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Recommender system
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Recommender systems, recommendation systems, recommendation engines, recommendation

frameworks, recommendation platforms or simply recommender form or work from a specific type of
information filtering system technique that attempts to recommend information items (movies, TV
program/show/episode, video on demand, music[1], books, news, images, web pages, scientific literature such as
research papers etc.) that are likely to be of interest to the user.

Typically, a recommender system compares a user profile to some reference characteristics, and seeks to predict
the 'rating' that a user would give to an item they had not yet considered. These characteristics may be from the
information item (the content-based approach) or the user's social environment (the collaborative filtering

1 Overview
2 Algorithms
3 Recommendation search engines
4 See also
5 References
6 Further reading
7 External links
7.1 Research groups
7.2 Workshops
7.3 ACM Recommender Systems Series
7.3.1 Journal special issues
7.3.2 Books

When building the user's profile a distinction is made between explicit and implicit forms of data collection.

Examples of explicit data collection include the following:

Asking a user to rate an item on a sliding scale.

Asking a user to rank a collection of items from favorite to least favorite.
Presenting two items to a user and asking him/her to choose the best one.
Asking a user to create a list of items that he/she likes.

Examples of implicit data collection include the following:

Observing the items that a user views in an online store.

Analyzing item/user viewing times[2]
Keeping a record of the items that a user purchases online.
Obtaining a list of items that a user has listened to or watched on his/her computer.
Analyzing the user's social network and discovering similar likes and dislikes

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The recommender system compares the collected data to similar and not similar data collected from others and
calculates a list of recommended items for the user. Several commercial and non-commercial examples are listed
in the article on collaborative filtering systems. Montaner provides the first overview of recommender systems,
from an intelligent agents perspective.[3] Adomavicius provides a new overview of recommender systems.[4]
Herlocker provides an overview of evaluation techniques for recommender systems.[5]

Recommender systems are a useful alternative to search algorithms since they help users discover items they
might not have found by themselves. Interestingly enough, recommender systems are often implemented using
search engines indexing non-traditional data.

One of the most commonly used algorithms in recommender systems is the k-nearest neighborhood
approach.[6]. In a social network, a particular user's neighborhood with similar taste or interest can be found by
calculating Pearson Correlation, by collecting the preference data of top-N nearest neighbors of the particular
user (weighted by similarity), the user's preference can be predicted by calculating the data using certain

Another family of algorithms that is widely used in recommender systems is collaborative filtering. Collaborative
filter methods are based on collecting and analysing a large amount of information on users’ behaviour, activity
or preferences and predicting what users will like based on their similarity to other users.[7] One of the most
common types of Collaborative Filtering is item-to-item collaborative filtering (people who buy x also buy y), an
algorithm popularized by's recommender system. User-based collaborative filtering attempts to
model the social process of asking a friend for a recommendation. A particular type of collaborative filtering
algorithms uses matrix factorization, a low-rank matrix approximation techique[8][9]. A key advantage of the
collaborative filtering approach is that it does not rely on machine analyzable content and therefore it is capable
of accurately recommending complex items such as movies without requiring an "understanding" of the item

Building user profiles using collaborative filtering can be problematic from a privacy point of view. Many
European countries have a strong culture of data privacy and every attempt to introduce any level of user
profiling can result in a negative customer response.[10]

The Netflix Prize, a contest with a dataset of over 100 million movie ratings and a grand prize of $1,000,000,
has energized the search for new and more accurate algorithms. The most accurate algorithm in 2007 used 107
different algorithmic approaches, blended into a single prediction:[11]

Predictive accuracy is substantially improved when blending multiple predictors. Our experience is
that most efforts should be concentrated in deriving substantially different approaches, rather than
refining a single technique. Consequently, our solution is an ensemble of many methods.

Recommendation search engines

MeeMix is a music recommendation engine.
Taboola is a personalized video recommendation engine used by sites like CNN, The NYTimes,
Bloomberg, Slate, Demand Media, founded by Adam Singolda
Hunch is a personalized recommendation engine supporting multiple product categories, co-founded by
Caterina Fake of Flickr fame

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Freebase movies, music, and television

blinkx video on demand
Boxee features a recommender system and social network platform for movies, music, television, and web
video streams.
The Filter entertainment and information
IMDb movies
MovieLens movies
Jinni movies and television
Rotten Tomatoes movies television
Trak television
Strands Recommender General purpose SaaS recommender platform / API
TV Genius is a personalized TV recommendation engine designed for TV, web, and mobile.
Flixster movies
MusicBrainz music
Gravity Technologies retail, movies and television
Tank Top TV online television music music
Genieo news stories, blog posts
Ping music, is Apple's recommender system and social network platform for iTunes online dating, social media and e-commerce recommender system
Sugestio ( General purpose SaaS recommender platform / API developed at
Ghent University
Easyrec General purpose Open-Source SaaS recommender system / API
Scarab Cloud ( scientific SaaS e-commerce product recommender system

See also
Rating site
Cold start
Collaborative filtering
Collective intelligence
Content Discovery Platform
Enterprise bookmarking
Netflix Prize
Personalized marketing
Preference elicitation
Product finders
The Long Tail
Slope One

1. ^ How Computers Know What We Want — Before We Do (
2. ^ Parsons, J.; Ralph, P.; Gallagher, K. (July 2004), Using viewing time to infer user preference in
recommender systems., AAAI Workshop in Semantic Web Personalization, San Jose, California.
3. ^ Montaner, M.; Lopez, B.; de la Rosa, J. L. (June 2003), "A Taxonomy of Recommender Agents on the
Internet" ( , Artificial Intelligence Review 19

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(4): 285–330, doi:10.1023/A:1022850703159 ( ,
4. ^ Adomavicius, G.; Tuzhilin, A. (June 2005), "Toward the Next Generation of Recommender Systems: A
Survey of the State-of-the-Art and Possible Extensions" (
/citation.cfm?id=1070611.1070751) , IEEE Transactions on Knowledge and Data Engineering 17 (6):
734–749, doi:10.1109/TKDE.2005.99 ( ,
5. ^ Herlocker, J. L.; Konstan, J. A.; Terveen, L. G.; Riedl, J. T. (January 2004), "Evaluating collaborative
filtering recommender systems" ( , ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. 22
(1): 5–53, doi:10.1145/963770.963772 ( ,
6. ^ Sarwar, B.; Karypis, G.; Konstan, J.; Riedl, J. (2000), Application of Dimensionality Reduction in
Recommender System A Case Study ( ,
7. ^
8. ^ Takács, G.; Pilászy, I.; Németh, B.; Tikk, D. (March 2009), "Scalable Collaborative Filtering
Approaches for Large Recommender Systems" (
/takacs09a.pdf) , Journal of Machine Learning Research 10: 623–656,
9. ^ Rennie, J.; Srebro, N. (2005). "Fast Maximum Margin Matrix Factorization for Collaborative
Prediction" ( . In Luc De Raedt, Stefan
Wrobel (PDF). Proceedings of the 22nd Annual International Conference on Machine Learning. ACM
10. ^
11. ^ R. Bell, Y. Koren, C. Volinsky (2007). ""The BellKor solution to the Netflix Prize""
( .

Further reading
Hangartner, Rick, "What is the Recommender Industry?" (
/17/guest-column-what-is-the-recommender-industry/) , MSearchGroove, December 17, 2007.
Robert M. Bell, Jim Bennett, Yehuda Koren, and Chris Volinsky (May 2009). "The Million Dollar
Programming Prize" ( . IEEE Spectrum.

External links
Content-Boosted Collaborative Filtering for Improved Recommendations. Prem Melville, Raymond J.
Mooney, and Ramadass Nagarajan (
Collection of research papers (
Methods and Metrics for Cold-Start Recommendations Andrew I. Schein, Alexandrin Popescul, Lyle H.
Ungar, David M. Pennock. (
PDF (126 KiB)

Research groups
GroupLens (

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Agents Research Lab (

IFI DBIS Next Generation Recommender Systems (
Univ. of Southampton IAM Group (
CoFE (
Duine Recommender Framework (
Institute for Software Technology, Applied Software Engineering Group, Austria
Intelligent Systems and Business Informatics research group at University Klagenfurt, Austria
Univ. of Fribourg Statistical Physics Group (
Laboratory for Web Science, FFHS, Switzerland (
Studio Smart Agent Technologies - Research Studios Austria
WiCa Research Group - Ghent University (
Web Intelligence Lab, DePaul University, Chicago , IL

ECAI 2008 Workshop on Recommender Systems (
ECAI 2006 Workshop on Recommender Systems (
ACM SIGIR 2001 Workshop on Recommender Systems (
ACM SIGIR '99 Workshop on Recommender Systems (
CHI' 99 Workshop Interacting with Recommender Systems (

ACM Recommender Systems Series

RecSys 2010, September 26-30, Barcelona (
RecSys 2009, October 22-25, New York City (
RecSys 2008 (
RecSys 2007: home page ( , proceedings (

Journal special issues

ACM TIST Special Issue on Social Recommender Systems (

UMUAI Special Issue on User Interfaces for Recommender Systems (
International Journal of Human-Computer Studies - Special issue on Measuring the Impact of
Personalization and Recommendation on User Behaviour (
ACM Transactions on the Web Special issue on Recommenders on the Web (
AI Communications Special issue on Recommender Systems (

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IEEE Intelligent Systems Special Issue on Recommender Systems, Vol. 22(3), 2007
International Journal of Electronic Commerce Special Issue on Recommender Systems, Volume 11,
Number 2 (Winter 2006-07) (
ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI) Special Section on Recommender Systems
Volume 12, Issue 3 (September 2005) (
ACM Transactions on Information Systems (TOIS) Special Issue on Recommender Systems, Volume 22,
Issue 1 (January 2004) (
Journal of Information Technology and Tourism Special issue on Recommender Systems, Volume 6,
Number 3 (2003) (
Communications of the ACM Special issue on Recommender Systems, Volume 40, Issue 3 (March 1997)


Recommender Systems An Introduction (

Recommender Systems Handbook (
Building Effective Recommender Systems (
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