundred men may be found there reading magazines. while others are there to spend the day. It is watch a large number of persons who are reading magazines. Some months ago I visited the reading-room of the Chicago Public Library. it seemed to me that a large part of them were thus engaged. or by asking those engaged in the business of advertising. the chairs are comfortable and the light In front of some of the chairs are tables on is good. To know just how many are reading at any particular . ^ In this room several hundred men are constantly reading newspapers and magaAt almost any hour of zines principally magazines. on trains wherever and under whatever conditions people are in the habit of reading publications which contain advertisements. Some of the men who read there have but a few minutes to stay. but that might not detract from the reading of such advertisements. There is a very large number of magazines to choose from. to keep an accurate account of the number who are reading the advertisements and of those who to are reading the articles in the body of the magazine. libraries. clubs. The observation should be made on different classes of persons. As I looked over the room to see how many were reading advertisements. There are no conveniences for answering a mail-order advertisement at once. in homes.READING ADVERTISEMENTS in as 223 much time in reading them as they do in reading the body of the magazine. which the magazine may be rested. I felt convinced that the advertising men were as wide of the mark as the group first not possible to find out how much other people read advertisements by observing one's self. To know whether people in general read the advertisements or not it is necessary mentioned. by asking personal Mends.

it was sometimes impossible to tell what he was reading. At each visit I made observaI hundred men who were reading magazines. and if the very next moment he turned to the reading matter. the man was made In all cases of doubt There were. he was On the other still reported as reading advertisements. observation he was just finishing his story in the body ef the magazine and if during the next hand. going on different of the week.224 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING . Of the second hundred. the following plan of investigation was followed. and difdays ferent hours of the day. I turned turned my this first observation if I attention to hinio In every case determined the points in question. If he was reading from the body of the magazine. Where there was a single column of advertisements next to a single column of reading matter at which the subject was looking. Of the first hundred observed. he was still reported as not reading advertisements. six were readtions on one . moment. By system the same results are secured as we should get by taking a snap-shot of the room. I took what data I wanted from him. six visits to the library. to a my attention man who was looking at the last page of the advertisements. not counted at all. but few such cases. I began at the first table and. unobserved by the readers. A man was reported as reading the advertisements if he was reading them the very first moment Thus. We get the exact number who are reading advertisements at any moment this of time. however. turned my attention to the first man. different seasons of the year. etc. if at my first few minutes he was engaged in reading advertisements. eighty-eight were reading from the body of the magazine and twelve were reading advertisements. jotted them down in my notebook and then turned to his neighbor and took the data from him.

were reading advertiselibrary. pages. fifteen were Of the fourth hundred. Some of the men were looking at the pictures in the advertising them were glancing at the display and reading nothing which was not particularly prominent others were reading the complete argument of the advertisement. a summary of the six hundred magazine readers. Of the fifth hundred. Of all the men he observed. reading from the body of the magazine. Of the third hundred. Of the sixth eleven were reading advertisements. sixreading advertisements. As far as I could tell.BEADING ADVERTISEMENTS 225 ing advertisements. I found only five sixty-five reading advertisements and four hundred and is to say. and were reading in a hasty and indifferent manner. most of those who were looking through the advertisements were not engaged in any serious attempt to understand the argument. his final results and ments. were reading advertisements. exactly ten per cent. some of . That 10% per cent. At my request a gentleman made similar tests at the thirty-five same were in remarkable harmony with those given above. Making hundred. of the men were reading advertisements at any one point of time is not at all equivalent to saying that only one-tenth of them read or glanced at the advertisements. it was the exception rather than the rule that any advertisement was read from beginning to end. Indeed. A large part of The them turned over the advertising pages. It is quite certain that the data thus far secured are not sufficient for any generalization as to the exact time . but they turned them hastily and did not stop to read them unless in some way they were particularly interesting. teen were reading advertisements. fact that only ten per cent. of all the men observed were reading advertisements.

It is quite generally believed that women read advertisements more than men. the trav- eler frequently not only reads the text matter. In the second place. but in all the tests referred to above. and if there is a general tendency . If the readers in libraries spend anything like tenfold as much time on the text as on the advertisements.226 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING or proportion of time which the general public devotes to the advertising columns of periodicals. Another ele- ment which enters into the question. Magazine readers on a train frequently have but a single copy of a magazine at hand. the data were secured only from men. It would not be fair to assume from the data on hand that the average magazine reader spends tenfold as much time on the text as he does on the advertisements. tries to glance through many papers and does not read so carefully as he would ordinarily do under other cirUnder these circumstances the data at cumstances. which was so clearly present in the Chicago Public Library. as here investigated. Many people turn every page of the advertising columns of a magazine and read none of the advertisements through. but reads many of the advertisements completely. a general tendency. it is true that the regular subscribers to periodicals read them more nearly from cover to cover than readers who drop into a library to read. hand cannot show more than certain general tendencies and certain specific facts as to how one class of readers is in the habit of reading the advertisements in maga- zines under the conditions mentioned above. but it is quite certain that lie spends a comparatively short time on the advertisements. is found in the fact that among such abundance of periodicals the reader becomes somewhat bewildered. The tendency to rush through the advertising pages of magazines. I believe. and as trips are usually somewhat prolonged. is.

Sj Lizard Blair. itself reproduced herewith..'. Thus. If he passes 1).. Kinntdf. WILSON 1. it behooves the advertiser to recognize the actual conditions and to construct his advertisements according to the habits of magazine readers. in the advertisement of Wilson's Outside Venetians (No. anifianj clhtr. rfr. CO. Harrinian. If the presentation of his goods is to be seen but a fraction of a second.r. O. Jajytl C^Cclfal.< J.BEADING ADVERTISEMENTS 227 with most readers to rush through or glance at the advertisements..^. H M. O. Jronze SupportlngTapes. the ware looks . and to tell the story so distinctly that at a glance the gist of the advertisement is comprehended. Even in the most the reader is enabled to get a good idea of hasty glance the appearance and use of this commodity. non-corroding and most durable. that fraction must be made to count. 5 West zoth St. The cut used should be not a mere but an illustration.. Fla e l. An illustration that illustrates. f. the illustration shows just how and what it is good for. t New^York No.. Whit*. The cut should be made picture. If he is interested in such goods at all. Jr. this knowledge will often lead him to read the entire advertisement. Ctarrn. to speak for Wilson's Outside Venetians 5 on. H'ihcn'i llintts Vnn&rMt. Camknil. (I'm C. C.R. Ordtrs should e pld NOW Iw S kavt Iffi /vrnisti/d to MfJisrnft cf Charles Lanitr J P Meirettn A C M^iay.

3). be The advertisement of the Venus Drawing Pencil. it has anything to do with pen- They remember the picture. In the advertisement reproduced herewith. gives Advertising CHICAGO COLLEGE OF ADVERTISING 910 Wlll/im* Buildtog. Successful students everywhere earning doable previous incomes who learned at home by giving spare time only Cor from three to six months. nothing about the goods advertised. Many people look at this picture as they turn the pages of the magazine. and yet but it tells they never discover that cils. has a beautiful picture. "Advertising Taught by Mail" (No. . Taught by Owned and conducted by 10 lea<U Chicago . 3.228 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING still the advertisement with a single glance he will affected by what he has seen. The display type gives the gist of the business. art and practice of advertising. ing Chicago Advertising mehj 4 No. Send today for free test blank which enables us to advise you what your prospwts are tor success. reproduced herewith (No. This illustration tells nothing about the goods advertised. I know nothing more about Venus Drawing Pencils after seeing this picture than I did before. No. 2). . This Is the largest. but do not take the trouble to notice what it is supposed to advertise. the type display. 2. most successful and mo^C Influential institution teaching the science.

The type display should not be merely to attract at- . % want a man each. at the advertisement understands it. 4. It has nothing to say to the casual reader. In the advertisement reproduced herewith. does not display. as I do not care to advertise this again. Wanted Good Neighbors Who Value Good Neighbors and a Good Neighborhood About Their Summer Homes. prrite or rather three or four men with $3. The next time he turns over the pages of a magazine containing this advertisement his attention will be attracted by this familiar display.000 to $4. and would be weakened rather than strengthened by repetition. the type Good Neighbors" (No. to me and let me tell them of a property am holding in the! I rnost beautiful part of Michigan. "Wanted indicate in any way that the. A person could glance at this advertisement a score of times. I not a real estate agent. It won't cost you anything to write to me and let me send! you some photographs and details. And write now. 4). advertisement is one of real estate.000 who care as much for a beautiful summer home as I do. suggestion in favor of Every time he sees this advertisement the it becomes stronger and yet the reader himself may not be conscious of such influence. I am just what I here profess to be. 229 Every one who glances If he sees nothing more than the display of type. GEORGE MILLS ROGERS. ' am joo Washington St. but he would know no more about it when he had seen it the last time than he did after he had seen it the first time. for myself and for them. 111. he has seen enough to understand what it is all about and to be influenced in favor of the idea there presented. No. a seeker for a beautiful summer home for myself. with good neighbors..BEADING ADVERTISEMENTS the gist of the whole matter. please. Lacking in indicativeness. Chicago.

The display type and the picture which merely attract and do not instruct are in many cases worthless. it is quite possible that these single glances would . an attempt should be made to construct a display that will not merely attract attention to itself. for in attention. large number of magazine readers see each advertisement. and I have yet to find the first one who believes that he is materially influenced by magazine advertising in the purchases which he makes. Since many see the display and but few read the argument.230 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING must tell a story and tell it quickly. The advertiser must learn to make the best possible use of this casual glance of A the multitude. I have discussed the question with many persons. but tracting attention to themselves they divert the attention from the thing advertised. But the great majority of the readers will not stop at any particular advertisement. but be so constructed that it will beget interest in the goods advertised. One great Few cause for this personal delusion is found in the habit which they have formed of glancing through the adverThey turn the pages rapidly and the intising pages. dividual advertisement makes so little impression that it is not remembered by them as having been seen at all. If I should glance at the same advertisement forgotten is not has not made a lasting imis in different magazines for each month for a number of years. people will admit that they are greatly influenced by advertising. but only a few of them will stop to read it through. and unless they get something at a glance they get nothing at all. The picture and the headline will interest some people so much meaningless that they will stop and read the advertisement through to try to figure out what it all' means. To say that the advertisement equivalent to saying that it pression.

231 I might not remember ever having seen an advertisement. Recently I entered his shop and ordered a suit of clothes. but had retained the information which had evidently confused the source of my information. I responsible for the sale. As he took my order he asked me whether he had been recommended to me. I had been influenced by his advertisements or not. I might have answered that they had had nothing to do with it. tisement so often that I had forgotten the particular advertisements. although in fact they were the only source of my information about him and evidently were entirely they had imparted. waited on me himself. who was conducting a vigorous advertising campaign. illustrates this point perFor years I have seen the advertisements of a fectly. As soon as we become familiar with the goods in this way and unmindful of the source of the are likely to be subject to this delusion of supposing that we have heard our friends recommend familiarity.READING ADVERTISEMENTS be forgotten. The following instance. I promptly replied that he had. It so happened that the proprietor. we . which was also referred to in the chapter on Suggestion. The oftener we see an advertisement. but found that I could not reI had seen his advercall any such recommendation. for I fully believed that I had heard from some of my friends that this particular tailor was If he had asked me whether especially trustworthy. I then began to try to recall who had recommended him. and yet my familiarity with the goods advertised might seem so great that I should believe that some of my acquaintances had recommended them to me or that I had used the goods years before. but the greater becomes our feeling of familiarity with the goods advertised. certain tailor. the fewer are the chances that we will remember where we saw it.

in fact. If a merchant should ask his customers whether they had been influenced largely by his advertisements or not. when. and would not purchase the goods if they the goods. it makes the right sort of advertising peculiarly effective. and would be inclined to give up his advertisements as worthless. on the other hand. he would certainly receive. nothing but his advertisements had induced them to come to his store. to confusion as . are perfectly willing to buy the goods. a very discouraging report. realized that their only source of information about the firm and about the goods was the advertisement but as soon as they forget the source of the information they . it makes it difficult for the merchant to discover the direct results of his advertising campaign. and. The habit which the public has formed of reading advertisements so hastily makes it difficult for the advertisement writer to construct his advertise- ments meet the emergency of the case.232 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING Most people still are prejudiced against advertisements. to by making the reader more susceptible to the source of his information. although they would repudiate the statement that they had been influenced by the advertisements.

"Simon says. We were commanded to turn our thumbs up or down. namely. 'Thumbs up !' with children. "Simon says. when the thought struck me to play a trick on my brother. the one who is "it" fails to say "Simon says. in a mild way. the game remember that it was impossible for us not to obey the command. In this game one person is "it. began to laugh and John . punishable. "John." He turns his thumbs up and calls out. 'Thumbs down This is the signal for all to turn the thumbs down. "Simon says. I went to bed and was appreciating the afterward. brother went to bed first. succeeded in warming his About an hour side of the bed. who have played When a room in our early "teens. as the case might be." was given or not. however. even when the "Simon says" was left out." my brother and I slept in which was not heated." He obeyed immediately and rolled over I to the cold side of the bed." he must not be obeyed. One cold winter night my. and went to sleep. If. and the one who does obey becomes "it" himself. I merely said. fact that the temperature of the room was below zero. get over on the other side of the bed. 'Thumbs At this command all must obey and turn thumbs up P The one who is "it" next calls out. ' !' is the other condition of us reason for obedience. but obedience under any Those is. "Simon says" up. and we obeyed before we thought whether the reason for obeying.THE DIRECT COMMAND 233 XIX THE DIEECT COMMAND "SIMON game ' " used to be a favorite says.

"Vote for Smith. The demagogue uses more than flattery. to keep from it. he commands his followers absolutely as to what they shall do and what they shall not do. He knew that he had obeyed rne and had done what he did not and the very thought angered him. Professor Huxley. seeing a discharged veteran carrying home his dinner. they are commanded. The natural and easy thing for them to do is to obey. or are compelled to struggle." says scarcely keep from obeying. they attain such a power over our wills that we can "There is a story. want to it. threats. 'Attention!' whereupon the man instantly brought his hands down." This soldier obeyed the become almost automatic.234 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING awoke. command until obedience had He obeyed immediately and without any consideration whatever. although she could not convince them with reason or compel them with They obey simply because. in all stages of hypnosis. . but at last succumbs to do. Certain persons are so refractory that they struggle till they "awaken" themselves. but he gives the command. When a person is being hypnotized and is told that he cannot and must not open his eyes. unless they are well under the control of the hypnotist." When certain commands have been obeyed habitually. though it may not be true." force. obey the commands of the hypnotist. and bribes. the unnatural and difficult thing is to keep from obeying. "which is credible enough. "Smith is your friend and Jones your enemy. he frequently struggles against the suggestion. He not only says. of a practical joker who. and lost his mutton and potatoes in the gutter. It is needless to say what happened. All persons. suddenly called out. The schoolteacher commands a room full of mis- chievous children and they obey her.

in sleep. and in showing how effective it may be when not hindered by so overpowering that These illustrations are useful is competing thoughts. Although commands do not ordi- narily secure involuntary obedience. in hypnotism. We do know something of the psychology of movement. of your hand or the turning of your head? If raising you attempt to analyze the process involved in the simplest movement you find that it is too difficult for your comprehension. and the soldier.THE DIRECT COMMAND 235 In the game alluded to ("Simon says. It often happens that those things which are appar- ently the most simple are. the demagogue. I do not say. in indicating the real nature of a command. We all felt ashamed of ourselves for obeying and doing things merely because we were commanded to do so. the most difficult to What could be more simple than the comprehend. and the thought is the command which I give to my thumbs and which they obey. If the thought is not hindered by a competing thought. "Hand. Thus in "Simon " I suggest the thought of "thumbs says. When I turn my thumbs up. I do think of the movement and there is in the thought itself something akin to a command. 'Thumbs up . Here the force of the command obedience is involuntary. 'Thumbs up!' "). there is a strong have probably tendency in us all to obey them. I think of my thumbs turning up. come up !" but I know of no way to express what goes on in my mind better than that. in fact. and in the cases of the teacher. In a direct command one person !' originates the thought and suggests it to another person. it will be effective in raising the thumbs. we have extreme cases. Stubbornness is the exception and obedience the rule. but much is yet to be found out about it. if it is allowed to take its own course. When I want to raise my hand.

as previously stated. The impelling power of a thought is in direct proportion to the amount of attention which it secures. gestible rather than reasonable. in direct proportion to the amount of attention If a direct command could occupy it the attention completely. It is. A command is a direct suggestion. bears with it authority and weight by expressing action explicitly and distinctly. of course. We are not only suggestible and obedient. if not we has been frequently asserted. is of such a nature that it has its legitimate uses in advertisements and should not be discarded. . would be the best possible form of argumentation. hinders the action of the thought it will up will come his thumbs.236 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING The thought of up" to another person. and is the easiest to be understood. It calls for immediate action is and meets with ready response. because it puts the thought in such a shape that its impelling nature will secure the The command relieves the one comdesired results. obtrusive. manded from the trouble of making up his mind. and as such has inherent value. and so the impelling power of a command is also which it receives. One advantage of the direct suggests a thought in such a way that it will bring forth the action suggested unless hindered by a previous suggestion or by an action originated is "thumbs up" and unless he be obeyed. because the impelling power of the thought is not sufficiently strong. and so makes action easy. true that many actions are suggested which are not carried out. and command that it by the person himself. as are sugThe command. It makes up his mind for him. enters his mind is suggested to him. but we are also obstreperous. Mankind as a whole influenced more by commands than by logical processes of thought. for. It is the shortest and simplest form It of language.

when. and is may even deceive himself into thinking that he acted because he had weighed the evidence. Later they have done exactly what I had They had forgotten who had previously suggested. It is very difficult for us to analyze our actions and to give the motives which have prompted us to do many of the things that we have done." It is. We following our own sweet wills and object to having any one dictate to us. so suggested they were perfectly honest in supposing that they had originated the thought. At the time they have refused to do it. After he has acted. we are unwilling to admit it. or because the idea of the action has been suggested. No one would be willing to admit that he had used Pears' Soap simply because he had read the command. act from habit.THE DIRECT COMMAND obstinate. The idea of using the soap was . Although we do obey commands. "Use Pears' Soap. how- ever. implanted in their minds. be certain limitations put on the use of commands. and self-willed. It We but rarely that the ordinary person weighs all the evidence before he acts. 237 delight in stubborn. They must be used with such discretion that they do not arouse opposition . then. The idea was. who act only because it is the reasonable thing to do and because we want to. however. otherwise we would refuse obedience. There must. the idea. quite probable that many persons have used Pears' Soap for no other reason. insufficient reason. in fact. We like to think of ourselves as independent beings. but the idea itself was retained. he may think over the motives which might have prompted him. imitation. and that they had performed the deed independently. no such motives entered his mind at the time of action. even if it were to our best interests to obey. I have frequently suggested to persons that they should do a certain thing.

But let any one see that he has been commanded and his attitude is changed. take the "catch-lines" of four advertisements of advertising schools as they appear in the magazines." suggests that I should become something. and believed they had originated it themselves. Every wise leader of men recognizes this fact. The first. The correct wording importance. and implies that. and so would not beget opposition on the part of As a further proof of the importance. We are perfectly willing to obey as long as we are unconscious of the fact. "Be an ad-writer. and so the command is supplemented by an appeal to a personal interest. but the second has the added value of supplying. He does not cease to command. and that he is not following commands at all.238 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING suggested to them in that form. which are reproduced upon the following page. . but rather bald and indefinite. one. by a process of learning in connection with their The third." The first is a bald command and as such has a certain value. a reason for obedience. a way that it is difficulty. or implying. he becomes obstinate instead of pliant. Furthermore. "Learn to be an ad writer. yet it of the command is a matter of is difficult to formulate any rules or principles to guide us here. "Learn school. this end could be attained. but he covers his commands in such a way that each one thinks that he is doing just what he wants to. It is implied that the Gold Dust twins will save you labor. but any." is short. Such an expression as "Use Pears' Soap" is not as suggestive as "Let the Gold Dust twins do your work. The second. They afterward forgot where they had received the thought. of clothing the command in the best possible form. this latter command is worded in such hardly recognized as a command at all.

It informs of the fact that they teach advertising." suggests that I should learn to do something. but does not help me to make up my mind me to take the course at their school.THE DIRECT COMMAND 239 to write advertisements. To have action in another person suggested is not so impressive as my own action. last. learning to do seems more definite than learning to become. "Advertising writing others differently. tain information. As the young man reads over these four displays his attention will certainly be drawn more forcibly by the it is to have first three than by the last one. or action on my part. sugThe direct personal element is lacking in the gested. which is present in the first three. and implies that I could learn this by Personally. [Be an /Jif-ilfrfler) Learn to be an Ad Writer ADVERTISEMENTS No. but it is quite possible that it would impress a course of instruction at their school. is not a command. 1 LEARN TO WRITE AflyertisingWrmnflTaughl The fourth. and seems to me to be much taught." It supplies me with cerinferior to the preceding ones. but has nothing to say about action on my part. It might be question- .

Taking them in the order in which they appeared." "Let your mirror tell." "Send no money." "Your signature represents you. 1920." Dayton dealer." "Send for these good books." "Keep the toilet spotless. most to him." "Go to a legitimate dealer." "Let me tell you." "Copy this sketch." "Take a tip from Robert Burns. The value of the form of expression in the headlines is clearly seen when we read over the commands which were used as display in American Magazine for April. they are the able." "Learn languages by listening." "Save the surface and you save all." "Start the season right. "Visit your Do it in Carter's. following : "Learn to talk convincingly." "Mail this coupon to-day." "Don't rub it in. as will be recognized by every one who reads the list.240 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING which one of the first three would appeal "Learn to write advertisements" appeals to me most strongly." ." "Use this chest free. and would probably appeal to more persons than any of the others." "Make money writing." "Be financially independent. Some are good and some are poor." label." "Look for the red-and-white "Remember these three." "Let sound investments guard your home. however." "Use Kyanize.

" "Enter a business." "Avoid embarrassment." "Learn piano-tuning." "Let me send you free proof." "Cultivate your beauty. truth when he said. The difference is. "Help me to deal very honestly with words and people." "Be a master of traffic manager." "Become a lawyer." "Ride a bicycle to work." "Become a nurse. not so Van Dyke expressed a great as might be supposed." "Don't grope for . however.' " As we see a command expressed." 241 "Have cozy rooms for $17 a day." "Dye old dress material. the value of is dependent upon the way in which it is Another factor of even greater importance than the verbal expression is the personality of the one giving the command." "Be well." "Follow the arrow." "Buy it by name." "Don't say 'Underwear' say 'Munsingwear. from the examples given above. for they are both alive. The spoken command is enforced by the personality of the speaker to an extent impossible in written commands." The person who can move men by spoken words can move them by ." "Learn law.THE DIRECT COMMAND "Plan for good roads now." "Be a banker." "Learn how to write short stories.words." "Save on your new home." "Speak a foreign language.

whether they are at the head of a regiment or in the privacy of their own homes. Commands would have a greater interests. and if A cheap than in higher-priced periodicals. because the poorer classes are more in the habit of obeying commands. reliable firms which are well established and well known through advertising could give commands with impunity which would injure a new or unknown firm. All classes of society are moved by a direct command if it is propefficiency in erly worded. Certain persons can command us and we obey same commands were given by other persons. Those who are not used to being commanded are more inclined to resent the attempt and so refuse to obey. true that many have prophe- would render the preacher and the orator useless. even if the command is in accord with their they had at first been at the very point form of expression which would prove of obeying. There are men who are obeyed whether they speak or write. and if it appears in their favorite or most highly appreciated publication. Persons who are used to obeying take obedience as a matter of course and obey almost from second nature or instinct. highly successful with one class of society might fail with another class. whether they are addresssied that the press ing their employees in person or presenting certain lines of action to the public by means of printed advertisements.241' THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING This is so written words. . but if the fuse obedience. They are more in the habit of doing things that are directly suggested to them. firm that is just beginning its first advertising campaign does not secure as much attenFurthertion to its advertisements as the older firms. The printed page is a living force which is more appreciated to-day than ever before. A more. we should regard it as presumptuous and rereadily.

command ordiAs we read a command we narily calls for action. and so gets us interested enough in the advertisement to start us to The argument should be so constructed reading it. personal relation with the advertisement. shop window that has in it a live animal or anything else that moves will attract the attention of the pedestrian as he passes by. so that we feel doing what is suggested at once. When we want to attract the attention of a friend. of the firm brings us into closer relationship with the propIt should take us into the confidence and make us feel that the firm back of the advertisement can be trusted. We then feel in sym- . In the first case we see with the imagination what we tion in see in the second case with the sense of sight. This tendency to action on our part brings us into sympathetic. moving manner that it attracts our attention and makes us feel in sympathy with it. we wave to him instinctively. It expresses it in such a living. A A think of the action suggested and it attracts our attenmuch the same way that actual movements do. command in good display type at the beginning of A an advertisement may express in a few words the intent of the entire advertisement. like that it osition offered. Our eyes are so constructed that we can distinguish a movement of an object before we are able to distinguish the object itself. There as is nothing which attracts the attention so much action. Movements please and attract us in whatever form they may be presented. know that he will see the wave of the hand or of the movement or We handkerchief when he would not notice us at all apart from such movements.THE DIRECT COMMAND The function is 243 of the direct command and in advertisements twofold to attract attention to beget immediate action.

in general. as argument and puts it before us in the form of a direct suggestion to action. Direct affirmation as to the value of the goods offered may. The but now what is wanted is immediate action. be the most effective form of expression. stating the results of their experiment with the advertisement reproduced 1 herewith (No. and in be- The above chapter on "The Direct Command" as a form of argumentation appeared in substantially the present form in Makings Magazine. advertisement should focus at this point. 2) : . Outdoor advertising must of necessity be very brief and very suggestive. It sums up the entire point should not be overlooked. and we are in a condition to do what is sugThe argument may have been extensive. yet something must be done to attract attention and to beget immediate action. saying that they were going "to try out the theory' in their advertising. Some time later the following letter was received. but the direct command could be used with profit because of its superior value in attracting attention getting immediate action. Soon after its publication the Editor received a letter from the Franklin Mills Company. illustrations may have been interesting and suggestive. The value of a direct command it at this expresses in a few words and in living form all that the advertisement has desired to bring about. the gested. our self-will is suspended. An attempt should be made to hold our attention to what is desired of us. There is no opportunity to present extensive arguments.244 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING pathy with the offer made by the firm.

Billboards were also utilized for a brief . 2 cereals.i Miy you lorcet it." 90 5pria(w4*a LOCKPORT. says j "You will sve this iwue is a 'hot* number. (Tel! US the misrdM word in Jarmjry Ad.1 . corrections. and this is surprising in the face of the fact that the public are overloaded with free samples of hundreds of It will cost grocer's name to receive you but three 'wo cent stamps anj full half pound sample of ycm WHEATLET and know why it h the very best cereal food you can possibly eat. No. embodying command" advised by Professor Scott. so confused thereby that they hardly know Another instance principle appeared is entitled. 'o Hat.THE DIRECT COMMAND We "the direct 245 wish to say that our February advertisement. EJitor of Tfo /%///j//w. all being written on Wl if tK-t dn-t In f j.) colo't.. The Franklin Mills ". to first for Early Bruicfut Picture in I. of the successful application of this in a recent issue of Printers' Ink. and are what they want. It of the "A Story of Progress/' and gives the history wonderful growth of the Delineator: Then advertising was used in dailies and magazines throughout the country. t I lu ve never been so doosed clever in my literary work as since 1 tackled Wheatlet..111 Ike Wheat llutft Fit St. N. i. *nt sample W Co. 1 EL.BERT HUBBARD. is bringing far greater returns than any advertisement we have ever before published." . .

in which he showed that if the words 'Cut this coupon out and mail it to-day' were used instead of 'Use this coupon' there would be a larger number of replies. It is his theory that people will follow a definite So I direction of this sort. who. formulated my phrase in the belief that its suggestion would be followed. "Just get the Delineator. especially by women. said: "I had tried more than a year to hit upon a suitable phrase. chiefly to spread the well-known catch-phrase.246 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING period." This phrase originated with Mr. and the theory appealed to me. but nothing would come to me. Eesults have proved that it To my own personal knowledge the is an effective phrase. Thayer. in speaking about it. catch-line has tantalized even men until they bought copies to see the publication for themselves. One day I read an article by Professor Scott in Mahiris Magazine." .

the advertiser met with great difficulty in trying to .VALUE OF THE KETURN COUPON 247 XX THE PSYCHOLOGICAL VALUE OF THE BETUBN COUPON. then. It was not to induce the reader to answer the advertisement. Later it was discovered that the coupon had a greater value than had been supposed that it was in itself a strong inducehe advertised.keep tab on the various publications in which The "Please mention this magazine" was frequently disregarded. At first it was the whole advertisement which was to be returned. and so the coupon was evolved. Then it was conceived that it was not necessary to return the entire advertisement. The return coupon was. but was intended as an assistance to the advertiser in -keeping tab on the various publications in which he advertised. THE return coupon. has of recent years been greatly improved by those it who have been and to appreciate its possibilities. and we find at the end of some of the old advertisements this statement. in the beginning a keying device and was not intended to have any value as a means of securing replies. which is the product of a long evolution in which necessity and practical experience were the prime moving factors. able to analyze Before the days of the coupon. but merely a blank for the name and address. and so the idea was conceived of having something returned to the advertiser which would indicate the publication in which the sender had seen the advertisement. "Please cut this advertisement out/' etc. .

LneD milder toitfeUoi Emerson .. and attracted attention by way of contrast to ordinary attracts attention. The coupon is so familiar that it does not offer so strong a contrast to other advertisements as formerly.. ami rain a/ fV"*l. induces more to answer the advertisement than would ment and that its do so if One psychological value the coupon were not there. They also attracted attention because the ruled blank lines and open spaces were in contrast with the rest of the advertisement.Holmes -..248 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING to action value was therefore psychoThe coupon appeals directly to the reader and logical. "> > I'". I fa" t* t'<a 'o /'/ '. Mifflin & Co. of the return coupon is that o*u*iiti*r eda*. but is still in contrast to the rest of the advertisement in which it is con- now . 1 it In their original form these were something different from anycoupons (No. Dickens Ttacieraj Azrncai SUtesou particulars of Also full your NEW OFFER FOR 1901 No.Harte Biitborw HauildJ __.. advertisements. IfaM Houston.. 1) thing that had previously appeared in advertisements. viz. Please send me by mall without charge circulars of the books : decked on the following list..

pon. 2 different direction. To make to the All the lines of reading matter are 2) triangle ( No. has been advertisement. I have asked other groups to think of some geometrical figure. which was changed from the square or oblong or more oblique lines.VALUE OF THE RETURN COUPON tained. and the oblique lines run in a No. I asked a large group of persons to think of some number. horizontal. for a triangle than of any other figure. the Whole as well as the coupon itself. This brings it into contrast with the rest of the advertisement. 249 this latter contrast stronger. Very many more of them thought of three than of any other number. and the triangle catches their attention more than any other figure. various geometrical figures. and more think of I have exposed. The chief alteration was in the cougreatly modified. but the little three-cornered coupon has one . The number three and a figure with three . a very short interval of time.

By certain leading advertisers the border has been constructed of figured designs composed of broken curved lines. The shape of the entire adver- tisement and particularly the shape of the border has been changed to make the contrast with the three-cornered coupon greater. Since we first opened The Wanamaker Century Club the sets purchased bers a saving of over two million dollars r published by the Century Company. 3 which it is contained. that the triangle is more attractive than a square. Joining costs on< dollar. and so it attracts our attention to itself and indirectly to the advertisement in Forty Thousand People ake up their minds to bay something. Joining You can secure a set at one-half the regular prices by The Wanamaker Century Dub. send f the c John Wanamaker New York. Atlas. Then the books are sent you and you can pay all a time. or parallel lines. as you prefer.250 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING It seems> then. > We will. and oblong. sides possess a peculiar interest for us. their purchasing power is tremendous ifunittdl The Wanamaker Century Club has united some 40. or of continuous curved .000 memwho wanted The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia and That is the simple story of how the half-price came to be. No.

and the sort d..-* hktory m x We've tells just a what the work pamphlet. The contrast between the coupon and the rest of the advertisement (not to mention the contrast with other advertisements) of the coupon. have a decided value in attracting attention.VALUE OF THE RETURN COUPON lines. is A not the only source of attention value second attractive feature is found in One dollar is all! illustrations. en for all. coupon stand out in marked contrast." etc. which is.and you'd best settle it for this is our last advertise- HOW. (See chapter on "The Direct Command as a Form of Argumentation. These changes make the bold. how it came to be written. using the coupon pon the best World's History ' m existence. of Rldpatb'* History at ball price. 4 command ordinarily placed between the body The expressions of the advertisement and the coupon. whether you need the history or not." "Cut along this line. This dotted line . prepared by the publishers of the history. come to-day. The rest you pay Your Last Chance! you'd like to own SF that's as interesting as a story book and almost as reliable as the lai of gravitation. the direct "Cut this corner off. straight lines of the 3). send for the fr prospectus and specimen. No.") Another source of attention value in this kind of advertising is in the dotted line indicating the place at which the coupon should be cut book the comer. A single Dollar (if you act at once) is all ft will cost you to secure possession of PIDPATH'S History of the World A great big set of 9 Royal Octavo volume* with 4 000 and many maps and color plates. and mail us the coupon7w'ifsend Reading that pamphlet will settle in your mind. 251 or else the border has been discarded entirely (No. and are almost sure to attract the attention as one turns over the page.

no impression is made on their minds might and nothing is done. of the sun falling on a piece of paper will warm but will . and many persons look ing at. If. Where off. The rays it. sion of perforated paper. and as such is interesting and attracts If the dotted lines could give the impresthe attention. however. the results would be better.. tisement by without noticing it. 4) to direct the attention to the dotted line or to the all "Cut this corner off. A prime requisite of an ad- vertisement. that the reader should open a with the firm. A necessary characteristic of a are made general and assigned teacher is the ability to make his students know just what he wants them to do. function is much like that of a sun-glass. is that it should give the reader something definite and i. when direct evidence of attention is desired. With our present knowlcorrespondence edge there could probably be no better way of making that end clear than by the use of the return coupon. give one the impression that there must be something very special at that point. I have frequently observed in teaching that if pupils or students are given definite and specific tasks to perform. possible it would be well to have the paper peris to forated along the line where the coupon be torn Another source of attention value in this kind of ad- vertising in its modified form is found in the devices employed (No." The index fingers.252 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING suggests action. the tasks what the fingers are pointwhen otherwise they would pass the entire adverto see as something which they do sometime. Its specific to do at once. the return coupon has a further psychological value in that it gives the reader something definite and specific to do.e. pointing to the same thing. In addition to its power in attracting attention. they perform them with alacrity.

the whole will soon be ignited.VALUE OF THE RETURN COUPON not cause it 253 allowed to shine through the sun-glass and to focus at one point of the paper. with the least possible labor. but If the rays are to burn. Business men recognize this fact and place their mer- chandise where it can easily be secured by the buyer. There are those who will spend hours and even days trying to solve These are but apparent exceptions difficult puzzles. they may They send out their representatives to display the goods and leave nothing to the purchaser but to indicate what In short. it the most accessible. orders for goods which he would not have purchased if he had been obliged to go after them or even to write a letter for them. but we want to secure them as a class prefers desire the best results. to the universal rule that the line of least resistance. easy it so easy for the customer that he undoubtedly gave he wants. focused at one point. it may even make the reader "warm" with the desire to secure the goods. it overcomes procrastination and secures the necessary action. everything possible is done to make The traveling salesman made for the customers. is additional psychological value of the return couthat it makes it easy to answer the advertise- There are persons who will climb the Matterhorn because of the difficulty of the ascent. mankind We We refuse to take two steps when one is sufficient. his desire may not result in action. For a mail-order house. The heat was not The return coupon concentrates all this desire or "warmth" at one point. The argument in an advertisement may be good. An pon ment. They choose a site for their stores where they will be They arrange their goods so that be most easily seen and secured by the public. the return of a traveling coupon supplements or takes the place .

"I take ness men. to begin with "Dear Sir" or with "Gentlemen" he does not know whether he should close with yours." The three-cornered coupon can be cut or torn off more If placed on one of the four outer easily than any other. is to fill it salesman. of such a blunder ( No. But all are not experienced busiThere are those who make good customers. and so places an obstacle in the way of every one who desires to answer. Some advertisers do not seem to appreciate this latter advantage and so allow the coupon to be placed near the middle of the page and on the inside of it next to the The following reduced reproduction is an binding. . 5 ) This makes it unexample necessarily difficult to get at. but also because the composed letter is easily accessible. Even fill man easier to for the experienced busiout a blank than it is to dic- tate or write a letter. and the goods are forthcoming. It makes answering easy not only because it has the return letter already composed." For such a person to compose a business letter is a task of no small importance. He does not know whether . It certainly is bad business policy to put such a needless obstruction in the path of every "would-be customer. To be relieved from this embarrassment and toil is for him a veritable boon. but whose only formula for letter writing is.254 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING It presents itself to the possible customer. and ness all he has to do it is out and return it." "Yours truly" or "Affectionately The betrayal of his ignorance and the effort of composition are hindrances of such magnitude that he is frequently deterred from securing the desired goods. easier for all. Many would surmount the difficulty. . The return coupon makes answering whether with or without experience in writing business letters. but some would not. my pen in hand to let you know that I am well and hope that this will find you the same.

5 The task recently devolved on me of purchasing a baby I had never been interested in them before and did not know where I had ever seen them in stores. and I secured my desired article. He made further inquiries and found that they did have I them. it was easy for me to find what I wanted. WA No. I assured him that I had seen their advertisement in the paper that morning and that they must therefore have them. F. &Ae History gf ike World HELMOLT by DR. I went there at once and asked the floor-walker where they kept them. of any advertisement is in this one of the great functions . turned at once to the advertisements in the morning paper and saw baby carriages advertised at a certain down-town store. Having seen the advertisement in the paper. that extent the best possible shape for a return coupon. and so did not know where I should go to secure one. and to is . and he politely informed me that they did not handle them. All advertisements make it easy for the which he desires purchaser to know where the class of goods is kept It will readily be seen that to secure.VALUE OF THE RETURN COUPON 255 corners of a publication it can be severed with a single cut of the scissors or torn off with a It is single tear. it more accessible than it would be if in any other shape makes the answering of the advertisement easy. Edited H. carriage.

have now seen that the coupon attracts attention because of its novelty or contrast. but that is of value merely because in attracting attention it brings the suggestion to the mind of the reader and keeps it there. Procrastination is so easy that we put off till to-morrow what would cause us trouble With the coupon. vertisement should make it as easy as possible for the purchaser to secure the goods he 'desires and should In take away every possible ground for hesitation. these particulars the coupon is especially strong. We have also seen its strength in that it makes answering the advertisement easy and calls for immediate action. because of its tri- We angular shape. The coupon does attract attention. off We often decide that we want a thing. The coupon has the additional value such a nature that the purchaser can secure the goods desired without going out after them and even without Some the trouble of composing and writing a letter. tear out the coupon and send it to the address given. but we put the purchase till the desire has gone and so we never secure what we wanted. We have seen that it is psychologically strong because it is specific and direct in its appeal. All these advantages are but supplementary and subsidiary to the great function of the return coupon. The prime value of the coupon is lost unless this is attained. An adto do to-day. because of the direct command and the index finger which frequently accompanies the return coupon. but we are all procrastinators.256 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING to way make it easy for the purchaser to find what he of being of wants. even if we are somewhat lazy. It is specific . of us are not so lazy as others. the task of ordering the goods is so easy that there is almost no excuse for procrastination. Its real value is to be found in the fact that it suggests to the reader that he should sign his name.

257 holds but that is of value only because it before the desired. D Hardware Dealers* Edition ! ! .VALUE OF THE RETURN COUPON and direct. mind the one specific suggestion which is It makes action easy and that is good. because Check the edition of Price List you wish sent (will send both Iff desired). so that we cad send samples and special information from tine to time. also articles which you handle or use.

but when the novelty has worn off. and other forms are then demanded. and are pleased to report that the returns are very satisfactory. Sir. There seems to be no end to the num- ber of such devices that skill and ingenuity may discover. He noticed this sentence. The re- sult of his labor is seen in No. Over 50 per cent. 2. of the sheets were returned. etc. After the form had been in use a short time we ceived the following letter from the inventor of it : re- CHICAGO.258 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING of other sim- pons there should be some mention made ilar devices for suggesting action. They are used with great profit by their inventors. they are less valuable. but when the novelty has worn off. One of the readers of the magazine decided to make an experiment in applying the principle to his own business. April DR. 6. "They are used with great profit by their inventors. Northwestern University. Among these latter are the return postal card. 111. and other forms are then demanded. the money card. making a very valuable mailing list. Evanston. This chapter in substantially its present form appeared first in a magazine article. which . 1903. but to present it in a new form and in such a way that it would be adapted to his demands. the money envelope." He tried to preserve the psychological value of the return coupon. but we do not consider this as important as the psychological value of having the retail dealers make a special request for our monthly price list. they are less valuable. Dear I am "Ballot" advertisement. WALTER DILL SCOTT. : sending you under separate cover copy of the we got out recently along the lines suggested by your articles in Maliin's Magazine.

and will be pleased to give you any further data in regard to the results obtained that you may wish. C. In McClure's for the same month there appeared four return coupons and one of them was In the Century Magazine for the same month there appeared but a single return coupon. to position. Yours truly. one of which resulted in an immediate order. Of these seventeen were returned. At the time this chapter was prepared for publication in magazine form (May. Very often a hundred return counext to the binding. three whom we had containing special requests for prices. J. we mailed thirty of these sheets to dealers to been sending our catalogues and other advertising material regularly for a number of years. . I find the knowledge of the psychological principles of advertising very helpful in planning my advertising work. WOODLEY. there were but three return coupons.VALUE OF THE RETURN COUPON As 259 a test case. pons appear in a single issue. and one of them was so placed that it came next to the binding and would be hard to detach. Since that date the number of return coupons has increased enormously. 1902. and those appearing were placed with but little regard Thus in Munsey's Magazine for May. but had never received any returns. 1902) there were but few return coupons appearing in the current magazines.

the first that impresses us is that our attention is narrow. the great majority is entirely disre- garded. turn to the question of attention. thing that we are unable to attend to many things at once. Whatever the statement may be. impressions of sight from your hand that holds this book and from the table on which the book rests. impressions of sound from gassing vehicles and from your own breathing. the entire problem of attention is one of importance to the advertiser. for Therefore.260 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING XXI ATTENTION WHAT does the advertiser seek to accomplish by his The answers to this question differ as to form of expression or point of view. this seems certain one aim of every advertisement is to attract attention. One merely says. At the present time you are receiving impressions of pressure from your chair and from your clothing. impressions of smell from flowers and from smoke. When we Out of all the multitude of things competing for place in our attention. and an understanding of it is necessary for its wisest application as well as for a correct understanding of advertising. "The aim of advertising is to attract attention advertisements? and to sell goods. Before I mentioned them you were . As I mention them they are noticed one after the other." Another statement would be that the purpose of advertising is to attract attention to the goods and to create such a favorable impression them that the reader will desire to possess them.

my attention is voluntary.ATTENTION You cannot say totally oblivious of them. so one might say that eyes you receive an impression from each of the words on the page. "Object" here is used to indicate anything that may be regarded as a single thing. distinct things you can attend to at once. why do we attend to certain things and disregard all the rest? What characteristics must any- thing have that it may force itself into our attention? Since advertisements are part of the things which may or may not be attended to. look for the advertisements of guns and read them through. at this page the light is reflected to your from each individual word. 261 formerly a question of frequent debate. take up a magazine. If. insisted that a score of things could be attended to at once. Ordinary observers under favorable how many This was Some asserted conditions can attend to about four visual objects at once. The question has been removed from the realm of mere probability. If. for it has been investigated according to scientific methods in the psychological laboratories. there are multitudes of things to be attended to and we are unable to attend to more than four at once. while looking for guns. and put the question in this characteristics of an advertisement to force we may be more specific form: What must be the it into the attention of the possible customer? If I am interested in guns. four simple pictures. but others. About four letters. then. . and definite results have been obtained. that we could attend to but one thing at a time. four geometrical figures or easy words are as much as we can see or attend to at once. with equal vehemence. but if you look at the page closely you will find that you can attend to but about four words at As you look once.

I then added four other letters and exposed the card one twenty-fifth of a second as before." then my atelse catches my tention is involuntary. : This card was exposed to view for one twenty-fifth of a second. the chances that any particular object would be seen were reduced to fifty per cent.e. The observers were still able to read but four letters. With its complete analysis the following six principles will appear: The first force itself into principle is that the power of any object to our attention depends on the absence of counter attractions. and in that time all the four letters were read by the observers. In the first case I sought out In the the advertisement with a conscious purpose. letters) was doubled. This may be demonstrated in a specific case as follows I had a card of convenient size and on it were four letters. Other things being equal. the newest of the experimental sciences Psychology and the investigations of involuntary attention are as The complete analysis of it yet far from satisfactory. second there was no such conscious purpose. I then added four more letters to the card and exposed it as in the previous trials..262 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING is something "that eye for a moment and I think an advertisement for clothing. as applied to advertising has to my knowledge never been made. all That is to say. When the number of objects was increased threefold. when the up to a number of certain point objects (i. but the advertisement thrust is itself upon my attention. . The observers could read but four letters as in the pre- vious trial^ but in this exposure there was no certainty that any particular letter would be read. the probabilities that any particular thing will catch our attention are in proportion to the absence of competing attractions. could be seen.

it is safe to say that the letters would be seen. the full-page advertisement is the "sure-to-be-seen" advertisement. which holds for the parts of a page. termines the number of chances not be to the advantage of an advertisement to be the only advertisement or the only one of a certain class If there were eight adverof goods in any periodical. If one hundred of or until the page was turned over. even the casual reader would be likely to see them all. and that the size of an advertisement deit has of being seen. with more or less attention. the casual reader would probably see but one or two of them. in one or both cases by every one who turns over the pages of the magazine. This principle. tisements of automobiles on a single page. these letters were placed on each of the pages. the chances that any particular letter would be seen are greatly reduced. Whether each of these eight full -page advertisements would be as effective as one would be if it were the only one in . Thus it might might not hold for adjoining pages. and also the same four letters on the opposite page.ATTENTION 263 the chance of any particular object being seen was reduced to thirty-three per cent. This follows. If there were eight full-page advertisements of automobiles on adjoining pages of the same magazine. and as one turns the pages the attention is not wider than the page and therefore the letters have no rivals and would of necessity fill or occupy the attention for an instant of time. and have nothing else on these pages. because at the ordinary reading distance the field of even comparatively distinct vision is smaller than a single page of ordinary magazine size. This seems to indicate that. If I should place any four particular letters on the right-hand page of any magazine. other things being equal.

264 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING is a question for further consideration and will be taken up at a later time.. At the same time I will mail yon a circular telling about the very cheap tickets we are selling to Colorado. the comfortable hotels and boarding houses. Louis. 1). Send A for our "Handbook of Colorado. 21 and $25. and if these words stand out with no competitors for the attention of the reader. the quiet restfulness of the place. in the advertisement of the Burlington Railroad reproduced herewith (No. from St. yon are tired and overworked and need a little outing. Chicago. If this idea causes the reader to stop but for a second he will next words "Cool . Chicago. If on a single page there are but few w^ords set in the magazine display type. Round trip from and $30. & Q. go It is the one perfect summer spot in America. B. dry. EUSTIS. Send for a copy prices for board and the attractions at different places. $25 It takes but one night on the road from either Chicago or St. 8. PuMngtr Traffic Manager C. invigorating air. Rjr. to Colorado. according to the date. TO-DAT. Thus. No charge. the fine fishing all go to mato golf links. Louis to Denver." Our handbook tells all about th trip to Colorado costs but little. the chances Cool Off in Colorado If if it's hot where yon are and yoa mot a change of air. Colorado the ideal country for seekers after health and pleasure. No. 1 are in favor of any particular person reading this much of the advertisement. The pure. Jp. Co. the off in Colorado" stand out without having to compete with any counter attraction. the glory of the mountain and scenery.

blllty. C.. Ajthm.--The Nt Slotu rrj i~.DR.^C<hi W M*. i ub. CURE. No. SI/ CUM. try Complete. | OiomuMo* u *ct4tt bj o-om-l. FRE8. Each individual display seems to screech at the reader as he turns the page." No one of these displays competes with the other. Th. Anmi. and turns away . as reproduced herewith (No. ARE YOURwbLUNGS v - "'"O Red WEAK? ind .. Sto- and postim you read s iTHEHtKAU) AND PRESBYTER.ti. Chitto. but each assists the other.ATTENTION 265 see the display "Burlington Route" and then "Send for our Handbook of Colorado. It I. there is so much put in display type and in so many styles of type that nothing stands out clearly and distinctly.y SAVE YOUR.w.>r . HERE IS HEALTH The CONSUMPTIVE Can Be Cured ! SPECIAL NOTI E.rrh. It m. Oencr br otb.. thli It CoiuumptiM. Rundown n < Syit is toL'^VuE'i^jf ri?" I ^h w"''"? i-""<i''"swc r to Dr. Slocum. The result is that the ordinary reader feels confused... PhHoMphlUI SUCCESSFUL u hu Thouundi X tttert. 2).t. Thrutcoeit LIFE. 2 In the advertisement of Dr.

The bright headlight of the locomotive and the red lanterns which are used as signals of danger arouse such strong sensations that we simply must see them. but. they affect the eye and give a strong sensation and thereby attract the attention. Harlow Gale has made some experiments to determine what the attention value of the different colors is. all others are seen but dimly. This accounts for the introduction of all sorts of movement in street advertising. He has found that red is the color having the greatest attention value. green is the second. the third. the attention value of the differenthas been found that. If it is focused for any particular object.266 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING about. Moving objects produce a stronger sensation than objects at rest. held to the extreme right . all others appear through it to be blurred and indistinct. definite idea as to what it Each display is a counter attraction to each other one. Certain colors attract attention more than others. within the limits of the experiments. Black on a white background than white on a black background. a photographer's camera. and black is Prof. If I fix my is like The eye eyes upon an object directly in front of me. is more effective Large and heavy types not only occupy a large amount of space and so force attention to themselves by excluding counter attractions. Experiments have been made sized type. The second principle is that the power of any object from such a page without any is all to attract our attention depends on the intensity of the sensation aroused. the attention value of display type to' find It increases in almost exact proportion to the increase of its size. and so the effect of all is weakened. in addition to this. My hand.

but has been The following quoillustrated with frogs.ATTENTION or 267 left. strikingly is taken from a recent work of the director of tation This is a matter of the psychological laboratory at Yale University: "Although a frog jumps readily enough when put in warm water. The former ordinarily attract the attention. but they never have been subjected to sufficiently extensive investigation. An important question for the advertiser is: Where does the ordinary reader direct his eyes as he turns the pages of a magazine? Does he begin at the front or at the back of the magazine? Does he turn his eyes first to the top or to the middle or to the bottom of the page? Are his eyes turned more to the right or more to the left of the page? These questions have been the sub- ject of frequent discussion. or by the hooting of an owl at midnight. The contrast produced by a flash of lightning on a dark night. while familiar things and gradual changes are hardly noticed at all. the latter seldom do. those which fall directly within the focus of the eye have the best chance of which attracting the attention. Objects that fall under the direct gaze of the eyes make stronger visual impressions than those fall out of the focus. Novel things and sudden changes of any sort are noticed. preceding or following it. As one turns over the pages of advertisements. and there is no one who can disregard them. yet a frog can be boiled without a movement if In one experiment the water is heated slowly enough. common experience. . is so strong that the attention is absolutely forced. The third principle is that the attention value of an object depends upon the contrast it forms to the object presented with it. is then seen so indistinctly that I cannot count the fingers.

the beauty of each is lost. This eleis a constant force in drawing the attention. What has been said of the full page is equally true of ment the parts of it. the frog the end of two and one-half hours had evidently been boiled without the water was found dead.0036 of a degree never moved and at was heated at the rate Fahrenheit per second. value of each But is if the contrast is incongruous the impaired. No one has been conscious of this principle of contrast to a greater extent than the advertiser." of these results is that at any point My explanation of time the temperature of water was in such little contrast with the temperature a moment before that the attention of the frog was never attracted to the temperature of the water at all . looks greener. the responsibility for making effective contrasts is shared alike by the individual advertiser and by the "make-up. He has introduced all sorts of things into his advertisements merely to attract attention his advertisements upside He has inserted through contrast he has had the lines down.268 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING of . just as is the case when red and green are placed in The red looks redder and the green juxtaposition. but we see it in reIf it is in marked conlation to what has gone before." Contrasts may be so harmoniously formed that the things contrasted are mutually strengthened. so the frog was actually boiled to death without becoming aware of the fact ! As we turn the pages of a magazine we do not see each page as an independent unit. In the case of magazine or newspaper advertising. He noticing it. Thus if two musical but mutually discordant tones are sounded together or one after the other. : . trast to the preceding there is a sort of shock felt which is in reality the perception of the contrast.

Thus the advertisement of the Burlington Route em- The adploys the principle of contrast successfully. Slocum makes use of the same principle. to comprehend an entirely new thing or function. The same thing is true with adults. he has substituted black background for the ordinary white. or its attention value. The inherent skill of the American advertiser has been made manifest by this ingenuity in devising novel. one which is often neglected by few illustrations will help to make A child in turning over the pages of a book it clear. shall be given next are methods which are of almost equal importance. some have followed this far and have produced novelties and conprinciple too trasts. because they have violated other equally important principles. ever-changing. The three principles as given above are important is but the result and are the three methods which the practical adverThe three which tiser uses most to attract attention. We will turn our attention to nothing unless it speaks to us in terms which we can this it It is difficult interpret with comparative ease. and striking contrasts. nothing short of a botch. Indeed. From follows that a new article should be introduced . vertisement of Dr. or magazine does not have his attention attracted at Even the pictures do not all by the printed words. but their work has not been successful. depends on the ease with which we are able to comprehend it.ATTENTION 269 of the reading matter run crosswise . This principle the advertiser. The fourth principle is that the power which any object has to attract our attention. but which are frequently disregarded by the writers of advertisements. is A attract his attention unless they are in bright colors or represent something which he can understand.

Cuts that in themselves are good and lettering that is distinct may be so united and so dimmed by the .270 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING as a modification of a familiar one. 3 Styles of lettering that are not easily read and cuts that are not easily interpreted are not so attractive as lettering and cuts that are more simple and transparent in their meaning. 'WUc wfieaf what pankakd\ bread made frvift " are. unless yoof PURINA HEALTH haw iastcd PURINA I I much better for the family <h< broad No. or as something The pedagogical performing a well-known function. maxim known of is always advancing from the known to the unso well established that its violation must be regarded as more or less suicidal.

therefore. : N J 9 Qther Offices Factories Boston.ATTENTION 271 background that the whole is an indistinct blur. As an example of an advertisement that is good as to individual details but poor as to the entire effect. Orangeine People do not know what it is. it is meaningless . the afford mahogany. valuable: cheaper horse is simply LESS an ugly flower has no value Cloth not so fine may not wear is quite so long: an out-of-style bonnet If unwearable. 3) an advertisement of the Purina Mills. AND WHERE YOU CANNOT. and so fail to be attracted to advertise. Head Office : Co. The display of this advertisement is WHERE YOU CAN. and it is. and Chicago. you will cannot do. maple varnish is but poor death to beauty of anything. 4 it hard to read. by the advertisement simply because to them. A at all. Cleveland. we have reproduced herewith (No. MURPHY VARNISH FRANKLIN MURPHY. not so attractive as would otherwise be. No. ECONOMIZE. St Louis. Newark and Chicago. The name or brand of goods often makes them difficult Thus Orangeine does not suggest what the Chemical Company would have it suggest. President Newark.

No. Their function is presumably that of attracting attention. and actual experiment has shown that they do not attract the at- tention of one hastily looking at the page of the magazine as often as relevant words or relevant cuts.mi tlitow o^ay.272 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING and advertisers have used certain forms of expresillustrations which bear no necessary rela- Many sion advertised.^ \ pound of ) White Star Coffee will make more be de cups .d any o t It e t is velopfid more highly. 5 or "irrelevant cuts/' as the case might be.i>f brand. cause it ilian a puui. tion to the rest of the advertisement or to the goods They have been called "irrelevant words" "it's to easy ^ ask for} White Star Coffee Buj fng coffee in ono and two pound <:* makes it possible foi you tn obtain all il-o strength and the flttror Thu really t ll is what tou If e buy. . As they stand. they are not easily comprehended. foT ground.

" This display has nothing particular to do with varnish. Such headings are called relevant words. and the ordinary reader would not be likely to be attracted by any such "catch-words" as these. I believe that there is no proof that such an open attempt to force the attention of the reader is advisable or successful. as reproduced on page 271 (No. Such an illustration is called a relevant cut. 4). however. This is one reason why the picture is the most attractive form of advertising. be equally poor in any case. has made use of cuts that illustrate. 5) have filled up one-half of their space with the picture When one is thinking of frogs he is of a slimy frog. It would. The which tells the story is more easily comprepicture hended than any possible expression in words. has made use of a form of display which we would call "irrelevant words. 6). The advertisers of the White Star Coffee (No. not in condition to listen to the arguments in favor of any coffee.ATTENTION 273 The advertisement of the Murphy Varnish Company. But. The advertisement of the American Lead Pencil Com- pany. It does not increase the reader's knowledge concerning the proposition which the varnish company has to offer. aside from such considerations. this advertisement is all about. as reproduced herewith (No. The great majority of all advertisements appearing at the present time make use of words in display type which indicate in brief what the entire advertisement is about. The casual reader sees at a glance what and such advertisements attract us instantly. The fifth principle is that the attention value of an . It could be used equally well with almost any advertisement appearing in magazines to-day.

Relative size of pen- points exaggerated Patented la United States and Abroad. A the fact of the value of repetition is somewhat involved. but The quesis seen by every careful observer. No. cif Cap removed Guaranteed one being filled. tions concerning repetition as applied to advertising are as yet unsettled. . thing which is in contrast to all other things and yet frequently repeated The psychological explanation meets both conditions. It is no anomaly that children are attracted most by the oft-repeated tale. 6 diction to the third principle. This is in but apparent contra- object depends on the ttibat Tt Cooks Like Pencil and 33 Leads for 25C. Absolutely and Unconditionally year.274 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING number of times it comes before usy or on repetition.

or if they are separated by a longer period of time? Another question is this How much of an advertisement should be repeated? Some advertisements have : unchangeable characteristics which are always repeated and which serve to identify all the advertisements of Others are completely changed as to all prominent features with every issue. and the casual observer would not notice that the two successive advertisements were for the same goods he cerwould not notice that they were from the same tainly house. The man who sees the same advertisement month after month will at last purchase the goods advertised without ever having paid any particular attention to the advertisement and would be unable to say why he purchased those particular goods. The advertisement which is changed completely with every issue is lacking in repetition value and would be good only when it is of such a nature that a large per . frog that was boiled without noticing it succumbed at year is last to the slowly rising temperature. if a given advertisement is to appear one hundred times. The fective. or is it better to have the same advertisement appear in one hundred different issues of the same magazine? In other words. so that the reader can see it in all his periodicals for a few days. lacking in contrast. Still other advertisements have certain prominent features which are constantly changing. It is not necessarily inefbut it takes' time to accomplish its results. but which are always recognizable as representing the same firm. The advertisement which is the same from year to a particular house. are repetitions more effective if they follow rapidly one after the other. is it best to insert it in one hundred different magazines once.ATTENTION 275 In the case of goods having an equal sale all the year.

