Paul Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer and his Influence on English Hymnody

by

Theodore Brown Hewitt

Christian Classics Ethereal Library

About Paul Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer and his Influence on English Hymnody by Theodore Brown Hewitt
Title: URL: Author(s): Publisher: Description: First Published: Publication History: Print Basis: Source: Rights: Date Created: Status: Editorial Comments: Paul Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer and his Influence on English Hymnody http://www.ccel.org/ccel/hewitt/gerhardt.html Hewitt, Theodore Brown Grand Rapids, MI: Christian Classics Ethereal Library A literary study of Gerhardt's hymns and English translations of them. 1918 First Edition: Yale University Press, 1918; Second Edition: Concordia Publishing House, 1976 Concordia Publishing House, 1976, omitting material still under copyright. New Haven: Yale University Press Copyright Christian Classics Ethereal Library 2002-09 Profitable future work may include: •(none under consideration) Orthography was edited to facilitate automated use: •ThML markup (assuming HTML semantics of whitespace) •Added hyperlinks to (original) translations by Winkworth and (possibly altered) translations by others, at CCEL. •Added appendix including (possibly altered) translations from the Moravian Hymn Book, 1912; Hymnal and Order of Service, 1925; and Lutheran Hymnary, 1913, 1935. This allows access to all or parts of over 60 translated or adapted hymns. •Added WWEC entries to authors and translators. Stephen Hutcheson (Transcriber) Stephen Hutcheson (Formatter) BV330.G4H4 1918 Practical theology Worship (Public and Private) Including the church year, Christian symbols, liturgy, prayer, hymnology Hymnology

Contributor(s): LC Call no: LC Subjects:

Paul Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer and his Influence on English Hymnody

Theodore Brown Hewitt

Table of Contents
About This Book. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Title Page. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Contents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chronological Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Paul Gerhardt's Life and Times. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Early Life. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . University Years. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Johann Crüger. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Personal Loss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work at Mittenwalde. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Work at Berlin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Death and Memorials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Gerhardt's Relation to Earlier Hymnody of Germany. The Mediaeval Period. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries. . . . . . . . . The Reformation Period, 1500-1648. . . . . . . . . . Martin Luther. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Early Lutheran and Moravian Hymnists. . . . . . . Hymnists of the Thirty Years' War. . . . . . . . . . . Characteristics of Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer. . . . . Musical Settings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acceptance in German Worship. . . . . . . . . . . . . Language. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poetic Technique. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poetic Meters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Occasional Poetry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poetry and Nature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family Life. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Theology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Poetic Development and Recognition. . . . . . . . . The German Influence on English Hymn Writing. . . Domination of the Psalter in English Hymnody. . . The Eighteenth Century. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
iii

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p. ii p. 1 p. 2 p. 3 p. 4 p. 8 p. 9 p. 9 p. 9 p. 10 p. 10 p. 11 p. 11 p. 12 p. 14 p. 14 p. 15 p. 17 p. 17 p. 18 p. 18 p. 21 p. 22 p. 23 p. 25 p. 26 p. 27 p. 28 p. 30 p. 31 p. 32 p. 33 p. 34 p. 35 p. 36

Paul Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer and his Influence on English Hymnody

Theodore Brown Hewitt

The Nineteenth Century. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Abbreviations and Explanations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . English Versions of Gerhardt's Hymns. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3: Du liebe Unschuld du, wie schlecht wirst du geachtt!. 7: Wie ist so grosz und schwer die Last.. . . . . . . . . . . 15: O Herrscher in dem Himmelszelt.. . . . . . . . . . . . 17: Nun ist der Regen hin.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19: Nun laszt uns gehn und treten.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23: Noch dennoch must du drum nicht ganz.. . . . . . . . 28: Nun du lebest, unsre Krone.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Salve Mundi Salutare. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40: I. Sei mir tausendmal gegrüszet.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 46: V. Gegrüszet seist du, Gott, mein Heil.. . . . . . . . . 47: VI. O Herz des Königs aller Welt.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 62: Weg, mein Herz, mit den Gedanken.. . . . . . . . . . 65: Herr, höre, was mein Mund.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67: Warum machet solche Schmerzen.. . . . . . . . . . . 71: O Welt, sieh hier dein Leben.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74: Auf, Auf, mein Herz mit Freuden.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 76: O du allersüszste Freude!. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78: Nun danket all und bringet Ehr.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80: Zweierlei bitt ich von dir.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81: O Gott, mein Schöpfer, edler Fürst.. . . . . . . . . . . 83: Ich hab in Gottes Herz und Sinn.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 89: Nicht so traurig, nicht so sehr.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91: Nach dir, O Herr, verlanget mich.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 93: Ich erhebe, Herr, zu dir.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95: Gott Lob! nun ist erschollen.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100: Du bist zwar mein und bleibest mein.. . . . . . . . . 106: Lobet den Herren, alle die Ihn fürchten!. . . . . . . . 108: Warum willst du drauszen stehen.. . . . . . . . . . . 111: Zeuch ein zu deinen Thoren.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115: Du Meine Seele, singe.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118: Ich singe dir mit Herz und Mund.. . . . . . . . . . . . 120: Der Herr, der aller Enden.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122: Warum sollt ich mich denn grämen.. . . . . . . . . . 124: Wol dern Menschen, der nicht wandelt.. . . . . . . . 130: Wol dem, der den Herren scheuet.. . . . . . . . . . . 135: Schwing dich auf zu deinern Gott.. . . . . . . . . . . 139: Was Gott gefällt, mein frommes Kind.. . . . . . . . .
iv

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p. 38 p. 39 p. 41 p. 41 p. 42 p. 42 p. 43 p. 43 p. 44 p. 45 p. 45 p. 46 p. 46 p. 47 p. 47 p. 47 p. 48 p. 48 p. 50 p. 50 p. 52 p. 53 p. 54 p. 54 p. 54 p. 55 p. 55 p. 56 p. 56 p. 57 p. 57 p. 58 p. 59 p. 59 p. 60 p. 60 p. 61 p. 61 p. 62 p. 62

. . . . . . . . 84 p. . .. . . . . . . 331: Ich weisz. . . . . . . . . . . 86 p. . . . . . . . . . . die sieben Wort. . . 81 p. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. 158: Ich steh an deiner Krippen hier. . . . . . 256: Also hat Gott die Welt geliebt. . . . . . . . 171: Sei frölich alles weit und breit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mein Gott. 235: Soll ich meinem Gott nicht singen. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 86 p. . . . . . . 155: Frölich soll mein Herze springen. . . . . . . . . . . 85 p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. das weiszt du wol. . . . . . . 69 p. . 287: Herr. . . . . . . . 209: Ach! treuer Gott. . . . . . 75 p. . . . . . 298: Ich. 78 p. 70 p. . . . . . . . 68 p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220: Du bist ein Mensch. . . . . . barmherzigs Herz. . . allerliebster Bruder. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302: Wie schön ists doch. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 76 p. . sende deinen Geist.. . . . .. . . . . . . . . voller Kunst. v . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260: Herr. . . . . . . . . . dasz all mein Thun. . .. . 153: O Jesu. 324: Wie ist es müglich. . . . . 315: Herr Gott. . . . 65 p. der ich oft in tiefes Leid. . . . . . . höchstes Licht. . . 66 p. . . . . . . . . . . . 88 p.. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 205: Ich danke dir demütiglich. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p... . . . . . 304: Voller Wunder. . . . 73 p. . . . . .. . . . . und sei stille. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . mein schönstes Licht. . . . . . . . 83 p. 89 . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173: Gott Vater. . . . . 267: Geduld ist euch vonnöten. 67 p. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . 63 p. . . 312: Kommt. . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . dasz mein Erlöser lebt. . . . . . 87 p. . . . . . . . 78 p. . . . . .. . . . .. . . 271: Nun sei getrost und unbetrübt.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. Christ! dein Kripplein ist. . . . 212: Barmherziger Vater. 284: Ich bin ein Gast auf Erden. . . . . . . . . . . . 293: Die güldne Sonne. . . . . . du bist ja für und für. 64 p.. 71 p. . . . 74 p. . . . . . . . . 217: Ich weisz. . . . . 310: Schaut! Schaut! was ist für Wunder dar?. . . . . . wie lange soll. . . . . . . . 178: Wie lang. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 83 p. . . . 319: Johannes sahe durch Gesicht.. . . . . . . . . . . . 82 p. . . . . . mein Angesicht. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . höchster Gott. . . 161: Hör an! mein Herz. . . . . 224: Ich habs verdient. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 p. . . . . . . . . 289: Was traurest du. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 p. . . . . . 74 p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 79 p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226: Ich hab oft bei mir selbst gedacht. . . . . . . . . . 296: Der Tag mit seinem Lichte. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . Herr Jesu Christ. . . . . 78 p. . . . . . . . 88 p. . . 176: Was alle. .. . 79 p. . . . . . . Weisheit in der Welt. . . . . 274: Gib dich zufrieden. . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 p. O Herr. . . . . . . . . 85 p. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . Was will ich doch. 25: Wie soll ich dich empfangen. . . . 75 p. . . . . . . 263: Jesu.Paul Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer and his Influence on English Hymnody Theodore Brown Hewitt 142: Die Zeit ist nunmehr nah. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 p. . . . . du erforschest meinen Sinn. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200: O Jesu Christ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 p. . . 86 p. . . . . . . . aller Weisheit Quell und Grund. . . . . . . 80 p. . und laszt uns Christum ehren. . . 232: Auf den Nebel folgt die Sonne.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commentary. . . . . . . . James Montgomery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commentary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16: Warum sollt ich mich denn. . . . . . . Selected Stanzas. . . . A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . und suche Freud. . . . . . . . . . Various authors and 'Ich bin ein Gast auf Erden'. . . . . . . . . . Selected Stanzas. . . . . . . . . . Selected Stanzas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 p. . . . . mein Herz! und singe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 p. .. . . . . . Russell. . . . . Charles Wesley. . . . . . . Selected Stanzas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 p. . . . . . . . . . . . . 239: Geh aus. . . . . . . 93 p. . . 148 p. . . . . 49: O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 p. . . . 229: Ist Gott für mich. . Sarah Flower Adams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 p. . . 143 p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selected Stanzas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 p. . . . . . . . . T. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60: Nun ruhen alle Wälder. . . . . . . . 113 p. . . . Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commentary. . . 150: Wir singen dir. . mein Herz. . . . . . . . Appendix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commentary. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 p. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 p. . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selected Stanzas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68: Ein Lämmlein geht und trägt die Schuld. . . . . . . Commentary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 p. . . . . . . . . . Commentary. 139 p. . . 114 p. . . . . . . . . Maltbie D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commentary. . . . . . . . . Emanuel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 137 p. . . . . . . 127 p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 p. . . . . . so trete. . . . 104 p. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selected Stanzas. . . . . .. . . . . . . 130 p. . . 135 p. . . . 92 p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Selected Stanzas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . James Waddell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 p. . Hymns Showing Adaptations of Ideas and Expressions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commentary. . . . . . .. . . . . . 59: Wach auf. . . . . . . . . . 90 p. . . . . Selected Stanzas. . . . . . . . . Selected Stanzas. . . . . . . 185: Befiehl du deine Wege. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 p. . . . . . 109 p. . . . . . Babcock. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 p. . . . 149 p. . . . . . . Short Biographical Sketches of Translators. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commentary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alexander. . . . . . . . 142 p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 . 133 p. . . . 96 p.Paul Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer and his Influence on English Hymnody Theodore Brown Hewitt Commentary. . . . . . . 122 p. . . . . . . . . .

