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양생조건이 내한촉진제를 사용한 모르터의 동결 및 강도특성에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구

연구논문 연구논문

으로 양생온도가 낮을수록, 내한촉진제의 응결촉진 增進性狀と積算溫度關數式に關する檢討, コンクリ-ト


工學年次論文集, Vol.22, No.2.
Analysis Procedure of Reinforced Concrete
효과가 우수한 것으로 평가되었으며, 염화물량은 공
히 KS F 4009의 관리규준을 만족하였다.
Beam during Fire
(3) 강도증진성상은 내한촉진제를 혼합한 경우, 로지스
틱 곡선식을 이용한 강도증진해석 결과와 거의 유사
한 것으로 나타났다. 그러나, 양생조건이 -5℃이고,
plain과 촉진형 감수제를 사용한 경우는 강도증진해
* Kang, Suk-Won ** Hong, Sung-Gul
석 결과의 표준오차가 상대적으로 매우 크게 나타
나, 강도증진해석을 목적으로 사용되는 로지스틱 곡
선이나 적산온도와 압축강도의 관계에서 적용성이 Abstract
낮은 것으로 평가되었다.
An analytical method is proposed for the thermal behavior of a reinforced concrete flexural member
(4) 내한촉진제를 혼합한 모르터가 압축강도 50kgf/㎠
subjected to fire. The analysis procedure can be subdivided into two different steps; sectional analysis and
을 발휘하게 되는 적산온도는 각각 20�30DD(K),
member solution. A segmentation scheme is employed in the analysis for a section. It implicates uniform
30�40DD(B), 40DD(S)이후인 것으로 나타나고 있 sectional properties and temperature distribution through the longitudinal axis of the member. The
어, 향후 현장에 적용할 경우에는 사전에 내한촉진 mechanical changes at the segmented section such as strain changes and corresponding stresses due to
제의 종류에 따른 성능검토가 선행되어야 할 것으 temperature increase are integrated into the member behavior at the member solution step. According to the
analysis results, there exist very severe nonlinear strain changes with the depth measured from the fire-
로 판단된다.
exposed surface, which are caused by a nonlinear temperature distribution at the section. Self-equilibrating
(5) 양생방법에 따른 한중콘크리트의 압축강도는 동일 stresses are manifested during heating just to let the section remain plane after deformation.
적산온도라 할지라도 정온양생보다는 실제 환경과
유사한 조건이라 할 수 있는 변온양생이 더 유리한 Keywords : Thermal behavior, reinforced concrete flexural member, sectional analysis, member solution, nonlinear
temperature distribution, segmentation, self-equilibrating stress
것으로 평가되었다.

참고문헌
INTRODUCTION thermal and the mechanical properties of materials,
1. 浜幸雄(1998) 耐寒促進劑による寒中コンクリ-ト施工 and thus, they must be the preconsiderations for the
In order to understand the behavior of the structures
指針に關する硏究, 北海道大學.
2. 浜�謙吉 外3人(1992) 耐寒用特殊混和劑ノンフリ-ズ subjected to elevated temperatures such as fire, an analysis. The mechanical changes such as
の特性について,


エヌエムビ-硏究報告, No.9. information on the temperature distribution according deformations or partial failure during heating also
3. (주)대우건설 기술연구소(2002) 내한촉진제를 이용한
to external heat and a full comprehension on the may affect the temperature distribution. However, it is
겨울철 콘크리트의 개발 및 실용화 연구.
4. 日 本 建 築 學 會 ( 1 9 9 8 ) 寒 中 コ ン ク リ -ト 施 工 指 針 characteristics of the material at a given temperature almost true that their degrees are not remarkable and
同解說. therefore, it is assumed that the temperature
condition are needed. Temperature changes vary the
5. 한천구, 한민철(2000) 한중콘크리트의 초기동해방지
를 위한 초기양생기간의 산정, 한국콘크리트학회논문 distribution is not affected by the mechanical changes
집, 제12권 3호, pp.47�55. * Research Engineer, Daewoo E&C, of the member in the real applications.[1,6,11,&12] Thus,
sharkang@mail.dwconst.co.kr
6. 三森敏司 外3人(2000) 氷點下でのコンクリ-トの强度
** Seoul National University, sglhong@snu.ac.kr the analysis for the fire response of the structures can

20 �대우건설기술 DAEWOO CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY REPORT �21