Would it not be advisable to retain this wheat border or the from this firm? If had become interested in the advertisements of Wheatlet. they would be seal in all advertisements issuing certain readers attracted by the other advertisements of this firm if they saw the seal down in the corner of the advertisement.276 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING would read supply the missing links and it cent. Meriden. No one but a careful reader would know that they were advertisements of the same firm. Conn.. of the intended purchasers thor- oughly enough to it to unite to the others of the series. saver. type. 8 1 8. and is to that extent the best advertisement. just the same in all publications in which the firm It advertises. 7 CO. so far as I know. paper. Newspaper. This same firm has been careful to have the wheat border in all advertisements of Wheatlet. etc. This advertisement of a printing press company (No. and is the same year in and year out. has doubtless been more or less successful. .nrger size. The seal containing the 'portrait of Franklin is also often present in the advertisements of Wheatlet. Press $5. rules sent. for instance. It is 7) has. Type setting easy. r.. Money My Own THE PRESS No. The advertisement with a constant recognizable feature that varies in detail from time to time allows for both change and repetition. Cards I Print Circulars. never been changed. Big profits printing for others. Would it have been more effective if the copy had been changed? The two advertisements of the Franklin Mills (Nos. 8 and 9) have nothing in common. Write for catalog* presses. to factory. and had become familiar with the characteristic seal.

but this col- . am notice the advertisement as I am with him in it. "All th r 1 U fh fat that's Fit to Eat.nlf pound sample mailed for grocer's name and 3 two cent stamps. and attracted by every advertisement in which he apIf he were left out.. Whether you lead a strenuous life or not. For Uncle Sam's boys. Start the New Year right. Wheatlet will do you more good than any breakfast food you can ent. but they retain some characteristic feature so that recognize the tisements as old friends in a new form. I should not be so likely to pears. No. THE FRANKLIN MILLS COMPANY.ATTENTION Yery many firms are 277 at the present time changing their copy frequently. WHEATLET reaches us regularly." 70Q Springarden St. LOCKPORT. Write. I have come to like that chef. 8 genial colored chef. the Government demand the Unsolicited. Each in con- of their advertisements is in a sense new and trast with all their other advertisements. us. we can new adver- Thus the Cream of Wheat advertisements are identified by the JELEGH OVER MOTHER CEREALS. N Y. $200 is to be given Children.ulet the best cereal. Prove everything we say with full h. the Government's order for best. becausfe careful tea proved Whe.

true old saying. That a thing may attract our attention it must not affect us indifferently. Manufactured only by CO. but must either please or dis- Attention . It is either a pleasurable or a painful feeling. 9 is not merely a process in which the mind a certain fact. I. half a loaf is better than a whole loaf if that half loaf be made of Containing "all the wheat that's fit to eat.278 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING make the ored chef offers just enough of repetition to advertisement attractive." is the trade-mark to be found on every package and every barrel of the genuine Franklin Mills Flour.. The sixth and last principle is that the attention value of an object depends on the intensity of the feeling aroused. No. to full rels of 196 Ibs. but it is also a process in which grasps we feel. Lockpori. "Half a Loaf is better is than no loaf " a good. WRITE THEM FOR FREE BOOKLET. It is sold by firstfrom bar- Class grocers generally in original packages of 0^ THE FRANKLIN MILLS Ibs. N.

The value. but their advertisements are so obtrusive and repulsive that their means of selling goods. 279 of the true artist At this point the work becomes tions essential. pride. 10) of an advertisement of the Prudential Insurance Company. as a photographer presents all the details of a scene. The following is a reproduction (No. ambition. and many other feelings and emotions have been awakened by the skillful advertiser. and yet it is often advisable to run the risk of attempting appeals to the emotions. be truer to the facts. and sensibilities of the possible In the ideal advertisement the emocustomers must be appealed to. It is not at all easy to find in our magazine advertising any appeal or any reference to the more pathetic aspects of life. The visitor to an art joy is but one of the emotions. With certain advertisers the desire seems to have been merely to attract attention regardless of the emotion awakened.ATTENTION please us. There are scores of advertisers who attempt to appeal It should be remembered that to the joyful emotions. sympathy. but the work of the artist may attracts our attention more readily. They have been successful in attracting attention. gallery is at once struck by the frequent appeal to the sadder emotions. We do not understand the feelings and emotions of the human breast. The man who confines himself to the simple statement of facts may not be subject to the mistakes that befall the man who attempts more difficult things. but he does not appeal to the emotions and the heart of the The work of the photographer public as the artist does. In all advertisements the esthetic feelings may be aroused by at least the harmonious combinations of color and form. Curiosity. is inconsiderable. This advertisement does not ap- .

Perhaps not one in a hundred does it. so that his production will appeal to the sentiment as well as to the . of America I OHN F. No. President. If the burden of debt and want be added to it. yet certainly much better many highly approved advertisements of insurance companies. the obligation every man incurs when he marries. are plained in our booklets sent free clearly ex- on request. It will not assuage the grief..280 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING it is -pear in recent magazines. to some extent. NEWARK. DRYDEN.but it will increase the comfort of those who are living. The skillful advertiser should be able to appeal to more than one emotion and he should be able than TT I is hard enough on a woman to be thrown on her own resources. The death of the husband and father is quite enough by itself. semi-annual. on weekly payments) and the "Ordinary" (for policies of $1000 and more. the woman's life is hardly worth the living. Nobody can take the insurance money away from the one to whom you make it payable. J. It discharges. Prudential Insurance Co. he must be an artist and must be able to put soul into his work. . N. quarterly. and annual payments). Our two forms of life insurance.It is this that makes life insurance an imperative necessity. Comparatively few men in America are able to accumulate any money. Home Otlict. the "Industrial" (for policies of $tOOO or less. 10 to appeal to the one which brings the reader into the attitude of mind which is in keeping with the proposition offered. The designer of advertisements must be something more than a skilled artisan.

colored type. and colored cuts sufficient to warrant their increased introduction? class of advertisements. The purpose of this chapter is to present in an introductory manner the psychology of a part of advertising. and with special reference to magazine and newspaper advertising. for instance. the following are nmst be investigated : among the questions that What is the comparative attention value of small and page of large spaces.ATTENTION intellect of those 281 it..e. who are to be influenced by six The art demands the work of an artist. a quarter and a full advertisement? What is the comparative attention value of advertiseto reading matter ments next and of advertisements segregated at the beginning and the end of magazines? What is the comparative attention value of space among classified advertisements and of space among un- classified advertisements. and the psychology of involuntary attention as applied to advertising in particular. involuntary attention. what is the least possible space for a must-be-seen advertisement? What size and style of type is the most valuable for For any particular attracting attention? What part of a page and which pages are the most valuable for attention? the comparative attention value of novel and of conventional advertisements? is What . or advertisements of a different class of goods? Is the additional attention value secured by tinted paper. Such is in brief the discussion of the fundamental principles underlying the psychology of involuntary attention in general. is Before the psychology of involuntary attention complete. i.

and irrelevant words? Is a line of display type extending entirely across a page as valuable as the same display in two lines ex- tending half across the page? What is the relative attention value of representations of the pathetic. It is quite plain that investigation on these questions would be of the greatest practical value to the advertiser. irrelevant cuts. relevant words. humorous. . pleasing. These questions can probably all be answered. and displeasing? Such is a brief syllabus for future investigation upon involuntary attention as applied to advertising. some easily and others only after difficult and extensive investigations.282 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING does repetition affect the attention value of an How complete should the repetition often and How be and advertisement? rapidly should the advertisement be repeated to secure the best results? Is a small advertisement appearing one hundred times how how a year as good as one ten times as large and appearing ten times in a year? What are the respective attention values of relevant cuts.

but in this exposure there was no . for the advertiser. tion depends The upon the absence of counter-attraction. The observers could read but four of the letters as in the previous trial. Among the conditions favoring attention the following significance. seem to catch our attention with irresistible force. sudden contrasts. etc.. of special power of any object to compel atten- tion to the absence of competing attractions. Again tive there are certain conditions which favor attention and others which hinder it. I then added four other letters and ex- posed the card one twenty-fifth of a second as before. This may be demonstrated in a specific case as follows I had a : card of convenient size and on it were four letters. In the preceding chapter appeared the following paragraph "Other things being equal. large objects.SMALL AND LARGE SPACES 283 XXII ATTENTION VALUE OF SMALL AND OF LAEGE SPACES certain things which seem to force themus whether we will or not. We seem to be upon compelled to attend to them by some mysterious instincselves THERE are tendency of our nervous organization. and in that time all the four letters were read by the observers. the probabilities that any particular thing will catch our attention are in propor: is. This card was exposed to view for one twenty-fifth of a second. Thus moving objects.

I then added four more letters to the card and exposed the letters as in the previous trials. in one or both cases by every one who turns over the pages of the magazine. other things being equal. This seems to indicate that. up to a certain point all could be seen." Even a casual reader of advertisements is aware of the fact that full-page advertisements attract attenit more than smaller advertisements. the chances that any object would be seen were reduced fifty per particular When the number of objects was increased threecent.e. still able to read but four letters. with more or less attention.284 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING certainty that any particular letter would be read. each of the pages the chances that any particular letter will be seen are greatly reduced. and as one turns the pages the attention is ordinarily not wider than the page. and therefore the letters have no rivals and would of necessity fill or occupy the attention for an instant of time. the chances of any particular object being seen were reduced to thirty-three per cent. The observers were That is to say. or until the page was turned If one hundred of these letters are placed on over. objects (i. it is safe to say that the letters would be seen. the full-page advertisement is the ' sure-to-be-seen advertisement and that ' the size of an advertisement determines the number of chances has of being seen.. Every advertiser knows that if he should occupy full pages he would secure more attention than if he should occupy quarter tion . fold. If I should place any particular four letters on the right and also the same letters on the left hand page of any magazine and have nothing else on the page. This follows because at the ordinary reading distance the field of even comparatively distinct vision is smaller than a single page of ordinary magazine size. When the number of letters) was doubled.

and that others are profitable when filling various amounts of space. It is also conceded that certain advertisements require a large space and that others are profitable as an inch advertisement but would be unprofitable if inflated to occupy a full page. for it costs practically A quarter-page announcement is valubut a half-page is worth more is it worth twice as much? It is of course conceded that some advertisetwice as much. before opportunity had been offered to verify it by means of experiments with advertisements. in proportion to the space occuSince the large or the small advertisement? pied. ments are unprofitable regardless of the space occupied. we will for the present confine ourselves to one of the characteristics of a profitable ad- many vertisement. i. To investigate the question the following tests were made I handed each of the forty students : in my class a I Magazine. which is more profitable. There are exceptions and special cases.SMALL AND LARGE SPACES 285 pages. as to the superiority of full pages in comparison with smaller spaces. but the question can be intelligently stated as follows: Of all the advertisements being run in current advertising.. occupied only half of it. its attention value. The quotation presented above was deduced from a theoretical study of attention.e. Alt feel sure that any advertisement would be more valuable if it occupied a full page than if it whether able. yet one of the most perplexing questions which any advertiser has to deal with is the adequate amount of space for any particular advertisement or for any The question is not particular advertising campaign. profitableness is a very broad term and depends upon the conditions. But the real question is it is twice as valuable. copy of the current issue of the Century then asked them to take the magazines .

At the present time we shall consider all advertisements mainly from the standard of attracting attention sufficiently to be recalled by those who saw them. then got together all references to each particular advertisement and so could compare the different advertisements. I surprised them by asking them to lay aside the magazines and write down all they could remember about each of the advertisements they had same magazines to other persons in other parts of the country and had them use the magaIn zines in the same way in which I had used them. of the ninety-one full-page advertisements. etc. a few failed even to look at the advertisements.286 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING and look them through. sixtyfour of them are advertisements of books and periodicals. I sent the vertisement. vertisements with the other advertisements in this particular magazine would be to compare advertisements of and periodicals with advertisements of other books classes of goods. the desire it had created to secure the goods. and small advertisements there is a total of about five pages devoted To compare the full-page adto books and periodicals. glanced through the advertisements. Some of them put in all their time reading advertisements some . we shall di- . At the end of ten minutes. but not to read any poetry or long articles. but also as to the amount of information which each had furnished. These results were carefully tabulated as to the exact number of persons who mentioned each individual adseen. just as they ordinarily do. this way tests were made with over five hundred persons mostly between the ages of ten and thirty. read over the table of contents and looked over the reading matter. Out while of the half-page. quarter-page. To obviate this difficulty. not only as to the fact of bare We remembrance.

The inefficiency of the small advertisement is made less As more striking when we consider that for all advertisements other than for those of books and periodicals a full page was mentioned approximately twenty times. small advertisements. advertisements of books and perisixty-four full-page odicals were remembered six hundred and six times. As is shown . which is an average of The approximately twenty for each advertisement. five The sixty-seven quarter-page advertisements. and these were menninety-eight tioned but sixty-five times. a quarter-page three times. were mentioned two hundred and twenty-three times. (2) those of books and periodicals. than a single quarter-page of small advertisements was of books and periodicals. which is an average of nine times for each advertisement. a half -page nine times. which is an average of The three quarter-page three for each advertisement. The thirty-nine half-page advertisements of goods other than books or periodicals were mentioned three hundred and fifty-eight times. which is an average of nine times for each advertisement. other than those of books or periodicals.SMALL AND LARGE SPACES vide all advertisements into two classes: (1) 287 those of goods other than books and periodicals. it is useless to There are consider such advertisements separately. and a small advertisement less than a single time. and magazines were mentioned advertisements of books only twice. The twenty-seven full-page advertisements of goods other than books or periodicals were remembered (mentioned in the reports of the five hundred persons tested) hundred and thirty times. which is an average of much less than one for each advertisement. which is an average of less than one for each advertisement.

9*"" . a half-page ad- vertisement was mentioned eighty per cent. oftener than a quarter-page of small advertisements.288 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING in the following table of all advertisements other than those of books and periodicals. The tabulated results for all advertisements other than of books and periodicals are as follows : Size of Advertisement. oftener than a half -page of small advertisements. a quarter-page adver- tisement was mentioned thirty per cent. and a full-page advertisement was mentioned ninety per cent. oftener than a full page of small advertisements.


A full-page advertisement sessing great attention value.290 of one THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING brand of goods was interpreted as an advertise- of the competing brand. 2. 1) is a reproduction of the No. made after she had looked through the magazine for ten minutes with- out the knowledge that she would be called upon to The advertisement dereport on what she had read. 2. The cut (No. Soon after the completion of the investigation described above a supplementary investigation was described by this pupil . was mentioned more than any other and is reproduced herewith as No. pos- report of one of the pupils in Minneapolis. On the other hand the results were frequently astounding in their revelation ment of the effectiveness of the advertisements in imparting the essential information and creating a desire for the goods.

SMALL AND LAEGE SPACES from a more diversified list of advertisements 291 vised to see whether similar results would be secured and from the class of persons for whom the advertisements were took the binding wires out of especially written. had these hundred pages bound up with the We had all and the whole thing looked any ordinary magazine. Some of . but some of them merely took the magazine and looked it through. A large number of them were heads of families. of illustration. With three exceptions. We a large number of magazines and thus were able to make a collection of advertising pages without tearing the margins of the leaves. so we tried to get all kinds and conditions of people for subjects. the subjects knew nothing of the nature of the experiment. We the different styles of display. type and etc. Some of. We made use of magazines of^ different years and of different kinds. and purchasers of the goods advertised. We had in these pages advertisements of almost everything which has been advertised in magazines of rechoose as cent years. in every case tabulated. readers of magazines. no one suspected that it was "made up" as he looked at it. As we had tried to choose all the different body of a current magazine. Each one was requested to look through the magazine and. all the hundred pages of advertisements were turned. This specially prepared magazine was handed to fifty adults. From these leaves we chose one hundred pages of advertisements. Thirty-three of them were women and seventeen men. them lived in a city and some in a country town. like kinds of advertisements possible. but all used were of uniform magazine size. of colored cuts and tinted paper. Some of them knew that it was for experimental purposes. Indeed. supposing that it was the latest magazine. being careful to many different styles of advertisements as possible.

He had no recollection of having seen any of the others. were surprised to see looking through how unfamiliar the magazine looked. One subject. There was also great diversity in subjects in their ability to recognize the advertisements when they looked through the magazine the second time. Others. What he said was written down. The average time for the fifty subjects was a little over ten minutes. in the second time. different advertisements. as each subject had completely looked through it As soon the magazine was taken away from him and he was all all asked to "mention" 'had seen. There was very great diversity in individuals in their ability to mention the advertisements which they had Some of them mentioned as high as thirty just seen. and to tell the advertisements which he about each of them. we divided all ad1 ) advertisements of vertisements into two classes ( As : . could recognize only three others. in the previous investigations. and then the subject was given the magazine again and asked to look it through and indicate each advertisement which he recognized as one which he had seen but had forgotten to mention. although all the one hundred pages of advertisements had been before his eyes but a moment before. who mentioned but three advertisements. others were thirty minutes in getting through. one man was unable to mention a single advertisement which he had seen. This would seem to indicate that certain persons may turn over the advertising pages of a magazine and yet hardly see the advertisements at all. Some of them recognized as high as one hundred advertisements when looking through the second time and were surprised that they had forgotten to mention them.292 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING the subjects turned the pages rapidly and got through in three minutes.

times for each. (2) advertisements of books and periodicals. The fifteen half-page advertisements of miscellaneous advertisements were mentioned forty-one times. The thirty-one full-page advertisements of books and periodicals were mentioned eighty-five times by the fifty subjects. which is an average of ly ^ times for each advertisement. and only one of them was mentioned by That gives an any of the fifty. each of these advertisements was mentioned on an average of 6|f times and recognized on an average of 12|| times in addition. which is an average of six for each advertisement." Each of these advertisements was thus recognized on an average almost nine times. therefore. The forty-three pages of full-page miscellaneous advertisements were mentioned two hundred and eightytimes. in addition to the "mentions. which 1 . They were recognized one hundred and twenty-two times. The fifteen advertisements were recognized one hundred and eighteen times in addition. which is an average of 7yf times for each one. average They were recognized by twenty-four. which is an average of 2f| times for each advertisement. which is an average of 2-^-J. There are but four half -page advertisements of books and periodicals.SMALL AND LARGE SPACES 293 goods other than books and periodicals and called. one times . miscellaneous advertisements. The thirty-six quarter-page miscellaneous advertise- ments were mentioned thirty-nine times.and recognized five hundred and forty-four That is. and that but once. of one-fourth mention for each advertisement. The thirty-one full pages were recognized (upon looking through the magazine a second time) two hundred and seventy-six times by the fifty subjects.

or on the average of two-sevenths. which is an average of oneseventh for each. They were recognized thirtyfour times. Of the small advertisements. these seven were mentioned once. which makes an average of fourteen ninety-thirds. There are six advertisements of books and periodicals. which is an average of thirty-four ninetythirds for each advertisement. The seven were recognized only twice. quarter-page an average These six were mentioned only three times. The following tabulations will secured from fifty adults : make clear the results Tabulated results for secured from fifty all miscellaneous advertisements : adults as follows . only seven were of books and periodicals.294 is THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING of 3 T% times for each. which is an average of one-half for each advertisement. The ninety-three small miscellaneous advertisements were mentioned fourteen times.

SMALL AND LARGE SPACES 295 Tabulated results for all advertisements of books and periodicals secured from fifty adults as follows: Size of Advertisement. 8*" g .

These three exceptional instances are of no significance inasmuch as the full-page advertisements had been previously mentioned and therefore had been excluded from those that could be merely recognized. The results given aj)ove indicate that a quarter-page advertisement was recognized oftener than a quarter-page of small advertise- ments. Kesults were then compiled as to the comparative values of the different-sized advertisements in impress- ing upon the subjects the individual brand or name of .296 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING it if impression on him that he could recall something else should arise to suggest Thus.. small advertisement. but that the full-page advertisements in three instances were recognized less often proportionately than smaller advertisements. The report given by each subject was carefully analyzed to see how many times each advertisement impressed a subject sufficiently so that he would know at least what general class of goods the advertisement represented. Upon comparing the reports upon the different it was found that the subknew what class of goods the full-page advertisement ject represented much better than what the half-page represented. we had each subject see how many of the advertisements in the magazine he could recognize a few minutes after he had looked through it for the first time. that the half -page was better than the quarterpage. that a half-page advertisement was recognized oftener than two quarter-page advertisements.e. to find out a need or it to his mind. and that the quarter-page was better than the advertisements at this point. how many of the advertisements had made any appreciable impression. half -page and quarter-page miscella- neous advertisements and half-page advertisements of books and periodicals. i.

twice as effective as a quarter-page. the price of the goods argument presented by the ad- vertiser. full-page advertisements which were mentioned the greatest number of subjects were Ivory Soap by (mentioned twenty-four times and reproduced herewith The . of these cases it was found that the No. the offered In a similar way. It was found that this information was imparted much better by the larger advertise- ments. results were compiled as to name and address and the In all line of of the firm. Does it sell soap ? full-page advertisement was more than twice as effective as a half-page advertisement a half-page was more than . and a quarter-page was more effective than a quarter page of small advertisements.SMALL AND LAKGE SPACES 297 the goods advertised. 3. This full-page advertisement attracts attention.

Full-page reproduction effective as mere display advertising. 4). 3).three persons who mentioned In-er-Seal. reproduced herewith as No. but sixteen knew that it was an advertisement of soap at all. and only fourteen No. while but nine knew that it was an advertisement of In-er-Seal goods. Only five of the full-page . and Pears Soap (mentioned twenty times. Of the twenty. The advertisement in question is the familiar one of a boy in a raincoat putting packages of In-er-Seal in a cupboard. Of the twenty-four persons who mentioned Ivory Soap (No. 4. only sixteen knew that it referred to biscuits. every one of them knew that it was an advertisement of Pears' Soap. 3). knew that it was an advertisement of Ivory Soap.298 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 7 as No. 4). In-er-Seal (mentioned twenty-three times). Of the twenty persons who mentioned Pears' Soap (No.

ia_the 4 5 No. There The New'York Ontr. i_n tutorial m the. The New York Centr. howe v er. in the very centre of the hotel. road (No.SMALL AND LARGE SPACES 299 advertisements were mentioned by none of the fifty subThese five were of the New York Central Railjects. Certain styles of advertisements ( depending upon the goods advertised .iy of (he historic Hudson River and through the beautiful Mohawk Valley. reaching by its through cars the most important commercial centres of 1 the United Slates Can. is protected by the most perfecl_system of block signals in the world. 6).X. The results indicated a very great difference between individual advertisements which filled the same does not claim to be the only railit "there jre others in the world is. Egyptian Deities Cigarettes.Amenca s health and pleasure resorts." toad . were very many half-page. and theatre section. the great Four-track Trunk line of the United States. Weak attention value in any size. Central's metropolitan terminus is at Grand Central Station. CWitl tlmjgf . of -America's Greatest Railroad. Quality is more important than quantity. quarter-page. The New York Central operates the and and most perfefl through train service in the world. . this being the only Trunk Line whose trains enter the City of York. LONTKW fastest TIMES. Fourth Avenue and Forty-second 'Street.nd has earned the title given it by press and people on both \sides of the Atlantic.Bufolo and Niagara Falls. oo " JhCLfauot Train. and small advertisements which were mentioned and recognized by none of the fifty persons tested. and the Lyman D. UU. by w. Equitable Life Assurance Society. 5). 'The New "York New "The entire Main Line of the New York Central. and the greatest of >.il is the direct Line between the American metropolis and Niagara F. Waltham Watches (No. residence.ida. between New York and." 5. Morse Advertising Agency.

We Nobody wants all a poor watch. right here The Company recommends the movements engraved with the or. and in the number of times that the advertisement conveyed definite information as to . An advertisement possessing attention value. yet the size heed to the quality of his advertisement than to is an important element. 6. The American Waltham Watcb Company it has made body to own possible for everya perfect watch at a moderate price. No one nee4 best are go in to Europe for a watch nowadays. want a good one.. even if filling a An advertiser should certainly give more full page. in the number of times it was recognized when the magazine was looked at for the second time. trade-mark "Riverside" "Royal" (made in various sizes). In the number of times the advertisement was mentioned from memory. in America. but little In the case of these one hundred pages of typical advertisements.300 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING as well as on other things) are effective in any space. Mass. All retail jewelers have them or can get them* Do not be misled or persuaded into paying a larger price for a Watch no better and probably not so good as a Waltbam* No. and others are comparatively worthless. the size of the advertisements affected their value materially. ivhich cost about one-third as much as foreign movements of the same quality. particularly The made Waltham. its size.

words. . the price of the goods. . and the argument presented in favor of the goods in all of these points (disregarding the exception mentioned above) the full-page advertisement was more than twice as effective as the half-page the half-page was more than twice as effective .SMALL AND LARGE SPACES 301 the general class of goods advertised. at all points considered in the two investigations described above. the specific name or brand of the goods. the address of the firm.In other . as the quarter-page the quarter-page was more effective than a quarter page of small advertisements. and the increase of value is greater than the increase in the amount of space filled. the value of an advertisement increases as the size of the advertisement increases. the name of the firm.

The larger ones also offer more opportunity for relevant text and appropriate illustrations. believe that the small advertisement is safer than the larger one and that the larger spaces are luxuries reserved for those who are able to incur losses without serious consequences. persons with perfect faith in advertising who believe that all a firm has to do is to" advertise and its success is assured. This chapter presents the results of extensive investigations carried on to ascertain more definitely the stability of advertisers and to discover which sizes of advertisements seem to be the safest and most profitable. and to-morrow have ceased to exist. The it IN the preceding chapter larger advertisements are best for imparting the desired information and for making a lasting impression on the possible customers. as a whole. that they are in the magazines There are. however. Many business men.302 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING XXIII THE MOETALITY RATE OF ADVEKTISEKS s was shown that the larger advertisements attract the attention much more than the smaller ones. If the users of large spaces are reckless and the users of small spaces cautious and conservative. we should naturally suppose that the more conservative firms would be the ones which would stay in business longest and which might be looked for in each successive year There in the advertising pages of certain magazines. on the other hand. rather ephemeral. Data were secured from all firms located west of . to-day. is a tradition that the users of advertising space are.

it if This would seem to indicate that in general uses six hundred lines annually the results will be so satisfactory that it will continue to use the same magazine indefinitely.MORTALITY RATE OF ADVERTISERS 303 Buffalo and advertising in the Ladies' Home Journal for a period of eight years.247 firms included in the data preOther data were secured from the entire of firms advertising in the Ladies' number Home Jour- nal. all : Number of Years the Firms Continued to Advertise. ) who continued sented above. There were but 1. (A very large number of the firms in eight years continued in for a longer time. If. periods. If it uses one hundred and sixteen lines annually it will be encouraged to attempt it the second year. 56 lines lines lines lines lines 262 lines 218 lines 600 lines 2 3 4 5 6 year years years years years years 7 years 8 years 1 116 168 194 192 a firm uses fifty-six lines annually in the Ladies' Home Journal the results will be so unsatisfactory that it will not try it again. and Scribner's for certain inasmuch as the data from all these merely confirm those presented above they are not added here.. but will then drop out. but . Average Number of Lines Used Annually by Each Firm. etc. the Delineator. Harper's. on the other hand. all which had appeared three of the years. All firms were grouped together which had appeared in this magazine but one of these which had appeared two of the years. up to and including all of the firms which had appeared the eight years under consideration. After a careful analysis had been made the following significant results were secured years.

they continue it if it does not pay. The proportion to their size than small spaces. we should expect to find the larger spaces surviving. least successful is the least likely survival of the fittest is as true in advertising as it is in organic nature. confine the discussion We it manifests itself in the Century have chosen the Century because it is Magazine. class class of advertising which is the most likely to be continued. We have conducted similar investigations. because it has had one of the most consistent histories. however. with several of the lead- to the question as We ing advertising mediums in America. shall. but in a less thorough manner. If it pays. What has been the experience of advertisers espeon this point? It is a cially of magazine advertisers debated question whether there is a growing tendency toward larger or smaller advertisements.304 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING Advertisers are in general wise business men and are usually able to tell whether their advertising pays or not. If the smaller spaces are more valuable in proportion to their size we should expect to find the small spaces surviving. Every one can think of an occasional That exception. If large spaces are more valuable in most successful is the That class which is the to be continued. they cease to advertise. In each one of these investigations we have secured results similar to those presented below from the Century. and because all the files have been made available from the first issue of the magazine. The following . but that small spaces well filled are the more profitable. In articles in magazines for business men the statement is often made that we are finding it unnecessary to use large spaces. . To find out definitely what the tendency is in regard to the use of space. several investigations have been carried on. one of the best advertising mediums. but in general the statement is correct.

therefore. In the following table the first column indicates the year. school announcements and announcements made by the publishers of the magazine were disre- garded. 305 data.MORTALITY RATE OF ADVERTISERS . the second column the total number of pages devoted to commercial advertising during that year in the Century Magazine. the fifth the average number of lines in each advertisement appearing in the magazine for that year. the years of financial distress in the nineties almost every year has shown an increase over the preceding The growth has been so constant and has been year. In preparing the tabulation. while during the years of depression there is usually a decrease. The increase is nothing sustained for so seen to be greatest in the years of prosperity. The total number of pages devoted to advertising has been increasing very rapidly till now there are over one thousand pages devoted to advertising annually as compared with two hundred pages which was the approximate amount during the first ten years With the exception of of the existence of the magazine. The second point to be considered in the tabulation is the number of firms which advertised in the magazine in the years from 1870 to 1907. the sixth the average number of times each firm advertised in the Century for that year. the third column the total num- ber of firms advertising in the magazine that year. show a general tendency so the data and discussion are not to be interpreted as having any special reference to the Century Magazine. Several things in this tabulation are worthy of careful consideration. It will be noticed that the first ten years there were about two hundred during . many years that it would seem to be more than a normal growth. the fourth the average number of lines used by each firm during the year.

Until .306 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING From 1880 firms advertising. we can but wonder what will happen when a period of years comes which is less prosperous. The fifth and sixth annually by columns show that this increase is not due to the more frequent insertion of advertisements. From 1890 there has been a rapid falling off till in 1907 there were but three hundred and sixty-four firms advertising in the magazine." The proof is not conclusive that this method of scattering the advertise- ments is of any great advantage. During the year 1907 fewer firms were advertising in this magazine than for any year for a quarter of a century. Perhaps it is pos- sible. certainly has not been attained in 18901907. such years. but to the increased size of the individual advertisements. Certain advertising managers have it but seen the difficulty of crowding so many advertisements into the two groups at the front and the end of the magazines and have sought to avoid the difficulty by scattering the advertisements through the reading matIn this way all advertisements are in some magater. zines placed "next to reading matter. as those of the early nineties of firms was so greatly reduced. The point made clear by the fourth column table is that of the increase in the of the amount of space used each advertiser. while in 1890 there were nine extremely rapid. otherwise the firms would not have discontinued their contracts. Although the decrease has been but slight during the recent prosperous years. hundred and ten firms advertising in the same magazine. to 1890 the increase was In 1880 there were but two hundred and ninety-three firms. when the number The question naturally arises as to the possibility of nine hundred firms advertising successfully during a single year in the same magazine. for instance.


About the year 1890 the real struggle for existence set in the time to which fittest. and that is look for the survival of the advertisements had been the most then the users of small spaces would have profitable. and we find in the succeeding years that the users of small spaces grew gradually less. while the average amount of space used by each advertiser has increased one hundred and fifty per cent. is not the case. Such. survived and would have appeared in the following years. Neither is it to be full assumed that all classes of merchandise can use pages with profit and that no classes of business can be more successful when using small spaces than when using larger ones. The year 1907 was almost identical with the year 1890 as to the total advertising space. This process is still continuing. It is not to be assumed that the size of a poor advertisement will keep it from failure any more than the age of a consumptive will be of supreme moment in determining his probable length of life. This is shown by the fact that although the number of advertisers has decreased. The point which should be emphasized is that the size of an advertisement is one of the vital elements and that every advertising agent or manager should be an advertising expert and should be able to give advice as to the size of an advertisement . the amount of space used has increased. among we must advertisements. in the number of firms advertising. but showed a decrease of sixty per cent. This pronounced increase in space and decrease in the number of advertisers is perhaps the most astounding fact observed in the development of advertising in America. In that fierce struggle If the small the small spaces proved to be incapable of competing with the larger spaces.308 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 1890 each firm used on the average approximately one page annually. however.

and the results of a failure should be looked upon as such a serious matter that periodicals which proved unprofitable in a large proportion of cases would be avoided. but they should have such confidence in their own judgments that they would refuse to handle the business of any firm which insisted on using spaces which court failure. and if patients refuse to follow their advice they not infrequently refuse to treat them further.MORTALITY RATE OF ADVERTISERS 309 which would be the most profitable to present any particular firm with any particular text and illustration. and if he has There is and is ordinarily correct in his asno good reason why the advertising taken account of the advertising experience of the many and not of the few. The lawyer is an expert along another line and he assumes his client will take his advice. himself not only in the number of Ms patients. and it is high time that the professional advertising men should awake to their responsibility and display the same wisdom that is disphysician played by the physician and the lawyer. the advertising managers of our periodicals will pride themselves in the low mortality-rate of their adver- when . It has now reached mature years. Advertising can no longer be said to be in its infancy. and indeed is now here. The advertising agents and managers should not only be experts. manager or agent should not be looked upon in the same way. he should be able to assist the pro- spective advertiser in avoiding the pitfalls which have been the destruction of a very large proportion of all firms that have attempted to advertise. If he is sincere in his judgments. I believe A that the day is soon coming. Physicians are regarded as experts along a certain line. sumption. prides but also in the low death-rate of his patients. Every failure is an injury to the advertising medium. able to give such advice.

it is evident that one of the duties of the advertising manager and of large and agent case.310 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING . the larger spaces. is to insist able to advise what on the use of adequate space and to be is adequate space in any particular . In the end the magazine which has the lowest mortality-rate will of course be the most profitable both to the buyer and to the seller of Because of the psychological effect produced by space. than in the total number of advertising pages appearing monthly. and because of the comparative values tisers rather of small spaces as given above.

The question is one of such great importance to the science of advertising that I feel justified in asking for your co-operation in an attempt to secure the truth. upon opinion rather than upon fact. parties to the dispute seem to base their faith. Do you know . Other manufacturers prefer to have their advertisement located in the section of the publication set aside for advertisements. Both. August 23. Certain influential manufacturers with national distribution are convinced that an advertisement placed next to reading matter (such as an interesting story) is placed in a preferred position. conflict. For the purpose of securing more data. the following letter was sent to the leading advertisers and agencies using space in American magazines : NORTHWESTERN UNIVERSITY. Their conviction is based on the theory that good reading matter and good advertising matter 011 the same page Dear Sir.NEXT TO KEADING MATTER 311 XXIV THE VALUE OF ADVEETISING SPACE NEXT TO EEADING MATTEE ONE of the most perplexing and widely discussed : problems in magazine advertising to-day is this Is advertising space segregated at the two ends of the magazine more valuable or less valuable than space next to reading matter? Among my friends who are advertisers or who are in advertising agencies there was neither a consensus of opinion nor sufficient data for reaching a satisfactory conclusion. of any evidence (facts and not opinions) that next to reading matter is of greater value to the advertising advertiser than advertising space massed at the two ends of the magazine? 1.

A For your convenience a for reply.. present facts to prove that space next to reading matter is more valuable than space in the segregated advertising sections. or a little over twenty-two per cent.. facts. Of the five hundred and eighty advertisers. Of the five hundred and eighty advertisers. so far as is consistent with the confidential nature of the replies. In some instances several members of the firm sent separate answers. thirty-four. and would entrust me with it. sixty. but express the opinion that space next . Each of these is listed as an in- dependent reply. Of the five hundred and eighty advertisers. present no facts..312 2. I assure you that it will be used in a manner entirely satisfactory to you. of location in way power of the advertisement to influence the reader? If you have such evidence. WALTER DILL Beplies were received from five hundred advertisers and from one hundred and and eighty ninety-six agencies. or almost six per cent. If you so desire I will report to you an analysis of the answers. Of the five or a little hundred and eighty advertisers. present facts to prove that advertising space in the segregated advertising sections is of more value than space next to reading matter. one hundred and thirty-one. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING Have you any facts to show the contrary Have you data to prove that the matter affects the to be true? Or no 3. less than ten per cent. letter similar to this is being sent to some of the leading advertisers in America. or almost ten per cent. present no fifty-four. but express the opinion that space in the segregated advertising sections is more valuable than space next to read- ing matter. self-directed envelope is enclosed SCOTT.

Of the one hundred and ninety-six agency respondents. that their evidence is not conor they present neither facts nor opinions. or twenty-eight per cent. ing matter present facts to prove that space next to readis more valuable than space in the segregated advertising sections. present no facts. ninety-nine. but express the opinion that there is no difference in value between space in segregated sections and that clusive next to reading matter. or a little less than five per cent... Of the one hundred and ninety-six advertising agency respondents. Of the one hundred and ninety-six agency respondents. present facts to prove that space in the segregated advertising sections is more valuable than space next to reading matter. present no facts. twelve.. twenty-seven.. three hundred and one. but express the opinion that space next to reading matter is more valuable than space in segregated advertising sections. or almost fifty-two per cent. or a little less than fourteen per cent. or a little over six per cent.NEXT TO READING MATTER tising sections. opinion bearing on the topic. assert that there is no difference in the value of space in the two classes of magazines fail to that they are undecided in their opinion. but express the opinion that space in the segregated advertising sections is of more value than space next to reading matter... Of the one hundred and ninety-six agency respondents. fifty-four. . Of the five hundred 313 to reading matter is superior to that in segregated adver- and eighty firms. nine. . or include in their reply any facts or expression of . or almost fifty-one per cent. Of the one hundred and ninety-six advertising agency respondents. present no facts.

4 per cent. Also. such as Leslie's. that the cost to per inquiry increased 57.314 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING Of the one hundred and ninety-six agency respondents.) . Advertisers. I find that each. The whole series was run in each of the mediums. (Insurance. In the magazines which figured in the above statistics we used the same series of advertisements. . sale from the magazines in which advertising appeared next to reading matter cost us 9. These five firms are. Cosmopolitan.34 (6%) Pacts for flats. System. Literary Digest. such as the World's Work. though. as presented above. Opinions for flats.7 per cent. Extracts are presented herewith from typical examples of the thirty-four letters from advertisers who present facts to prove the superiority of space in segregated advertising sections. Outlook. Agencies 46 Total Total per cent. and the fourteen per cent. 60(10%) 12(6%) 27(14%) 87 54(10%) 63 9(5%) 8% 185 131(22%) 54(28%) 400 301(52%) 99(51%) 580 201 781 6% 11% 24% 52% The one hundred and ninety-six advertisers are here tabulated as two hundred and one. and McClure's. of course. as five presented data on both sides of the debate.1 per cent. included in both the six per cent. more than in the other group. over the average number of inquiries received from magazines in which the advertising appears next to reading matter. Facts for standards. Taking the magazines on our list in which it is customary put the advertising matter next to reading matter. I further find that the average number of inquiries received from magazines which group the advertising increased 41. Opinions for standards. five present data from one group of clients indicating the superiority of segregated space. Review of Reviews. but not necessarily in the same month. Undecided. in the next-to-reading magazines. and from another group of clients indicating the superiority of space next to reading matter. each advertisement appearing once in each of the magazines. and comparing the returns from these magazines with the ones in which the advertising pages are grouped in the back and front of the magazine.. etc. Total.

and in the Literary Digest.81 3.05 6. have proved to be more effective and more powerful to get results.69 Review of Reviews 4. 1914. the inquiry cost was $7.50 Harper's National Geographic Cosmopolitan Everybody's Century Scribner's 5. that is. for instance. We have reason to believe that in the standard magazine size publications of this nature. 315 In the standard magazines which carry a large advertising such as Everybody's and System. the cost was $3.59 7. Cost Per Inquiry.35 Current Opinion Outlook World's Work 3. . (Typewriters. In this magazine.50.) .) The only evidence on which we can base our opinion is that number of inquiries which we receive from advertisements.17 3.78 . in which our advertisement was placed next to reading matter. 2. in which the advertisement was In the placed next to reading matter.09 3. in America House Beautiful Munsey's 3.50. the advertisements are all together. 1915. Cosmopolitan the cost per inquiry was $3.41 6. and ending June.NEXT TO READING MATTER section. of the as you know.87 4.50 (Lighting Systems. Saturday Evening Post Literary Digest $7. the policy of massing the advertisements in a bunch is much better for both the reader and the advertiser.05 Good Housekeeping C. In the Post.23 6. not cut up with reading matter. L.41.40 3. we have found that our advertisements when massed with the advertisements of the business world in a definite advertising section.26 6. You will probably be interested in the attached summary covering our advertising for the fiscal year beginning July.

Second: Our records are in such shape that we cannot very well give you the data concerning this. We give preference to publications that run reading matter and advertising matter on the same page. Our direct sales to consumers in towns where we had no dealer distribution showed four thousand per cent. we stuck to our specifications. (Underwear. This was not only so in one case. but we have found invariably that the replies from any given advertisement are much greater when situated as above than advertising section. when buried in the (Fountain Pen.) In 1914 we made up our list on an entirely different basis than in previous* years. although we used McClure's where the advertising was opposite reading matter. Results: We received many times the largest volume of inquiries we had received in any one previous year and they came in over a longer period. Our records (Household Chemical. among them Harper's and World's Work.316 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING The following extracts are from the sixty letters of advertisers presenting facts indicating the superiority of advertising space next to reading matter : Referring to your circular letter of the 23d. Publications such as the Cosmopolitan and Everybody's we had used for years.) . but out of the three or four magazines we used running ads next to reading it held out in every case against about five different standard magazines we used.) of mail orders received show that the magazines running their advertisements next to reading matter produced mail orders at half the cost of the standard magazines. With a few exceptions. in answer to your question numher one: We consider an advertisement placed next to reading matter has at least fifty per cent. more value than a similar advertisement buried in the midst of a heavy advertising section. We used twenty-nine publications and we made effort to secure positions next to reading matter. but we dropped them from our list on the theory that very few readers would take th<e trouble to wade through one hundred or more solid pages of advertising. increase.

as when a man is reading a story. would state in my opinion. I lean to the idea that advertising should all be placed in one section of the magazine. is From my own more (Hardware.NEXT TO READING MATTER The following extracts are from the 317 fifty-four letters of advertisers expressing the opinion that space in the segregated advertising sections of magazines is superior to the space next to reading matter : Personally. for people who are reading are not looking for advertising matter. for the reason that one is most generally too interested in the story to stop to look or even notice the ads.) personal standpoint. he is not interested in advertising. hut I do not like it all mixed in together. (Automobile.) pages in a magazine. . and that its effiis very much decreased by its being in the middle of an advertising section of many pages.) Sorry to have to advise you that I have no definite evidence to submit in this connection although I have a very definite opinion to the effect that an advertisement is much more valu- able when next to reading matter than when buried in the back (Trunks. I myself pick up a magazine and look over the advertisements with as much interest as I take in the reading matter.) The following extracts are from the one hundred and thirty-one letters of advertisers expressing the opinion that space next to reading matter is more valuable than space in segregated advertising sections : My ciency opinion fective is that advertising is always very much more efwhen placed next to reading matter. (Furniture. and persons looking for ads are not looking for reading matter.) Personally I have lost faith in advertising next to reading matter to quite an extent. especially where the advertisements appear alongside of the stories continued from forward part of magazine. and not next to reading matter. effective when placed in the proper part of advertising a paper or magazine. (Steel.

to place our copy in the advertising section. The publications which use the former arrangement generally pay better for us. (Underwear. House Beautiful. counsel. This may be due. and not (Chinaware. This practice of ours is based entirely upon our own impressions and advertising upon data. however.318 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING The following extracts are from the three hundred and one letters of advertisers who present neither facts nor decided opinions Country : It has heen our policy in the class of publications such as Life. we prefer space alongside of the reading matter. as are the readers of such publications as Country Life. . It is all in the ad and the medium. Perhaps this is due to the diversity of advertising matter in such popular publications. we do not know of evidence that advertising next to reading matter is of any greater value to the advertiser than the advertising space massed at the two ends of the magazine. It is our opinion that the matter of location does not affect the power of the advertisement to influence the reader. and because a large number of readers are not interested in one -particular line.. in the popular women's publications.) To your The following are extracts from the twelve letters from agencies possessing facts indicating that space in the segregated advertising sections of magazines is more valuable than space next to reading matter : our experience. particularly with keyed mail-order that advertising space massed at the two ends of a magazine is of greater value to the advertiser than copy. inasmuch as it is our belief that the readers of this class of publications quite frequently gather their information from the advertising pages. From we would say advertising distributed through the reading pages. etc. On the other hand. Nor have we any facts to show the contrary to be true. to the intrinsic value of the mediums rather than to the position of the advertising. like the Ladies' Home Journal and Woman's Home Companion.) circular letter dated August 23d.

The standard size women's publications brought returns at about 13c. each. A manufacturer of supplies used by business houses to handle the details of their business got his lowest cost of replies from a standard.size magazine with the advertising not running next nor opposite reading matter. For several years a toilet-goods manufacturer has gotten his lowest returns from general magazines. The following extracts are from the twenty-seven letters from agencies presenting facts to prove that space next to reading matter is superior to space in the segre: gated advertising sections . from two magazines of standard size. The various women's publications brought returns at from 14c. each. a standard magazine with advertising at the front and back of the book and not next to reading matter brought returns direct at a lower cost than any of the next-to-reading-matter magazines. to 18c.NEXT TO READING MATTER It seems to us that the points 319 letter of you mention in your August 23d could best be cleared up by taking the experience of manufacturers who expect direct results from their advertising. All the magazines were cut off that did not bring replies at less than 20c. In a textile account which received about one hundred thousand replies per year on an advertising expenditure of fifteen or twenty thousand dollars. a sporting-goods account has always had its lowest-cost returns from a standard-shape publication. The one magazine which has proved our biggest puller on a number of propositions happens to be standard size. Looking over records of returns covering several years. such as mail-order houses. The next-to-reading-matter magazines have not been able to overtake these two publications in the pro rata low cost of direct replies. It has been our experience in handling a number of such accounts that the question of position is one of the most important factors. The goods were intended for women. The manufacturer of a household article classed as furniture also got his lowest replies from a standard-size magazine. The second and third magazines were standard-size magazines in the low cost of direct replies.

On several mail order lists we have in this office. when placed in the order of their showing in results. whereas those that bulk the advertising in the back of the book without reading matter almost always fall to the bottom of the list. we believe. that most all of the publications that do the best are those which carry advertising next to reading matter. of the papers were those where advertising was given position alongside reading and ten per cent. over a number of years' test. this where rate for canvass quantity of circulation is proportionately the same. and the advertisement. of lists used for three or four years back shows that on mailorder accounts approximately ninety per cent. we have found. . where advertising was bulked in the front or back of the magazine. is that our mail-order advertising accounts actually produce a lower cost of inquiry and of sale in publications where position is given next to reading. A The following extracts are from the nine letters from agencies expressing the opinion that space in the segregated advertising sections is superior to space next to reading matter : Our belief is that people have becpme accustomed to reading advertisements from force of habit. and the reader would not take the trouble to go back and locate the advertisement. When a reader opens a magazine and starts reading the advertising section. or might be forgotten after the story is finished. his mind is in a receptive mood for the opportunities offered.320 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING In a number of our advertising campaigns where the results are carefully tabulated I have found repeatedly that the magazines. and not by accident. give strong evidence in favor of those which place advertisements next to reading matter. is much more effective as a result of this. The evidence we have to offer that advertising next to reading is of greater value than if massed in the front or back of the magazine. And an advertisement placed alongside of reading matter that might attract attention would either detract from the article being written. The magazines in the front of the list are nearly all of this character.

The segregation of advertisements. is that it does not matter where the advertisement is. My own personal opinion is that an advertisement next to reading is enhanced. without exception. has become a tradition. as in the magazines. Whether this is a tradition handed down. and regret to say I can throw no definite information on the point you raise. all advertisers have a predilection for position next to reading and for other preferred positions such as back cover. I do not know. or top of column next reading in newspapers. and it is only an opinion. and I have found that. People know where to find the printed appeal to buy. Folks examine an advertising section of a magazine as they would look for the title-page of a book or the index thereof. The following extracts are from the fifty-four letters from agencies expressing the opinion that space next to reading matter is more valuable than space in the segregated advertising sections. Buy. but by the display given to contrast between the advertisement and the uniform gray of straight matter. Personally. and prepare an elastic mind ready to absorb. as I have never been able to check up the pulling quality of advertising next to reading matter. or in such a position as to attract the attention of the reader. I have worked with advertisers for twenty years. It is easy enough to hazard the opinion which is almost axiomatic in the advertising business that positions next to read- . the force of the advertising appeal is weakened when it is next to reading matter. My opinion. Everything after all comes back to a matter of opinion.NEXT TO BEADING MATTER 321 I have your interesting letter of August 23d. I am further of the opinion that when the mind is engaged in following the thought conveyed by the type pages. not so much by the interest of the reader in the reading matter. Buy. or whether it is a hunch based upon some actual scientific facts. I would rather have it away from reading matter. if it is so set up. first page facing reading. for the mind is diverted from the idea of the letterpress to the foreign idea of the advertisement.

we wish on affirmatively. whether advertisements placed in magazines next to reading matter enjoy preferred position. and my instinctive feeling is that in the majority of cases this is true. to answer Such positions are undoubtedly preferable to those of ads massed at the two ends of a magazine. solid advertising. essays and stories. action. In reply to your recent letter addressed to a member of our staff on the question. We ourselves have not collected data on this subject. have no facts to present study of these seven hundred and seventy-six replies leaves one with certain very definite convictions First For certain classes of goods and under certain : : A . it attracts the reader's attention at once. we have found that ads with preferred position have always brought not only better results. are more valuable to advertisers viewed from the point of rethe strength of experience of years. Logically this stands to reason. The reader's first attention goes to the articles. for magazines are not bought primarily for the advertising they contain. he begins to look to the ads. but from cases where we had occasion to learn of advertisers' experience. If.322 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING ing matter are more valuable than other positions. It actually forces itself upon the reader. however. The tendency of standard magazines to alter their forms so as to place more advertisements next to reading. and then if he is not tired out. but were of immediate sults. I have no evidence that advertising next to reading matter is of greater value to the advertiser than advertising space massed at the two ends of the magazines. an ad is next to reading matter. but for the reading matter the}7 contain. that is. The following extracts are from the ninety-nine letters from advertisers who present neither facts nor opinions as evidence for either side of the controversy. seems to point to the fact that it is easier to sell space next to reading matter than it is among with regard to the general probWe lem because any conclusions we have reached in this regard have proven themselves to be fallacious in some way.

and other contributing factors. next to reading matter is not the controlling factor in value of advertising space. books. the responsiveness developed in the readers. and the absence of conviction on the part of so many of them. Third: The conflicting evidence in the data and in the opinions presented by the experts. must be considered in each instance before any definite conclusion can be reached as to the value of advertising space in any particular magazine. space in segregated sections is more valuable than space next to reading matter. more valuable than space in certain standard magazines for almost any class of advertising. railroads. resorts. for advertisements of almost next to an advertised. . for advertise- ments of seeds if placed next to an article on gardening . and investments. Space next to reading matter is more valuable than space in the segregated advertising sections for advertisements of silk if the advertisement. make it evident that segregated vs.NEXT TO READING MATTER conditions there is 323 a clear difference in the value of space in segregated advertising sections and space next to reading matter. For schools. any class of goods if placed article dealing with the use of the goods is Second: Space in some standard magazines more valuable than space in certain flat magazines for almost any class of goods but space in some flat magazines is . is placed next to an article on dresses or internal household decorations . The quantity and quality of the circulation.

geology. witchcraft. animal magnetism. but with the founding of laboratories for experimental purposes. it should be held firmly in mind that psychological laboratories have nothing to do To avoid error with telepathy. and botany became established on a new and firmer basis. physiology. established the first psySince that date similar laborachological laboratory. palmistry. but no systematic attempt had been made to apply experimental methods to psychology till 1880. but as none of these superstitions have been . as to the conception of the function of a psychological laboratory. spiritism. or with any other of the relics of the cults of medieval superstition. Occasional and haphazard experiments had been made in psychology ever since the days of Aristotle. astrology. physics. It is true that the question of occult thought transference in its various forms has been put to the test in a few of the laboratories. chemistry. tories have been established in all the leading universities of the world. crystal-gazing. fortune-telling. clairvoyance. mesmerism. At this date Professor Wundt.324 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING XXV PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPEEIMENT THE modern innovation introduction of the experimental method is a in the case of all the sciences. of Leipzig. Occa- sional experiments had been made in each of the sciences before experimental laboratories were established.

PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIMENT less hypotheses. . instruments are employed which record one one-thoupose. Hypnotism and prodigies play such a subordinate part in the workings of a laboratory that it would not be worth while to mention them at all if it were not for the fact that they are so frequently associated with the theories which were mentioned above and which can show no good reason for their existence. sandth of a second with the greatest accuracy." To-day no one doubts the existence of hypnobut it is understood as something so different from tism. matical prodigy is not regarded as an individual who holds relationship with an evil spirit. In frequent association with the cults mentioned above are certain other phenomena which have proven themselves to be worthy of consideration and which do occupy who a place in a laboratory. Psychological experiments are most frequently carried on in laboratories especially constructed for this pur- The laboratory for some experiments may be merely a convenient place for meeting and a place free from undesirable disturbances. it is safe to say that there is not a director of any psychological laboratory in Germany or America (most tries ) of the laboratories are in these two counhas any faith in it. but as a person abnormally developed in a particular direction. 325 able to stand the test they have been discarded as worthQuite extensive and elaborate tests have been made with telepathy. but as the results secured were so meager. Among such phenomena are hypnotism and what might be classed as prodigies or "freaks. In experiments in which the element of time enters. or it may be rooms fitted up with the most elaborate sort of instruments needed. what it was formerly supposed to be that it is robbed A matheof its mysterious and uncanny connections.

and the real causes given and the object of the experiment explained. The general passenger agent of one of the leading railroad systems was constructing a new time-table for the . that non-essential and confusing conditions may be eliminated.326 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING of the experiment determines the kind The nature of apparatus needed." Standard conditions are those which may be repeated and that are of such a nature that the various conditions are under the control of the experimenter. and controlling the conditions of experiments. In general a psychological experiment is a psychologiobservation made under "standard conditions. This makes it possible for one investigator to perform an experiment and to have his work verified by others or to show wherein the first experimenter has erred. The nature of a psychological experiment (the kinds of problems that may be attacked. the method to be pursued. and the place to be chosen. the various causes investigated one by one. or it may be intricate and call for mous expenditure of years of investigation and an enormoney to create the necessary con- ditions for its successful investigation. Great ingenuity has been shown in construct- ing apparatus. The experiment may be simple and call for almost no equipment. The given because it is one that is of special significance to the readers of these pages and because it is so simple that it can be fully described in following example is few words. the number of persons who should take part. Standard cal conditions are ordinarily of such a nature that they may be varied. the kind of results secured. and the treatment of the result) can be understood better by giving a concrete example than by any complete description. the method of investigation. devising methods.

of the 327 A dispute arose as to which of type could be the of two faces same kinds more easily read.PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIMENT entire system. K .

The advocates of the heavy-face type argued that that style style of type that the white space . together and there figure was more white space around each It was argued by the advocates of this made the type stand out plainer and that it could be read more easily.328 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING and letter.

of which two were set up with small-face type and two with large. Two full pages were taken from the time-table and each page was set up in both styles of type. Exhibits D and E have large-face type.. was provided with duplicate recorded all errors. viz. Exhibit E. as shown in Table II. N. J. A number of persons were then requested to read the pages as fast as The manner of reading was the same as that possible. The method adopted was to have pages taken from the time-table set up in both styles of type. was read instead of a part of it. Each sheet was marked with a letter. Z. thus making four sheets. and Exhibit F. For this purpose specimens of both styles were sent to the psychological laboratory of the Northwestern University. as shown in Table I... with the request that each style be tested as to its relative legibility. the time required. ordinarily employed by the traveling public with the exception that the reading was done aloud and that the entire page ducted sheets. and D. Exhibit D. The first four subjects are indicated by initial letters of their names. and that the could therefore be more easily read. S. K. W. It was im figures possible to decide which was the more legible without putting them to an authoritative test.. Exhibits C and F have small-face type. The order in which the pages were read.PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIMENT of type looked larger. that 329 it used more ink. respectively. and took the exact time of all reading with a stop watch. I conexperiments. and the number of errors made are indicated by the following table : . and the four sheets are indicated as Exhibit 0. C.



. printed time-table set up in one style of type and a different page set up in the other style. S. was able cult to record his errors. With the other five persons tested no such interruptions occurred. of increase of errors by use of small face type 147' n* 129' 42" 17' 29" 13^ 132 91 . was made in the office of the president of the railroad concerned.332 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING and uniting the : subjects read. The duplicate copy used with him was not accurate. Possibly he was very diffimade more errors than the figures show. C. in both styles of type a page of one secured. subjects. It should be added that two of the six persons complained that the small type was hard on their eyes. The total number of trains in the two pages were almost identical. and three thought that the small-face type was much harder to read than the large-face type. and twice during the experiments R. The figures given above are the results secured during Some weeks before sheets had been the last ten days. and so the number of errors which he made in reading was not secured with certainty. all dis- These were tested in quiet rooms. 41 45 These figures make it clear that the large-face type is easier to read and is not so subject to error as the smallface type. of time lost by using small face type Total errors for six persons reading small face type Total errors for six persons reading large face type Excess of errors for small face type Percent. and the names . The test with R. E.. free from to read so rapidly that it tractions. was interrupted by persons calling at the door. C. and the number five of errors made could be accurately recorded. results for all the six we get the following Total time for six persons to read small face type Total time for six persons to read large face type Excess of time required to read small face type Per cent.

An error of that kind would cause Mistaken the would-be passenger to miss his train. the results secured with these pages were trustworthy. for connected with the wrong station. The marked contrast in the results secured from the two kinds of faces of the same size type is found in the number of errors which the readers made. scribed is therefore a verification of the first experiment. The experiment as denounce. Frequently the time was One person. We thus have the results secured from twelve subjects instead of from first six The total result secured from the persons showed that the heavy type could be six. The results secured in the two cases are in general the same. Two of the twelve subjects read the small-face type faster than the large-face. faster than the lighter-face type. or more. but to remove any possibility of doubt I had the pages prepared as described in the experiment above. read that the train leaves Cream Ridge at 7. when in fact the train leaves there at 7. pronunciation and similar minor mistakes were not recorded as errors. As great a number of abnormal results as two out of twelve may ordinarily be expected. and leaves Chillicothe at 7. The errors were ordinarily in misreading the time. When it is taken into consideration that time-tables are used as sources of information as to the times of . the difference being forty-five per cent. These results are more uniform than might have been expected. The increase secured with the last six subjects was 13^ per cent.52.52. To overcome such errors a large number of persons should take part in the experiment and then in the general average single exceptions are less disturbing. 333 were apparently equally difficult to proSo far as I could judge. example.25 . read 12f per cent.PSYCHOLOGICAL EXPERIMENT of the stations .

Those who construct time-tables try to get them up in such form that it will be easy and pleasant for the public The smaller-face type is harder to read. as is shown by the two facts of increase of time and increase of number of errors in reading it.. read. the greater are the chances that it will be read and have the desired effect. does not unnecessarily strain The results of this experiment are not of more importance to the advertising manager of a railroad than they are to other advertisers who are limited to the use of type for the exploiting of what they have to offer to the The easier and more pleasant the type is to public. The smaller- face type is also less pleasant reading than the heavierface. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING and when it is discovered that the lighter-face type increases the chance of errors forty-five per cent. Time-tables are often read at night and by poor This fact makes it essential that the type should it be of such a nature that the eyes.334 trains. and increases the time necessary to read any part of the time-table thirteen per cent. as is shown by the fact that several of the persons complained that the small-face type was hard on their eyes. . light. to read them. it then becomes evident that such minor differences as that of the two faces here given are details which should be carefully considered.

Our rural ancestors were engaged longhours of the day in strenuous toil in the open air. The cruder. Pork and beans would cause their mouths to "water/ and would be a more tempting morsel to them than are the best-prepared dishes of our gastronomic artists to us. The reproduced advertisement of Sunkist ( No. 1 ) presents a good illustration of this principle. grosser. We have turned from a rural population living out of doors into an urban population of sedentary habits. Times have changed. We all think that we prefer turkey to pork because the taste of the turkey is its and more important factor in . modern chefs. For them eating was merely to relieve the pangs of hunger. while 7 those foods are finding a readier market which are more delicate in texture and more elegant and esthetic in appearance. The appetite of our modern urban population is much more a matter of sentiment and imagination than was that of our rural ancestors. The garniture of a food is becoming a more consumption. but is particularly applicable to foods as served by our THE and imagination.FOOD ADVERTISING 335 XXVI THE PSYCHOLOGY OF FOOD ADVEETISING X taste of foods is partially a matter of sentiment This is largely true of all foods. This change is manifesting itself yearly in the alterations which are being wrought in our food consumption. and unesthetic foods are finding fewer consumers.

Food depicted not as victuals but as a delicate morsel. 1.How Garnishing Improves Foods the art of the ou? home cook fam S CALIFORNIA Uniformly Good Lemons No. .

Malt exmay be called yeast or ale. can smell nothing. quail.FOOD ADVERTISING better than that of the pork. In arranging for this game. the foods should be carefully prepared. The "tasting game" has proved itself to be extremely In this game porinteresting to both old and young. these conditions are observed. The following are some of the may tract be said to be the liquid from turnips. Veal broth may be called the broth of mutton. to I sorghum molasses. turkey. White bread may be brown bread may be called whole. Kaw potatoes chopped fine may be thought to be chopped acorns. the blindfolded subjects will make the most astounding mistakes in trying to name the most ordinary articles of diet.wheat bread. and other meats will be confused in a most astounding manner. This "tasting game" would be impossible if we really . Beef broth may be called chicken The liquid in which cabbage has been boiled broth. The meats should be chopped fine and no seasoning or If characteristic dressing of any sort should be used. or chicken. chicken. veal. called corn-meal cake. esthetic judgment of a man who 337 We would be should question the so bold as to say that the taste of chicken is as good as that of Even if I have such a cold in my head that I quail. mistakes which will actually occur: Strawberry sirup may be called peach sirup or sugar sirup. Boston Beef. should greatly prefer maple sirup It seems absurd that there should be any possibility of hesitation in choosing between these articles. pork. The facts are that in each of these alternatives we are unable to distinguish the difference between the two by taste at all. and if in no extraneous manner the name of the food is suggested. beef. as to choice tions of food are given to blindfolded subjects who are then asked to identify the food by eating it.

Quail is rarer than chicken. and we seem to have inherited a fondness and even love for everything connected there- . cestors lived by the chase. the open fields. It is associated with Thanksand all the pleasant scenes connected therewith. vigorous exercise.338 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING discriminated between our articles of diet by the sense of taste. we cannot tell them apart when blindfolded." gross. the quail is associated in our minds with those in which the pleasures of the chase. the copse of woods. We are at once led to inquire for the reasons choose one article of food and reject another tastes are so similar that why we if their our eyes are closed or turkey to pork? Of course there 'are certain cuts of pork which do not resemble certain parts of turkey. The correct answer to the question is that we prefer turkey to pork because turkey is rarer than pork and because there is a certain atmosphere or halo thrown about turkey which is not possessed by pork. Why do we prefer quail to This can be answered in terms similar to we explained the preference for turkey as compared with pork. Turkey has enveloped itself in visions and banquets. but the question has to do only with those parts of turkey and pork which cannot be easily discriminated with closed eyes. Grossness and sensuousness of feasts naturally attach themselves to the unesthetic process of eating and to the unesthetic articles of food. and unesthetic. giving We have seen pictures in which turkey was so garnished that it looked beautiful. and Again chicken? it may be asked. Furthermore. but turkey associates itself with our most pleasing thoughts does not stand out in all its nudity as dead fowl. days spent in agreeOur anable companionship and exhilarating sport. pure air. Why do we prefer We are inclined to think of pork as "unclean.

but it is well established.FOOD ADVERTISING with. it is this very thing. a halo . so we would be willing to pay more for pay and the advertiser are. These advertisements have created an atmosphere. The American people have been long years in creating this sentiment in favor of the turkey and the quail. Just as we are willing to more for turkey and quail than we are for pork chicken. and when I think of Ivory Soap. The questions which naturally arise in the mind of article of food at a profitable price. 339 It might also be added that quail is served in a more elegant form than chicken. It will be noticed that all these points of superiority of quail over chicken are independent of taste all . but chicken is likely to be served in its nudity. 2) have acan article of complished anything. They all bring out the one point of spotless elegance. yet they to have a part in determining our final judgment as the taste of the meat. and it will cause turkey and quail to be desired even in taste are rejected. There is a delicacy and yet a plumpness about the quail which is not to be found in a chicken. Can I create such a sentiment in favor of my commodity that it will be seen enshrined in sentiment? Has a glamour ever been created for merchandise by advertising? This last question must certainly be answered in the affirmative. if when other meats equally good to sell would be fortunate he could get his commodity in a class with turkey and quail. Such a result would insure him constant sales The man who has foodstuffs any which could be presented to us in such an appetizing atmosphere as they are. All of these advertisements have been of one class for a quarter of a century. The garnish is a large part of a quail. If the advertisements of Ivory Soap (No.

340 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING of spotless elegance envelops it. This advertisement assists in creating an atmosphere of elegance about Ivory Soap. spotless it. 3). but it influences it. I have had this idea of spotless elegance so thoroughly associated with Ivory Soap by means of these many advertisements that than I should if I actually enjoy using Ivory Soap more the soap had not thus been advertised. like those of Ivory (No. The advertising of this soap not only induces me to buy No. Soap. 2. and I do not think of it merely as a prosaic chunk of fat and alkali. me in my judgment of the soap after I have bought Another advertising campaign which is to be likened to that of Ivory Soap is that of the Chickering Piano These advertisements. often seem to say so little and at times it really seems that they squander their space by filling almost .

Piano may. The . 3. be the central part of the cut. are emphasized in a to detract from the piano. This advertisement attempts to aswith the Chickering Piano an atmosphere of sumptuous elegance. etc. but No. We are left to selves that if persons with such elegant the Chickering it draw the conclusion for ourhomes choose must be good enough for us. sociate manner which seems other articles of furniture..FOOD ADVERTISING 341 the entire page with the illustration and by saying so little directly about their merchandise. Many advertisements of the Chickering Piano are evidently devised to represent the piano as an article of furniture in a home which is most sumptuously and tastefully furnished. They are alike in that the goods advertised are not thrust out into The Chic^kering the foreground of the illustration. indeed.

The firm which has come the nearest is the National Biscuit Company.342 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING piano is set most artfully in this atmosphere of cultured refinement and elegance. Their adver- . of Ivory Soap and Chickering Pianos is quite comparable to that which exists in favor of turkey and quail. no advertiser of foodstuffs has quite equaled Ivory Soap and the Chickering Piano in creating a favorable sentiment or atmosphere in favor of his am to it commodity. but I find that my thought of the Chickering is biased by this air of elegance which hovers over it. So far as I concerned. This advertisement attempts to associate with Nabisco an atmosphere of romance and sentiment. and I can think of them as such. 4. It seems to me that the sentiment created in favor No. Most pianos are advertised merely as pianos.

FOOD ADVERTISING tisements of Nabisco (No.^JI/hdl poet for wj sing of Biscuit. If to get a sentimental or romantic taste out of it. Delicacy and purity. Sentiment is not easily or quickly engendered. I enjoy Nabisco wafers more because of these advertisements than I should if I had not seen them. Uneeda Biscuit TWTIOXAL 8ISCUTT COMPANY No. while in the dark I were given a new flavor of Nabisco. These advertisements have been so successful with me that when I eat a Nabisco I seem o'Cctkes "land o Cax. in the past yean the American peook have consumed million over three hundred packages of. -IWoTtW Maderiuri to Jnt ft Sofc^ Johnny OoatsT later an' taWo may *eD be that some Amenca as ihe Land of f. it would not taste so good as it would under normal conditions. 5. This advertisement attempts to associate with a soda-cracker an atmosphere of patriotism. and if I did not know what it was. Cwe'l Ptrcgrinalwni tlirirvgli cocwnences with the foDowing fHor. but if this style of advertising is continued I anticipate that Nabisco sugar . even bordering on the romantic and" ' is a name frequently given to Scotland article where meal cakes form an important of diet The phrase was made famous by in Robert Bums ^w in his poem On CafHu* SwtfalMt. 4) 343 are most excellent in that they create an atmosphere which is exactly suited to the article advertised. . are the qualities which we all feel as we look at the advertisements or read them.

notning can refresh you more tnan Wheauet witn I run. 5). for food. N. and nothing kills the flavor of an article of diet more than this feeling of the commonplace and After tne nignt's'fast. A soda-cracker is one of the most prosaic things imaginable. 6. Write us. Ts carefully Nature's best offering In cereals/' Every known element of noui retained in Wheatlet. Biscuit the lack of poetical or esthetic sentiment. The attempts thus far have been but half-hearted and infrequent. The reproduced illustration shown herewith (No. THE FRANKLIN HILLS COAPANY. $X.THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING wafers will taste better and better with each succeeding appearance of a good advertisement.cO in Gola. MUf % To children under i& vats fit If i. and you have yet to learn the most a> euner witn fruiter witnouu Jsfactory cereal dish unnl you try Wncauet. Irtan ideal comwnation. the No. 5) is a very good attempt to give the Uneeda Biscuit a connection with man's . An over-crowded advertisement promiscuous abundance kills the appetite ." 1t LOCKPORt. The National Company is undertaking a big task when it attempts to weave poetical associations about Uneeda Biscuit (No.

He is able to influence me to buy the goods. When we are displeased. When we are pleased we are open to suggestions and are easily induced to act. If the firm is able to create a sentimental setting. Here is the advertiser's opportunity. or with something of that sort. ard of thought as to its chemical constituents. food advertisements are woefully weak at this point. like the taste of the goods Whether his goods will be classed with "pork" or with "turkey" depends not only on the real taste of the foodstuff. and are overcautious in our actions. Whether I like an article of food or not often depends upon what I think of the food before I taste it.FOOD ADVERTISING 345 higher nature. They choose that which tastes good while they are eating it. Nothing is influenced by sentiment and imagination more than the sense of taste. or to associate the soda-cracker with something patriotic. then most assuredly there is a great field for profitable endeavor for the advertiser of foodstuffs. it will add immensely to the "taste" of the commodity. and refuse that which is displeasing The savory morsel is eaten without to the palate. One of the functions of the advertiser is to please the prospective customers and in every way possible to knit agreeable suggestions about the prod- uct offered for sale. There are a few advertisers of food products who are trying to create an appetizing halo and to spread it over their goods. If my appreciation of a soap or a piano can be increased by advertising. but in general. . Most persons choose their foods wholly upon the standtaste. we become insensible to appeals. but also upon the efficacy of the advertisements in creating the favorable atmosphere. and then his ad- vertisements after I may make me have bought them.

The modern housewife is insisting on a beau- . It is true that certain foods are bought because of their medicinal properties. The package. The trend of our diet is not dependent upon any one thing. bag. How much more appetizing are crackers packed in a box than the same Who will say how much is due crackers sold in bulk ! to the form of the box in the enormous increase of ! Would crackers in America during the last few years the American public ever have taken kindly to the cereal breakfast food if we had been compelled to buy it in the bulk? The housewife purchases the provisions for the table. good unless the linen is spotless and the service more or less formal and ceremonious. basket. and he should depict his food product in the most appetizing manner possible. or whatever is used to encase the goods as sold and delivered. careful study of the changed food fashions will discover A many agencies at work. must be regarded as an integral part of the foodstuff. but among others will certainly be found the appearance of the foodstuff. The package in which the goods are delivered is as surely associated with the food as is the linen of the table and all the other articles of service.346 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING is it Perhaps in no form of advertising so necessary to please the prospective customer as in food advertisPleasure stimulates the appetite. and as an efficient factor in determining whether the goods will be consumed in increasing or decreasing quantities. In her mind the package is intimately associated with She knows that a meal does not taste the contents. the standard of choice. can. and pleasure is ing. bottle. The advertiser of food products should therefore present only the most pleasing suggestions. but such foods should be regarded as medicine rather^ than as food.

have our meals served in courses. The reduced advertisement is of Wheatlet (No. all form an idea of a food by the advertisements of which we have seen. for the appearreproduced herewith ance of the whole thing is ruined by the multitude of . and prefer many light courses rather than a few heavy ones. She wants those articles of food which come in neat packages and which can be served in neat and elegant form. and she does not believe that a food can be appetizing unless it looks silver of the as if it were. spoils the looks of food products is table which having them piled up in a confused mass. for this process is at work we it daily in all our homes.we have not read them. contains many articles of food at once is not inviting One thing that A to the epicure. If the advertisement looks pleasing and if the food is there presented in an appetizing manner. the best of linen and artistically decorated china. This same modern housewife predetermines her choice of foods by what she knows of them in advance. Many advertisements which would otherlike to We wise be strong are weakened by overcrowding of good things. Her ideas may be molded by advertising.FOOD ADVERTISING tiful 347 dining-room. even "if. Like the housewives. 6) as not appetizing. we believe that the food itself will be all right and we are prejudiced in favor of it. The glassware must be cut-glass and the most improved pattern. The same principle holds with advertisements. The housewife who is insisting on all these details is the one the merchant should have in mind when he is planning for the sale of his goods. The table must be decorated and the individual dishes garnished. In her mind the appearance is an essential part of the taste.

In perhaps the most cases the purchaser enters the grocery store in person. which are thrown promiscuously into the illusI think I might like Wheatlet if it were served with any one of these fruits. In other instances the order is sent by telephone or by a messenger.348 fruits THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING tration. 7. It familiarizes the public with the appearance of the package. the order is placed without looking at the goods at all. The method which the housekeepers of the land em- No. instances householders make written lists of the goods desired. A simplification of the Wheatlet border. She has her list of purchases but imperfectly made out. . ploy in purchasing foods must be a factor in determinIn some ing the appropriate form of advertising. but if it should be presented in such a confusion as this it would not be eaten at all.

a pleasing appeal should also be made to the esthetic nature of the possible customers. and thus it does not assist in attracting her eye to the goods advertised at the moment of decision. and an advertising campaign that familiarizes the housekeepers of the nation with the distinguishing appearance of any particular package has done much to increase its sale. The human race is carnivorous. The advertisement of Wheatlet is not such as would have assisted in familiarizing her with the appearance of the package. It is by sight that she recognizes the various packages. At the moment of making the purchases for the week these two commodities might be on the shelf before the purchaser. and boxes. Out of this bewilder- ing multitude of packages she is pleased to see certain ones which are known to her. as they catch is is most likely she her attention just at the time she trying to recall the things of which may be in need.FOOD ADVERTISING As she enters the store she is 349 confronted by rows and tiers of bottles. While the public is being made familiar with the food or the food container. Of the two advertisements (Wheatlet and Egg-o-See). The reproduced advertisement of Egg-o-See is such that it has made her familiar with the package as it appears on the shelves and it would thus be called to her attention at the critical moment. These familiar packages catch her attention more than the scores of unknown ones. the last-mentioned emphasizes the appearance of the package. but tier upon tier of different goods are presented to her sense of sight. cans. while the advertisement of Wheatlet omits the presentation of the package. The known ones are the packages which she to purchase. but it does not like . While in the grocery store the purchaser does not taste the various articles.

" "goose. dead car- The sight of a fat pig might cause the mouth of a wolf to "water." We tered in our language. It is disgusting to think of eating the flesh of dead cows.350 to be THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING reminded of the fact. is not very appetizing to the civilized man or woman. We know that beef is nothing but the flesh of dead cattle. have changed from a rural to an urban population We and hence require less meat foods." etc. an*d vegetarianism in our own country is but an indication of the revolt of the human mind against our carnivorous habits." It is not pleasing to think of eating the flesh of the smaller animals and of fowls. hogs. whether dead or alive. refuse to use the terms "cow-flesh. As a nation our wealth is increasing rapidly and consequently we are better able to purchase meats now than fifty years ago. but we refuse to entertain the idea at mealtime. a great decrease per capita in the consumption of meats. . and what we do eat must always be presented in a pleasing manner and in a way which jars as little as possible against our refined and cultivated natures. Accordingly we still use the same word to denote the live animal and the flesh in such instances as "rabbit. cass It is quite conceivable that the sight of a would whet the appetite of a hyena." The sight of an animal." "chicken. In- we have become so cultured that we like to have our meats garnished till they cease to have the appearance of flesh at all." "hog-flesh. yet the government statistics show deed. and sheep. still it is not so abhorrent as the thought of eating the flesh of the larger and domestic animals." and Our abhorrence of such ideas is regis"sheep-flesh." "squirrel. and so we use the terms "beef." and "mutton." "pork. There are whole nations which refuse to eat meat.

If . secured from the carcasses of beautiful steers. but it represents too much of it. 8) is given up to the emphasizing of the point that this extract is No. This advertisement makes no one hungry for extract of beef. The reproduced advertisement of Armour & Co. Thus the reproduced advertisement of Liebig (No. 8. The carcasses as shown of such a in the advertisement are too large to tempt our appetites and the general effect is rather disgusting. The advertisement is intended to make the public familiar with the Liebig trademark. and the criticism is therefore directed against the choice trademark rather than against this special advertisement. 9) does not present an animal in its entirety. which is but a presentation of the trademark.FOOD ADVERTISING sized that the 351 In advertising meats. the fact should never be empha- meat is the flesh of an animal. That point should be taken for granted and passed over as lightly as possible. (No. This advertisement makes no one hungry for Liebig Company's extract of beef. Certain advertisers have not taken this matter into consideration and press to the front the fact that their meats are the flesh of animals.

B. tjp. Crumb* ind lillle more bull tr. then mtlt th Eiricl In il/ir drop o( hoi water tnd bruih ovrrShe tr>p with It.) what Mental Images in would you fasten your mind the following three ideas? of selected breed -raised" on rich not running uild on the South American .sv. 9. Sprinkle *ilk 1 lljrr > Oiihrt.G. K ou4 pvtn = oic ARMOUR 9 No.. (3) Best Extract o( ih Best BeL FISH. ^ made on the highest" and": most: modern (a. pleasing advertisements of meats that has appeared in our magazines. *rou1d.ihell or in (Oldrn bro. which w* will UNO nit H you writ* to P. 10) is perhaps one of the most Association of Ideas A Lesson in Memory Training By what ARMOUR'S Chain of Ideas together. 46a. This advertisement associates Armour's meat with the carcasses of dead animals. xrellup shi m il cl! ftiih ctumbl. CO. Holborn Vi^uct. E. or .tl/ remove or ir. No one can look at the advertisement without being impressed with the desirability of these products. Pinlih wiih br<<. the result would have been entirely different.. London. 4 wrf.) Extract tJame cattle "farm lands scientific principles.i.'*}. The meat is presented in small pieces and Such an is garnished till it is hardly recognizable. The reproduced advertisement of Armour's potted ham and ox tongue (No. tnd wrve In the.r f kanr..352 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING smaller pieces of meat had been shown. . er i <i pwol duk.'~you^ link Hhese (our "mental pictures? BEEF EXTRACT POTTED "JN ENGLAND And by (l. : SCALLOPED '') Sid It ?ArrSour-"lilJlelYf iir'"?tm." Booklet or jhell ii full.kin.

and the ham and ox tongue will taste better seen this advertisement. This advertisement increases the appetite for Armour's meat. 10. which shown in meat had been purchased. The border might include a cut of the container and the total effect be rendered none the less artistic. if the can were We not only object to thinking of ourselves as car- . to the customer after he has This would be a better adver- No. tisement for this Armour & Co.FOOD ADVERTISING 353 advertisement creates a demand for the goods and prejudices the customers in their favor.

and to see them here as the representatives of a particular iti offee No. This advertisement never made any one eager for a cup of coffee. 11. It is one of the most silly and destructive adver- . Frogs are inherently uncanny to most persons. brand of coffee serves but to instil a dislike and even abhorrence for the product. He seems and I it is to imagexcel- ine that the desire for coffee. A associated White kills slimy frog with Star Coffee No. 11) is in every way disgustnivorous but ing.354 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING we object to having animals connected in with our foods. like it lent. The reproduced advertisement any way of White Star Coffee (No. 12. It does not create a demand for coffee and in the cases where the demand already exists it does not convince the casual observer that White Star Coffee is particularly desirable.

13) the food fowls. The other reproduced advertisement of the same brand of in no way objectionable and is a in point of display over the first one. In the reproduced advertisement of Korn Krisp (No. No. represented as being fed to the The assumption would be that it is a food esis pecially adapted to their taste. 13. and I should not want to eat it myself.FOOD ADVERTISING 355 tisements appearing in our current magazines. 12) is to eat ourselves. great improvement Ordinarily we feed the animals what we do not care coffee (No. is good enough for the beasts is not fit for men and women. Even the young goose seems to be dis- gorging the food for some unexplained reason! Here .Derfaous. Crisp and Ready-to-Serve. and the assumption is that that which Saitisfying. Qoe-Jaste convinces. An example of waste in adver- tising.

and the in- vestments are usually of a questionable sort. Even good daily papers are open to this criticism. It may be possible that under very exceptional circumstances it would be advisable to introduce an animal in an advertisement of a food product. The advertiser must seek to associate his food only with purity and elegance. and the make-up is withof They are altogether a gruesome sight. the ink is the cheapest. many of our cheaper periodicals are nothing better than chambers of horrors. are in a condition of No. Food advertisements in such papers are practically worthless." and who was willing to pay for the exploitation of his joke under the pretense of an advertisement. 14 is a reproduction of a section of one of the best . is poor. there are only a few. but.356 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING evidence of an amateur advertiser who was enamoured with his play on the words. In a sense the advertisement is the representative of the food. In out taste. Even in these papers a few food advertisements are found. these cheaper forms of publications the majority of advertisements are likely to be of patent medicines or of forms of investments. "it fills the bill. The afflictions of mankind The paper are here depicted in an exaggerated form. The medicines are advertised by depicting the unwholesome aspects of life. unfortunately. but it should be don$ only with great caution and with full realiza- we have tion of the dangers incurred because of the inevitable association between the animal and the food advertised. These advertisements of patent medicines and investment schemes make the readers suspicious and hence they mind which leads them to suspect the foods advertised as being adulterated and impure. and if the advertisement is associated with disgusting or displeasing objects The advertising pages the food is the loser thereby.

14. KSS alur Every Woman ^Jjgg No. What value is the advertise- Malt Marrow and of Armour's Star Ham in such an environment? Until the daily papers have more to offer than such position as is indicated by No. The food advertisements are here associated with "skin diseases/' "asthma/' "consumption/' "blood poison/' "whirling spray douche/' "pim5 ples/ "eruptions/' "backaches/' and other ills and unsss. . 14 they certainly are not preferred media for food ment of advertisers. Food advertisements ruined by the make-up of the paper.FOOD ADVERTISING 357 American dailies. appetizing suggestions.

358 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING XXVII THE LAWS OF PKOGKESSIVE THINKING IN acquiring simple acts of skill we all use in the main the "try. rived from these processes and are nothing more than a demand for the complete carrying out of these four The laws processes. instinctive. finally the skill and then we imitate is acquired. or merely accidental. try again" method. When. the conception of By progressive thinking we mean ideas. simply keep try- We ing our successes till we happen till to hit it right. The thinking of the advertiser does not differ from that of others. inasmuch as such a concrete problem seems more definite than a general discussion. or something of a kindred nature. the invention of new meth- ods of doing work. we attempt to de- velop acts of skill or ideas in advance of our fellows this simple method of trial and error does not suffice. the construction of a new policy or a new instrument. but involves the ordinary processes in a more complete and efficient form. For such thinking the essential mental process involves nothing totally different from ordinary thinking. The first correct response may have been reflex. All advertis- . classification. Observation is logically the first step. however. The processes referred to are the following four observation. inference and it : of progressive thinking are deapplication. It is of course true that most of the actions of all of us and all the acts of many new of us are not progressive in the sense here intended. This is technically known as the "trial and error" method. and in what follows the discussion will be confined to the advertiser and his problems.

He must be a practical psychologist. He must observe his goods in order to know the possible qualities which may be presented with greatest force. or who the persons who ride on the train with pass by the billboards with me? This is the which is so near at home that we disregard Such observations must. my mother. but he has felt satisfied if he was an expert in the construction of advertisements. the choice of mediums. We are not skillful in discovering new methods of securing new data and so our observations are neither so accurate nor so extensive as they should be. but they do not all use them equally well.LAWS OF PROGRESSIVE THINKING 359 ers have eyes. territory None of us are ideal observers. to the narrow and falla- In the past the advertiser has not been required to know his commodity or his public. He must observe the public to which he is to make his appeal. the . by consulting the sales department. of course. The advertiser should analyze his own response to advertisements. The advertiser has an extensive field of observation and but little direction as to the best method. be supplemented by tests carried on by means of keying the advertisement. Observation should begin at home. but unfortunately he is likely to become so prejudiced or hardened to advertisements that his own judgment must be taken with great caution. We an advertising expert according cious use of that term. How does this advertisement or this part of the advertisement affect me? How does does it affect my wife. etc. how certain advertisements affect us the advertisement is We can't tell just or what element of do not observe accurately how advertisements affect those about us. He must also be the most effective. my sister? How it affect me it. We see only those things which we have learned to see or which have been pointed out to us.

The observations are not complete unless they include these three fields. for new ob- All the data under their data must be servations require new classifications. In any large office care must be used in filing away material to see that the general heads are not only correct but that they are the most usable ones. is that of classification. Likewise in filing away our observations. so that the classification is never complete and the generalizations based classifications are continually increasing. In order that new classifications may be made. For instance. logically speaking. in getting them into shape so that we can use them. .. the greatest care is necessary in choosing the right heads and in getting heads. Great skill is necessary to make the right classifications. i. all the appropriate general analyzed and classified and reclassified. and similar strictly technical accomplishments. and the difficulty of forming new analyses is much greater than would be supposed by those who have not studied the process.360 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING keying of advertisements. concerning the effectiveness of advertisements without which the text matter is many advertisers have grouped this data and formed any general statement concerning it? The process of classification involves that of analysis. the public. every advertiser has a certain amount of data on the illustrations in publications in But how largely illustrated. The observations must be classified. The scattered data must be brought together be- fore they can be utilized. The man who makes the best use of his knowledge is the one who has it best analyzed and classified. the goods. The second step in the method. and the advertisements.e. the data must be worked over and thought of in all the possible relations.

yet the differences are great enough to secure success in one case and failure Under some circumstances it might be in another. point which was most inducive to immediate action. The illustrations were very similar and the arguments were largely identical throughout. One had been unsuccessful and the other had been extremely successful. one of which was successful and the other one unsuccessful. might made . Recently an advertiser sent me two such advertisements.) In the successful advertisement the eye rested naturally at the point from which the advertisement looked the most artistic and from which the content be understood. It seemed quite evident that the difference must lie in the advertisements themselves and not in any extrane- ous matter. Any trained artist.LAWS OF PROGRESSIVE THINKING 361 Advertisers have sent me two different advertisements which were carefully keyed. In some cases the advertisements are very similar and the differences at first sight seem non-essential. In the unsuccessful advertisement there was no restingplace for the eye and no point or line of orientation. the line of orientation was such that the eye naturally followed the order which the argument and display mutually strengthenand so the eye rested. or even any one who had studied the theory which underlies artistic productions. of the advertisement could best Furthermore. practically impossible to deduce the cause of the differences. The two had been run in the same sizes and in the same and also in different publications. at the ing. but not in the quality of either of them. at the conclusion. (The line of orientation is the line which the eye follows in observing an illustration. was correct in inferring that the ference lay in the display of the illustration and I think that I dif- text matter.

but it cannot lay down rules or suggest infallible methods for further discoveries and inventions. Others have as good a knowledge of all the phenomena connected with electricity as they and yet are unable to make a practical use of their knowledge. but it emphasizes the need of originality and ingenuity in the man who strives to lead his profession and to invent new methods and to make new applications of those he has learned. down rules for This criticism has weight with any who should be so foolish as to suppose that every accomplished student of the human mind would of necessity be a successful advertiser. The fourth step in the mental process of the progressive advertiser is that of applying the deductions drawn from the former experience. This does not minimize the value of science.362 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING very naturally have looked for this resting-place for the eye or for the appropriate place for the line of orientation. Science can formulate the laws of the phenomena as far as they have been discovered and applied. but it takes an Edison or a Marconi to make a new application of these same laws. If Edison and Marconi had not a comprehensive grasp of these laws they would not be consideration the inventors. To suppose that a great psychologist would of necessity be a successful innovator in advertising is just as sane as to suppose that every one who understands electricity . The laws concerning the force called electricity are known to thousands. Certain keen students of advertising have prophesied but little benefit to advertising from the science of psychology. but unless these features were taken into wrong conclusion would have been drawn as to the cause of success or failure in the case of these two advertisements. because a science cannot lay things which are not yet discovered.

those who are seeking better methods of observation and of classification and who are never content with their past deductions or their applications. They are the active men. psychology may even be of benefit in this last and most difficult step it would be tions or new in the mental process of the innovator. the greatest ability in utilizing these deductions in their advertising campaigns. in teaching him him how group his observations systematically: it should help him in drawing the correct conclusions from his classified experience. If psychology could do no more of inestimable value. at this point I will illustrate from methods employed by one of the leading advertisers of America. Psychol- ogy is of to observe widely to classify or assistance to every advertiser in helping and accurately.ticular advertisements which makes them interesting. but as applicadiscoveries depend so largely on the formation of correct deductions and hypotheses. as an aid in making observations at this latter effect In observing the . it is quite certain that he never would have been heard from. I To show what mean which advertisements produce upon a community it is much easier to learn which advertisements are effective than what it is in the par. If Edison had known nothing of the science of physics. Science does not produce inventors. Mr. but it is of great assistance to a genius and may cause him to become a great discoverer. The most successful advertisers are those who ob- serve most widely and accurately.LAWS OF PROGRESSIVE THINKING 363 as well as Edison would have as great a record as he at the patent office.. who classify their observations and group them in the most usable form. B. who then think most keenly about these classified ob- servations so as to draw the most helpful and lastly who have conclusions.

364 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING point. and all within the commodity with which he has to deal. the task proved itself to be one of great The data were turned over to me for such classification. third. reliability. Thus and fourth. financial consideration. could have turned to the pages of his magazine and have made a personal observation as to the way the different advertisements affected him was in any particular advertisement which him most. When he had read over the letters he had the data before him but it was in chaotic and worthless condition. But when it came to classifying the reasons and often women's reasons at that difficulty. of the letters received one month. Mr. In these letters the writers told which advertisements they were the most interested in and what it was in each particular advertisement which interested them. It was easy to tabulate the results and find out how many were esand what it interested pecially interested in each particular advertisement. secured several thousands of letters from readers of issues of the magazine of which he was the advertis- ing manager. second. for being interested in each advertisement. B. the pres. and though this is not the place to give in full the general heads and the sub-heads under which the classification was finally made. it may be interesting to know that the reasons for advertisements proving interesting were in the order of their frequency: first. 607 affirmed that they were most interested in their chosen advertisement because they believed that the firm or the medium or the goods were strictly reliable. The next step was to bring order out of chaos. the construction of the advertisement ent need of the reader. but by the method described he multiplied his observations a thousand fold. In some cases they had tried the goods adver- .

In this way we have an endless chain of observation. In interested in a particular presented goods which they needed at that particular time. 365 in some they had dealt with the firm in some they . classification. etc. It is not necessary to say that from the classifications of these data certain conclusions have been drawn and advertisement because it : that attempts are being made to apply the conclusions to the planning of advertising campaigns. To recapitulate the results 607 for reliability. etc. in the Nestle's was very artistic the same month 408 were most because it Some were most interFood advertisement. some because the advertisements offered a chance to get something for service instead of for cash. These experimental applications will furnish new data. In the same month 508 were particularly interested because of money considerations. In the same month 418 were most interested in the con- struction of the advertisement. and 408 because of the present need. but are presented here as distinct for the sake of clearness.. The four steps are not fully differentiated in our actual experience. . 508 for money considerations.LAWS OF PROGRESSIVE THINKING tised . This method applicable not only to writing advertisements but to every detail of the profession. is and application. inference. Indeed it is the method of progressive thinking in every line of human endeavor. for instance. etc. and was run in colors. Some because they could get the goods advertised more cheaply than elsewhere. noticed the testimonials or the prizes taken. 418 for the construction of the advertisement. new conclusions deduced. these will in turn be classified. ested. and further attempts at practical application will follow.

painted signs. the width of distribution of goods. however. etc. Equal with these conditions. and the dailies carry authority which is lacking in other forms. who are interested in the commodity offered for They appeal to the reason in a way not surpassed by any form of printed advertising. the advertiser should consider the peculiar psychological effect of each The monthly magazine. Posters. the quality of goods to be presented. and similar forms of advertising admit of complete descriptions and may be put in the hands of only those sale. The psychological effect of street-car advertising is not generally recognized. the class of persons to be reached. Booklets. of advertising has its particular psycho- and the medium which the merchant should choose depends upon many conditions. and similar forms of advertising admit of extensive display within a prescribed area and have great attention value. bill-boards.366 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVEBTISING XXVIII THE UNCONSCIOUS INFLUENCE IN STEEET EAILWAY ADVERTISING EVERY form logical effect. circulars. and advertisements appearing them are benefited by this confidence which is be- stowed upon everything appearing in them. etc. the weekparticular form.. These publications are held in high lies in repute in the household. Foremost among such conditions are expense. and in this presentation there is no attempt to praise one form of advertising and to .

effects of other but inasmuch as the psychological forms are recognized and that of street- car advertising is selected Our is frequently not recognized. minds are constantly subjected to influences of which we have no knowledge. when in reality such is not the case? If they are the same length. although A seems Now why do we reach the conclusion that A is longer than B. This explanation was not discov- . when in reality they had nothing to do with it. The accepted explanation illusion is that there are. Lines longer. and so we discover certain logical reasons for our actions and assume them to have been the true cause. we frequently attempt to justify ourselves in our own eyes. The importance of these undiscovered causes in our every-day thinking and acting may be il- lustrated by the following example. this latter for fuller presentation.STREET RAILWAY ADVERTISING decry all 367 others. entering into the judgment. We are led to form opinions and judgments by influences which we should reject if we were aware of them. A and B are of equal length. After we have decided upon a certain line of action. certain imperceptible causes which make us see the lines as of different length. we should expect that they would appear to be as of this they actually are. and we see them in a clear light.