... . . .. . .. ... .. .. ... . .. Catherine. . p. .. . . ... . . . .. . . .. . James... . . .... . . . . . . . ... . .. Guthrie. .. . p. .... .. .. . .... .. .. . .... . . .... . . 154 . . . 174 .. 152 . .. . .... .. .. . . . . . . ... Charles..... .. ... .... . 152 .. . ... .... p. .. . . . . .. . Warner. .. ... Edward. . . p. . . Catherine Hannah. .. . ....... . . Henry James... . .... . . . p. . Same ... . . .. .. 155 ..... . . . . 152 . . Montgomery. . . .... .... . . . . .... p. .... Mills. p. James Drummond.. ... . . ... p... . 151 . .. ...... John. . . .. .. . .. . . Bevan.. .. ... vii . . ... . ... . . . ..... ....... (Sarah Borthwick)...... .... ..... Buckoll... p. ... Arthur Tozer. John. . . . . p. .... Benjamin Hall.. . Russell. . .. . . .. . .. ... . .... .. Burns. . .. . ... . . .. .. Findlater.... . . . . p.. . .... .. .. Richard.. ... . .... and Plays ... ....... .. .... . . . .. .. ... .. . Kelly.. . . Stallybrass... . . . . ... p. . .... . . p.. .. . . . ...... . .. 153 .. ... ... .. ... .. . .... . .... ........ Winkworth........ . .. . . . .. ... . John.... ... .. .. Molther. . ..... ... Massie. Frances Elizabeth.. Gambold. . 150 . .. p.. . . . . . . ....... Repitition. . . . .. ... Manington... .. . . . .. . .. ..... . . . . .. ... . 154 . .. .... . Nathaniel Langdon. .. . . . . ...... . ... .. .. Edward. . 174 .. 153 . 151 . ... .. .. .. . . .... Root.. . .. .. ...Paul Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer and his Influence on English Hymnody Theodore Brown Hewitt Beddome.. . .. .. p. .. .. .. Tabulations. .. . . p. .... . . .. . . . . Charles... ... . .... .. Benjamin.. .. . ..... . . . ... ... p.... Jane. .. . .. . 151 . 154 ..... . .. . ...... . . ...... Assonance... . .. Samuel Macauley. .. . 177 . . ... . . .. . .. Alice. . Wesley. . .. ..... . ... 164 . p.. John. . ... . . .. . .. ...... .. . .. 150 .. p.. . .... . . . .. .. .... . ... Massie. 153 .. . . .. ..... . Jacobi.. Jackson. .. . .... p. .. .... . Emma Frances. . .. . . .. 162 . p. .. p.. . .. ... . 151 . . .. .... ... .. .. . p.. . . ... ... p..... . Wesley. ..... . . . . . . Alliteration. . . 150 . . . . 155 . ... . . .. .. 155 . . . .... .... 153 .. p. . . . . . . .. .. . . .... Philipp Heinrich. ... .... . ... p.. p... . .. the ..... . . .... 155 . Thring. . . . ..... p. .. p... . . .. ... .... p. .. . . 154 .. ... . . ... ... 151 . . .. ... .. 172 . ..... . 153 . .. . . .. Frothingham. . . . .. ... . .... 151 ... 157 . . . . .... .. . ... Cox. ... . p... p. ... . .. Index by Subjects. ... .. ... ... . . ... .. Juxtaposition of Words Derived from Words. . ...... p. 151 .. . . . .. ..... . ..... . p. ..... . . ... .. .. .. .. .... p.. ......... .. . Stryker.. James Steven. . .. ... .. . 152 . .. . .. Anna.. p.... . . 171 on ... . . . Melancthon Woolsey... .. Elizabeth.... . ... .. .. 154 . .. . . . ... . .. . . . ...... . ..... p..... .... Henry.. .. John Christian... . 153 . Mrs.. . .. . . . p. Doublets of Synonymns. .. Borthwick.. .. .. p.. . Kennedy. .. .. .. . . .. . . . 150 . .. . .. .. .. . ... .. .. ... Dunn.. . . Index of English Versions. . . . . . . . . .. ... .. Plays on Words. . .... ... .. . 157 . ..

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 Lutheran Hymnary. . . . . . . . . . . . . #400: Shun. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Q . . . p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Lutheran Hymnary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . . . 180 H . . . . . . #376: Is God my strong salvation. . . . . . . . . . . . 177 B . . . . . . 200 Lutheran Hymnary. . . . p. . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . 181 J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . p. . . . . p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Appendix to the Electronic Edition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 D . . . 187 T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 R . . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . p. . . . . . . 210 viii . . 187 U . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . #727: My soul. the thought forever. . . . . . . . . . . #383: I sing to Thee with voice and heart. . . . p. . . . . p. . . . 205 Moravian Hymn Book. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Lutheran Hymnary. . p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 E . . . . awake and render. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #301: A Lamb goes uncomplaining forth. . . . . . 186 S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 N . . . . . p. . . . . . . . 180 F . . . . . . . . 182 L . p. . . 206 Lutheran Hymnary. . . 195 Hymnal and Order of Service. . . . . . 199 Lutheran Hymnary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Index of Gerhardt's Hymns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Moravian Hymn Book. . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . . . . 189 W . p. . . . . . . 204 Lutheran Hymnary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #157: O how shall I receive Thee. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 C . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . 180 G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Subject Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . 183 M. . . . . . . . #23: I'll praise thee with my heart and tongue. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . my heart. . . . . . 195 Moravian Hymn Book. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #342: Why. . . . . thus trembling ever?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #436: I will sing my Maker's praises. . . . #97: Thousand times by me be greeted. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dispel our sadness. . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Moravian Hymn Book. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Indexes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #332: I know that my Redeemer lives. . . . 196 Moravian Hymn Book. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . my soul. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #455: Blessed is the man that never. . 189 Y . p. . . . . . . . p. . . p. . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . . . . 184 O . . .Paul Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer and his Influence on English Hymnody Theodore Brown Hewitt A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . #199: Holy Ghost. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 211 ix . . . . . . . . 211 Index of Pages of the Print Edition. . . . . .Paul Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer and his Influence on English Hymnody Theodore Brown Hewitt Index of Scripture References. p. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . p. . . . . . . . . . .

Paul Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer and his Influence on English Hymnody Theodore Brown Hewitt x .

Title. 1881. with new afterward and updated bibliography. J. Yale. Paul Gerhardt as a hymn writer and his influence on English Hymnody. iii ii iv . 1607-1676. 4. 171 Includes index.   "Second Edition. New Haven. George E.. Comparative--German and English.31'0924 [B] 76-13913 ISBN 0-570-1313-5 A portion of the expense of printing this thesis has been borne by the Modern Language Club of Yale University from funds placed at its disposal by the generosity of Mr. 1976 Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Hewitt. Literature. published by Yale University Press. Gerhardt. Reprint of the 1918 ed. Paulus. TO B.G4H4 1976 245'. F.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Paul Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer and his Influence on English Hymnody By Theodore Brown Hewitt. 1. 3. a graduate of Yale in the class of 1874. Ph. A. N. of Elizabeth. 2." Originally presented as the author's thesis. 1.D. English--History and Criticism. Dimock. Bibliography: p. BV330. H. Comparative--English and German. Literature. Assistant Professor of German Williams College New Haven Yale University Press London: Humphrey Milford Oxford University Press i Mdccccxviii First Edition Copyright 1918 by Yale University Press Second Edition Copyright © Concordia Publishing House. Hymns. Theodore Brown. 1917.