Analysis Procedure of Reinforced Concrete Beam during Fire
연구논문

The behavior of the cross section is determined in the DEVELOPMENT OF


first loop (section analysis) and the behavior of the AN ANALYSIS MODEL
member is determined in the second loop (member The thermal response of the structure is obtained by
analysis). The member solution approach for the three procedures. The temperature analysis and the
vertical member by Lie has a similar procedure. The stress-strain analysis at the section are carried out at
strength of the column is calculated by a method on the segmented section at first. Finally, the structural
the load-deflection relation. behavior is achieved by the member solution by
In this study, the simple member solution procedure integrating the section analysis result. It is assumed
proposed by Poh et al. with consideration of Lie’s that the temperature distribution and the structural
method was extended to the horizontal members with behavior are mutually independent. FIGURE 2 is an
Figure 1. General procedure of thermal analysis
the newly added concepts. The proposed method analysis procedure of the proposed method.
takes into account the material deterioration, the Following assumptions are made before the
be subdivided into two major sequences for the the element should be updated with the corresponding material nonlinearity, and nonlinear strain changes of structural analysis at elevated temperatures.
reasons mentioned above; a nonlinear temperature temperature. Besides, large displacement problems concrete with temperature increase.
analysis and a successive structural analysis as briefly should be considered at higher temperature level in The proposed analysis procedure has some benefits. ■ Uniaxial behavior of the segmented elements

shown FIGURE 1. It should be noted that the material some cases. Thus, it is not unnatural to seek a more It can replace a full-scale analysis with a little effort. It ■ Plane section remains plane after deformation

properties are also subdivided into two categories simple analysis technique for the members, and a can efficiently describe the structural response during ■ Perfect bond between concrete and steel

following the analysis type in this study. The density, simple numerical method to calculate the structural heating with a simple illustration. On the other hand,
the specific heat, and the thermal conductivity are behavior during heating will be very useful for the the proposed method presumes a fixed shape of the Temperature analysis at an arbitrary segmented
used in the temperature analysis and called as thermal engineers. Lie et al.(1993) suggested proposed a section with the uniform material properties. section is treated as a 2 dimensional problem. It has
properties in this study. Whilst, the thermal expansion simple calculating the fire resistance of a vertical
coefficient, the initial elastic modulus, the strength, member by a simple illustrative way.[3] The calculation
and etc. are included in the mechanical properties for procedure is quite simple compared to finite element
the successive structural analysis. analysis, and the understanding of the behavior of a
Recent rapid progress in the personal computer column under fire is very easy and clear.
technology enables the structural engineers to solve This paper aims to propose a simple numerical
many complicated nonlinear problems by means of process to analyze the thermal behavior of the
finite element method. However, the solution for a horizontal members during heating. The motive is
thermal response problem is still intricate and time- Poh’s action-deformation concept and Lie’s member
consuming because the solution procedure essentially solution method. Poh et al. suggested an analytical
requires iterative procedures for the calculation of formulation by their action-deformation relationships
stresses, strains, displacements, and etc. at the section and solution procedure.[11] The solution is achieved by
and the temperature-dependent material properties of action and deformations with the iterative procedures. Figure 2. Thermal analysis procedure using with segmentation

22 �대우건설기술 DAEWOO CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY REPORT �23


Analysis Procedure of Reinforced Concrete Beam during Fire
연구논문

The behavior of the cross section is determined in the DEVELOPMENT OF


first loop (section analysis) and the behavior of the AN ANALYSIS MODEL
member is determined in the second loop (member The thermal response of the structure is obtained by
analysis). The member solution approach for the three procedures. The temperature analysis and the
vertical member by Lie has a similar procedure. The stress-strain analysis at the section are carried out at
strength of the column is calculated by a method on the segmented section at first. Finally, the structural
the load-deflection relation. behavior is achieved by the member solution by
In this study, the simple member solution procedure integrating the section analysis result. It is assumed
proposed by Poh et al. with consideration of Lie’s that the temperature distribution and the structural
method was extended to the horizontal members with behavior are mutually independent. FIGURE 2 is an
Figure 1. General procedure of thermal analysis
the newly added concepts. The proposed method analysis procedure of the proposed method.
takes into account the material deterioration, the Following assumptions are made before the
be subdivided into two major sequences for the the element should be updated with the corresponding material nonlinearity, and nonlinear strain changes of structural analysis at elevated temperatures.
reasons mentioned above; a nonlinear temperature temperature. Besides, large displacement problems concrete with temperature increase.
analysis and a successive structural analysis as briefly should be considered at higher temperature level in The proposed analysis procedure has some benefits. ■ Uniaxial behavior of the segmented elements