If two lines are the same distance from us and are the same length. There has been much poor street-railway advertising. by the amount of this sensation derived from contracting the muscles which move the eyes. We therefore assume that A is longer than B because our eyes move farther in estimating its length than in estimating the length of B. We judge of the length of rect. A and B The street-railway advertiser controls an unrecognized force which is similar to that just described in the estimation of the length of lines.368 ered THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING till recent years. A study of the itself in situation discloses the fact that this unconscious influ- ence none other than TIME which manifests three phases as presented below. and so get a sensation from the contraction of the muscles of the eyes. If two lines are equally distant from us. and yet estimate the magnitude of the line . . tests of the extent to which passengers had been influenced by such advertising showed most conclusively that there was an unrecognized power is in it. We are not aware of the sensations received from these movements of our eyes. and one longer than the other. The arrow pointing toward the line as shown in A causes us all to over- and there is a factor present in street-railway advertising which causes us to be influenced by it more than would seem possible. of lines by them. and yet we estimate lengths lines The peculiar construction of the lines induces the eye to move farther in estimating the length of A. we ordinarily have to move our eyes farther in estimating the length of the longer one than in estimating the length of the shorter one. but it has been proved to be corIn judging the length of lines we run our eyes over them. Some recent the results have been phenomenally great. our eyes will ordinarily move equal distances in traversing their lengths.

and so we devote but few minutes to them. and in those few minutes we see a great number. compelled to look at the floor or else above the heads of the passengers. We cannot afford the time to do more. of the time devoted to newspapers and magazines was spent in looking at the advertisements. ) As a conclusion deduced from these sults it re- was recommended that advertisements should be / so constructed that the gist of each could be comprehended at a glance.STREET RAILWAY ADVERTISING As a result of investigations 369 upon magazine and news- paper advertising the conclusion was reached that on the average only ten per cent. The case is different with street-railway advertising. One cannot read a Thereafter one newspaper on a crowded car I am acquainted only with crowded cars. There are many exceptions to this. There are persons who read all the advertisements and there are others who glance at but few of them. eyes are directed so nearly at the face of some passenger .( Chapter XXIX. Neither is it practicable to read a book or magazine on a jolting car I am acquainted only with To attempt to look out of a window opposite to causes the lady opposite to wonder at your rudeness you in staring at her. There is sufficient opportunity to see every person in the car and to devote as much time to the process as is good breeding will allow. for to look out of the window the such. The ordinary reader of newspapers and magazines glances at all of the advertising pages and sees all the larger and more striking advertisements. for most advertisements in newspapers and magazines receive no more than a glance from the average reader. Here there is no shortage of time. Magazines and newspapers have become so numerous and the daily duties so pressing that we cannot take time to read all the advertisements. For a fuller account of the investigation see .

The population of the United States living in towns on or adjacent to electric railway systems is about fortyThe percentage of passengers carfive million people. One young lady asserted that she had never looked at any of the cards in the cars in which she had been it riding for years. Fifteen minutes may be regarded as a fair estimate. but what of it? It offers a diversion. appeared .370 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING that one's intentions are misjudged. five hundred million passengers annually. and very . This does not include the electric divisions of certain steam roads which carry advertising. or watching the conductor ring up the fares. This may be very silly. much more time is whiled away by looking at the advertisements than we are aware of. The amount of time spent in riding on street-cars in America is far beyond the conception of most persons. cities Upon this estimate each inhabitant of our spends on the average about fifteen minutes a day in a street car. When questioned further. There are no data available for the length of time consumed by an average street-car ride. The passenger has for once an abundance of time. He reads the card and then reads it again because he has nothing else to do. counting the number of passengers. and anything is better than looking at the floor. These rides become very monotonous the passengers' minds are not occupied. All cars carrying advertising in the United States carry about fifteen billion riders annually. ried daily to the total population of these cities averages approximately one hundred per cent. In defence of one's good breeding and to drive away the weariness of the ride many a passenger is compelled to turn his gaze on the placards which adorn the sides of the car. The electric railways of the United States carry about fourteen billion.

The more frequently the advertisement is seen. This has a special application to advertising. or that they had been recommended to her. Some of the goods advertised were known to her only by these advertisements. Suggestion. She did not remember when she had first heard of them. [This point is more fully developed in Chapter XIV. yet she supposed that they had nothing to do with her esteem of the goods. This is especially important in street-car ad- The information which we receive from the vertising. and flatly resented the suggestion that she had been influenced by them. An advertiseIt ment has not accomplished its mission till it has in- structed the possible customer concerning the goods and then has caused him to forget where he received his instruction. but there is two phases another phase and one . and that the goods advertised had won her highest esteem. She was not aware of the fact that she had been studying the advertisements. the more rapidly will the memory of the first appearance fade and leave us with the feeling that we have always known the goods advertised. card in the street car soon becomes a part of us. and we forget where we received it.] The element of time as it enters the problem of adver- tising is recognized to a limited extent in the thus far discussed. This forgetfulness of the source of our information is due to the interval which has elapsed between the first time the advertisement was seen and the present.STREET RAILWAY ADVERTISING that she 371 ap- knew by heart almost every advertisement pearing on the line (Chicago and Evanston line). has been said that we have learned nothing per-* fectly until we have forgotten how we learned it. and that the advertisement itself is no essential part of our information. She supposed that she had always known them. that they were used in her home.

and the musician have simply accommodated themselves to our intuitive method of thinking and have been successful because . Ideas which impress me as important cause me to think of them for lengthy periods of time. This same principle holds in music. to the writer's knowledge. of even This element speaker. that which we hurry over seems unimportant. deep. The so-called "rag-time" is assumed to have no meaning. the lacing of my shoes very little. thoughts which are trivial or of minor imIdeas portance are expressed by rapid movements. their value in terms of the time which means much which suggests many thoughts. it is not supposed to Music suggest lines of thought. or large all such music is written in slow time. and the musician the effect is produced by this unrecognized element of time. and time. the poet.372 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING more importance which has. My profession takes most of my thought. the poet. which is sublime. In poetry. which we regard as the most important. Ideas which seem insignificant are dismissed immediately from my mind. consider as of He recognized by every skillful public speaks rapidly that which he wishes us to little is importance. He speaks slowly that which he wishes us We weigh to regard as of special significance. never been mentioned in connection with adWe devote the most time to those subjects vertising. is has no intrinsic importance consequently appropriately expressed in fast It In the case of the orator. the importance of his statements and estimate which he gives to each. The orator.. which are of more importance and which are suppbsed to call forth much thought from the reader are expressed in slow movements. That which holds our thought for a longer time seems to us to be important.

That which occupies our minds for a great amount of time assumes thereby an importance which may be out all of all proportion to its real value. Illustrations of this fact are to be found on every hand. The mother is likely to think the most of the child which has caused her the most thought. in later years assume a value in The goods excess of their real merit.STREET RAILWAY ADVERTISING they have conformed their expressions to the 373 human method of thought. but it expresses a principle. As was shown above. of course. The sum total of the time thus devoted to the card is as great as the amount of time that we devote to many of our important interests. Even those who have but little interest in the advertisements find that they glance at the cards frequently and that the eyes rest on a single card for a considerable length of time. The sickly child occupies her mind more than the well one. Since newspapers and magazines cannot be easily read. Our old schoolbooks. upon which we were compelled to bestow so study. their advertisements have occupied our periods of time assume in our minds many hours of our eyes far in which through minds for long an importance . This is not an absolute rule. street railways They go over the same road so frequently that the streets passed through cease to be interesting. the cards have but few rivals for attention. The reverse of this principle is not recognized by us at and yet it is of primal importance. and this accounts for the fact that she attributes to the sickly child an importance far beyond its real worth. the passengers on have but little to distract their attention. Under ordinary circumstances we bestow thought upon objects in proportion to their importance. The same card may be read or glanced at daily for as long a time as the card is left in the car.

and then we turn around and estimate the value of the goods advertised by the amount of time that we have devoted to the advertisement. In street- railway advertising we devote longer time than we really think is due to the advertisements. unless there is a special interest in the advertisement. indeed no form of advertising which is presented to such a large number of possible purchasers for such a long period of time and so frequently as is the advertising in street-railway cars. . In estimating the relative values of two competing lines of goods. Yet as certain that this element of time has biased my of the relative values of the goods as it is that the eye movement influences my judgment of the lengths of lines. judgment Advertisements in newspapers and magazines are seen by a great number of the readers. I am not aware of the fact that I am prejudiced in favor of the goods that have occupied it is my mind the longest periods of time.374 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING which is often far in excess of anything which would have been anticipated by one who was not familiar with the peculiar power here described. This is the psychological explanation of the amazing potency of this particular form of advertising. but the time devoted to any particular advertisement is very small. I assume that my judgment is based on the goods themselves as they are presented to my reason. In most other forms There is of advertising we devote to any particular advertisement only as much time as we think it is worth.

The answers to the questions are derived from the experiences of those who are A answer them. but has the inestimable value of assisting the investito take advantage of the experiences of a great gator number of individuals. reliance may be put in the answers received from all 'sincere respondents. it The Questionnaire Method is used to secure the consensus and the diversity of many individual opinions. One of the methods that modern psychology has developed is the so-called Questionnaire Method.QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD 375 XXIX THE QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD IN ADVEKTISING ILLUSTRATED BY AN INVESTIGATION UPON NEWSPAPERS EXPERIENCE valuable. If to the answers call for a difficult analysis of motives and interests. is the best teacher. less reliance can be placed in any single answer and greater caution must be used in drawing conclusions based upon the replies. There are many problems that the advertiser needs to investigate for which the Questionnaire Method alone is . This method has many defects. Methods that enable of others one to make the greatest use of one's own experience are also available are even Methods that make the experiences more valuable. One of the functions of every science is to develop methods that are useful for investigating problems which concern that particular science. If the questions call for the description of simple unemotional events. single question or a set of questions is presented to any desired group of persons.

I. which was employed in investigating them. sporting. For the purpose of comparison. local news. and will also present a mass of information concerning newspapers that is of interest and profit to advertisers. how they may be investigated. carefully selected list was prepared containing the names of four thousand of the most prominent business A and professional men in Chicago. The number was so large that it contained a fully representative group. The two following questions naturally suggested themselves What is there in the modern newspaper that appeals to the better classes of society. A single illustration will indicate how such questions arise. A prominent advertising man was planning copy to be used on street-car cards designed to secure new subscribers to newspapers. with few exceptions.376 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING available. and what motives should be appealed to in inducing them to begin a subscription? : The problems here raised are clearly psychological and subject to the Questionnaire Method. but in each case the attempt was to be made to reach the best citizens of the city. What Chicago daily or dailies do you read? II. Which one do you est prefer? III. special articles. ro- . The campaign was to be conducted in different American cities in the interest of local papers. you most. finance. society. State in order the five features of your paper which interpolitics. The questionnaire as reproduced herewith was mailed to the five thousand names constituting the two lists. This list contained the names of men from very different classes of society. foreign news. were adult men. (For example. another list of one thousand names was prepared. but all. An attempt was made to include what could fairly be said to be the best citizens of Chicago.

. did you resubscribe for the same paper without a premium? Answers to these questions are desired from the selected per. The answers are needed in a psychological question of interest and may be placed solving in the stamped envelope enclosed herewith and mailed at once. and although they are very busy men.. Illinois. storiettes.. sons to WALTEE D. cartoons." Those receiving the questionnaire seemed much interested in the research. advertisements.whom they are mailed. accuracy. What induced you to begin the subscription of the paper or papers which you are Do you now taking? VI. the answers indicate careful deliberation and the utmost sincerity. Northwestern University. etc.QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD a 377 art. . Al. brevity.) 1.. They will be gratefully received by the sender. music and book reviews. Were you ever induced by means of a premium or prize to subscribe for a Chicago paper? If so. The replies from the one thousand are disre- garded in the present chapter and inasmuch as but approximately two thousand answered each of the questions. SCOTT. three hundred of the representative business and professional men. mance and als. Director of the Psychological Laboratory. Evanston. the two thousand. Eeplies were received from about two thousand. moral or ethical tone. Yours respectfully. three hundred are hereafter referred to as "the two thousand. spend on an average as much as 15 minutes daily reading a Chicago paper? V. editori- 2 3 4 5 IV.

the author of the replies was known.378 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING though no place was provided for signatures. Over fifty per cent. The subject under investigation was personally interesting. and even when no signature was In all attached. owing to his univerjust at present. Haphazard. The answers were sought for as a means of "solving a psychological question/ and psychology is very popular The investigator. in selecting a group of persons whose great difficulty answers would be significant and yet who would be will7 ing to list fill out the blanks. as it was done in the present instance. A large number of the slips were carefully keyed. Ordinarily no suggestions should be made as to what answer is expected. No proxies were desired. A stamped return envelope was enclosed. This proportion is un- usually large and is to be attributed to several causes. In case of doubt as to whether the replies were filled out personally by the man to whom the questionnaire was sent. they were rejected as not authentic. sity connection. that . Doubtless in many cases the would have to be confined to business associates or to personal friends. signed letter. If any suggestions are made. a good proportion signed their names to the paper or enclosed a personal. was assumed to be honest and desirous The advertiser might have of securing only the facts. voluntary answers received in competition for a prize or for the gaining of a paltry reward are not to be compared in value to volun- tary replies from a carefully selected list. The difficulty of securing trustworthy replies is so great that the advertiser will usually be compelled to have the investiga- tion carried on by a disinterested person. the slips the key indicated at least to which one of the numerous groups the respondent belonged. of those receiving the questionnaire took pains to fill out the blank.

( I.QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD 379 fact should never be forgotten in estimating the results. of the papers taken regarded as subsidiary by any person are to be and as commanding but little . reported themselves as reading more than a single paper. The number of suggestions was made so large that no particular one would have much more effect than the others. What Chicago daily or dailies do you read?) Eighty-six per cent. it is quite probable that the inadequate space and. suggested the results were certainly not greatly changed thereby. As reported. the figures are as follows 14% 46% 21% 10% read but one paper read two papers read three papers read four papers 3% 2% 3% Some read five papers read six papers read all the papers (8). names two papers were to be Also in connection with the third question a series of answers This doubtless affected the results. In spite of this fact the respondents took pains to write in a number of papers. The fact that each individual reads or scans a T number of papers daily w as brought out clearly by the answers to the first question. in some cases. the haste of writing the names caused an understatement of the actual number : of papers read. and as all probable answers were was suggested. the amount of space left for answering the of but one or first question suggested that the written. In the questionnaire reproduced herewith. The space in the questionnaire left for writing the names of the papers read was but a little over one inch in length. As stated above.

the table of contents. If the advertiser could pick out the papers that command the most confidence of a relatively large number of readers. etc. we reach the conclusion that a very decided majority of read. but "just about fifteen minutes" was by The writers were frefar the most common answer. but most advertisers are convinced that. The same advertisement seen in two or three papers may be more effective than if seen in but one. These few minutes admit of but the most cursory reading. is the reading of the head lines. the weather reports. The fourth question was. The duplication of circulation represents a loss. Considering together the total number of papers read and the total amount of time spent in reading them. Do you spend on an average as much as 15 minutes daily reading a Chicago paper?) A decided majority seemed to consider fifteen minutes a fair estimate of the time spent in reading the daily Four per cent. answered that they spent less than fifteen minutes daily. A few reported as much as two hours. Twenty-five per cent. which command the most attention.380 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING These subsidiary papers contain a large part attention. of the advertisements that are also contained in the preferred papers. reported a greater amount of time. and professional men spend but approximately from five to ten minutes reading any particular paper. A favorite program. Then if time admits or if anythese representative business . (IV. he could afford to neglect the subsidiary papers is not worth three times as much to have an advertisement seen in three papers as it is to have it seen in one. as reported. quently careful to state that this fifteen minutes was the total time spent in reading all the papers and not the amount spent in reading each of the several papers papers.

another for moral tone. Which one do you prefer?) very respectable minority. unless sought for. Others refused to go on record as preferring any paper and so expressed themselves by saying that one paper was "less objectionable. .." "less yellow. The classified are read only by those who search for them. Many anever. The advertisement must tell its story quickly if at all. attention may be turned for a few seconds or minutes to a more leisurely reading of the articles discovered in the preliminary search." etc. than the others. A majority of the respondents answered the second question. the advertisement may be selected and read from beginning to end. in order to be seen at all. must be striking in appearance and must announce something in which the reader is particularly interested.g. The display advertisements are glanced at by a very large number of persons who pick up the paper. swered that one paper was preferred for general news. the one hundred pro- groups of men . (II. Particular displayed considerable uniformity in their preference for a single paper e. A another for cartoons. howconfessed that they had no preference. etc. If the message which it is fied capable of imparting to those who glance at it is inviting." "less venal. howsingle ever. glance at it The advertiser should attempt.QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD 381 thing especially interesting is discovered. another for special articles. Advertisements may be divided into two groups classi: and display advertisements. to construct his advertisement so that a be effective in imparting information and in making an impression even though the advertisement is not to be under observation for more than a few may seconds.. naming the preferred paper. The papers are glanced through so hurriedly that an advertisement.

he would employ the evening If . probably a majority of the laboring class are unaffected by advertisements appearing in the morning A statements did not have so many exceptions the advertiser's task would be comparatively simple when it comes to choosing a medium for any parpapers. With these men the evening papers are often to be regarded merely as subclasses have no time to read a but after the day's work is over. Many business and sidiary. If these ticular advertisement. evening paper is read and doubtless much more than fifteen minutes is devoted to it. and it is probable that they are preferred in more cases than are the morning papers. but such instances prefer are exceptions rather than the rule. Likewise. The circulation of the evening papers in Chicago is greater than that of the morning papers. The replies from the two thousand showed somewhat .382 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING men connected with one educational institution fessional preferred one paper. he would use the morning papers if he wanted to reach the laboring class. the business and professional men who were members of one of the most prominent clubs preferred with equal uniformity still a different paper. the business men who were members of an athletic club showed a decided preference for another paper. reverse is true. among read in larger numbers For business and professional* men the them the morning papers are and are preferred in more in- stances than the evening papers. men majority of business and professional men fail to see advertisements appearing in evening papers and are not greatly affected by those that they do see. papers. The laboring professional ing men prefer evening papers and many laborthe morning papers. he wanted to reach the better classes. the morning paper.

.3 9. .3 .3 4. papers. of this total interest had been credited to politics. State in order (III. was mentioned as first choice was credited with five points one mentioned as second choice.5 9. Local news Political 17. ) To reduce the answers to some sort of a comprehensible A feature that unit. . one point. three points one mentioned as fourth choice.8 15. the total result for all papers and all respondents is as follows : PER CENT. the following plan was adopted. Perhaps one-half of them could be reached by a single paper. It was then found what per cent. but the most surprising thing was the lack of uniformity. news Financial news Foreign news General news Sporting news Cartoons Special articles Editorials 7. The sum of all these points was arbitrarily assumed to represent the sum total of interest. two points. and all other features mentioned by any of the respondents. four points one mentioned as third choice.8 11.7 5.QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD 383 of a uniformity in their selection of a preferred paper. editorials.2 Ethical tone (broadly considered) 6. This particular group could not be reached by using anything less than all the papers. three-fourths by two papers. and over nine-tenths of all by using half the The chief interest in the investigation centers in the answers to the third question. the five features of your paper which interest you most. As thus found. one mentioned as fifth choice.8 4.

olizes 19. In one paper it monopstance.5 per cent. is very great. For all the papers and for all the different groups into which the business and professional men were divided the striking fact was the uniformity of interests.8 per cent..1 per cent. 18.3 per cent. be anticipated that the same order would not hold exactly for any individual paper. for inin the case of local news. In most particulars there is a pronounced similarity in the distribution of interest in the different papers. 13. of the interest and in the others 18. 14. and 12.7 per cent.84 1. Features that were interesting to any group in any .9 per cent. respec- In some features the diversity between papers Thus in one paper 19 per cent.4 - Book reviews Arrangement Society notes 1. in another but 2 per cent In one paper 19. from sporting news and finance are exceptional instances. 17.. These last illustrations tively.. it would.1 Drama Art Advertisements Storiettes 9 44 13 1 Weather Humor 05 Inasmuch as these figures represent the distribution as found for all the papers combined. of course.384 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING PER CENT.8 per cent. Music 1.9 per cent.. 12.4 1..88 1. in another but 6. of the interest is in sporting news.. This is true.8 per cent. of the interest is in financial news.6 per cent. and even in these the extremes are found in the papers that were least often mentioned as the preferred papers.

This list of examples acted .QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD paper were usually found to be interesting in all 385 the papers and to all the groups. All other features were low in interest with most of the groups and in most of the papers. as printed in the questionnaire. drama. The features that were most uniformly interesting were the news items. advertisements did not seem to attract much attention. music. What induced you to begin the (V. but the uniformity with which all groups expressed their interest in the news in tion of the each of the papers makes it quite certain that here we have the vital feature of the newspaper and that which gives it its name. Editorials. financial news. and when cartoons and editorials were mentioned the writers were frequently careful to add that they were interested in these because they were a summary or index of some NEWS important news. and sporting news. Other features might be mentioned. The third question should be considered in connection with the fifth. political news. book reviews. Every one seemed interested in news. these combined do not possess so much interest as local news alone. As is indicated in the tabulation above. of the total interest. foreign news. These results make it clear that the Chicago dailies are valued as papers and as little else. storiall ettes. of the paper or papers which you are now subscription taking?) Immediately following the statement of the third question. which possessed over seventy-five per cent. these monopolize the interest of business and professional men. Advertisements aiming to secure new subscribers to a newspaper should give most importance to the descrip- news service of that particular paper. Local news. society. art. suggestive answers were presented. general news.

) 65% 10% Premiums Cartoons Special articles Reputation of paper. of the times each motive was mentioned : different answers. etc. Service (best delivery) 4% 4% 3% \% \% All other motives (about twenty in number) received scattering mention. . No such suggestions were added to the statement of the fifth question and hence answers to this latter question are more reliable." "to be informed as to what is going on. still the uniformity with the news items were mentioned observed in the fol- total number of To keep informed concerning current events Ethical tone (including accuracy. Of all the motives that could be classified. ." In comparison with this desire for news of current events all other motives seem insignificant." "to be up to the times and not a back num: ber.386 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING as a constant suggestion and made it mo^e likely that the answers cited would be given than any original ones. of the men united in stating that the first subscribing to their chosen papers was the The desire to keep informed concerning current events. the lowing show what per cent.." "to be en rapport with the world. News serIf a choice is to be made bevice is the desideratum. It is business and professional a significant fact that sixty-five per cent. expressions were frequently used and are most following motive in "to keep in touch with current events." suggestive "desire to be informed. While it resulted in the presentation of many which answers to the third question is even greater here.

and the general lack of integrity of the papers. and vertiser's mind that people are A A hence to present the news accurately. the editorials.QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD 387 tween papers equally good in news service. editor is believed to be unduly influenced by the business . In the main the criticism centered about the news ser. There are almost no criticisms of the storiettes. interested primarily in description of the methods used by any great paper to secure the news would be a most powerful argument for securing new subscribers. All these seem to be as good as desired nor does the reader express himself as aggrieved by the poor quality or even by the absence of any of them. would furnish a theme for further advertisements. the book reviews. presentation of all the means employed to avoid mistakes. In waging a campaign to increase the circulation of newspapers the fact should be constantly before the adthe news. There was no criticism of the newspapers for failure to know the facts they were criticised rather for the failure to present an unbiased report. A truly educational campaign carried on in the interests of the two themes completeness of news service and care to present the truth would increase the circulation of any of the better metropolitan dailies. the funny columns. then premiums and cartoons or even editorials and storiettes may become the deciding factor. vice. The same The sort of criticism is made of the editorial columns. . etc. the society notes. The questionnaire invited no criticisms of daily papers and yet many of these business and professional men volunteered criticisms which they inserted on the sheets of questions or else wrote them in personal letters that were enclosed. There are but few criticisms of the less important features of the papers.

unvarnished truth in news most wisely and presents the all matters in which the constitare interested. occurred so often that it seemed to express a general lack of confidence. and one would not be justified in asserting that the lack of confidence is general unless other grounds for the statement were at hand. All that is desired is a brief but comprehensive publicaThat editor will be the most apprecition of the news. the readers do not complain generally because of the presence of pages of material that they never read.Individual interests are so varied that no paper can expect general circulation without criticism from many readers because of the events emphasized in news gathering. others never admit reading crimes and casualties. The newspaper that would be preferred by the representative business and professional men might not be popular with other classes of society. Some persons have no interest in uency ated selects the who the sporting pages. The phrase "the potent censorship of Big Business/ or some analogous expression. defender. sports. does not complain be- cause of the presence of these things.388 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING 7 manager. Judging from the answers of two thousand men the conviction is forced upon one that they do not care to have a newspaper serve as interpreter. etc. or advocate of the truth. He does complain because in place of a short and accurate account of things interesting to him. The man who is not interested in finance. The news would have to be well writonly ten. The present research was not devised to ascertain the degree of confidence in newspapers. The ideal paper would have to do with facts. However. but the interest would be mainly in the news itself . he finds long and inaccurate accounts of them. ..

to read articles which champion its rights. For this class the ideal paper would be the one that serves this interest above make Cartoons would find a place in such papers but they would not be the same sort of cartoons that appear in the monthly comic papers. For the business and professional man the circumstances are different. That all these functions are performed in many instances by the daily press cannot be doubted. The unbiased presentation of these daily events would not be adequate. professional men answering my questionnaire read much besides the daily papers.QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD cerning it. The ideal daily would put its emphasis on the field that is not covered by the most perfectly. for the busy man does not devote more than that time to any daily paper. That the better class of society has passed beyond this condition is likewise apparent. The whole reading world desires to secure pleasure from literature. Editorials would find a place but they would be in the main concise statements concerning important events. Special articles would be in place in such a paper but they would deal in the main with current events. The results as presented it quite evident that for the vast majority the daily paper is merely a news paper. and to follow some great leader in interpreting current events. Their literary entertainment is found in books and magazines.would also present the events of the day in such form that they could be read in fifteen minutes. For them the daily newspaper must supply the place of all these. It. . 389 and not in the reporter's or the publisher's views conThere are many persons who read neither books nor monthly or weekly magazines. The The editor and the reporter must interpret the daily events. weeklies and monthlies. All of the two thousand business and storiette is their only literature.

advertising rates are higher in weeklies and monthlies for a proportionate amount of circulation is the fact that at the present time people have more confidence in these than in the dailies.390 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING is The question which the advertiser this connection is. would be a powerful medium for all classes of advertisements. sure to raise in What sort of advertisements could be valuable in what might be an called better classes? ideal paper for the soIf the ideal paper is fully differ- entiated from the weeklies and monthlies in its "literary departments/' has field of it not surrendered to them also the advertising except for the announcement of local Has it not ceased to be sales and other similar events? a competitor for national advertising? This conclusion does not follow for the ideal newspaper. which had the full confidence of its readers. The present research was not undertaken to discover the value of newspapers as advertising media for the better class of society. We are not influenced even by a good advertisement appearing in daily papers if they seem to us to be in any way unreliable. Incidentally the fact is revealed that the newspapers do not have the . Success in advertising is based on confidence. Potential customers are not coldly logical and analytic in estimating commodities. but to ascertain which motives would appeal most profoundly to this class of society in inducing them to subscribe for newspapers. and one reason why . The same advertisement seen in a cherished household publication carries all the respect and trust that has been created by the other departments of the publicaWe do not appreciate even good food if served tion. upon dirty dishes. An advertisement seen on garbage boxes may be a good advertisement and may announce real bargains but it possesses little influence.

If later researches discover the fact that the lack of con- fidence is general with this class of society. papers are a valuable medium with the better classes. weeklies. for . the results may be disquieting to the publishers. The value of a publication as an advertising medium is in a large degree determined by the particular class of citizens whose confidence it possesses. This is shown in monthlies. simply because such publications secured the confidence of the class of society that had the money necessary to purchase the advertised goods. The significant fact was discovered. Many readers were interested in these advertisements and the space was well paid for. The hope for relief from sensational journalism is to be found only in the discovery of the fact that a very influential class of business and professional be influenced by advertisements appearing in sensational publications. For instance. A few years ago all these publications contained advertisements of patent medicines. That this hope will be realized men cannot may be confidently anticipated if we may judge from the similar results which have been brought about of recent years in our best weeklies and monthlies.QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD confidence of 391 many of this particular class of society. and dailies. The sensational newspaper may possess the confidence of the lower classes of society and hence be a good adverUnless the newstising medium for reaching that class. The space in the cleaner publications was worth more. that more advertising space could be sold in high-grade magazines that did not accept such advertisements. however. they are not serviceable for many of the most influential advertisers. etc. questionable financial schemes. but it will result in the production of some newspapers which conform to the demands of this great and influential body of citizens.

and likewise. then these publications are not so valuable as advertising media as they might be. more than space in Hearst's Sunday Magazine. That paper which was the least often preferred is the one which is compelled to sell its advertising space the cheapest. Anything which makes these pages valuable will be diligently sought for even though the policy adopted may reduce the total subscription list. space in Collier's Weekly sells for two hundred and thirty-three per cent. In all the answers received from business and professional men there was no expression of a hope that . Sooner or later the publishers will find out Newspapers are sure to conform to the de- of the people because any other policy would be suicidal on the part of the publishers. the facts. The Chicago evening papers are not able to secure so much for advertising space as the morning papers.392 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING every thousand of circulation the advertising space in the Century Magazine is worth one hundred and seventyeight per cent. circulation being considered in both particulars. The results of the investigation concerning the opinions of the two thousand Chicago business and professional men show that the Chicago paper which was most often preferred in proportion to its total circulation is the paper that secures. more than that in the Popular Magazine. Probably from fifty to ninety per cent. It will not be necessary for the better classes of so- ciety to boycott the firms advertising in the sensational newspapers of relief. a larger price than any of the others for its advertising space. of the total income from any mands newspaper is derived from its advertising pages. in proportion to circulation. although such action might hasten the day If a large proportion of the better classes of society lack confidence in newspapers. circulation considered.