Professor H. but how widely it has made itself felt is apparently a matter of little concern on the part of many. Robertson of the University of London. Hewitt of Williams College and to Professor Arthur H. Connecticut. for help not only in this phase of the work but also in the general treatment of the subject I am deeply indebted to the counsel of my father. 1918. It was presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Yale University in candidacy for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in June. H. The present dissertation has been prompted by a desire to make some contribution to the subject of the relation of English and German hymnody in general. Bernard C. 1917.       April 9. Professor Emeritus John H. 1915. Reich an Natur und Kunst. Solch einen Schatz zu sammeln. viii 1 Stanza 1 of Das Deutsche Lied. Palmer. Steiner of the Enoch Pratt Free Library of Baltimore. Kein andres Volk auf Erden Genosz des Schicksals Gunst. Professor Waldo S. G.1 So far as is known to the writer of this thesis there has appeared hitherto no attempt to treat comprehensively and in detail the subject of the direct and indirect influence of Paul Gerhardt's hymns upon English and American sacred song. C. and in particular to show the great debt which the hymnody of England and America owes to the poetry of Paul Gerhardt. That there exists a very real influence is universally known.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt vii vi v PREFACE    Das deutsche Lied ist einzig. New Haven. Gehoben aus den Tiefen. Palmer of Yale University. For great assistance rendered to me by way of suggestion of sources I am under obligation to Dr. Professor Gustav Gruener of Yale University. Ein Schatz für Geist und Herz. 2 . von Jagemann of Harvard University and to Professor John G. because we often find hymnals accrediting a hymn to the English translator with no mention of its original author. Pratt of the Hartford Theological Seminary. Wo Freude wohnt und Schmerz. a poem of six stanzas by Professor A.

144 149 3. Bibliography 171 [Appendix 6 and 7 are still under copyright and are not included in the electronic edition. 2. 158 160 167 170 7. 5. Index by Subjects Index of Versions Index of Hymns Afterword English Gerhardt's III 13 I 27 II 35 1. 4. Assonance. 6. etc.] 3 .Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt CONTENTS ix PAGE Bibliography PART I CHAPTER I    II Gerhardt's Times Life and xi 1 6 Gerhardt's Relation to Earlier Hymnody of Germany Characteristics of Gerhardt as a Hymn Writer PART II History of English Hymnody and the German Influence upon English Hymn writing from the Early XVIth through the XIXth Century English Versions of Gerhardt's Hymns APPENDIX Biographical Sketches of Translators Tabulation of Alliteration.

Heinr.: Pauli Gerhardi Geistliche Andachten. IV. F. Allgemeines evang. Fischer and J. Gebetbuch. W. Leipzig. III. F. Schlawitz. R. Berlin. Dresden. Angew. Berlin. New York. pub. " ": Geschichte der deutschen Dichtung. Karl: Gedichte von P. p. Johann: Geistliche Kirchenmelodien. mit Einleitung u. p. Gesang. G.und Kirchenlieder. Gerhardt. 1648 etc. Gerhardt--Bibliographie. erläutert. 1907. Gütersloh. pp. 1846. ed. Deutsche Nationallitteratur by J. Dietz: Tabellarische Nachweisung des Liederbestandes. 2 Owing to the European war it has been impossible to extend this bibliography beyond the year 1913. Kirchenlied des 17. Joh. 17.: Gerhardts Gedichte: Historisch-kritische Ausgabe.) Bunsen. Geschichte der deutschen Nationalliteratur. 1875 ff: article by Berthau. 1871. 1907. Leipzig. 4 . Kürschner: Vol. Lit. jh. in Deutsche Dichter des 17. Dresden. vol. 1863. Fischer-Tümpel: Das deutsche evangel. Burdach. 1649. Freiherr von: Versuch eines allgemeinen Gesang. vol. J. in Neue Kirchliche Zeitschrift 18. Leipzig. A. " ": Geistliche Andachten. F. 182. Ebeling. Wilhelm: Quellennachweis über die Lieder des hannoverschen und des lüneburgischen Gesangbuches. " ": Zur Geschichte der deutschen Dichtung III. 177-199.: The English Hymn. P. 1886. 1904. 1676. Verein für kirchliche Zwecke. 1707. Bachmann. 1907.: Gerhardts Geistreiche Haus. G. Hamburg. Berlin.: Die Literatur d. Auflage. Bötticher. 460 ff. Cunz: Geschichte des Kirchenliedes. Hannover. Geyer. Crüger.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt BIBLIOGRAPHY2 xi x xii Allg. III. D. Gervinus. by Ebeling. 1877. " ": Stimmen u.--Das deutsche Kirchenlied des 16.: A monograph. L. III.: Paul Gerhardt. deutsche Biographie. 1855.: Paul Gerhardts Geistliche Lieder. pp. 366. 179-84 (giving reasons for fixing May 27. 1915. Karl Josias. Jahrhunderts. samt den dazu gehörigen Singweisen. jahrh. Auflage. u. Gerhardt. Feustking. 1666-1667. Marburg. 6. 1667 etc. II. 1881. vol. Gerhardt. F. Gebetbuchs. pt. Jahrhunderts. Zerbst. 1842. 1866. J. Vortrag im Evangel. Nebst 18 Liedern v. 1887. u. Gerok.: P. XII. G. 3 verb. " ": Grundrisz zur Geschichte der deutschen Dichtung. " ": Ein Nachklang z. " ": Praxis Pietatis Melica. P. J. 1906. (Denkmäler e.u. Benson. Blätter für Hymnologie: A. 1884. Hamburg.u. G. Bachmann. Jubiläumsjahr. Lebensabrisz. Linke. p. 1883-1889. 17. 1833. Eckart. i. 31. älteren dtsch. Goedeke. in Deutsch-Evangelische Blätter 32. Schriften über P. Bode. Karl: Gedichte von Paul Gerhardt mit Einleitung und Anmerkungen. Chr. as the date of Gerhardt's death).

Krummacher. 1865. 1907. 1907. N.: Paul Gerhardt: ein Erinnerungsblatt. Niederlausitz Mitt.: Die Lieder P. 184-193. 31 ff. H. J. in Euphorion 15. Berlin. 189-191. R. Gerhardt. C. F. A. 1842. P. 1907.) Nelle. Kaiser. Kirchner. 1867. Gerhardts. Berlin.: an article in Piper's Evangelische Kalender. Krapp. E.: Gerhardt. in Deutsch-Evangelische Blätter. Berthold u. 92-97. Her. d. in Schriften des Vereins für Reformationsgeschichte.) Kawerau. 1866-9. seine Lieder nach Text u. 10. E. London. Monatsschrift für Gottesdienst und Kunst.: Lyra Domestica.: Ein eigenhändiger Brief P. 540-560. Berlin. 1864. pp. 1892. 204 ff.: Leben und Lieder von Paulus Gerhardt. Gerhardt u. 1906. Langbecker. v. 80-98.: Deutsche Dichter u.: a monograph in Gottesminne 5. 32. Gerhardts Gattin und Sohn: ib. Cambridge. Scribners. In Studierstube 5. 147-8.: Geschichte des Kirchenliedes und Kirchengesangs der christlichen insbesondere der deutschen evangelischen Kirche. W. pp. pp. Melodie. 1886. pp. 141-151. pp.: Dictionary of Hymnology. " ": P. F. Heft 51. J. 5 . Niebeling. 250. in Monatsschrift für Gottesdienst und Kunst 11. Groszen Kurfürsten. W. (A good article on Gerhardt's metre. 1890 ff.: Paul Gerhardts sämtl. London. (Hessische Volksbücherei. Halle. 1866. 1847.: Über Deutung und Änderung einiger Stellen in Paul Gerhardts Liedern. Knipfer. Julian. pp. E. (Paul Gerhardt Heft. pp. Hahne. J. in Deutsch-evangelische Rundschau. Koch. Leipzig. P.: Paul Gerhardt. pp. 1907. C. vol. Paul Friedrich Gerhardt. 1852. Berlin. 1855. 3. Lippelt. 236-242. pp.: Studies in the literary relations of England and Germany in the sixteenth century. Gerhardt u. N. R.) Haupt.) " ": Gerhardt inmitten seiner Leidensgenossen. (Das Lied v. Kraft: an article in Ersch u. Gellert in unseren heutigen Gesangbüchern. (Anna Maria geb. in Evangelisches Schulblatt 55. Rist. 1907.) 1907. 12. 339-345. London.: Paul Gerhardt u. de la Motte-Fouqué. Tersteegen. 19-34.: P. Gruber's Allg. E.: Der Konflikt zwischen P. in Monatsschrift für Gottesdienst und Kunst 10. In Beiträge zur Literaturgeschichte. Lieder. Enzyklopädie. G.: Paul Gerhardt's Spiritual Songs. 343-348. Gerhardts nach Lübben im Autographenhandel. Gedichte auf Island. L. 1860. W. F. " ": P. Massie. pp. Buchner. pp. Herford. New York. Kaiser Friedrich Rotbart--Paul Gerhardt--F.) Jahresberichte für neuere deutsche Literaturgeschichte. P. Kübler. Leipzig. Herrmann. Kelly. Theodore: Historical Notes to the Lyra Germanica. in Unterhaltungsbeilage der Täglichen Rundschau. Chr. (Monographs on the relation of composers and artists to Gerhardt. Stuttgart. Leipzig. 61-62.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt xiii Günther.

seine Kunst. Berlin. 1894. 1899. Wilhelm: Geschichte d. Philipp: Paul Gerhardts Geistliche Lieder. p. Catherine: Lyra Germanica. 1855. 1885. 1907. Bach. 1894. A.: P. " ": Christian Singers of Germany. Bertelsmann. Berlin. seine Lieder u. (9.: Paul Gerhardt. " ": Paul Gerhardt. Scherer. E. 1869. der christl. pp. Waldberg. 100-128. German Literary Board. 1903. Schaff-Gilman: Library of Religious Poetry. Kirchengeschichtliches Lebensbild aus der Zeit des groszen Kurfürsten. in Idealisten u. 1858.: P.: Paul Gerhardt: Eine biographische Skizze. 1907. deutschen Litteratur. Delitzsch. Friedrich: Paul Gerhardts Geistliche Lieder. 1907. G. 1880. Schultze. 6 . W.: P.: Das deutsche Kirchenlied von der ältesten Zeit bis zu Anfang des XVII Jahrhunderts. 151-160. K. 1888. Altenburg. das evangelische Kirchenlied. ein Lebens. K. Reclam. H. 1855. Heft 2. Liederdichter. W. Charakter-bilder. 1903. Leipzig.) Wimmer. in Kunstwart 161. Idealismus des Christentums. First Series.: Paul Gerhardt und S. Reclam. d. 538-541. " ": Paul Gerhardts Geistliche Andachten. Gerhardt u. " ": Der Dichter u. 12°. (This has been translated by Mrs.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt xiv Pachaly. J. E.: Die Form der Gerhardtschen Lyrik. Leipzig. in the "Universal-Bibliothek. Hermann: Paul Gerhardt. sein Denkmal. C. B. F. pp. Tümpel. in Religionsgeschichtl.: Lyra Gerhardti. Aufl. Kritik. In Theol.: Gerhardts Gedichte. 1843." Ritschl. Pahnke.) Wackernagel. Iowa. Spitta. Schmidt. Wernle. 1884. New York. deutschen Geistes. Bonn. 1907. Leipzig. or selection of P. nach seinem Leben und Wirken. herausg. H. O. 1864-1877. W. Winkworth. 1881. In Deutsch-evangel. Wackernagel.und Charakterbild. P. 502-506. Stud. Volksbücher IV. Smend. Stuttgart. Gütersloh. Jahrh. 1884. Steinhausen. Macmillan.: Gerhardts Leben. Gerhardt. H. Basel. Ph. Schaff-Herzog: Encycl. Wackernagel. Wildenhahn. Roth. Petrich. of Religious Knowledge. Gerhardt's spiritual songs: a memorial leaf. 1856. Aufl. in Monatsschrift für Pastoraltheologie. 1723. 1829. Ph. Bertelsmann XIV. In Euphorion 14. F.: Paul Gerhardt. Tübingen. u. " ": Chorale Book for England. Berlin. Wackernagel.: Paul Gerhardt u. herausgegeben von Ph. 1840. Gütersloh. Gerhardt. Ein Beitrag z. Gütersloh.: Paulus Gerhardt. ein Idealist des Glaubens.: Paul Gerhardt. Rogge. Gesch. Pick. In Der Protestantismus am Ende des 19.: Paul Gerhardt und der grosze Kurfürst. Gütersloh. I. 2. Second Series. v. 1863. Trepte. Schirks. 360 p. Burlington. pp. pp. Altenburg. 1842. 267-304. 1829. A. 1845. seine Zeit. B.: Geschichte des Pietismus. Tübingen. pp. Heidelberg. 301 ff. 1907. M. Wilhelm: Geschichte der deutschen Literatur. Stanley Carr. P.: Renaissance-Lyrik.

Jahresberichte für neuere deutsche Literaturgeschichte.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Zschnarack: Paul Gerhardt. pp. monographs. 3 Cf. 1314-1317. etc. 7 . also p. 30 ausgewählte Lieder von Karl Schmidt. C.. For a complete list of the biographical sketches. Vols. which appeared in 1907 on the occasion of the 300th anniversary of Gerhardt's birth. Leipzig. 1907. 1906-1907. 21. Mergner. cf. in Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart 2. MUSICAL SETTINGS3 Paul Gerhardts Geistliche Lieder in neuen Weisen von Fr. Deichert. XVI-XVII.

1666 (Feb. 1662 Elector issues edict. 12) Paul Gerhardt born at Gräfenhainichen near Wittenberg. 1657 (Summer) Entered upon work in Berlin. 1622-1627 At school at Grimma. 5) Death of wife. 1668 (Autumn) Called to Lübben. 1 8 . 1655 (Feb. 1656 (Oct.) Ordained as Probst at Mittenwalde. Martini. Teachers: Röber. where he wrote Gelegenheitsgedichte. 1668 (Mar. 18 of which Crüger published in his "Praxis pietatis melica. 1651 (Nov.) Called to Berlin to the Nicolalkirche." 1651 Proposed as minister at Mittenwalde. 6th or 16th) Summoned to Consistory and threatened with deposition. 1637 Gräfenhainichen set on fire by Swedish soldiers. 1676 (May 27?) Death at Lübben. 1642-1651 (?) At Berlin. 11) Marriage with Anna Maria Barthold.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE xvi xv 1607 (Mar. 1628-1642 (?) Student at Wittenberg.

Bio of Paul Gerhardt

Theodore Brown Hewitt

PART ONE
CHAPTER I. GERHARDT'S LIFE AND TIMES. Although Paul Gerhardt's poems have been so great a power in the world, nevertheless facts concerning his own life are few. A fire set by the Swedish soldiers in 16374 destroyed all records which might enlighten us, yet from indirect sources and from his poems, we are certain of some facts of his biography. He was born in Gräfenhainichen a few miles southwest of Wittenberg in the direction of Halle on March 12th in the year 1607 probably. In this small town, of the electorate of Saxony, which was surrounded by a high mediaeval wall, Paul Gerhardt spent the first fifteen years of his life. His father, Christian Gerhardt, was burgomaster of Gräfenhainichen where the citizens earned their living by cattle-raising, agriculture and hopgrowing. His mother was Dorothea Starke, granddaughter of Gallas Döbler, a Lutheran pastor. Both of his parents died probably when he was very young; and of his many brothers and sisters little is known. At the age of fifteen having passed the examinations and being especially well prepared in Latin Gerhardt entered the Fürstenschule at Grimma. The school was noted for its pious atmosphere and stern discipline: its chief aim was to inculcate in the pupils "Gottesfurcht und gute Sitte."

2

It is natural that Gerhardt on completing his course at Grimma in 1627 should choose Wittenberg as his university, for it was situated almost at the gates of his native town. Furthermore since this was the place where Luther and Melanchthon had worked, the Protestant world looked toward Wittenberg with great hopes. He entered the university in 1628. Two of the teachers in particular had great influence on him, Paul Röber and Jacob Martini. These men were guardians of Lutheranism, and Röber besides composing hymns wrote many Latin disputations and polemics against Rome and Calvinism; in his sermons he often took his text, not from the Bible but from some religious poem, preaching for example on "Was mein Gott will, das gescheh allzeit." In this way Gerhardt was taught the full use and purpose of hymn writing. Beside Röber and Martini another Wittenberg professor was of influence on Gerhardt, the philologist August Buchner, one of the most esteemed members of the faculty. He had intimate friendship with Opitz and had warmly advocated the latter's Von der Deutschen Poeterei and had himself written Anleitung zur deutschen Poeterey. As this book was easily copied5 by many of the students, it is reasonable to assume that this effort toward spreading Opitz' rules for rhythmic measure had its due influence on Gerhardt.

4 5

Cf. pp. 2 and 3. In 1665 there was published an authentic edition.

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Theodore Brown Hewitt

More is not known concerning his university career. A Latin epigram of the year 1642 points to the probability of his being still at Wittenberg, vhile the certainty of his being in Berlin the next year 1643 is proved by a Hochzeitsode.6 Gerhardt was undoubtedly tutor in the house of Andreas Barthold then "Kammergerichtsadvokat," whose daughter wedded Joachim Fromme, the archdeacon of the Nicolaikirche in Berlin; this wedding was the occasion of the congratulatory Hochzeitsode. During this period in Berlin from his thirty-seventh to his forty-sixth year he wrote a number of "Gelegenheitsgedichte" which show us Gerhardt as quite at home moving in a circle of educators and clergymen.

Among his friends was the well known choirmaster of the Nicolaikirche, Johann Crüger, who first introduced Gerhardt's hymns into common worship by publishing eighteen7 of them with other poems in his Praxis pietatis melica.

3

In these early poems Gerhardt's depth of feeling and natural warmth of character are present. Since his twelfth year the Thirty Years' War, a period of destruction unparalleled in Germany history, had been going on. The horrors of the epoch made deep impression upon his imaginative mind, and the strife, the struggle for freedom of the conscience enlisted his sympathy and strengthened his determined resistance to all religious compulsion. The hope and joy in this life were taken away and confidence in another world was needed. Gerhardt even in these early hymns gave fully that deep assurance in the guidance of God. He himself had suffered individual loss. The Swedes in 1637 determined to punish Johann Georg, the Elector of Saxony, because he, in spite of a signed contract with them, had deserted the Protestant cause, and in their ravages they appeared before Gräfenhainichen and demanded a war tax of 3000 Gulden. It was paid, but notwithstanding the payment the Swedish soldiers set fire to the town. The Gerhardt house and the church with its many records were among the four hundred buildings destroyed.

6 7

Cf. Goed. 10: "Der aller Herz und Willen lenkt." Among these 18 were: "Ein Lämmlein geht und trägt die Schuld" Goed. 68. "O du allersüszte Freude" Goed. 76. "O Welt sieh hier dein Leben" Goed. 71. "Wach auf, mein Herz, und singe" Goed. 59.

10

Bio of Paul Gerhardt

Theodore Brown Hewitt

Whether Gerhardt felt the pinch of distress of the war, or hesitated to enter a field already crowded with a superabundance of young clergymen, or for what reason he stayed so long in Berlin as tutor is not known, but he was already forty-five years old when he began his first church work. In a letter of the clerical cabinet ("Geistliches Ministerium") of Berlin to the magistrate of Mittenwalde (Sept. 1651) Gerhardt was proposed as minister and he is characterized as being of "well known diligence and scholarship, of peace loving disposition and blameless life, besides being loved and esteemed by both high and low in Berlin." Upon the successful outcome of this recommendation Gerhardt was ordained "Propst"8 of Mittenwalde on the 18th of November, 1651, entering his new office in December of that year. At his ordination he pledged his support especially of the Lutheran Book of Concord (Concordienformel). The community of Mittenwalde had suffered severely in 1637 as had Gräfenhainichen from the Swedish marauders and attacks of pestilence, and Paul Gerhardt undertook his duties here with full understanding of this universal suffering, and fulfilled them with all his strength. The poems which he wrote at this time give evidence of a tender, yet strong pastoral care. He was a spiritual guide and comforter, yet in spite of his ardent work in Mittenwalde he apparently yearned for Berlin, and often returned thither to visit. On February 11th, 1655, at the age of forty-eight he married Anna Maria Barthold, daughter of Andreas Barthold and sister of Frau Fromme.9 Their first child, born to them in 1656, died in infancy and a memorial tablet in the church in Mittenwalde shows their grief.

