This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Lewis 2004 All rights reserved

**EE 4443/4329 – Bode Plots
**

Updated:Tuesday, June 15, 2004

**Plotting Transfer Functions
**

It is very easy to make 3-D plots of transfer function magnitudes and phases using MATLAB. The following example is from Shahian and Hassul, “Control System Design Using MATLAB, Prentice-Hall 1993.

1

jw axis real axis Note that more recent versions of MATLAB may require this code to be modified. 2 .

bode(num. These two plots are known as Bode plots.Bode Plot Prior to the advent of modern computers and software. Based on these two plots. the Bode magnitude plot corresponds to slicing the 3D plot given along the jω axis.den) . making such 3D plots was not easy. den=[1 1 1] . In the figure above. the Bode plots for the example given above are easily plotted. num=[1] . he showed that it is only necessary to plot the magnitude and phase along the jω axis. In the early 1900s. Using MATLAB. 3 . Bode discovered that it is not necessary to make a full 3D plot of the frequency response to perform control systems design. In fact. the notions of phase margin and gain margin allow the design of stable feedback systems.

-40 Bode Mag Plot (dB) 20 log10 H ( jω ) -1 -1 -1 1 10 100 1K 10K freq (rads) 4 . For every zero.i. Procedure for Rough Bode Plots. The system is H ( s ) = ( s + 10)( s + 1000) ( s + 1)( s + 100)( s + 10. the angle of the phase plot decreases by 900. Bode Phase Plot Rule of Thumb The rule of thumb for making the Bode Phase Plot is: For every pole. Bode Magnitude Plot Rule of Thumb The rule of thumb for making the Bode Magnitude Plot is: For every pole. This can often be accomplished using some easy Rules of Thumb. about 10 times the frequency of the next lowest pole or zero.000) Magnitude Plot 1. For every zero.e. The following rules of thumb work for systems where the separation between poles and zeros is sufficient-. the slope of the magnitude increases by 1.Example 1 This example shows how to sketch Bode Plots. Draw frequency axis and insert poles and zeros on the frequency axis. Draw mag plot using rule of thumb.Rules of Thumb for Making Bode Plots It is often useful to perform a quick sketch of the Bode plots. the slope of the magnitude decreases by 1. the angle of the phase plot increases by 900. 2. A slope of 1 is equal to 20 dB/decade or 8dB/octave.

To calibrate the y axis.[1 1000]) den=conv([1 1]. 2.000) or in dB 20 log10 10 −2 = −40 dB Phase Plot 1. set s=0 and find (10)(1000) H (0) = = 10 − 2 (1)(100)(10. Draw frequency axis and insert poles and zeros on the frequency axis.[1 10000]) bode(num. Draw phase plot using rule of thumb. num=conv([1 10].3.[1 100]) den=conv(den.den) 5 . Bode Phase Plot (deg) 0 -90 1K 1 10 100 10K freq (rads) MATLAB Accurate Bode Plot The Bode plot is easy to make with MATLAB.

which turn out to be num = 1 1010 10000 den = 1 10101 1010100 1000000 Note that in the phase plot. For a single pole or zero. Consider the system of Example 1 but with an extra zeros ( s + 10)( s + 1000) H (s) = ( s + 1)( s + 100)( s + 10. The transitions in mag slope and phase angle begin at a frequency about 10 times below the pole or zero frequency. Some Refinements There are a few rules for refining your Bode sketches1.000) Magnitude Plot Bode Mag Plot (dB) 20 log10 H ( jω ) 1 1 1 zero at s=0 1 10 100 1K 10K freq (rads) 6 . Example 2. the magnitude has changed by 3dB at the pole or zero frequency. 3. and are complete about 10 times above that frequency.Note that the convolution function conv is used to multiply polynomial factors to get the transfer function numerator and denominator. The angle has changed by half its total amount at the pole or zero frequency.initial mag slope at zero frequency Sometimes there is an initial slope on the magnitude. 2. there is not enough separation between the frequencies of the individual poles and zeros to allow the angle to go fully to -90 deg.

In terms of the quality factor one may write the characteristic polynomial in the nondimensional form ⎛ s ∆( s) = ⎜ ⎜ω ⎝ n ⎞ 1⎛ s ⎟ + ⎜ ⎟ Q ⎜ωn ⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎞ ⎟ +1 ⎟ ⎠ 7 . Phase Plot Bode Phase Plot (deg) 90 0 zero at s=0 1 10 100 1K 10K freq (rads) Note that the zero at s=0 makes the initial angle be 90 deg. This yields a resonant peak in the Bode plot. In fact. Bode Plot of Complex Pole Pair Consider the transfer function H (s) = ωn2 ωn2 ω 2 = 2 ≡ n 2 2 ∆( s) s 2 + 2αs + ω n s + 2ζω n s + ω n which has a complex pole pair. but with all slopes increased by 1. the quality factor Q= 1 ωn = 2ζ 2α measures the sharpness of the resonant peak in the Bode plot.Note that the zero at s=0 makes the initial slope be plus 1. but with all angles increased by 90 deg. Note that this is effectively determined solely by the damping ratio. The poles are complex if Q> 1/2. The zero at s=0 makes this system behave like a differentiator at low frequencies. as shown in the figure below from Dorf and Bishop. Note that this magnitude plot is the same as that of example 1. Note that this phase plot is the same as that of example 1.

there are two poles at the resonant frequency.7 by ω r = ω n 1 − 2ζ 2 . The maximum value of the Bode plot at resonance is given by 1 M pω = . 2ζ 1 − ζ 2 In terms of the rules of thumb. 8 . This means that the slope in this example changes from 0 to -2.The resonant frequency is given for ζ ≤ 0. The angle changes from 0 deg to -180 deg.

- Year 9 Linear Relationships Lessons Outline (Online Version)
- An Gin
- Maths Ex 123!@#abc
- Lesson Plan - Math Technology - Katie Schaible
- Co Ordinate Geometry
- The slope of a line
- Graphs in Economics
- Slant of Signature and Writing
- PH_Geom_ch03-05_Ex
- chap2maths
- Graphing
- 2.2.2 slope
- Chapter 7 Test
- Toppling Mechanism
- TB03
- 5Graphing Linear Equations
- Slopes and Setbacks 201307021458460518
- AppA_PPT
- 2ndOrderRateLaw
- ACT co-ordinate lines.docx
- Prelaboratory Session
- handout_3001_CI3001
- Pit Design.lab
- nrcs144p2_025499
- Finding Slope of a Line
- 48_Narendranathan
- Coulomb Wedge Analysis Paper 14.2.07
- Slope Stability
- Bearing Capacity of Eccentrically
- PR 9e ISM 01, Graphs
- Bode Plot

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd