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Appraisals are now used, almost universally, as the main channel for providing feedback to individuals on how to develop their performance. Traditionally, feedback in appraisal ﬂows top down from the line manager to the individual being appraised. Although this is valuable, there is an opportunity to broaden the appraisal to include: • Upward feedback from team members to their line manager • Feedback from colleagues, mentors or from contacts outside the organisation, such as clients or suppliers. This has obvious beneﬁts: • The workplace is ﬂatter and increasingly project focused with individuals working in matrix structures or remotely from home. Line managers typically have less contact with their direct reports and so need information from other sources if they are to provide valuable feedback. • Direct reports can use their own experience to give particularly valuable feedback to their line manager.
180˚ Appraisal extends the traditional appraisal process to make the feedback process two-way. Feedback from team members can be provided to their line manager on a one-to-one basis during the individual’s appraisal discussion, or it can be collated and presented as group feedback from all team members. �� ����
360˚ Appraisal involves capturing feedback about an individual from a range of people (respondents) including his or her line manager, colleagues and direct reports. The data is then compared with the individual’s own � ����� ��� assessment of their performance. In some models, external contacts and partners may also be involved.
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What data you should gather 2. Key points to consider as you design the process include: 1. How to design the feedback questionnaire 3.Learning Resources 2005 . © Instep (UK) Ltd. Providing respondents with a questionnaire will help them to structure their feedback and encourage them to focus on the individual’s behaviour and performance rather than their personality.����������� ��������� ���� ��������� ���� ��������� ���� ������� ���� ������� ���� ������� �������� ���������� ���������� ������������ ������ ������ ������ ��������� ������ ��������� What to consider 180˚ and 360˚ appraisal processes both need careful planning and management. How to give the feedback. .
Development Questionnaire This seeks feedback against a set of competences that are aligned with business need such as: • People Management • Problem Solving • Interpersonal Skills • Leadership • Decision Taking • People Management • Problem Solving • Interpersonal Skills • Leadership. Deciding what data to gather Two commonly used formats for questionnaires are: i.something they don’t currently do but would be helpful if they did • What would you like the person to STOP doing? .Learning Resources 2005 . © Instep (UK) Ltd.something they already do that you would like to reinforce ii.something they currently do but isn’t helpful • What would you like the person to CONTINUE doing? . . Stop/Start/Continue Questionnaire This uses three basic questions: ���������� • What would you like the person to START doing? .1.
2. Review success and make any improvements. Designing the questionnaire The questionnaire should be easy to understand. . but avoid giving people the option to select the ‘middle ground’. or whether it will be collated with the feedback from other respondents to preserve their anonymity. “Is the manager willing to listen and do they respond appropriately?” This forces people to give one response to two subjects. emphasising whether it will be provided directly to the individual. • Keep the questionnaire simple and short .try the questionnaire out with a small selection of staff. • Use quality and frequency scales .it is more likely to be completed if it is easy to ﬁll in.ensure enough scope for people to score their response.Learning Resources 2005 .g. Here are some tips: ������� ������ • Tell respondents what will happen to the feedback they provide. © Instep (UK) Ltd.How good is it and how often do they do it? Very Good Good Average Fairly Poor Poor Frequency Quality Too often Correct Not often enough Excels Good Some improvement needed Much improvement needed • Provide instructions for completing and returning the questionnaire . • Avoid multiple questions e. • Pilot .make sure these are clear and easily understood. • Use appropriate scales .
3. People can describe how they are involved in identifying their learning and development needs and the activities planned to meet them. Some organisations see that the easiest next step for their appraisal process is to encourage upward as well as downward feedback during the appraisal discussion. Completing a 180˚ appraisal is not an essential part of the Investors in People Standard. individuals may ﬁnd it difﬁcult to provide honest feedback to their line manager. The latter is preferable as it preserves the anonymity of the respondents. their team and the organisation. the activities planned to meet them. You need to consider whether: • The individual should receive the completed feedback questionnaire(s) or a report that aggregates the feedback. • The feedback is provided to the individual by his or her line manager or by an independent third party.Learning Resources 2005 . © Instep (UK) Ltd. Evidence: Top managers can explain the organisation’s learning and development needs. Check the effectiveness of your system by working through the following indicators and associated evidence. the plans and resources in place to meet them. This works particularly well if the third party is skilled in giving feedback and can go on to act as a coach. . • Direct reports should provide feedback to their line manager face-to-face. Managers can explain team learning and development needs. how these link to achieving speciﬁc objectives and how the impact will be evaluated. how these link to achieving speciﬁc team objectives and how the impact will be evaluated. This can be a difﬁcult option as without an open culture and a high level of interpersonal skills. for a more detailed description of the appraisal discussion). it simply requires training and development needs to be reviewed. (see ‘How to Prepare an Appraisal’. Managing the feedback process The feedback process is key to the success of 180˚ or 360˚ appraisal feedback. Main Indicator Indicator 2 Learning and development is planned to achieve the organisation’s objectives. 180˚ and 360˚ Appraisal and Investors in People The Investors in People indicators provide a clear framework for the development of an appraisal system. People can explain what their learning and development activities should achieve for them. As it says.
Learning Resources 2005 . both individually and through representative groups. Evidence: Managers can explain how they are effective in leading. at a level that is appropriate to their role. Indicator 7 People are encouraged to take ownership and responsibility by being involved in decision-making. managing and developing people. People can explain how their managers are effective in leading. managing and developing people. © Instep (UK) Ltd. People can describe how they are encouraged to take ownership and responsibility for decisions that affect the performance of individuals. at a level that is appropriate to their role. People can give examples of how they receive constructive feedback on their performance regularly and when appropriate. Evidence: Managers can describe how they promote a sense of ownership and responsibility by encouraging people to be involved in decision-making.Additional Indicators Indicator 5 Managers are effective in leading. teams and the organisation. teams and the organisation. People can describe how they are encouraged to be involved in decision-making that affects the performance of individuals. . Managers can give examples of how they give people constructive feedback on their performance regularly and when appropriate. where they exist. managing and developing them.
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