4

That same year Gerhardt accepted the deaconry at the Nicolaikirche in Berlin, and began his work in the summer of 1657. He seems to have had some hesitation about leaving Mittenwalde, because it was only "after fervent prayer and mature deliberation," that he accepted the call to Berlin. However, without doubt he and Frau Gerhardt were glad to be again among such friends as Georg Lilius and Michael Schirmer whose tastes were so similar to their own. When Gerhardt came to Berlin he entered a city full of sharp strife between the Lutheran and the Reformed clergy; the Great Elector was by inheritance and by education in the Netherlands where he spent four years strongly in favor of the Reformed Church. Gerhardt on the other hand held the security of the Lutheran faith very dear. When hostilities between the clergy began to disturb the peace, the Elector issued on the 2d of June, 1662, an edict10 the purpose of which was to maintain harmony between Reformed and Lutheran clergymen. Its only effect was, however, to
8

In Mittenwalde, 9 English miles south of Berlin, there were in the church two clerical positions, the first of which was known as the "Propstei," since its occupant was entrusted with the supervision of the clergy of the vicinity. Propst (or Probst) is from the Latin propositus.

9 10

Cf. p. 2. This mandate was a renewal of the edict issued by his grandfather on Feb. 24, 1614, demanding "moderation and modesty in the pulpit."

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fan the flames of the very conflagration he sought so hard to quench. The unconciliatory spirit was encouraged from Wittenberg, too, where Theology of Controversy had reached its highest pitch through Calovius, whose advice and judgment Gerhardt prized. His inclination toward Wittenberg is seen also in various Latin poems for special occasions. Gerhardt did not seek the quarrel, but was drawn forcibly into it; he was concerned throughout the controversy in keeping a clear conscience and preserving the confession of the Lutheran Church. In all the documents that were issued in this period between the Magistrate, the "Stünde" and the Elector it is said of him that he was always pacific and conciliatory. Being a strong adherent of all the symbolic books, including the Book of Concord, he could not conscientiously sign the edict. He was accordingly dismissed. The citizens of Berlin espoused his cause and appealed to the Magistrate who testified that Gerhardt had never "scorned nor rebuked the faith of the Elector." Also his influential patron, Mayor Zarlang, tried to reinstate him, but Gerhardt could not renounce his adherence to the Concordienformel, so in 1666 his position was filled by another. Nor on the other hand can the Elector be blamed for his stand; he wished only to have peace between the adherents of the two beliefs, and was sincere in the thought that the Concordienformel merely fomented strife.

5

For some years Gerhardt lived in Berlin without any position, supported by his friends in his congregation. He was, however, the victim of inevitable circumstances, for although within a few months of his resignation the edict was withdrawn, his patroness, Electress Luise Henriette, had died. All of his children had died in infancy except Paul Friedrich who survived him, and in March, 1668, his wife died who had been as strong a follower of the Lutheran Faith as he, and had encouraged him in his stand of not signing the edict.11 Her death was the fulfillment of a wish that "the dear Lord might soon come and release her." Gerhardt took into his home as housekeeper the widow of his brother-in-law Fromme.12 His household was reasonably large for one in his condition, a preacher without office; he speaks of three, or even of four servants, and mentions at times some business matters in Berlin that seem to be of moment. Although he must also have had pupils whom he tutored during these years, he evidently wished for some definite occupation, and it came. On the 14th of October, 1668, Paul Gerhardt preached a trial sermon ("Gastpredigt") in Lübben. The city council the following day with the unanimous consent of the citizens offered him the vacant charge and Gerhardt accepted it as a divine gift. The formal call under date of October 29th was sent to him at Berlin. Owing to
The attitude of the women in this time of religious strife who urged their husbands to sign the edict is satirized in the following lines: Schreibt, liebe Herre, schreibt, dasz Ihr in der Pfarre bleibt.
12

11

Cf. pp. 2 and 3.

12

13 . and his portrait hung there bears this inscription: Theologus in cribro Satanae versatus. Wittenberg and Berlin bearing his name. 1676. a tablet was put up on the north wall of the chancel of the church at Lübben. Paul Friedrich.14 on the ground that they aimed at temporal things and were loyal to neither God nor man. Luke XXII. Shortly before his death. Gerhardt died the 27th of May. 1669." Cf. and for seven years he worked faithfully in this new field. To these tributes the present generation. now. Sondern reiszt unsern Geist Aus viel tausend Nöten.15 The Nicolaikirche in Berlin and the other churches where he held charge have portraits of Gerhardt on their walls. and also the serious illness of his son.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt various circumstances. he did not enter his duties till Trinity Sunday. He commends to the boy the study of theology at reputable universities and also the avoidance of the Syncretists. adds its praise and gratitude. The Syncretists sought to effect an agreement between the Reformed and Lutheran doctrines. Also among the many memorials to him are charitable foundations in Mittenwalde. "A divine sifted in Satan's sieve. Goed. 13 14 15 This is stanza VIII of his poem: "Warum sollt ich mich denn grämen" (cf.13 He was buried in the vault of the Lübben church. 31. He was at this time sixty-three years old. three centuries later. Schleuszt das Thor der bittern Leiden Und macht Balm. 122). such as the delay incident to necessary repairs on the parsonage. In a memorial service to Gerhardt in 1876. in his seventieth year. he composed a sort of testament or will of a moral nature for his own Paul in which he hoped to leave little of this world's goods. but an honorable name of which his son might not be ashamed. Da man kann Gehn zur Himmelsfreuden. St. with the prayer on his lips: Kann uns doch kein Tod nicht tödten.

according to others near the Lake of Constance. those of the Mother Church. 14 . Gregory the Great. and the Reformation Period covering the sixteenth and the first half of the seventeenth centuries. "Du himlisco trohtin" ("Thou Heavenly Lord of Light") and "Got thir eigenhaf ist" ("God. The Hymns used in the services of the early church in Germany were.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 6 CHAPTER II. He settled as a monk and priest at Weissenburg. for St. which is known to have been used as early as 898. it is thy property"). If the statement made by Dean Milman in a footnote of his Latin Christianity. the Apostle of Germany. While the general use of the Latin language was favorable to preserving the unity of the Church and facilitated literary intercourse among scholars. however. and a most interesting work from a philological as well as a hymnological point of view. according to some authorities in Franconia. is well founded.16 A celebrated Latin hymn of early date. who was born about the beginning of the ninth century. that the hymns of Ambrose were translated into German in the ninth century. it has been constantly sung throughout Christendom at the consecration 16 This latter is regarded by some authorities as from the pen of St. where he wrote and completed (about 865) his Evangelienbuch. Boniface. is the "Veni Creator Spiritus". for obvious reasons. entered Germany by the way of Rome. It was a Latin Christianity which he preached and the church services were. And in this consideration of hymns and hymn writers it will be convenient in the main to follow the chronological order. which though not of German authorship were yet used in the religious services of the Germans and had some influence in the development of the German vernacular hymnody. THE MEDIAEVAL PERIOD. were among the earliest of Latin poems to be so translated." which are undoubtedly by Ambrose. GERHARDT'S RELATION TO EARLIER HYMNODY OF GERMANY. Of the rhymed prayers which some on doubtful authority have ascribed to him two have been translated by Miss Winkworth. Probably it cannot be known what and when Latin hymns were first translated into modern languages. 7 The history of hymnody in Germany up to the time of Gerhardt falls naturally into two periods which might be called the Mediaeval Period. Otfrid of Weissenburg. The innate love of poetry. In the consideration of the earlier period of hymnody reference will be made to a few Latin hymns. produced many sacred lyrics for private devotion and caused to be made metrical translations of Latin hymns and portions of the Psalter. This is the earliest example of a long German poem in rhyme. of course. Latin hymns. then probably the "Deus Creator omnium" and "Aeterne rerum Conditor. though of English birth. extending from the beginning of the eighth century to the end of the fifteenth century. this circumstance prevented for a long time the free and full development of a hymnody in the vernacular. a versified gospel history. The oldest German poet is the Benedictine monk.