shown FIGURE 1. It should be noted that the material some cases. Thus, it is not unnatural to seek a more It can replace a full-scale analysis with a little effort. It ■ Plane section remains plane after deformation

properties are also subdivided into two categories simple analysis technique for the members, and a can efficiently describe the structural response during ■ Perfect bond between concrete and steel

following the analysis type in this study. The density, simple numerical method to calculate the structural heating with a simple illustration. On the other hand,
the specific heat, and the thermal conductivity are behavior during heating will be very useful for the the proposed method presumes a fixed shape of the Temperature analysis at an arbitrary segmented
used in the temperature analysis and called as thermal engineers. Lie et al.(1993) suggested proposed a section with the uniform material properties. section is treated as a 2 dimensional problem. It has
properties in this study. Whilst, the thermal expansion simple calculating the fire resistance of a vertical
coefficient, the initial elastic modulus, the strength, member by a simple illustrative way.[3] The calculation
and etc. are included in the mechanical properties for procedure is quite simple compared to finite element
the successive structural analysis. analysis, and the understanding of the behavior of a
Recent rapid progress in the personal computer column under fire is very easy and clear.
technology enables the structural engineers to solve This paper aims to propose a simple numerical
many complicated nonlinear problems by means of process to analyze the thermal behavior of the
finite element method. However, the solution for a horizontal members during heating. The motive is
thermal response problem is still intricate and time- Poh’s action-deformation concept and Lie’s member
consuming because the solution procedure essentially solution method. Poh et al. suggested an analytical
requires iterative procedures for the calculation of formulation by their action-deformation relationships
stresses, strains, displacements, and etc. at the section and solution procedure.[11] The solution is achieved by
and the temperature-dependent material properties of action and deformations with the iterative procedures. Figure 2. Thermal analysis procedure using with segmentation

22 �대우건설기술 DAEWOO CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY REPORT �23


Analysis Procedure of Reinforced Concrete Beam during Fire
연구논문

nothing to do with its position because the section α= Thermal diffusivity (=k/ρcp) [m2/sec] where εth, εσ, εcr, T and t represent free thermal Structural behavior at the section
properties and the shape are assumed uniform. The strain, stress-induced strain, thermal creep strain, The total strain in equation (3) can also be described
mechanical changes such as strain increases and The left side of the heat conduction equation is the temperature and time, respectively. The free thermal by an illustrated way as shown in FIGURE 3. The
corresponding stresses are obtained in the section second order function, which requires appropriate strain and the thermal creep strain are originated with strain of the heated flexural member is regarded as the
analysis. Assumption 1 is used at the structural conditions at boundaries. The boundary conditions in the temperature change. Whilst, the stress-induced sum of three components and represented as
analysis of the section. Only uniaxial deformation is this study consider convection and radiation heat flux strain is generated by the external loads. Inelastic
allowed and the transversal deformations and their from fire and are expressed as strain change due to moisture in concrete is neglected εtotal = εel + εthermal + εse (6)
affections are ignored. Assumptions 2 to 3 are used at in this study for the reason that it is so small compared
the member solution procedure for the estimation of β
Ω =α(Te-Ts) +νδ(εe Te4 - εs Ts4) (2) to thermal creep strain at high temperature and its where εel, εthermal and εse are the strain by the external
the curvature by the thermal effect. effects are getting disappear at more than 400℃.[5&10] loads, the thermal strain due to the temperature
where α, β, γ, δ, and εare convection factor, The thermal expansion of concrete is calculated by change and a virtual self-equilibrating strain. The
convection power, radiative view factor, Stefan- the following simple equation. load-induced strain is simply calculated from the
TEMPERATURE ANALYSIS Boltzman constant, and emissivity coefficient, elastic beam theory. The thermal strain is obtained by
AT THE SECTION respectively. Terro’s research data are used for the εth=∫ αc (T)dT
T2

T1
(4) assuming the virtual curvature. The virtual strain is
The temperature information of the elements with values of the coefficients.[12]
derived from the planeity condition after the
time is essential for the successive solution of the where αc(T) is the coefficient of the thermal deformation by the nonlinear temperature gradient
structural analysis. There exist three types of the heat expansion of concrete, and it varies with temperature. and gives rise to the self-equilibrating stress. It does
transferring; convection, radiation, and conduction. In STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS The thermal creep strain of concrete can be defined as not affect the structural behavior and just change the
general, the heat flux from the fire to the structure at Constitutive relationships at high temperature stress distribution at the section. In this study, the
m m n
fire-side is governed by convection and radiation, It is generally accepted that the creep due to ∙ t
εcr =C,∙δ(x)δ(o)∙θ and θ=∫exp (-ΔH/RT)dt virtual thermal curvature is calculated from either the
0
(5)
while the heat flow inside the element is determined temperature change becomes more critical with temperature difference or the strain difference. The
by conduction. temperature. Recently, it has been reported that at where C , m and n are the thermal creep constants. explanation for the curvature calculation is written in
From the first law of thermodynamics and Fourier’s higher temperature level the creep strain of concrete The term θin the equation is the representative of the the example analysis.
law, the heat conduction within the material is can be modeled by using Dorn’s theorem. They effective time intensified by temperature change and
represented as employed an Arrhenius plot in order to derive the the internal energy of molecular phase transformation εthermal = �thermal∙y (7)

activation energy of concrete for the thermal creep.[3&4] for creep behavior. It is usually called as a temper-
1 1 ∂T(x,y,t)
∇ T(x,y,t)+
2
Q (x,y,t)= (1) For the simplicity of the numerical model, the strain ature compensated time. The coefficients, ΔH and R, where �thermal and y are the thermal curvature due to
k α ∂t
components are assumed to be uncoupled. Then, the are the activation energy of concrete and gas constant, temperature or strain gradient and the distance from
where total strain of concrete (ε ) at high temperature is
total respectively. They are obtained from the logarithmic the top of the member. For a reinforced concrete
k = Conductivity [W/m∙K] assumed as the sum of three different components and graph of Arrhenius plot. More details on the thermal flexural beam, it is not easy to derive the curvature
Q (x,y,t) = Internal heat generation [W/m ] 3
can be written as creep of concrete at high temperature are described in due to the nonlinearity of the temperature distribution
ρ= Density of the material [kg/m ] 3
other researcher’s paper. [3,4,&6]
at the section. The differences of temperatures, strains
cp = Specific heat of the material [J/kg∙K] εtotal=εth(T)+εσ(σ, T) +εcr(σ, T,t) (3) or stresses between the top and bottom of the member

24 �대우건설기술 DAEWOO CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY REPORT �25


Analysis Procedure of Reinforced Concrete Beam during Fire
연구논문

nothing to do with its position because the section α= Thermal diffusivity (=k/ρcp) [m2/sec] where εth, εσ, εcr, T and t represent free thermal Structural behavior at the section
properties and the shape are assumed uniform. The strain, stress-induced strain, thermal creep strain, The total strain in equation (3) can also be described
mechanical changes such as strain increases and The left side of the heat conduction equation is the temperature and time, respectively. The free thermal by an illustrated way as shown in FIGURE 3. The
corresponding stresses are obtained in the section second order function, which requires appropriate strain and the thermal creep strain are originated with strain of the heated flexural member is regarded as the
analysis. Assumption 1 is used at the structural conditions at boundaries. The boundary conditions in the temperature change. Whilst, the stress-induced sum of three components and represented as
analysis of the section. Only uniaxial deformation is this study consider convection and radiation heat flux strain is generated by the external loads. Inelastic
allowed and the transversal deformations and their from fire and are expressed as strain change due to moisture in concrete is neglected εtotal = εel + εthermal + εse (6)
affections are ignored. Assumptions 2 to 3 are used at in this study for the reason that it is so small compared
the member solution procedure for the estimation of β
Ω =α(Te-Ts) +νδ(εe Te4 - εs Ts4) (2) to thermal creep strain at high temperature and its where εel, εthermal and εse are the strain by the external
the curvature by the thermal effect. effects are getting disappear at more than 400℃.[5&10] loads, the thermal strain due to the temperature
where α, β, γ, δ, and εare convection factor, The thermal expansion of concrete is calculated by change and a virtual self-equilibrating strain. The
convection power, radiative view factor, Stefan- the following simple equation. load-induced strain is simply calculated from the
TEMPERATURE ANALYSIS Boltzman constant, and emissivity coefficient, elastic beam theory. The thermal strain is obtained by
AT THE SECTION respectively. Terro’s research data are used for the εth=∫ αc (T)dT
T2