The amount of time spent in reading advertisements must be very small. The part of the better classes of society. . first fact is that the newspapers are primarily dependent for their life upon the income from their The second fact is that the value of these advertising. a large proportion of business and professional men will fill out the blank. If the questions asked are reasonable and interesting and if the motives of the person carrying on the research are not questioned. Most business and professional men spend about fifteen minutes daily reading papers. Most business and professional men read more than one daily and hence may be reached by an advertisement even though it is not inserted in all the papers. Advertisements inserted both in the best and also in the poorer papers are largely lost in the latter because of duplication of circulation. If it would be strengthened as an advertising medium by an increased confidence on the . render this pessigetting worse. mistic conclusion at least uncertain if not improbable. The better American metropolitan daily is a wonderful embodiment of enterprise. The sentiment seemed to be common that they were Two facts. however. pages is largely determined by the confidence which the public has in the paper as a whole for lack of confidence in one part is unconsciously extended to all parts. it is quite certain that the publishers will be equal to the emergency and will produce a paper that meets the enlightened and cultured demands. The Questionnaire Method is available in securing data valuable in planning an advertising campaign.QUESTIONNAIRE METHOD the newspapers 393 would ever be better than at present. Hence advertisements should be so constructed that they will carry their message at a single glance.

because of the desire for news. from the publisher's view.394 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING men subscribe for dailies Prizes.. etc. stori- Business and professional ettes. editorials. Hence advertisements seen in such publications do not have the greatest possible influence. These business and professional men lacked confidence in their preferred daily papers. point of attain its The newspaper is. . men are of secondary importance in inducing these to subscribe for any particular paper. primarily an advertising medium and can maximum confidence of its readers. value only when it secures the full This fact may lead to an im- provement in the ethical standards of our daily papers.

hyperbole. removed from the methods pursued by continuous and successful advertising of to-day that it seems unjust to By glare of color. T. and the Such methods of advertising are so far side shows.SOCIAL SERVICE OF ADVERTISING 395 XXX THE SOCIAL SERVICE OF ADVERTISING advertiser of the past generation worked on the assumption that the American public likes to be THE most widely known humbugged. If one negro commits a nefarious crime. As human beings we are so organized into groups and subgroups that no one person can act in any way without affecting the other members of the group of which he is a member. and by bamboozled many innocent citgrandeur izens into attending the menagerie. style might be characterized as consummate skill in the use of bombast. The advertising of Barnum was founded on the fact that he could hoodwink the public with profit to himself. as the Such advertising might properly be designated modern form of salesmanship. . The best advertising campaigns of to-day are founded on the assumption that the confidence of the public can be won by service rendered and when secured is the business man's most valuable asset. and deceit. of parades it assign the same name to both. Such advertising should be called bamboozling the public rather than advertising. the circus. of all ad- vertising. His Barnum is still thought of The advertising of the by many as typical late P. by exaggeration of description.

a double menace to all of his associates. If a single person can affect the reputation of his entire nationality. If by chance we come into contact with a Chinese gentleman of unusual intellectual and moral worth.396 all his THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING race fall in our estimation. a single advertiser has to an extreme degree the power to affect the A dishonest advertiser reputation of all advertisers. we are inclined to look for the orientalization of the world. is Modern advertising has the important and difficult task of overcoming the prejudice created by the exploiters of the past generation and perpetuated by the few disreputable advertisers of the present time.820 persons answered one or more of the following three questions : Do you answer advertisements? Are you satisfied? If not. One corrupt capitalist awakens a classes within the race biased popular distrust of the well-to-do classes. or else had . One notorious slugger and dynamiter prejudices a million against all laborers. so too is our judgment of the by a few examples. In a recent research on the psychology of advertising. 21. they never had answered advertisements.855 asserted that they made use The remaining 3. not only because he actually deceives and defrauds the unwary.965 declared that of advertisements. but also because by his wide publicity he subjects all advertisers to the scorn of the sophisticated. and if each member of a group can affect the reputation of the entire group. Washington. we are likely to expect unprecedented evolution of his entire race. what is your complaint? Of that number 17. If one black man develops into a Booker T. As our opinion of a whole race is prejudiced by a few individuals of that race.

the physician. . Practically all would have been glad to make use of advertisements and would have done so if it were not for this element of distrust. the business man. the lawyer. the minister. of them reported that their experience had been perfectly satisfactory. or the professor? The general consensus of opinion of the one hundred respondents was that the business man was clearly not the most respected fifty years ago. the business man. recent research in social psychology. Of the 17.855 who had answered advertisements.965 who did not answer adverso. No class of society. industrial.SOCIAL SERVICE OF ADVERTISING ceased to do 397 Of the 3. or the professor? To-day which group holds most completely the respect and confidence of the American public. the minister. the physician. which group held most completely the respect and confidence of the American public. but that during these past five decades he had been progressing until to-day he outranks all his competitors in gaining the respect and confidence of the public. This fact comes out in the results of the research: Although it is lack of confidence that makes the public hesitate to answer advertisements. yet the number of persons who. are disappointed in answering advertisements has become relatively small. or commercial group can win and retain the confidence and In a respect of the public without adequate cause. one hundred adults of experience were asked their judgments on these two questions : Fifty years ago. the lawyer. over ninety per cent. no professional. the overwhelming majority said they did not tisements. trust the statements of the advertisers.

If a father. The German army satisfied this need. society has given and confidence to that class of society service which is felt Because of this fact the holders of social prestige differ from nation to nation and from age to age according as most profound respect which renders the as the most insistent and most vital. In general. Such a remarkable change in social status cannot be accidental. the social prestige class. Germany was held by the military the Where German traced his ancestor to a man posof mili- tary achievement. his become the wife his hat highest ambition for a daughter was that she might of a soldier. The most pressing need of the German was supposed to be protection from these dreaded foreign foes. The military man was therefore looked upon in Germany as the one indis- pensable member of accomplished. its these needs change from time to time place. was clearly not the commercial class. alone could perform the society. To-day he is one of the most highly respected members of the most highly respected class of society. and from place to The most highly respected class in Germany previous to November. This homage was . in sible. 1918.398 \s THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING Fifty years ago the advertiser was one of the least respected members of one of the least respected classes of society. task which the patriotic Germans most desired to have He Because of this fact. but is the result of a psychological law that will continue to control the further evolution of advertising. Germany was comparatively a small country territorially and was surrounded on all sides by nations jealous of her and supposedly desirous of humiliating her. his ambition for his sons was that they might become officers in the army. Every German took off when he met an army officer.

but he interceded for the living individual as well. the sinking of wells. the digging of mines. priestly class As a result of such services. and execution of laws. The priest not only offered escape from future eternal punishment. society grants to the political ruler and to his associates un- rivaled social prestige. In every land and in all ages there is a felt need for the formulation. the was given the place of social prestige. and freed him from the dread of unfriendly supernatural forces. This was . the construction of manufacturing plants. and one-third of the Emperor soil of Europe passed by free-will offerings into the hands of the clergy. and the rights of the individual protected. justice between citizens When secured. adjudication. the ruling class renders such service. pain. Such a' deliverance was offered by the priest. disease. profoundest necessity. The bowed down to the* Pope. From 1865 to 1900 the United States passed through a period of unprecedented commercial and industrial expansion. The most pressing felt need of the nation was the building of railroads. and death were all cattle. looked upon as the working of unseen and supernatural stition. Their most pressing felt need was deliverance from these malign forces. the sixth to the thirteenth century. The priest thus rendered the service which the individual felt as the powers.SOCIAL SERVICE OF ADVERTISING 399 bestowed because of the service rendered by the military class. the stretching of wires. the supposed preservation of the integrity of the Fatherland. Europe was inhabited by peoples submerged in ignorance and super- From The blight of the crop. The criminal must be restrained. the destruction of the the hurricane. and the organization of in- dustry on a national and international scale.

But. of and of King Arthur. ers. suppose the priesthood did free the medieval Europeans from the dread of unseen forces and thus secured the first place in the estimation of the inhabitants of the continent of Europe. Mothers discarded the traditions of Achilles. what of all this? What has it to do with advertising? It has ordinarily been assumed that no man goes in for advertising except to make money. of their sons by narrating the achievements of the captains of industry. social service. Occasionally an ancient pirate retained his booty to the end. to protect the ignorant from unseen enemies. that it is not his purpose to shield the citizen from foreign aggressions. The twentieth-century conception is that. forgers. Highwaymen. but awakened the ambitions David. . We looked up to him and permitted him to dictate our laws and our national policy. to banish \j fraud. counterfeit- and defrauders are not always restrained.400 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING it a service that the capitalist could and did render. thus received in return the homage of all America. suppose the ruling classes in many ages and nations have protected their peoples from injustice and oppression and thus won the fealty of their subjects suppose the capitalists in America 'have enabled the nation to organize her activities on a more extensive plan and have . or to organize industry for the benefit of the public in any way. the only way to make money in advertising is to render. although no man goes in for advertising unless he expects to find it profitable. suppose a German army did preserve the nation from the fear of foreign aggression and did win the confidence and respect of the German. We all know of instances where by fraud and corruption fortunes have been amassed. Hence was that during the period from 1865 to 1900 the cap- italist was the American idol.

The cost which is added to the product. and We we are not likely to be are not likely to better our condition by conquest. Our national struggle is to be economic and not military. It has been stated by various advertising experts that much annually. any of the United States of us. but our problem of distribution is with the future.000. invaded by a hostile army. The advertiser is. We have largely solved our problems of production and manufacture. and before reaches the ultimate consumer. the servant of the ultimate consumer. agree that in business. in the last analysis. is so enormous that it would seem no people could continue to pay it year after year and not become impoverished. One single item in the distribution of merchandise is general advertising. The greatest menace to America's prosperity to-day is the high cost of living.000. that three-fourths of it is lost . But until his advertising is conducted strictly in the interest of the ultimate consumer he will never win the complete confidence of the public and occupy the position of prestige to which he may possibly But few. of this adver- tising is so unwisely done. it after it leaves the producer or manufacturer. Only in so far as he proves to be an efficient servant does he receive the respect and conall we fidence of his master. to-day believe that the position among the nations of the earth is to be effected by military force. By approximating this standard the advertiser has arisen in social prestige. if attain. To-day we have come to see that the crucial estimate of the work of the advertiser is service to the ultimate consumer. the ultimate consumer. America's annual contribution to such advertising is commonly estimated at f 800. honesty is the best Advertising is the outcome of a social evolution.SOCIAL SERVICE OF ADVERTISING yet 401 policy.

squandered in distribution is lost to the ultimate consumer. the ultimate consumer receives the benefit from every dollar that is wisely spent on advertising.000. This economy alone would save Such an the American people $800. If the advertiser renders a greater social service than the soldier. ciently well done. because efficient advertising is the most economical form known of distributing merchandise. the expense of traveling salesmen. or double that for general It is possible that if advertising were suffiadvertising.600. that is to say.000 annually.000. society will be willing to award him honor and fitting remuneration.000. the pen or the sword? In Germany the soldier was better trained than the advertiser. would be made equal to the amount now expended an- nually for advertising. of if would probably be every spent for food. In the hand of the efficient advertiser the pen wields .000 annually. as the soldier.000. amount. and the soldier was esteemed more highly than the advertiser. On the other hand. One of the favorite questions for debate in the oldfashioned debating society was.000. sufficient to drive want from the home Every dollar needy family in America.402 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING for traveling salesmen is said to approximate $1. the number of traveling salesmen could be decreased so that the expense for such salesmen The annual expense would be reduced to f 800.000. and applied to the right places. Which is mightier. The distribution of the necessities of life is recognized as a greater social service than intimidating Indians and strikers or parading on Decoration Day. But in Germany the new generation is less enthusiastic for war and more enthusiastic for commercial In America the advertiser is as well trained efficiency. fSOO. the soldier's service was more important in the eyes of the patriotic citizen.

The clothing was not infrequently spun and made up in the home. Every man in the community knew the quality of wheat used for grinding and had watched the process of manufacture from the time the wheat left the bin until it was tied up as flour in the sack. transportation. Until the last century the typical American family lived in the country or in a small village. Food. or perhaps a government bond. If any form of investment were to be made. Not infrequently he had known the horse by name from the time it was a colt. he was a his customers. The seller and the buyer were on equal and the joy of trading horses was recognized footing among our ancestors. When garments were purchased. a part interest in a neighboring industry. the buyer was in a position to judge of the quality and price of the goods. The principal method of transportation was by means of the horse. Society it is ultimately rewards those who render needed service and no surprise that the advertiser is coming to his own in the estimation and esteem of our people. Practically all the provisions for the table were raised in the family garden or purchased from producers in the vicinity. The purchaser knew the products as well as did the manufacturer himself. clothing. If the flour was had from the to all neighbor known personally of miller. The needs of the family appear to us to have been pathetically few. Every purchaser of a horse knew the weak and the strong points of the animal. and investment were .SOCIAL SERVICE OF ADVERTISING 403 the mightier influence for the prosperity of America than a musket in the hands of a national volunteer. for the source of material and the method of manufacture were known to him. it might be the purchase of real estate in the vicinity.

It is necessary but to call your typical ! attention to the fact that the ultimate consumer in America is in a position quite comparable to that of his or her ancient European ancestor. adulterations. and oppressed with the dread of unseen powers. Alas. poison. her The buyer of an automobile. Translated in simple English this legal term means. The legal assumption was. is unable to judge for himself as to the quality of material and workmanship that goes into the construction of his vehicle of transportation. The man and the woman having money to invest know little or nothing of the business methods of the corpora- . It is quite beyond all her power to judge of the quality or the value of purchases. This fact was recognized by law under the principle caveat emptor. surrounded with the mysteries of pain and death. that the woolens are cotton.404 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING wants of our ancestors. When she orders clothing for her household she fears that the prints are not permanent. Let the purchaser beware. the holder of a ticket on a railroad or a steamboat. and substitu- These are horrors and monsters of which personally she can have no knowledge and over which she can have no control. The seller and the buyer possessed equal knowledge of the merchandise. microbes. and that the leather is paper. that if the purchaser exercised due precaution he would not be cheated. alas. If he was cheated. that the day of the self-sufficient and comT Y ou and I look with pity petent purchaser has passed on the medieval European who. turned to the priest for guidance and protection. When the woman of the house steps to the telephone to order provisions for the morrow she is haunted with the visions of the unseen world tions. no one was to blame but himself.

not mainly to dispose of a particular line of goods. Likewise the advertising campaigns of our best bond ceive the readers or arouse false hope. best mercantile houses exercise the greatest precaution to see that their advertisements in no way de- Our The advertisements are written. and unless the advertisement contains only statements deemed to be truthful. few of the best advertising agencies refuse to give their advice to firms conducting questionable business. and particularly the honorable advertiser. of need. consumer in America. They are not in a position to investigate the business for themselves. because the cost of this investigation would as a rule far exceed the amount of the investment.SOCIAL SERVICE OF ADVERTISING tion in 405 whose securities they invest their earnings. not primarily to sell any particular securities. The publishers no advertisement of to some of our best magazines allow appear in their pages unless the firm placing the advertisement is financially and otherwise responsible. By such educational campaigns the public is being taught to be wary . in making his purchases. is in a peculiarly dependent condition. In case The At the present juncture the honest distributor. ultimate. houses are planned. society seeks a protection. nor can they afford to secure the services of com- petent attorneys or experts to make independent reports for them. is assuming the responsibility of protecting the ignorant. but to educate the public to discriminate between sound and unsound investments. Such agencies refuse business on the ground that the it A merchandise offered for sale renders no social service neither reduces the cost of living nor adds to the richness of life. but to provide possible customers with store news and to create good will.

their adjudication One and execution.000. principle above high interest. This service is ten- dered primarily in the interests of social justice. There is no force in America that can suppress fraudulent advertising and thus win the confidence of the public in advertisements except the advertisers themselves. our governmental powers are unable degree.000 was secured as a result of fraudulent advertising. to render such service in any adequate Mr.406 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING of investments exploited by promises of inordinately high income return or by promises of certainty of rise When the public is thus educated it avoids the tipster.000 to men who were later convicted of A large part of this $77. The Post-Office Department is unable to prevent fraudulent advertising. Sharp. The best it can do is to fraud.000.rendered society by the political ruler and his associates is the creation of laws. Chief Post-Office Inspector. No advertising publication can flourish unless it receives the patronage of the . its its ability to continue to of the principal services . and bases its business on its ability to keep customers rather than on get a lot of new business. the tout. service. R. punish a few of the worst offenders after they have defrauded the public of millions of dollars annually and made the public suspicious of all advertisers. that places safety above speculation. The honest advertisers of America are awakening to the fact that they alone possess the power to eliminate the fraudulent advertiser. that offers a diversity of sound investment. In the present state of the commercial world. reports that during a recent year the American public handed over $77. and the man of the sure-thing gamble. S. Each year there is a new brood. and it seeks out the house that offers investment in value.



reputable advertisers. When, therefore, the reputable advertisers refuse to buy space in publications carrying questionable advertisements the fraudulent advertiser is
forced from the


reputable manufacturers

refuse to place their accounts with agencies handling the business of any questionable firms, the criminal destroyers of public confidence are unable to exploit their commodities.

In so far as educational advertising campaigns teach the public to discriminate between the honest merchant and the faker, the houses conducting.the campaigns not
only gain customers, they also render a social service
of incalculable value.

During the


last six or seven decades the capitalist possible the expansion of American industries.



has supplied the plant and the equipment.


roads, the rural route, the irrigating ditch, the wells and the mines are now realities, and should be utilized in

the service of the public. Expansion would be useless unless a comprehensive and economical method of distribution were provided.
capitalist has

Because of these

services, the

won our esteem, but the greater task of distribution is left to the advertiser. There is no real
manufacture on a large scale unless
there can be a final reduction in cost to the ultimate

service in scientific

consumer. When the cost of distribution shall have been lessened as has the cost of production, then, not the capitalist, but the advertiser will be heralded as the
captain of industry. The advertiser in the past may have been the exploiter of the public, but the new generation of advertisers are becoming more and more the protectors of society. In
the past they may have in all too many instances misled the unwary, but the successful advertisers of to-day are



becoming the trusted guides of the ultimate consumer. The fraudulent advertiser has not yet become extinct, nevertheless the great body of advertisers in America is to-day one of the most substantial forces in protecting the public from fraud.



literature on the subject of advertising has enormously increased since the last revision of this work.


The books cited in the following list have been carefully selected, and although some of them are of relatively minor significance, a familiarity with them is well worth the while of all vitally concerned with the science
In view of the size of the present list it has seemed necessary to omit reference to the studies of specific forms of advertising such as
or the art of advertising;

bank advertising, drygoods advertising,


The prices

given are neither complete nor vouched for as


New York

Evening Post,

York, 1917, pp. 35, $1.00. Several wellarticles on the value of the trademark in ad-



1916, pp. 333, $1.50.




A psychological interpretation of

thoroughgoing attempt to reduce the comadvertising. plexities of printed advertisements to their elements. Scientific and reliable.




ADVERTISING AS A VOCATION. Macmillan Co., New York, 1919. An excellent study of the subject of advertising. Traces its Describes carefully the methods historical development.

and mediums of


and manufacturing advertising.



Contains a chapter on the ethics of advertising and the training, etc., necessary for success in this


AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF FOREIGN-LANGUAGE NEWSPAPERS. THE UNREACHED MILLIONS. American Association of ForeignLanguage Newspapers, New^ York, 1909, pp. 55. A short pamphlet which contains some interesting ideas on the advertising directed toward foreigners in this country.



The Oswald Pub-

lishing Co., Neiv York, 1905, pp. 105, $4.00. An exhaustive exposition of the various phases of type-composition. This



prepared by a number of experts and represents

the best, to date, in typography.



Bibliotheque des ouvrages pratiques, 1909, pp. The author claims this as the first work written in

French on the




as a. study of adits

It is results. vertising, place, illustrated by accounts of the launching of notable advertising campaigns in France.

methods, and


pp. 64.





York, 1910,

York, 1906, pp.

Butierick Co.,






York, 1909, pp. 1360, $15.00.



BATES, CHARLES AUSTIN. THE ART AND LITERATURE OP BUSINESS. Bates Advertising Co., New York, 1902, 6 volumes, pp. 2221, $25.00. The work contains no table of contents, and the index fills the entire
sixth volume of 324 pages. The work is intended to be an encyclopedia of advertising although this is not made clear by the title. It is in the main a most creditable production and in spite of minor deficiencies should be a part of


advertiser's library.

BELLAMY, FRANCIS, EDITOR. EFFECTIVE MAGAZINE ADVERTISING. With an introduction "The Science of Advertising Copy," Mitchell Kennerley,


York, 1909, pp. 361,


the author,


York, 1908, pp. 270,


The Merchants' Record


book filled with schemes for increasing pp. 282, $2.50. business. collection of three hundred and thirty-three


Chicago, 1906,


of getting business, including a great variety of practical plans that have been used by retail merchants to advertise and sell goods.



Springs, 1915, pp. 167, $0.80.
ners' text-book.

Apex Book Co., Colorado Evidently intended as a beginTouches lightly upon a number of topics.



short book on the principles of York, 1910, pp. 102. advertising especially as applied to conditions in England.


pp. 163.




Press, Chicago, 1914,




THE PREMIUM SYSTEM OF FORCING SALES ITS PRINCIPLES, LAWS, AND USES. Novelty News Press, Chicago, 1913, pp. 180, A study of premium systems of various kinds and a $2.00. plea for their use as an advertising device.



Press, Chicago, 1913, pp. 188. Written for the "business man" and deals with some of the recognized
topics of advertising, such as media, circulation, appeal,


1915, pp.
363, $2.00.

D. AppletOH






revision which has

a complete rewriting of his earlier

Intended to "show briefly

amounted to work, "Modern Adverthe work of those who

deal in advertising."

CASSON, HERBERT NEWTON. ADS AND SALES A STUDY OF ADVERTISING AND SELLING FROM THE STANDPOINT OF THE NEW PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT. A. C. McClurg & Co., Chicago, 1911, pp. 167, $2.00. A series of a dozen popular talks on advertising and salesmanship with practical illustrations.



London, 1905, pp.
367, 10s., 6d.

Ncuman and


This book is intended for beginners in advertising and contains the following chapters: Composition and Style in Writing Advertisements; Technical Proof and Press Corrections Block Type Illustrations; Small Advertisements; Newspaper Advertising; Magazine Advertising; Circularising; Eatio of Advertising to Eeturns; Poster Advertising; How to "Key" Advertisements; The Psychology of Advertising; also several other chapters of less importance. The author makes much use of the American contributions to the literature of advertis;



This is especially apparent in the chapter on "The Psychology of Advertising" which consists almost entirely

of quotations

from "The Theory of Advertising," by Scott, though no mention of this fact is made by the author.



Published ty the

author, Denver, 1908, 2 volumes, $10.00.


J. E.


The Ronald Press
paper advertising.


HOW TO DEVELOP LOCAL ADVERTISING. New York, 1913, pp. 133, $1.50. A

half-dozen chapters on the value and efficiency of news-

1913, pp. 569, $2.00.




A thoroughgoing study of the practical problems of advertising, such as distribution, media, advertising for the retail and wholesale trades, premium systems, trademarks, disposals of costs, etc. Prepared as a text for the Educational Committee of the Associated Advertising Clubs of America.


Doubleday, Page




City, N.Y., 1916, pp. 604, $2.00. Prepared, like his earlier work, for the A. A. C. of W. Its chief purpose, the author
states, is "to put into form for convenient reference some of the available records of recent progress in advertising methods." Highly instructive and entertaining reading.


WILLIAM GEORGE. BUILDING YOUR BUSINESS BY MAIL: A COMPILATION OF SUCCESSFUL DIRECT ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS DRAWN FROM THE EXPERIENCE RECORDS OF 361 FIRMS REPRESENTING EVERY LINE OF BUSIBusiness Research Publicity Co., Chicago, 1914, PP> A plea for direct advertising and its specific application to many kinds of merchandising.
44$, $2.00.







& Co., London, 1911, pp. 288, and explanation of sample letters to be used in general business procedure, sales and advertisSALESMANSHIP.



ing campaigns.


An amplification of Ms earlier work, "How to do Business by Letter and Advertising." Contains additional chapters on the principles of salesmanship.
488, $2.00.


waukee, 1909, pp. 449development of advertising.


Published by the author, Milaccount of the progressive
Interestingly written.




Henry Altemus


Philadelphia, 1909, pp. 93, $0.50 net.


Co., Philadelphia, 1907, pp. 380, $1.00.

W. Jacobs &

CURTIS PUBLISHING COMPANY. SELLING FORCES. The Curtis Publishing Co., Philadelphia, 1913, pp. 288. "Deals with the history of advertising, anjd with its present efficiency, machinery, and methods, and the consumer toward whom it is directed.






York, 1917, pp. 330. One of a series of texts prepared for the Alexander Hamilton Institute. Treats of the pur-



pose of advertising; the methods of getting the advertiseseen, read, understood, and acted upon; and the various instruments employed, such as trademarks, slogans,
catalogs, etc.

1909, pp. 108, $0.50.




The Standard Publishing

study of the comparatively new method of motion-picture advertising. Takes up the respective values of slides and films and their appliCo., Cincinnati, 1916, pp. 255, $1.00.


cation to different types of advertising;

DEWEESE, TRAUMAN A. THE PRINCIPLES OF PRACTICAL PUBLICITY. Northrup Works, Buffalo, 1906, pp. 244art of advertising.

The MattheWS-

treatise on the Sold only as a part of Business Man's Library System Co., Chicago. The following are the chapter titles: Modern Commercial Publicity; What is Advertising? Mediums Employed by General and Direct Pub-



What is Good Advertising Copy? The Bull's-eye Method in Advertising; "Reason- Why Copy"; The Magazine and the Newspaper; Relative Values of Magazine Pages; Mail-Order Advertising; Follow-up Systems; The

Booklet in Mail-Order Advertising; "Keying" Mail-Order Advertisements; Bank Advertising; Street Car Advertising; Railway and Steamship Advertising; Outdoor Advertising; Planning an Advertising Campaign; The Advertising Agency. This is one of the best books on the subject
of advertising.



New York Evening



York, 1915, pp. 176, $1.00. Fifty short talks devoted to the importance of the newspaper in successful adver-


and merchandising.

of type with pictures.. S. Deals with the economic and social side of advertising. more adequate and is the product of later years. D. etc. New A tions of types. the poster.C.. eral subjects as the author's encyclopedia. Appleton York. ARTHUR. dozen chapters. Industrial Publishing Short exposition of some oft- repeated axioms of advertising. $3. Boston. Barta & Co. Chicago. RETAIL ADVERTISING COMPLETE. This later book is. A FOWLER. etc. pp. and details specific methods adapted to retail and wholesale pp. the hand-lettered.. GILBERT POWERLY. the department store. $2. on methods of retail advertising such as windowtrimming. THE TYPOGRAPHY OF ADVERTISEMENTS THAT PAY. ELDRIDGE. 160. This volume treats of the same gen1889. 1918.. E.50. pp. AND ADVERTISING. The Outing Press.. 504. 1919. A classification of type faces and their application to certain general styles of advertising. together with chapters on the combina- & Co. DUNN. . pp.. merchandising. e. media. New York. special sales. ABOUT ADVERTISING AND PRINTING.g. HOW TO ADVERTISE A RETAIL STORE. FRANK. L.416 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING SCIENTIFIC SELLING Co. 282. pp. 119. FARRAR. 1908. EDGAR. informally written. plea for a more thorough knowledge of typography among advertising men. N. NATHANIEL C. Columbus. pp.00. 1910. The Byxl)ee Publishing Co.. margins.25. A. 270. HAROLD FRANCIS. $1. $2. etc. FARRINGTON.00.Y. Deposit. borders. The State. MAKING ADVERTISING PAY. however. 1918. with the application of psychological principles.. 231.

GEORGE. sales and follow-up letters. ON THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING. of Shows the principles adopted from graphic arts. 1915. ADVERTISING AND CORRESPONDENCE. stitute. AND FORBES. THE ART AND SCIENCE OF ADVERTISING. $2. $0. dealing with the general topics of advertising. Minneapolis.75.00. pretentious Fox. 291. FRENCH. ADVERTISING Press. illustrations. GEORGE. New A well-written book FRENCH. and psychology that are behind en ective advertising..00 net. Alexander Hamilton Institute. Written for the A. 606. A. the psychological factors involved in writing ads . GEORGE. arrangement. Co. LAYING OUT. Page & Co.00. GALE. the technique of advertising. 1909. AND COMPOSING ADVERTISEMENTS.. 1917. ONE THOUSAND WAYS AND SCHEMES TO ATTRACT TRADE. pp. optics. typography. The most and complete work on advertising to date. pp. 32. GALLOWAY. I THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC PROBLEM.. N. $2.. pp. Spatula Boston. 1900. etc. 1913. $2.Y.. 3 W.BIBLIOGRAPHY Out of print. DouUeday. HARLOW. FRENCH. LEE. 1912. New York.00. 279. B. 258. 208. to be 417 had only at second-hand. Alexander Hamilton InWritten as a text for the Deals with the history of advertising. HOW TO ADVERTISE: A GUIDE TO DESIGNING. Garden City.. pp. C. $1. Published ~by the author. A. pp. IRVING P. . Demonstrates the waste in advertising by concrete examples of ads that have made or missed their mark. Sherman. Publishing Co. The Ronald York. The author of this pamphlet seems to have been the first to apply experimental methods to the subject. advertising media of all sorts. pp. French & Boston.

WITH COMMENTS.00. THEORIE ET TECHNIQUE. A economic factor. WRITING AN ADVERTISEMENT. its national characterisvertising. 445- organ. C. its media. Lonshort treatise on advertising as an don. HAWKINS. etc. $4. OCTAVE JACQUES.. G. New- compilation of the very ark. pp. With an Introduction by Sidney Webb. HALL. house1911. and its effect.. 1915. ADVERTISING: A STUDY OF A MODERN BUSINESS POWER. pp. GOODALL. and its legal regulations. its value to the public. 1914) pp. HENDERSON. its setting. 217. LA PUBLICITE SUGGESTIVE. Constable & Co. suggestion. HENDERSON'S SIGN PAINTER. AND 58 PAGES OF INSERT REPRODUCTIONS OF ACTUAL ADVERTISEMENTS. $1. ALSO INCLUDES READY-MADE ADVERTISEMENTS. Pinat.. NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING: BEING A SERIES OF TALKS ON THE VALUE AND USE OF THIS GREATEST OF ALL LOCAL ADVERTISING MEDIUMS THE NEWSPAPER WITH REPRODUCTIONS OF OVER 1. pp. Dunod and E. Adver-' Users' Publishing Co. AN ANALYSIS OF THE METHODS AND MENTAL PROCESSES THAT PLAY A PART IN THE WRITING OF SUCCESSFUL ADVERTISING. mail order. Houghton Mifflin Co.J. Published by the author.00. 1914. spacial. its practical laws. also all the modern . N. GEORGE HENRY H.418 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING GERIN.. New York. HEADINGS. etc. etc. ET ESPIXADEL.. R. A embracing all the standard alphabets. 91. AVEC PREFACE DE M. A thorough exposition of the subject of adTreats of its history. WALTER DILL SCOTT. its special devices such as trademark. H. best creations from the very best artists in their specialties. pp.. SAMUEL EGBERT.. Chicago. A detailed description of the its construction. $3.000 ACTUAL ADVERTISEMENTS. optic. tics. 112.00. Paris. AND CATCH PHRASES FOR EVERY LINE OF RETAIL BUSINESS. make-up of an advertisement. 119. its theoretical laws. 1906.

$4-00 per volume.. but not to be had except in sets of 5 volumes. A reliable and scientific study. New advertisements. $2. 358. cise Con- and lucid. 22. London. HICHAM. the part played in it by sense experience. general book on advertising. Ineludes chapters on the history of advertising. each of over 400 pages. HESS. 1905.. An address delivered before the Department of Business Administration of Yale University. B. 170. Outlines a complete working plan for the marketing of a product by advertising. pp. The book contains nothing more than the title indicates. Lippincott. and offers sugges- HOLLINGSWORTH. tions as to its wider application. and an attempt to anticipate by laboratory methods the effectiveness of new ones. 1913. pp.00. RETAIL ADVERTISING. Philadelphia. THE PREPARATION OF A MARKETING PLAN.BIBLIOGRAPHY 419 and fashionable styles of the times. I York. HOYT. Appleton & Co. and other items of A general interest. 310.50. Pa. A Nesbit & Co. International Textbook Co. 1915. CHARLES WILSON. CHARLES FREDERICK. SCIENTIFIC DISTRIBUTION. ADVERTISING AND SELLING PRINCIPLES OF APPEAL AND RESPONSE. Describes the matter and manner of advertising. The price is excessive. 1917. imagination. \ INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS. pp. instinct. Scranton. An investigation of the mental processes involved in the response to the advertising appeal as demonstrated by actual D. HERBERT WILLIAMS. 2 volumes. $2. pp. Contains topical references for further study. the technique of advertising.. attention. HARRY LEVI. J. PRODUCTIVE ADVERTISING. The . study of publicity as an economic factor. 1916..

237. Engraving Process. International Textbook Co. International Textbook Co. Scranton. pp. Scranton. Scranton. 1909. International Textbook Co. Supplementary Advertising. Printing-House Methods. but to be had only in connection with 4 other vol' umes (as above).. Illustrations in News- paper Advertisements. in addition many pages of illustrations. TECHNICAL AND TRADE PAPER ADVERTISING. Principles of Display. Advertisement Construction. Chapters are being added from time to time and the whole "course" bids fair to be the best encyclopedia of advertising.. 172. ADVERTISEMENT DISPLAY! MEDIUMS! RETAIL MANAGEMENT: DEPARTMENT STORE MANAGEMENT. pp. MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS OF MANAGEMENT. pp. BOOKLETS.00. MANAGEMENT OF GENERAL CAMPAIGNS. SHOW-CARD WRITING. INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS. 485.. pp. . 1903.. Pa. OUTDOOR ADVERTISING. Conducting an Advertising Office..420 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING following are the chapter heads: Copy and Proof. $4-00. Scranton. HOW TO ENTER THE PRACTICAL FIELD. ADVERTISEMENT ILLUSTRATION. Cyclopedia of Ketail Advertisements and Selling Points. INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS. Pa. Pa. Advertisements for Various Businesses. Advertisement Illustration. 1909.. but to be had only in connection with 4 other volumes (as above). AND FOLDERS. HOUSE PUBLICATIONS.. Scranton. Eetail Advertising Management. ENGRAVING AND PRINTING METHODS. International Textbook Co. Pa. CATALOGS. Pa. INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS. LETTERING AND SIGN PAINTING. Department Store Advertising.. International Textbook Co. THE ADVERTISING AGENCY. $4. FORM LETTERS AND FOLLOW-UP SYSTEMS. Each chapter is written by an expert. INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS. 482. STREET-CAR ADVERTISING. INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS. Exhibit of Advertising Types and Borders.. 1902.

1911. pp.. 1918. Pa. press. and other details of advertising practice. pp. pp. A book of reference dealing with plans.. 133. outdoor. 1912. LEWIS. advertising agencies. tical La Salle Extension University. International Textbook Co. . etc. management. Boston. Scranton. Scranton. BARNARD JOSEPH. ADVERTISER'S POCKET BOOK. E. KASTOR. THE CLOCK THAT HAD NO HANDS. HOW TO MAKE TYPE TALK: THE RELATION OF TYPOGRAPHY TO VOICE MODULATION. LENINGTON. 1912. ADVERTISING: COPY FOR ADVERTISEMENTS: CORRECT AND FAULTY DICTION: PUNCTUATION AND EDITING: TYPE AND TYPE MEASUREMENTS: LAYOUTS: PROOFREADING. etc. copy. pp. New York.. The Stetson Press. copy. ADVERTISING. 141. pp. International Textbook Co. INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS. Scranton. 1908. 413. Chicago. Written for the business man and contains pracinformation on such topics as appeal. layout. Intended for the use of manufacturers planning an advertising campaign. illustration. Pa. 114. media. George H. CHRISTOPHER. New York. pp. $1. A MANUAL FOR THOSE WHO WISH TO BECOME ACQUAINTED WFTH THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICES OF ADVERTISING.00. typography. HERBERT. BASIC PRINCIPLES AS DEVELOPED AND PROVEN IN ACTUAL PRACTICE. media. Commercial Science System. Pa. Deals with the various practices of advertising.. KAUFMAN. Pitman & Son. 1914.BIBLIOGKAPHY 421 INTERNATIONAL CORRESPONDENCE SCHOOLS. Doran Co. JONES. HANDBOOK OF ADVERTISING.. SEVEN PRINCIPLES OF SUCCESSFUL ADVERTISING.Twenty short popular talks on the value of advertising. NORMAN G. 317.

Illustrated by pages of sample type. 1908. 1907. $5. ORVA S. JOHN LEE. Indianapolis.. HENRY HARRISON. and the relative merits of its various forms. Ketail Advertising all the Year Around. LEWIS. ELMO. ST. 190. pp. E. Mail Order Advertising. $1. Laird & Lee. . to the thought they are intended to convey. PERSONLICHE. J. A LEWIS. Chicago. numerous and is altogether illustrations of good ways of saying things. 1912. BEDEUTUNG UNO KONSEI QUENZEN. LECTURES ON ADVERTISING. its appeal. 1908. The Lin- coln Publishing Co. ANGUS. short paper on the relation of different styles of type. HOW FORTUNES ARE MADE IN ADVERTISING. MAHIN. $1. etc.. Haardt. Chicago. 242. Ncustadt a. 19V2. Special Features in Retail Advertising. pp. Chicago. The book contains the following five chapters: Advertisement Building. $1.. $1. Pfalzische Verlagsanstaldt. DEREN WESEN. its value. THE NEW SALESMANSHIP AND HOW TO DO BUSINESS BY MAIL. Levey Brothers & (70.00. CARL.00. MACDONALD. pp. 288.422 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING SI..00. 76. AND DUFF.00. Philadelphia. a helpful book for the beginner in adver- tising. A general study dealing with the theory of advertising. LINDGREN. Mahln Advertising Co. The book contains much advice. pp. POL1TISCHE REKLAME LEHRBUCH DER REKLAMEKUNST. 400.50.25. FINANCIAL ADVERTISING. CHARLES.. Miscellaneous Advertising. pp. 1909. 992. spacing. SUCCESSFUL ADVERTISING: HOW TO ACCOMPLISH IT. $2. GESCHAFTLICHE. Publicity Pub- lishing Co. pp.d. LlESENBERG.

JOHN LEE. technique. etc. Garden MARTIN. and the legal regulations of advertising.00. mail order business. 298. and takes up such specific topics as trademarks. Written as a text-book for the Alexander Hamilton Institute. pp. Co. of the laws and principles of advertising. Contains chapter references for supplementary reading. MAC. and the construction of its ads.. MARTIN. 556. A. 1908. its markets. $2. J^89. costs. VICTOR. York. 1910. competition to be encountered.00. its tools. FLINT. testing success by sampling and other means. its media. methods of giving identity to the product. N. Describes the commercial status of advertising. C. of W. EINE UNTERSUCHUNG "UBER ANKUNDIGUNGSWESEN UNO WERBETATIGKEIT IM GESCHAFTSLEBEN. PLANNING AN ADVERTISING CAMPAIGN FOR A MANUFACTURER. Maps out an advertising campaign by a thoroughgoing analysis of the product. DIE REKLAME. MORE BUSINESS THROUGH POSTCARDS AN EXHAUSTIVE ANALYSIS : OF THE POSSIBILITIES FOR INTENSIVELY INCREASING PROFITABLE . Chicago. McNAUGHLAN. ADVERTISING: SELLING THE CONSUMER. CAMPAIGNS. the method of building and testing an advertisement. Duncker & Hum- An exhaustive study treating blot.Y. Leipzig. MAHIN'S ADVERTISING DATA BOOK. Alexander Hamilton Institute. MAHIN. Starts a campaign from the beginning with an analysis of the demand for the product. media. 1914. its value.. $2. Doubleday. 99. Page & Written for City. advertising technique. media. MATAJA. the A. JOHN LEE. 1919. Bulletin of the University of Minnesota. pp.. channels of distribution. pp. mediADVERTISING New ums and ways + of estimating their value. pp. 423 Mahin Advertising Co. 338. pp. MAC.BIBLIOGRAPHY MAHIN. 1917.

A. CLARENCE. $2. JOHN BAKER. Manual tising of Advertising. 230. MORAN. 1920.. FRANK ALVAH. 1913. pp. pp. _NEWS. Shaw Co. Popular chapters on such topics as How Best to Attract the Eye. Chicago. The necessity of considering . THE BUSINESS OF ADVERTISING. pp. JOHN BAKER. The book contains the following chapters: Advertising and its Utility. New York. 1905. W. MetJlUCH & Co. ALEXANDER FAICKNEY.65. New York. Advertising in the Press. How to Advertise the Half. ciples. A Contains an extensive bibliography. 1917.Wanted : Product. ADVERTISING AND SELLING PRACTICE. Hdusauer-Jones Printing Co. 1915. BRASS TACKS OF ADVERTISING. I THE USE OF ENGLISH FOR COMMERCIAL A Co. CM- and clear exposition of the prinmethods of advertising and selling. 191. 39. 1918. study of the newspaper as an advertising medium. London. A comparison of it with other forms of advertising. Adverlocal in interest)..424 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING THROUGH RETURN POSTCARDS. AN UN MYSTERIOUS ANALYSIS OF THE PRACTICAL PHASES OF THE KIND OF ADVERTISING WHICH ANALYZES. DRAWN FROM THE EXPERIENCES AND RECORDS OF OVER 100 FIRMS REPRESENTING PRACTICALLY EVERY LINE OF BUSINESS. $2. Buffalo.00. The application to advertising of accepted principles of form and color.. 2s. cago. The Pictorial Poster (other chapters and appendices are purely OPDYCKE. Selling Aid. net. by Circular. PARSONS. OSBORN. ADS AND SALES PURPOSES. History of Advertising.. pp. 6d. ATTAINABLE IDEALS IN NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING. etc. 193. 135.. Prang Co. 1914. SALES pp. Macmillan OPDYCKE. PRINCIPLES OF ADVERTISING ARRANGEMENT. practices. MINNEAPOLIS JOURNAL.

RAMSAY. $5. tendency to eye movement. O. 1915. ROGERS. PRATT. $2. A practical work for advertisement writers and business men. author. RICHARDS. A. 1914. WILLIAM HURST.BIBLIOGKAPHY 425 such things as color. New York. pp. eral style as the first by this author. GOOD WILL. WILLIAM HURST. Co. Lambert Publishing Co. Applet on. EDWARD S. pp. 96. 278. with instructions on POWELL'S PRACTICAL ADVERTISER. A RICHARDSON. 1909. preparing. pp.00. pp.25. A. 229. 288. WILLIAM KNIGHT.50.00. pp. EFFECTIVE HOUSE ORGANS. New licity. Empire Printing Co. 274. Baltimore. Kansas City. 300. POWELL. THE ADVERTISING MANUAL. planning. E. Chicago. Chicago.. pp. value of advertising. 1920. GEORGE HENRY. An interesting work on the social and economic value of advertising as well as its principles and THE POWER OF ADVERTISING. placing. Published ~by the Short book on the RICHARDS. Daniel Stern. W. etc. $3. 1913. $3..50. devoted to a study of device and the methods of safeguarding same. HOW. 1905. and managing modern pubWith cyclopedia of over one thousand useful adver- tisements. TRADE-MARKS AND UNFAIR TRADING.00. second book of the same genMo. York. shape. 1913. color. POWER IN ADVERTISING. $1. $3... Published by the author. Shaw About ten chapters are the trademark as an advertising . TO MAKE MONEY BY ADVERTISING. balance. R.combination. New York. technique.

work of the EOWELL. Verlag filr Sozidlpolitik.. 7s. A symposium in two large volumes of articles written by a dozen or more authors. The book contains no table of contents. .. etc.. MAKING MORE OUT OF ADVERTISING. Greening & Co. Describes the practical problems and details of advertising and how to handle them. EUBIN. the contents of the book are mainly reminiscence. $2. Chicago. Applies especially to the business of retail advertising. 1913. MAKING ADVERTISEMENTS PAY. H. Illustrated with examples of the principal poster artists of the world. UNTER MITARBEIT BEKANNTER FACH- UND KUNSTLER. GEORGE PRESBURY. DIE REKLAME. S.50. 1906. 1919. American and German Advertising. 285. POSTER. 89. MANNING J. WHEELER. 517 pp. Jordan Co. .00. Advertising in the LEUTE. Cigarette Industry. pp. on such topics as: The Makeup and Details of Advertising. EUBEN. pp. Putnam. PAUL. New York. 1865-1905. JURISTEN volumes 1 and 2. 1901. 1913-14. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING W. A BOOK OF THE 158. pp.25. Printers' Ink New York. Science in Advertising. $3. New York. but the style of the author is so pleasing that the papers will be found interesting even by those who have never known the author personally. but is subdivided into fiftytwo "papers".426 KOGERS. HERAUSGE. 1919. SAMMONS. London.. GEBEN VON PAUL RUBEN. W. Hannis. IHRE KUNST UND WISSENSCHAFT.Short articles on the value and some of the devices of advertising. 6d. FORTY YEARS AN Co. What we Accomplished in America through Advertising. Publishing ADVERTISING AGENT. Shaw Co.. EUSSELL. COMMERCIAL ADVERTISING. T. A. $2.

Association of Ideas. SHAW. ADVERTISE. The Direct Command. book 1874. 427 D. 1900. teresting little book dealing with what of advertising. Illusions of Perception. pp. Boston.the author terms the ten commandments SAMPSON. AND INDUCEMENTS. SCOTT. 180. HOW TO WRITE ADVERTISEMENTS THAT SELL.00. The Psychological Value of the Eeturn Coupon. Illusions of Apperception. net. 6d. SAMUEL. title Sawyer Publishing Co. ChdttO & Windus. ciples of Psychology in Small. New York. Conclusion. C. Personal Differences in Mental Imagery. 240. HOW TO WRITE AND LAY OUT COPY CHOOSING PROSPECT LISTS AND MEDIUMS TESTS AND RECORDS THAT . THEORY OF ADVERTISING. SCHEMES. 7s.. $2.00. A HISTORY OF ADVERTISING FROM THE EARLIEST TIMES. 1918. Suggestion. A. PP> 616. SAWYER. Illustrated by anecdotes. COMPANY. 240. Attention. and hence the book may be said to have created a new era in the science of advertising. Perception. HENRY. EDITH. The is exactly what the title asserts and has supplied many an interesting story or illustration for speakers before advertising clubs.. WALTER DILL. The book contains the following chapters: The Theory of A Advertising. SECRETS OF THE MAIL-ORDER TRADE... pp. the subject named in the $1. pp. This book is the first volume in which psychological principles are thus applied. curious specimens and biographical notes.BIBLIOGRAPHY SAMPSON. Psychological Experiment. Heath & Co. Boston. 1903. Maynard & Co. In. and instructive. London. Simple Expositions of the PrinTheir Relation to Advertising. Practical Application of Mental Imagery. The book is confined to and is rather well written . HOW TO PLAN EVERY STEP IN YOUR CAMPAIGN USING SALES POINTS. W.

applies to advertising. shifting the emphasis of type attention. A.W. pp. CM- SHAW. THE ART OF PUBLICITY AND ITS APPLICATION TO BUSINESS. New York. H. Detroit. A. W.. Shaw Co.50. pp.. MORE SALES THROUGH cago. Media. books are listed according to author. Unwin. ATTRACTING AND HOLDING CUSTOMERS. Follow-up STARCH. 128. BENJ. 1912. study of the part played by different forms of in commanding attention. New YorTc. W. reason. 1910. SHRYER. imagination. The University PRINCIPLES OP ADVERTISING: . SHAW.00. 1919. London. 166. T. MAKING TYPE WORK. margins. W. WUSOH & Co. title.. COMPANY. A. W. F. Service Corporation. SIXTEEN HUNDRED BUSINESS BOOKS. and subject.J. overcoming monotony. A. Shaw Co. 1917.. A bibliography. A matter of sub-heads. General discussion of tile subject of advertising covering such topics as: How to Attract and Rivet Attention. interest. Discusses also the etc. SPIERS. ADVERTISING. A. Chi- SHERBOW. Letters. 1916. suggestion. discussion of psychology as it Treats of such topics as sensation. SHRYER. pp. A. prepared by the Newark The (N... side-heads. 1920. A. A SYSTEMATIC SYLLABUS OF THE FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF ADVERTISING. ANALYTICAL ADVERTISING. W. W. 228. DANIEL. etc. cago.25. Business A attention. habit. ERNEST A. W. A.) Free Public Library for the A. IShaW Co. Cost. pp. Chicago. 1912.. of W.. $1. $3. Century Co. $3.428 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING INCREASE RETURNS. C. HOW 146 SHREWD ADVERTISERS PLAN AND PLACE THEIR COPY. 129. COMPANY. and Advertisement Construction.

and that the discussion of principles may illuminate the practical results of business. 151. $1. THE ART OF ADVERTISING.. 1910. Maynard & Co. pp. THAYER. Madison. JOHN ADAMS. pp. is an attempt "to combine the practical and ITS PRINCIPLES. but is not up to the American standard. son J. 1911.25. This is T. pp.. net. DANIEL. BrOWHC. one of the best foreign books. 1914.BIBLIOGRAPHY 429 Co-operative Go. TAYLOR..75. B. Chicago. Boston. Wis. THE THOMPSON BLUE BOOK ON ADVERTISING. Browne & Howell. 238. A careful study by laboratory methods of the relative values of certain well-known advertisements. ASTIR. New York. STRONG. J. with topical references and suggestions for further study. pp. STEAD. A PSYCHOLOGICAL AND STATISTICAL STUDY. pp. EDWARD KELLOGG. which are quoted at length. The Science Press. 6d. 81. Walter Thomp- & Co. $1. 1914. Small. WALTER. One of the best books on the market. New York. A register of represen- . THE RELATIVE MERITS OF ADVERTISEMENTS.20 THOMPSON. A short book on the practical problems of ad- vertising.00. 302. theoretical aspects of the subject in such a way that the practical experiences of business houses. PP> 281. 67. 1906. A working outline of the factors involved in successful advertising. 1899. 1910. Chicago. STARCH. $0. PRACTICE. ADVERTISING states this I Foresman & AND TECHNIQUE. Scott. $1. WILLIAM. WHAT AN ADVERTISER SHOULD KNOW! A HANDBOOK FOR EVERY ONE WHO ADVERTISES. 3s." A scientific and reliable treatment of the subject. Thorough and concise. HENRY C. may illustrate the underlying principles.. Jr.. The author Co. London. PP95.

1915. 1917. sub-headings. and The Technical Details of Advertising. THE CRAFT OF SILENT SALESMANSHIP: A GUIDE TO ADVERTISEMENT CONSTRUCTION. H. J. HOTCHKISS. $3. One of the most complete $6. HARRY. PARSONS. B. W. HOLLINGWORTH..430 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING tative organs and how to use them. L. This is a so-called "text edition. pp. AND PRACTICES. The book is in the main a register of newspapers and other publications with a statement of the supposed circulation of each and the advertising rate. Incidentally tion concerning advertising is presented. ADVERTISING RATES. admonition." TREGURTHA. BUREAU OF FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC COMMERCE. The book is published in the interests of an advertising agency and presents numerous illustrations work of the agency. C. pp. A . pp. TIPPER. London. Takes up such details as the "command" versus the "question" heading. The Ronald PreSS. FRANK ALVAH. Psychological Factors in Advertising. Washington. CIRCULATION. 97." intended for school use and might be thought of as a later edition of "Advertising: Its Principles and Practices. 1920. Pitman & Son. AND PARSOXS. UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE. AND FRINGS. 376. ITS PRINCIPLES New York. FOREIGN PUBLICATIONS FOR ADVERTISING AMERICAN GOODS.50. The Ronald Press Company. Considers the subject under the four headings: Economic Factors in Advertising. HARRY. SUBSCRIPTION PRICE. etc.00. Practical Factors in Advertising. 575. Netv York. THE PRINCIPLES OF ADVERTISING: A TEXT-BOOK.. HARRY L. HOTCHKISS. A. A thorough study of the process of preparing an ad for the press. HOLLINGWORTH. F. GEORGE BURTON. G... works on the subject of advertising. signature. ETC. ADVERTISING. of the much informa- TIPPER. Govemlist of foreign news ment Printing Office.

00. THE ART OF SELLING GOODS. W. New York. Advertising and Selling. The American Business Man. Mail Order News. WAGONSELLER. monthly. Toronto. monthly. EDWARD MOTT. 1915. New York.. monthly. Columbus. Ohio. Chicago. weekly. Pa. Class (advertising in class publications). Gives technical details of its make-up and shows where it is most effective. 167. New York. THE HOUSE-ORGAN HOW TO MAKE ington Park Publishing Co. N. 199. Business Digest and Investment Weekly. Exclusive Distributor. Prepared from consular reports. IT PRODUCE RESULTS. Editor and Publisher. Bulletin (American Association of Newspaper Managers). . 1907. New York. weekly. monthly. Advertising Club News. Middlebury. Independent Advertising.. monthly. A study of the house-organ as a business asset. WILSON. Ohio. WdgOllSeller Publishing House.00. Chicago. Chicago. monthly. monthly. monthly. THEORY AND PRACTICE OF ADVERTISING. Mailbag. New York. G. GEORGE FREDERICK. Chicago. 4th edition. New York. weekly. Marketing and Business Advertising. pp. monthly. pp. 64. New York. Advertising Age and Mail Order Journal.. monthly. Cleveland. $2. monthly.BIBLIOGRAPHY 431 and trades papers that may be advantageously used for advertising American goods.Y. 1919. $1. pp. Columbus. monthly. Fourth Estate. Wash- Milwaukee. WOOLLEY. Newburgh. Advertising World. THE FOLLOWING MAGAZINES AKE DEVOTED ENTIRELY OE IN PART TO THE SUBJECT OF ADVERTISING. Associated Advertising.

S. & Co. Signs of the Times.. THE MIND AND ITS EDUCATION. weekly. ANGELL. 265. Henry Holt $1.432 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING Newspaperdom. Mass. PSYCHOLOGY. $1. monthly. pp. Printers' Ink.50. AND BAGLEY.25. Columbus. scientific. GEORGE HERBERT. Appleton & Co. Publishers' Weekly. JAMES B. 1901. pp. New York. JAMES MARK. BEUBEN POST.. monthly. D. HALLECK. 336. Chicago. EDUCATION OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. New York.. 1914. monthly. 1908. $0.. Chicago. 285. D. NeiV York.. THE STORY OF THE MIND. AN INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY. New York. $1. weekly. 410- Modern. Macmillan Co. Chicago. monthly. Haverhill.36. pp. Appleton & Co. New York.. An excellent little book found by business men to be of interest and value. semi-monthly. THE FOLLOWING IS A LIST OF THE BOOKS ON PSYCHOLOGY WHICH ABE MOST HELPFUL TO BUSINESS MEN. and practical. small. 100%. 232.00. Neiv York. Postage (magazine of direct advertising). $1. ANGELL. monthly. Poster.. Novelty News. monthly.50. Up-to-Date Distributer (house-to-house advertising). New York. York. COLVIN. Ohio. C. JAMES B.35. Cincinnati. . 281. New York. HUMAN BEHAVIOR. W. $1. Henry Holt & Co. pp. New BALDWIN. and is BETTS. pp. 1918. pp. Macmillan Co. S. 1906..

P. L. The general reader may begin his reading of the book at page 134. versity.50. A. HOLLINGWORTH. APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY.60. JAMES. KELLY. 1901. THE SUBCONSCIOUS. 1903. $2. 308. BRIEFER COURSE. Mifflin & Co. 1916. D. 1914. FACT AND FABLE IN PSYCHOLOGY. 375. $2. $1. G. pp. $2. 1917. 1905. pp. New York. New York. 286. FRANK SARGENT. Mifflin & Co. T.. JASTROW.. 478.. JASTROW..50. Putnam's Sons. Boston. New York. $1. Houghton. 704. S. $1. AppletOH & Co. ELEMENTS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY. 549. HARRY L. 1900. it will be found valuable to business men. LADD. T. PSYCHOLOGY AND COMMON York. JOSEPH. Houghton. WILLIAM. 1911. 1900. Cr. Henry Holt & Co. pp. WILLIAM. . as the first 133 pages involve a knowlnificant edge of physiology. pp. Teachers College. Although this book was written -primarily for teachers. $2. H. 433 LIFE. Appleton T.. This is in many ways the most sig- volume that has yet been written in English on psychology. Charles Scribmr's Sons.BIBLIOGRAPHY HOFFMAN. L. 301. JOSEPH.. AND WOODWORTH. pp. $4-00. pp. New HOLLINGWORTH. 337. VOCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. pp. Columbia Uni$2.25. & Co. EDUCATIONAL GUIDANCE. Henry Holt & Co. New York. PSYCHOLOGY. AND POFFENBERGER.. pp. JAMES. TALKS TO TEACHERS ON PSYCHOLOGY. E. D.. The best book on the phases of psychology indicated by the title.

25. A. PP. New T. as practiced by the author in large industrial plants. Appleton & Co. 1913. Hougliton Mifflin Co. W. $2-50. MUENSTERBERG. . PlLLSBURY.31. of the application of scientific methods to the selection. pp. 321. $2. pp.487.. HUGO. John W. TO SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY. PSYCHOLOGY AND LIFE.434 LINK.50.. $1. FUNDAMENTALS OF PSYCHOLOGY. 1914. Boston. MUENSTERBERG. B. pp. 1899. PHILLIPS. Houghton Mifflin New York. Chi- cago. La Salle Extension University. AN INTRODUCTION Boston. Ginn & Co. training and grading of employees.. $2. Earth. AN ELEMENTARY PSYCHOLOGY. 440. 1916..50. 296. W. 1. Macmillan Co. A description MCDOUGALL. PSYCHOLOGY AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENCY.. 1915. B. $1. MUENSTERBERG. New York. pp. pp. D. GENERAL AND APPLIED. THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING HENRY C. $1. ESSENTIALS OF PSYCHOLOGY. HUGO. Leipzig. pp.. PlLLSBURY. PSYCHOLOGY.00. Macmillan Co. WILLIAM. 1919..50.50.75. 1918. MUENSTERBERG. New York. 1911. pp. pp. LUC & Co. New York. York. HUGO. BUSINESS PSYCHOLOGY.. HUGO. New York. EMPLOYMENT PSYCHOLOGY. 1913. $2. 362. MUENSTERBERG. 562. 191Jf. $2. Co. Macmillan Co. 286. 767. E. GRUNDSZUGE DER PSYCHOTECiiNiK. HUGO.

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Macmillan Co. Co$1.10. Warwick & York. L.. NetV SIMPSON. 1912. New York. Columbia University CORRELATION OF MENTAL ABILITIES. $2.25. pp. LEWIS M. Baltimore. TERMAN. BORIS. TERMAN.50. I Houghton Mifflin Co. 1913. THE STANFORD REVISION AND EXTENSION OF THE BINET-SIMON SCALE FOR MEASURING INTELLIGENCE.75. $1. pp. pp. DANIEL. 271. Macmillan Co. 1916. New York. Teachers College. $1. 179. New York. 1902. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. 1917. $2. K. 473. THORNDIKE. A BEGINNER'S PSYCHOLOGY. AppletOH & Co. THORNDIKE.. 331. 1917.. pp.25. New York. . pp. $2. B. pp. Contributions to Education. SIDIS. EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS BEARING UPON CULTURE. 1903. 386. STRATTON. pp. pp. $1. GEORGE MALCOM. THE MEASUREMENT OF INTELLIGENCE AN EXPLANATION OF AND A COMPLETE GUIDE FOR THE USE OF THE STANDARD REVISION AND EXTENSION OF THE BINET-SIMON INTELLIGENCE SCALE. 358. MENTAL AND SOCIAL MEASUREMENTS.50. 362.10. THE HUMAN NATURE CLUB. EDWARD LEE.436 THE PSYCHOLOGY OF ADVERTISING THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SUGGESTION. $1. STARCH. TITCHENER. E. 1920. York.. Longmans. E. 122. New York. lumbia University.00. 1898. The readers of this elementary work would doubtless desire some of the author's more advanced works after the completion of this introductory one. LEWIS M.. Macmillan Co. D. Green & Co. New York. B..60. pp. $2. 235.

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