1206 ff. Charles the Bald. "Media vita in morte sumus." "Veni Sancte Spiritus. By the beginning of the tenth century the impulse given to the arts by Charlemagne had gradually died out and the state of society had become so disorganized that for two centuries after the time of Notker the field of literature was comparatively barren. This sequence was long used as a battle-song. came the development of chivalry and a national literature. which was for a long time the especial seat of German religious literature. however.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 8 of kings and at great ecclesiastical solemnities. called Balbulus. p. Julian: Dictionary of Hymnology. the first great outburst of German poetry and song. whose dream it was to prove themselves true heirs of Charlemagne by re-establishing the Empire of the West. when translated into German. They were of course without words and what Notker did was to write words for them. A large class (more than two hundred) of minnesingers sprang up who glorified earthly and heavenly love and the Virgin Mary as the type of pure womanhood." One of the most remarkable of his sequences. Hermann. These were termed "sequences" because they followed the "Hallelujah" and repeated its notes. English and other Ianguages. Notker was characterized as a man of gentle. Gall. very largely through the influence of the crusades. presumably his pupils." which. gave rise to the earliest German hymns with which we are acquainted. It has been ascribed to Charlemagne." is said to have been suggested to him while observing some workmen constructing a bridge in a precipitous and most dangerous place. one of Luther's funeral hymns. Gregory the Great and various others. St." An early example of the change of sequences from a rhythmical to a metrical form is seen in the so-called "Golden Sequence.17 To this early period belongs Notker of St. mark a great change and form an era of rapid growth." called by Archbishop Trench "the loveliest of all the hymns in the whole circle of Latin sacred poetry. Whenever in the eucharistic service a "Hallelujah" was introduced it had been customary to prolong the last syllable and to sing on the vowel "ah" a series of elaborate passages to represent an outburst of jubilant feeling. The twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Hartmann." who was born in Switzerland about 840 and died in 912. the "Stammerer. and Gottschalk. Its merit is attested by the many translations made of it into German. Gall. As a result of their participation in the common life of Christendom. King of France (997-1031). 15 . Germany was now ruled by the Hohenstauffens. To Gottschalk has been ascribed the "Alleluiatic Sequence ("Cantemus cuncti") well known in England by the translation. "Mitten wir im Leben sind. produced besides Notker several distinguished sequence-writers. "The strain upraise of joy and praise. contemplative nature and "accustomed to find spiritual and poetical suggestions in common sights and sounds. In the church too the voice of native song now made 17 For a scholarly discussion of the authorship of this famous hymn cf." Tradition assigns its authorship to Robert II." is a translation of it and portions of the Burial Service of the Church of England are taken from it. He wrote in Latin and was the originator of a form of Latin hymnody called "sequentia" or "prosa.

The "Kyrie eleison" and "Christe eleison" which passed from the Greek church into the Latin." is a beautiful prayer of a mother for her infant child. while others are transformations of secular songs into religious songs. VI." were repeatedly translated. were the first specimens of German hymns which were sung by the people. in the fourteenth century produced a number of hymns full of glowing love to God. the most important and prolific hymn writer of the fifteenth century. Vol. Many are in intricate metres. His cradle hymn. "Ach lieber Herre Jesu Christ. Peter power that he may preserve the man who hopes in him. Grimm: Deutsches Wörterbuch. the best versions being those of Miss Winkworth." both of which have passed into English. Alpha es et O." also "Leichen. as a response of the people. as well as many others of the best Latin hymns." These. Occasionally words of the original Latin were introduced into the vernacular as in the Christmas hymn: In dulci jubilo Nu singet und seyt fro! Unsres Herzens Wonne Leyt in presipio Und leuchtet in gremio. "Ich musz die Creaturen fliehen. such as the "Te Deum" and the "Gloria in excelsis. p." It has three stanzas. Cf.20 whose own hymn writing is wonderfully affected by Bernard. 86 and note. The mystic school of Tauler. 18 It is possible that instead of being a corruption of the Greek phrase the word may have denoted at first a certain dance measure. for such they were."18 These sequences. 19 20 21 16 .19 9 The twelfth century produced the "Salve Caput cruentatum" of Bernard of Clairvaux. the "Dies irae" and the "Stabat Mater dolorosa. In the following century appeared two widely celebrated compositions. especially on the high festivals.21 Of unusual sweetness and abiding worth are the hymns of Heinrich von Laufenburg. and these brief poems were called from the refrain "Kirleison" or "Leisen. to be repeated over and over again. of which the first reads: Unser trohtin hat farsalt sancte Petre giwalt Daz er mag ginerjan zeimo dingenten man. The oldest dates from the end of the ninth century and is called the "Leich vom heiligen Petrus. Christian Singers of Germany. Tauler is the author of the Christmas poem. and has become well known in England through Miss Winkworth's translation. were popularly enlarged. Cf. "Uns kommt ein Schiff geladen" and the hymn of Self Renunciation. Kyrie eleyson! Christe eleison. "Our Lord hath given St.--a hymn which has come to us by Paul Gerhardt." Cf.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt itself heard.

" he says. He was intensely fond of poetry and song and was himself a poet by nature. Y. more are frequently ascribed 22 23 24 Das deutsche Kirchenlied." One of the favorite hymns to the Virgin. It is interesting to note that the leader of the Reformation was also the first evangelical hymnist. In the changes that then occurred few things are more noteworthy than the new privileges granted to the individual worshipper. especially music. L. Tischreden: "Von der Musica" and "Die Musicam sol man nicht verachten. and for the chanting of priests and choirs it substituted congregational singing. overflowing with the worship of the saints and the Virgin who is even clothed with divine attributes and is virtually accorded the place of Christ as the fountain of grace. 1500-1648. p. There are hymns which teach that she pre-existed with God at the creation. His estimate of the value of music is revealed in his words: "He who despises music. like the Latin. most of them dating from the year 1524. the Reformation introduced a sermon in the vernacular. will never be my friend. F. Instead of the Latin Mass. as all fanatics do. N." a change strikingly characteristic of the effect which the Reformation exerted upon the worship of the Virgin Mary. "Dich Frau von Himmel. 1915. Cf. There was revived the primitive idea of the priesthood of all believers. But cf. II. Luther had recourse to the Latin hymns. adapting and translating many of those which would lend themselves best to his purposes. but also the hymn book." 17 .23 To Luther belongs the extraordinary merit of having given to his people in their own language not only the Bible and the Catechism. p. ruf ich an. In characterizing the period Wackernagel says22 "Through all the centuries from Otfrid to Luther we meet with the idolatrous worship of the Virgin Mary. Benson: The English Hymn. Altogether he wrote thirty-seven hymns. 20 ff. Among the means which contributed to the large benefits which then came to the church the writing of hymns was not the least important. "for. 10 Guizot in his History of European Civilization calls the Reformation an insurrection of the human mind against the absolute power of spiritual order." He wished that all children might be taught to sing. THE REFORMATION PERIOD. so that they might directly answer the word of God in their songs."24 He began to write hymns soon after he had completed his New Testament translation and from this time on he was an active reformer of church music and hymns.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt German hymnody of the Middle Ages is. enlisting in the same work the large circle of friends whom he gathered about him. No sooner had there been felt the want of German psalms and hymns to take the place of the Latin hymns and sequences than Luther set about to supply the want. It substituted for it the worship of Christ as the sole Mediator through whom men attain eternal life. that all things are created in her and for her and that God rested in her on the seventh day. "I would fain see all arts. in the service of Him who has bestowed and created them." Hans Sachs subsequently changed into "Christum vom Himmel ruf ich an. 13.

"O Licht. In this period there were over a hundred poets whose verses have expressed the highest Christian praises. whose taste was chiefly formed by the influence of Martin Opitz29 the founder of the First Silesian School of German poetry.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt to him though on doubtful authority. excelled their predecessors. Hans Sachs. the faithful assistant of Melanchthon. His finest hymn. writers made their songs more and more expressive of personal feelings. and has passed 25 26 27 28 29 Cf. 324-5. The hymns from this time to the close of the Thirty Years' War are of a more subjective28 experimental type of sacred poetry. Luther's hymns which are characterized by simplicity and strength. Markgraf Albrecht of Brandenburg. p. his style is plain and often rugged and quaint but he throws into his poems all his own fervent faith and deep devotion. pp. In point of refinement and grace of style the hymn writers of the period of the Thirty Years' War. For his influence on Gerhardt cf. had in 1467 formed themselves into a separate and organized church. the frequent references to the Moravian Hymn Book. His most famous hymn "Ein' feste Burg ist unser Gott. for its productiveness.25 11 Of the many hymnists inspired by Luther's example the more eminent were Justus Jonas. The adherents of this cult are commonly called Moravians." written in 1529 when the German princes made their formal Protest against the revocation of their liberties. 18 . Cf. It is an era which. that is. p. the shoemaker. and later Gerhardt. their archbishop Lucas in 1501 collected hymns and published the first hymn book in the vernacular to be found in Bohemia or Germany. 18. The Lutheran hymnody which followed closely upon the Moravian contributions concluded its productive period with the Formula of Concord27 in 1577 which gave final shape to the Lutheran creed. thus gaining the name of Protestants. Paul Eber. 2. may be compared with the time of Watts and Doddridge and their immediate successors in England. The German hymnody of the Reformation period was enriched by the hymns of the Bohemian and Moravian Brethren. Julian: Dictionary of Hymnology. 14. Luther's friend and colleague in the preparation of metrical German versions of the Psalms. Cf. had a popular churchly tone. 38 ff. Cf. has passed into English hymnody in no less than sixty-three versions. 4. who as followers of John Huss. pp. They assumed this name in England and America and it is very largely through their hymn book26 that German hymns have found their way into English hymnody. p. geboren aus dem Lichte" is a special favorite in Silesia where he was born. because the first founders of the settlement in Saxony immigrated from Moravia. 14.

p. Cf. such as were intended to supply every possible requirement of public worship or private experience. the Confessional (1648-1680).36 Simon Dach was the last poet of any note to write in the Reformation period of German hymnody. p. 29. Zwingli and Calvin held firmly to the principle that in public worship the word God should have supreme dominion. After him a new era of poetry. a principle which raised the Psalter to new dignity and power. While its poetry is but a poor translation of the French Psalter of Marot and Beza.31 The two most famous and most copious hymn writers of this time were however Rist and Heermann. The most popular collection however was the versified Psalter of Lobwasser of Königsberg. with a preface in defense of congregational singing. they were inferior to them in the matter of psalmody. 1023. "O Light. the former wrote between 600 and 700 hymns. Julian: Dictionary of Hymnology. One of the best known popular songs is his love-song written in East Prussian dialect "Anke von Tharaw. 28 ff. however.34 The first German Reformed hymn book appeared at Zürich."30 Near the close of the war. It contained not only versified psalms but also hymns. "Wer nur den lieben Gott läszt walten. when the hope of peace had begun to dawn." is hardly inferior to that of Gerhardt on the same theme. The hymn of trust in Providence by Neumarck (1621-1681). opens and it is at this time that Paul Gerhardt appears. He. profound in Lutheran orthodoxy. who was Professor of Poetry at Königsberg and the most important poet of the Königsberg School. "Nun danket alle Gott. 1540. notably that of Miss Winkworth. Christian Singers of Germany.32 While the Lutheran churches were superior to the Reformed churches of Germany and Switzerland in original hymnody. five have found places in modern English hymnals. 114 ff. although living in the midst of this churchly atmosphere. In so great a mass of writings it is inevitable that there should be much that is poor." It has been translated many times and is included in nearly all American and English hymnals.35 its pious contents made it a rich source of devotion for a hundred years." cf. "Befiehl du deine Wege. It is a parallel to the Scottish Psalter of 1641 by Francis Rous. Martin Rinckart (1586-1649) composed that noble expression of trust and praise. who out of Light wast born. "Annie of Tharaw. 173. that of the Devotional 30 31 32 Cf." This is made familiar to English readers through Longfellow's translation. p. Of the 165 hymns that he wrote. p. Not so prolific as Heermann and Rist but superior to them in poetical genius was Simon Dach (1605-1659). Cf.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 12 into English in several translations. 19 ." 34 35 36 For their effect on English hymnody cf. feels the tendencies of a still later period. Versified versions of the Psalms became the first hymn books of the Reformed Churches. but over 200 may be said to be in common use in Germany and at least fifteen have appeared in the hymn books of English-speaking countries. p.

Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt era. and of the later epoch. Like many other great men he saw beyond his time. the period of the Pietists. 20 . He combined in his poems all the strong qualities of the century in which he lived.

naive and hearty. die Wohltaten des Schöpfers erfreuen das Herz. Tod und Hölle haben längst ihre Macht verloren. und schlieszlich weisz er zu trösten und Zufriedenheit." Geschichte d. 366. Seine Lyrik ist nicht mehr Chorpoesie. sie macht (um die Schulausdrücke zu gebrauchen) den Uebergang vom objektiven Bekenntnisliede zum subjektiven Erbauungslied. His hymns are among the noblest contributions to sacred poetry. Pt. Gnade 14 geht vor Recht. pp. as Herbert is of the English church. Bei Luther ruft die Gemeinde zu Gott. He possessed a firm conviction of the objective truth of the Christian doctrine of salvation and also a genuine sentiment for all that is purely human. with Gerhardt it is the belief in the Love of God. Like the old poets of the people he is sincerely and unconstrainedly pious. 1899. In all the religious lyrics even in the congregational hymns from the middle of the seventeenth century on we note a more personal and 37 38 40 Or as the German says: From the "Bekenntnislied" to the "Erbauungslied. sie holt aus der Tiefe des individuellen Seelenlebens ihre Schätze. Gerhardt sieht wie ein Jüngling darüber hinweg. embodying in them such phases of feeling as might be experienced by any large body of sincere Christians. giving him a place second only to Luther and even surpassing Luther's work in poetic fertility. alles ist so schön zum Besten der Menschen eingerichtet. 340-341. Literatur. with Gerhardt the merciful Righteous One is a gentle loving man. and a fresh and healthy appreciation of life in the realm of nature and in the intellectual world are the sources for his splendid work. in his way of writing he is as attractive. d. 21 . Geduld zu predigen. selbst die Sünde dient zum Heil. Zorn musz der Liebe weichen. die Seele frohlockt in der Gewiszheit der Erlösung." Gerhardt sings his hymns with conviction. His deep Christian feeling together with sterling good sense. Nationallitteratur. CHARACTERISTICS OF GERHARDT AS A HYMN WRITER. ed. das rechte Mittelmasz zu preisen und auch dem Uebel gute Seiten abzugewinnen. d. so liegt sie bei Gerhardt in beständigem Sonnenglanz. 1842. Wenn bei Luther die Welt voll Sturm und Gewitter ist. With Luther the old wrathful God of the Romanists assumed the heavenly aspect of grace and mercy. Geschichte d. III. From the close of the Thirty Years' War until 1680 there occurred in German hymnody a transition from the churchly and confessional to the pietistic and devotional hymns. worin alle betenden Christen einig sind. sie beschränkt sich nicht auf das. In Gerhardt more than in any other author all the requisites for the religious poem are united. only so far modified as the requirements of his time demanded.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 13 CHAPTER III. In Luther's time the belief in Free Grace and the work of the Atonement in Redemption and the bursting of the gates of Hell was the inspiration of his joyful confidence. und diese bildet in der That den sittlichen Grundcharakter von Gethardts Poesie. the blissfulness of his faith makes him benign and amiable. bei Gerhardt redet der Einzelne. p.37 It is during this transitional period that the religious song of Germany finds its purest and sweetest expression in the hymns of Paul Gerhardt. Luther steht wie ein Mann dem Bösen. simple and pleasing as in his way of thinking. Gervinus says of him:38 "He went back to Luther's most genuine type of hymn in such a manner as no one else had done. who is as much the typical poet of the Lutheran." Scherer40 gives an even clearer characterization of the two hymn writers: "Geistlicher Ernst des Vortrags schlieszt Heiterkeit des Gemütes nicht aus.

composed respectively 659 and 1188 hymns. that he at once began to set them to music and eventually he published them dividing them by "dozens"43 into separate books. counts." Each single dozen was again dedicated to a particular class of men with a characteristic preface." I. Smend: "P. Among them are a number which in all probability belong to his early period of poetic activity. first to the honor of the Divine Majesty and then. voller Kunst. but the distinct individuality and expression of personal sentiment which are impressed on his poems already point to the devotional school. Among them are 18 poems for occasions. Jahrh. das evangel. "To the high. Crüger's successor in his church and organ work. the famous organist and composer of chorals. J. so that no striving after correctness of form is evident. and estates of the Electorate of Brandenburg. pp. this side the Oder and beyond the Elbe". His contemporary.42 Yet a complete hymnal might be compiled from them. ff. 27 founded on Psalms and 24 founded on other parts of Holy Scripture. characteristic of Ebeling. 41 42 43 Cf. noble-born. Ebeling was so much pleased with Gerhardt's hymns. and his successor. while Gerhardt has the modest number of 132 poems in all. Crüger died in the year 1662 and Cristoph Runge took over further editions of the book. Gerhardt put at Ebeling's disposal the first copy of his hymns hitherto published and also thirty-one separate strophes which had for various reasons been omitted in previous editions. 22 . the complete mastery of technique and the purity of language are a distinct heritage from him. Finally he turned over to him twenty-six more poems which the Praxis pietatis melica had not published up to this time. appeared in 1667. embellished with melodies for six parts. The melodies which proved most popular were those set to "Voller Wunder. many of them for the first time in the Praxis pietatis melica." With such eagerness were these hymns sought after that Ebeling had to publish a new edition two years later. Kirchenlied" in "Der Protestantismus am Ende des 19. honored. 301. so thoroughly do they embrace all religious and domestic experiences. Gerhardt's whole tone and style of thought belong to the confessional school. also for the consolation of esteemed and distressed Christendom. Gerhardt u. collected into one volume." There can be no doubt but that the smoothness and elegance of form. the second dozen. a collection of hymns and tunes by Johann Crüger. But without consciously differing from Opitz and his school. knights. Many of our poet's hymns show the influence of Opitz' Trostgedichte in Widerwärtigkeit des Krieges. Rist (1607-1667). using the popular form of verse in which there prevails the natural flow of rhythm. lords. and for the increase of the Christianity of all believing souls--in sets by dozens." "Schwing dich auf zu deinem Gott" and "Warum sollt' ich mich denn grämen.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 15 individual tone and with it a tendency to reproduce special forms of Christian experience often of a mystical character. The full title. Schmolk (1672-1737). and virtuous women of Berlin" and so on. Gerhardt made no further contributions to these publications because henceforth he became more intimately associated with Johann Georg Ebeling. Compared with most authors of his time Gerhardt wrote but little. Gerhardt has brought into prominence the popular expression of feeling. The first dozen he dedicated "to the prelates. They appeared at intervals from the year 1649 on. Critics41 have gone so far as to say that "without Opitz there would be no Gerhardt. consisting of one hundred and twenty hymns. reads: Paul Gerhardt's spiritual devotions. The tenth and last "dozen" of Gerhardt's hymns which Ebeling had set to music for four voices and with an accompaniment of two violins and a bass. at the request of a number of eminent and distinguished gentlemen.

"Wie schön ists doch. "Mein Seel ist in der Stille" Goed. "Voller Wunder. Also among them are several which from content and form must be regarded as products of his mature years. merkt Himmel. the proportion among German hymn writers is as follows:--Luther 10. Fischer-Tümpel: "Das deutsche evangelische Kirchenlied des 17. "Johannes sahe durch Gesicht" Goed. 315. 304. that the personality of Gerhardt. pp. du bist ja für und für" Goed." a paraphrase of one of Röber's44 hymns. Of these 132 poems a large proportion have become embodied in church music of Germany and many of them may be counted among the most beautiful in German hymnody. "Herr. "Der Tag mit seinem Lichte" Goed. "Gib dich zufrieden und sei stille" Goed. Dietz: "Tabellarische Nachweisung des Liederbestandes." Marburg." which may be regarded as a representative collection of universal hymnody. 1 and 2. It is quite within the limits of possibility that Gerhardt himself undertook revisions. 287. the poet. 45 "Die güldne Sonne" Goed. 46 Johann Heinrich Feustking: Ausgabe." (Gütersloh.45 The most important fact about the Ebeling edition is this. du greulichs Bild. Zerbst. was for the first time presented to the German people's heart and mind. 302. "Merkt auf. 1904.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 16 such as: "O Tod. 1707. as Feustking's title indicates. 274. "Ich bin ein Gast auf Erden" Goed. The texts of the hymns in the editions of Crüger and Ebeling and later of Feustking46 in 1707 have often different readings so that it is difficult to determine which the authentic version may be. 307. text "nach des seligen Autors eigenhändigem revidirten Exemplar mit Fleisz übersehen. Jahrhs. 298. voller Kunst" Goed. 278. Ebeling's publication placed Gerhardt's works on their own merit.47 altogether 78 of his hymns. Herr Jesu Christ" Goed. 293. "Ich. 1906) includes 116 of Gerhardt's hymns. How widely they have been adopted into general use is shown by the fact that in modern hymnals in Germany there appear either in expanded or cento form. 44 Cf. O Tod. "Herr Gott. while in the Schaff-Gilman "Library of Religious Poetry. der ich oft in tiefes Leid" Goed." 47 Cf. Hitherto his poems had been grouped together in collections of hymns with those of other and perhaps better known authors. 284. Erde" Goed. 296. and from which the poet himself derived much comfort and strength. "Ich danke dir mit Freuden" Goed. 319. du erforschest meinen Sinn" Goed. 23 . 333.