T1
(4) assuming the virtual curvature. The virtual strain is
The temperature information of the elements with values of the coefficients.[12]
derived from the planeity condition after the
time is essential for the successive solution of the where αc(T) is the coefficient of the thermal deformation by the nonlinear temperature gradient
structural analysis. There exist three types of the heat expansion of concrete, and it varies with temperature. and gives rise to the self-equilibrating stress. It does
transferring; convection, radiation, and conduction. In STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS The thermal creep strain of concrete can be defined as not affect the structural behavior and just change the
general, the heat flux from the fire to the structure at Constitutive relationships at high temperature stress distribution at the section. In this study, the
m m n
fire-side is governed by convection and radiation, It is generally accepted that the creep due to ∙ t
εcr =C,∙δ(x)δ(o)∙θ and θ=∫exp (-ΔH/RT)dt virtual thermal curvature is calculated from either the
0
(5)
while the heat flow inside the element is determined temperature change becomes more critical with temperature difference or the strain difference. The
by conduction. temperature. Recently, it has been reported that at where C , m and n are the thermal creep constants. explanation for the curvature calculation is written in
From the first law of thermodynamics and Fourier’s higher temperature level the creep strain of concrete The term θin the equation is the representative of the the example analysis.
law, the heat conduction within the material is can be modeled by using Dorn’s theorem. They effective time intensified by temperature change and
represented as employed an Arrhenius plot in order to derive the the internal energy of molecular phase transformation εthermal = �thermal∙y (7)

activation energy of concrete for the thermal creep.[3&4] for creep behavior. It is usually called as a temper-
1 1 ∂T(x,y,t)
∇ T(x,y,t)+
2
Q (x,y,t)= (1) For the simplicity of the numerical model, the strain ature compensated time. The coefficients, ΔH and R, where �thermal and y are the thermal curvature due to
k α ∂t
components are assumed to be uncoupled. Then, the are the activation energy of concrete and gas constant, temperature or strain gradient and the distance from
where total strain of concrete (ε ) at high temperature is
total respectively. They are obtained from the logarithmic the top of the member. For a reinforced concrete
k = Conductivity [W/m∙K] assumed as the sum of three different components and graph of Arrhenius plot. More details on the thermal flexural beam, it is not easy to derive the curvature
Q (x,y,t) = Internal heat generation [W/m ] 3
can be written as creep of concrete at high temperature are described in due to the nonlinearity of the temperature distribution
ρ= Density of the material [kg/m ] 3
other researcher’s paper. [3,4,&6]
at the section. The differences of temperatures, strains
cp = Specific heat of the material [J/kg∙K] εtotal=εth(T)+εσ(σ, T) +εcr(σ, T,t) (3) or stresses between the top and bottom of the member

24 �대우건설기술 DAEWOO CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY REPORT �25


Analysis Procedure of Reinforced Concrete Beam during Fire
연구논문

Figure 4. Geometry of a simply supported beam(elevation and section at center Lin et al..(1981))

Temperature analysis on the segmented section was Case 2:


carried out as a 2 dimensional heat conduction фth = ( Δεbot -Δεtop ) /h
Δ (11b)
Figure 3. Thermal strains and curvature of a flexural member during heating
problem with the boundaries having convection and
radiation. Half of the section was analyzed with фth and h are the thermal curvature due to
where Δ
can be used to calculate the thermal curvature(refer to nonlinear temperature distribution at the section, and symmetry condition of the section. In the analysis, the nonlinear temperature distribution and the depth of
FIGURE 3). The locations of the two points to be the deflection at the section, respectively. The self- contribution of the steel was ignored as the the member. αbot and Tbot are and the average thermal
measured have the possibility to move depending on equilibrating stress at a given point is also determined reinforcement ratio is so small and the temperature expansion coefficient of the two successive time step
the severity of the nonlinearities of temperature, from the equation (6). drop at the interface between concrete and steel sets at the bottom of the member, respectively. The section
strains, or stresses. off the high conductivity of the steel. The thermal is discretized with uniform length as was done in
δse = E(T)∙(εtot - εel -�thermal ∙y) (10) properties needed for temperature analysis followed Poh’s method in order to make it easier to sum up the
Member solution procedure the numerical models presented in the ASCE total strain and stress at the section, which enables
If the thermal curvature is obtained, then the whole Recommendation . (2)
using the personal computer as shown in FIGURE 6.
structural response of the flexural member is achieved APPLICATION OF THE PROPOSED The results of the temperature analysis are shown in The predicted deflections are compared with the test
from the simple beam theory. The prediction of the METHOD FIGURE 5. It is clearly shown that there exists a result (FIGURE 7).
structural behavior of the member is determined by A simply supported beam with 4-point loading was nonlinearity of temperature distribution with the depth As seen in the figure, the assessments by the
integrating the sectional response through the analyzed by the proposed method. The specimen was and the nonlinearity gradually increases with assumed curvatures are somewhat unstable in some
longitudinal axis. fire-tested at PCA by T. D. Lin et al. (1981). The[9]
temperature. cases and are not well associated with test result. The
geometry of the specimen is shown in FIGURE 4. The thermal curvatures are calculated in three ways. predictions according to the temperature difference
�total = �el + �thermal (8) Average yield strength measured is about 435.8MPa. The first and the second assumptions are the and the strain differences are about 46% and 69%

2
M Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity are temperature and the strain differences at both ends of higher than test result after 80 minutes. In order to
= = �total (9)
dx
2
EI 29.46MPa and 25.91Gpa, respectively. The span the member, respectively. improve the reliability of the assessment of the
loading is kept almost constant during fire test, and its deflection, more adequate assumption for the thermal
where �el,�thermal, and νare the curvature by external value is 20.0kN. Furnace temperature followed Case 1: curvature is needed and the following suggestion is
loads that are easily obtained, the curvature by ASTM E 119 specification. фth = ( αbot ∙ΔTbot - αtop ∙ΔTtop ) /h
Δ (11a) used.

26 �대우건설기술 DAEWOO CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY REPORT �27


Analysis Procedure of Reinforced Concrete Beam during Fire
연구논문

Figure 4. Geometry of a simply supported beam(elevation and section at center Lin et al..(1981))

Temperature analysis on the segmented section was Case 2:


carried out as a 2 dimensional heat conduction фth = ( Δεbot -Δεtop ) /h
Δ (11b)
Figure 3. Thermal strains and curvature of a flexural member during heating
problem with the boundaries having convection and
radiation. Half of the section was analyzed with фth and h are the thermal curvature due to
where Δ
can be used to calculate the thermal curvature(refer to nonlinear temperature distribution at the section, and symmetry condition of the section. In the analysis, the nonlinear temperature distribution and the depth of
FIGURE 3). The locations of the two points to be the deflection at the section, respectively. The self- contribution of the steel was ignored as the the member. αbot and Tbot are and the average thermal
measured have the possibility to move depending on equilibrating stress at a given point is also determined reinforcement ratio is so small and the temperature expansion coefficient of the two successive time step
the severity of the nonlinearities of temperature, from the equation (6). drop at the interface between concrete and steel sets at the bottom of the member, respectively. The section
strains, or stresses. off the high conductivity of the steel. The thermal is discretized with uniform length as was done in
δse = E(T)∙(εtot - εel -�thermal ∙y) (10) properties needed for temperature analysis followed Poh’s method in order to make it easier to sum up the
Member solution procedure the numerical models presented in the ASCE total strain and stress at the section, which enables
If the thermal curvature is obtained, then the whole Recommendation . (2)
using the personal computer as shown in FIGURE 6.
structural response of the flexural member is achieved APPLICATION OF THE PROPOSED The results of the temperature analysis are shown in The predicted deflections are compared with the test
from the simple beam theory. The prediction of the METHOD FIGURE 5. It is clearly shown that there exists a result (FIGURE 7).
structural behavior of the member is determined by A simply supported beam with 4-point loading was nonlinearity of temperature distribution with the depth As seen in the figure, the assessments by the
integrating the sectional response through the analyzed by the proposed method. The specimen was and the nonlinearity gradually increases with assumed curvatures are somewhat unstable in some
longitudinal axis. fire-tested at PCA by T. D. Lin et al. (1981). The[9]
temperature. cases and are not well associated with test result. The
geometry of the specimen is shown in FIGURE 4. The thermal curvatures are calculated in three ways. predictions according to the temperature difference
�total = �el + �thermal (8) Average yield strength measured is about 435.8MPa. The first and the second assumptions are the and the strain differences are about 46% and 69%

2
M Compressive strength and modulus of elasticity are temperature and the strain differences at both ends of higher than test result after 80 minutes. In order to
= = �total (9)
dx
2
EI 29.46MPa and 25.91Gpa, respectively. The span the member, respectively. improve the reliability of the assessment of the
loading is kept almost constant during fire test, and its deflection, more adequate assumption for the thermal
where �el,�thermal, and νare the curvature by external value is 20.0kN. Furnace temperature followed Case 1: curvature is needed and the following suggestion is
loads that are easily obtained, the curvature by ASTM E 119 specification. фth = ( αbot ∙ΔTbot - αtop ∙ΔTtop ) /h
Δ (11a) used.

26 �대우건설기술 DAEWOO CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY REPORT �27


Analysis Procedure of Reinforced Concrete Beam during Fire
연구논문

behavior of a reinforced concrete flexural member at 141-147


4. Dias W. P. S, Khoury G. A., and Sullivan P. J. E,
elevated temperatures. The analysis process is “The Thermal and Structural Effects of Elevated
subdivided into temperature analysis of the section Temperatures on the Basic Creep of Hardened
Cement Paste,” Materials and Structures, Vol. 23,
and structural analysis of the member. The nonlinear No. 1990, pp. 418-425
temperature distribution at the section causes a 5. Kang S. W. and Hong S. G., “Thermal Stress of
Concrete Structure at High Temperature Considering
nonlinear strain distribution which results in the Inelastic Thermal Strain Change,” Proceedings of
change of the curvature of the member with the self- the Korea Concrete Institute, 2000, pp. 1145-1150
Figure 5. Temperature distribution at the Figure 6. Discretized strain distribution at the 6. Kang S. W. and Hong S. G., “Material Model and
segmented section with time section equilibrating stress. The successive structural Thermal Response Analysis of Concrete at Elevated
Temperatures, ”Journal of the Korea Concrete
response of the member is obtained from the
Institute, Vol. 13, No. 3, June 2001, pp. 268-276
Case 3: geometrical problem unlike others in a one-way integration of the curvature 7. Lie T. T. and Irwin R. J., “Method to Calculate the
Fire Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Columns
фth = (Δε’
Δ bot - Δε
’ ’
top) /h (11c) because it should find two optimum locations. In this An application of the proposed method shows a
with Rectangular Cross Section,” ACI Structural
study, the iteration is stopped when the sum of the relative good tendency compared to the experimental Journal, Vol. 90, No. 1, January-February 1993
8. Lin T. D., Ellingwood B., and Piet O., “Flexural and
where , Δε’
bot and Δε
’ ’the effective strains
top are h stresses is the smallest due to the coarse discretization results. The structural analysis of the member is Shear Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams
and the distance between the points where the strains of the section and another iteration is begun after the achieved as a 1 dimensional problem. The extension during Fire Tests,” PCA R&D Serial No. 1849,
December 1988
are measured, respectively. The locations for the strain location of one of them is changed. The structural of the method for 2 dimensional analysis of the 9. Lin T. D., Gustaferro A. H., and Abrams M. S.,“Fire
calculations in case 3 by which the analysis lies the response according to case 3 has a consistent section will be more useful to the analysis of the Endurance of Continuous Reinforced Concrete
Beams,”PCA R&D Bulletin RD072.01B, 1981
nearest to the test result in the figure is not obtained compared to the test result and is about 25% higher member in a real fire situation such as an unsteady or 10. Noumowe A. N., Clastres P., Debicki G., and
explicitly and determined by trial and error method than that after 80 minutes. 3 sided fire. A more reliable temperature-dependent Costaz J.-L., “Thermal Stresses and Water Vapour
Pressure of High Performance Concrete at High
using an iterative procedure. The implicit iteration material model, a more reliable temperature analysis, Temperature,” 4th International Symposium on
Utilisation of High-Strength/High-Performance
procedure for the location should be repeated until the a more finer discretization of the section, and a
Concrete, 1996, pp. 561-570
total stress at the section is zero according to the DISCUSSIONS comprehension of the effects of the failure of the 11. Poh K. W. and Bennetts I. D., “Analysis of
Structural Members under Elevated Temperature
planeity condition. This iteration is two-folded for the This study presented a simple analysis model for the material during heating will also improve the
Conditions,”Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol.
reliability of the analysis method. 121, No. 4, April 1995, pp. 664-675
12. Terro M. J.,“Numerical Modeling of the Behavior of
Concrete Structures in Fire,”ACI Structural Journal,
March-April 1998, pp. 183-193
REFERENCES

1. American Concrete Institute, Guide for Determining


the Fire Endurance of Concrete Elements, ACI 216R-
89
2. American Society of Civil Engineers, Structural Fire
Protection, ASCE Manuals and Reports on
Engineering Practice No. 78
3. Dias W. P. S, Khoury G. A., and Sullivan P. J. E,
“ An Activation Energy Approach for the
Temperature Dependence of Basic Creep of
Figure 7. Deflections of the beam at the center Hardened Cement Paste,” Magazine of Concrete
Research, Vol. 39, No. 140, September 1987, pp.

28 �대우건설기술 DAEWOO CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY REPORT �29


Analysis Procedure of Reinforced Concrete Beam during Fire
연구논문

behavior of a reinforced concrete flexural member at 141-147


4. Dias W. P. S, Khoury G. A., and Sullivan P. J. E,
elevated temperatures. The analysis process is “The Thermal and Structural Effects of Elevated
subdivided into temperature analysis of the section Temperatures on the Basic Creep of Hardened
Cement Paste,” Materials and Structures, Vol. 23,
and structural analysis of the member. The nonlinear No. 1990, pp. 418-425
temperature distribution at the section causes a 5. Kang S. W. and Hong S. G., “Thermal Stress of
Concrete Structure at High Temperature Considering
nonlinear strain distribution which results in the Inelastic Thermal Strain Change,” Proceedings of
change of the curvature of the member with the self- the Korea Concrete Institute, 2000, pp. 1145-1150
Figure 5. Temperature distribution at the Figure 6. Discretized strain distribution at the 6. Kang S. W. and Hong S. G., “Material Model and
segmented section with time section equilibrating stress. The successive structural Thermal Response Analysis of Concrete at Elevated
Temperatures, ”Journal of the Korea Concrete
response of the member is obtained from the
Institute, Vol. 13, No. 3, June 2001, pp. 268-276
Case 3: geometrical problem unlike others in a one-way integration of the curvature 7. Lie T. T. and Irwin R. J., “Method to Calculate the
Fire Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Columns
фth = (Δε’
Δ bot - Δε
’ ’
top) /h (11c) because it should find two optimum locations. In this An application of the proposed method shows a
with Rectangular Cross Section,” ACI Structural
study, the iteration is stopped when the sum of the relative good tendency compared to the experimental Journal, Vol. 90, No. 1, January-February 1993
8. Lin T. D., Ellingwood B., and Piet O., “Flexural and
where , Δε’
bot and Δε
’ ’the effective strains
top are h stresses is the smallest due to the coarse discretization results. The structural analysis of the member is Shear Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Beams
and the distance between the points where the strains of the section and another iteration is begun after the achieved as a 1 dimensional problem. The extension during Fire Tests,” PCA R&D Serial No. 1849,
December 1988
are measured, respectively. The locations for the strain location of one of them is changed. The structural of the method for 2 dimensional analysis of the 9. Lin T. D., Gustaferro A. H., and Abrams M. S.,“Fire
calculations in case 3 by which the analysis lies the response according to case 3 has a consistent section will be more useful to the analysis of the Endurance of Continuous Reinforced Concrete
Beams,”PCA R&D Bulletin RD072.01B, 1981
nearest to the test result in the figure is not obtained compared to the test result and is about 25% higher member in a real fire situation such as an unsteady or 10. Noumowe A. N., Clastres P., Debicki G., and
explicitly and determined by trial and error method than that after 80 minutes. 3 sided fire. A more reliable temperature-dependent Costaz J.-L., “Thermal Stresses and Water Vapour
Pressure of High Performance Concrete at High
using an iterative procedure. The implicit iteration material model, a more reliable temperature analysis, Temperature,” 4th International Symposium on
Utilisation of High-Strength/High-Performance
procedure for the location should be repeated until the a more finer discretization of the section, and a
Concrete, 1996, pp. 561-570
total stress at the section is zero according to the DISCUSSIONS comprehension of the effects of the failure of the 11. Poh K. W. and Bennetts I. D., “Analysis of
Structural Members under Elevated Temperature
planeity condition. This iteration is two-folded for the This study presented a simple analysis model for the material during heating will also improve the
Conditions,”Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol.
reliability of the analysis method. 121, No. 4, April 1995, pp. 664-675
12. Terro M. J.,“Numerical Modeling of the Behavior of
Concrete Structures in Fire,”ACI Structural Journal,
March-April 1998, pp. 183-193
REFERENCES

1. American Concrete Institute, Guide for Determining


the Fire Endurance of Concrete Elements, ACI 216R-
89
2. American Society of Civil Engineers, Structural Fire
Protection, ASCE Manuals and Reports on
Engineering Practice No. 78
3. Dias W. P. S, Khoury G. A., and Sullivan P. J. E,
“ An Activation Energy Approach for the
Temperature Dependence of Basic Creep of
Figure 7. Deflections of the beam at the center Hardened Cement Paste,” Magazine of Concrete
Research, Vol. 39, No. 140, September 1987, pp.

28 �대우건설기술 DAEWOO CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY REPORT �29