many of them having their inspiration in the intimate circle of his own family and friends. Schmolk 4. Rarely has there been. It was only the reawakening of a life of faith that needed worship and strong evidence of reverence such as followed the wars of liberation that brought his hymns into the forefront once more and prompted further publications of them. Gerhardt's hymns. the consecration of happiness and comfort in dark hours. pp. p.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 17 Goethe 8. Instead." and "Befiehl du deine Wege. a time when there existed a greater gulf between poets and their effusions than in the XVIIth century." while not one of Luther's begins this way. Most poets of that time gave forth what they had learned and what they knew."49 and "Ich singe dir mit Herz und Mund. 1 and 13. In the biographical sketch of Gerhardt we have given a broken account of his life. 229." Cf. Mention has several times been made of Luther53 in connection with Gerhardt. There are 16 beginning with "ich. and thus it is that during the XVIIIth century. different versions being given of "O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden. while Gerhardt's hymns lived on with others they are rarely accorded a leading place. Universal life and not merely the life of one reared in the church is unfolded in his hymns. then." but Gerhardt has: "Ist Gott für mich. Luther sang: "Ein' feste Burg ist unser Gott. 14. Yet observe that in none of them is there any personal experience that is not enlightened by its relation to the external truths of Christian Belief so that it has a universal significance. Different from this is the story of the individual in his poems which are his very personality. 24 . he gives us his own life unadorned and true. Assuming that one takes for granted the incontestable truth of evangelistic Philosophy of Life as does Gerhardt. Pietism and rationalism transferred the centre of gravity in hymnody to a different point.48 Spitta 6. Every pious worshipper can follow Gerhardt.51 the hymns no longer acknowledge the truths of the Gospel as in the days of the Reformation. etc. His work is not what he learned from others. Every Protestant hymn writer must undergo comparison with the great father of German hymnody and none can There is an exact total of 10 of Gerhardt's poems. Scheffler 4. as has been said in the early part of this chapter." 49 50 51 52 53 48 Goed. He wrote preeminently as a living member of Christ's church. stand out in his poetry. one may find one's own thoughts and feelings expressed in these poems. it changed the type of hymn or required of it other features. taking all in all."50 Thus. Goed. The same quiet sincerity.--not what they really were. proclaim his own personal experiences. Gerhardt 7. Cf. and for the very reason that he leads a rich inner life is he able to give it. 118. so trete. that is. but the poet lives them. Theirs was a play of the intellect and imagination on objects outside them. Approximately one-eighth52 of Gerhardt's hymns begin with "Ich. every one may find in him peace for the soul. Hence their works displayed a universal lack of inner truth. depth of feeling and warmth that are seen in his face.

but elsewhere pure doctrine is the basis of each poem.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt stand the test better than Gerhardt." Gerhardt's poems are all permeated with this hope for future happiness in Heaven and with a childlike joy in this hope. 5. 244) appear the lines: "Gib mir meine Lebenszeit Ohne sonderm Leide. Fantasei. 1827. Let us take the hymns cited above: "Ein' feste Burg. In his "Reiselied" (Goed. We see. v. nevertheless his hymns are remarkably free from the tendency of this period to use words coined from foreign tongues.54 avoidance of bombast and coarseness55 of which so many contemporary writers were guilty. 18 Although Gerhardt's hymns are written in the vernacular of the XVIIth century. "Sämmtliche Werke. In the form of the verse Luther displays the greater strength and Gerhardt the greater art. He may sing of the beauties of summer. studieren. 55 56 57 58 Lines such as "Trotz sei dir. tenderness which on occasion yields to sternness. yet with that his thoughts go further and he soon begins to reflect upon the greater beauties of Heaven. Frau Th. the other treats of life's experiences. Regente. and not from any desire or intention to devote himself to poetry. "heliotrope. Regiment. In two or three of them a single dogma appears very plainly. literally "turning toward the sun. In fact many lines are a direct translation of passages in scripture. Diese Blume dreht sich beständig nach der Sonne58 und Gerhardt nach der seligen Ewigkeit. Ranzion.65) were comparatively inoffensive to XVIIth century standards. 248) he begins by urging on his horse. 27 ff. du trotzender Kot!" (Goed. Even in an uncouth poem about health (Goed. In Gerhardt it is the triumphant song of Paul that they who are in Christ are free from condemnation. In Luther's song of defiance the XLVIth Psalm is born anew." In the very choice of material the likeness is striking. The mother of Hippel56 says of him: "Er war ein Gast auf Erden57 und überall in seinen 120 Liedern ist Sonnenwende gesäet. suddenly he changes from the beauties of the hill and vale to the joy of eternity. I. Cf." from the Greek. Hippel. Victoria. Summa." and "Ist Gott für mich. Cf. Policeien. language taken from the best sacred literature including Luther's Bible and almost entirely free from foreign words. A fine feeling for rhythm schooled under the principles of Opitz. Sonnenwende. formieret." 25 . at a time when many of the forms characteristic of the writers of the two preceding centuries still survived. He goes on his way writing because his heart is so full. 284. vexieren. He never sought any laurels. "Ich bin ein Gast auf Erden" Goed. then. Und dort in der Ewigkeit Die vollkommene Freude!" We have said that biblical phraseology plays a large part in Gerhardt's hymns. He belongs to no poetic school or literary circle of the XVIIth century. God is a friendly and gracious 54 He uses the following: Clerisei. are all attributes of his writing. that while the one is concerned with the congregation of God's church." Berlin. richness in figures and analogies. Compagnie. jubilieren.

Inasmuch as Gerhardt is a poet of unusually fine feeling for the rhythmical and melodious peculiarities of the German tongue. He is fully conscious of the former. He even addresses the Almighty as a good companion: "Sollt aber dein und unser Feind An dem."60 19 The Redeemer is mentioned in barely half of Gerhardt's poems.. The harmonious connection of words of kindred meaning. It has therefore been often said that the poet esteemed the graces of Redemption less than those of Creation. Beginnen sich zu rächen: Ist das mein Trost. Goed. and it is here that he manifests the intimate relation of his poetry to the Volkslied without forsaking the proper limits of artistic poetry. are introduced not merely to catch the ear. but for family devotion and for personal edification. in strife and peace. . was dein Herz gut gemeint. etc. be recognized as contributing much to the 59 60 61 62 63 Cf. Yet what many critics have regarded as faults. und Felder ." "Füll und Hüll. 62."62 and frequent use of assonance. must. 217." etc."61 are at once suggestive of Nature in repose. 17--"Er ist ja kein Bär noch Leue. He intended his style to be popular in the sense of appealing to the people. Stadt. Appendix. entirely a New Testament conception. "Ruh und Rast. 1 and 2. which shows us that Gerhardt is more than a master of the language. 149 ff. not a "bear or lion. or did not possess the ability to do so. hence he can resign himself to the latter and dwell upon them in all their phases. 56-60. dasz seinen Zorn Du leichtlich könnest brechen. patience." Cf. For a tabulation of Alliteration. On the basis of the Atonement there springs up in his mind the whole Christian life with all its experiences of salvation. . consolation. cf.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt God. pp. The lines: "Nun ruhen aller Wälder. In observing certain defects such as the awkwardness and imperfect rhyme in the couplet: "Aber nun steh ich Bin munter und frölich. he appreciates the interdependence of verse rhythm and thought showing always a nicety in choosing the right word to suit the measure."59 but a Father reconciled by Christ's death. Goed. but to accentuate the artistic effect."63 even Gerhardt's most devoted admirers must regret that he did not feel the necessity of giving to his verses the final rounding-off. Vieh. Menschen. 8 and 9. 60." "Gnad und Gunst. Goed. Assonance. Since he does not sing solely for church worship. "Not und Tod. 293. 26 . he necessarily must observe and discourse upon the various vicissitudes of life in sickness and health. Goed. mastery of sin and suffering. that he writes with an inexhaustible naturalness. when fairly analyzed.

3) and "Herr Lindholtz legt sich hin und schläft in Gottes Namen" (Goed. "Du liebe Unschuld du. 139. Goed. 23."66 "Ich lieb ihr liebes Angesicht. 41. Three of these. 46. 331." 274. He uses in them iambic. and other foreign verse-forms he avoids entirely. 2. ich musz dich lassen. While these three are not artistic and harmonious. Goed. Regarding this melody cf. Cf. 71 72 73 74 75 Cf. they are. Buchner in Euphorion 15. 315. p."65 the juxtaposition of words of the same root. Gerhardt und A. 253. 158. 51. Goed. 335.. 298. 65. the refrains in Goed. Only twice70 has he employed the Alexandrine so fashionable in the period. 190." 293. Our poet has shown preference for the older German strophes which belong to popular poetry and had most firmly held their own in the spiritual song because of its relation to the Volkslied and also for the Nibelungen strophe of eight lines. Hahne72 enumerates in Gerhardt's poems fifty-one kinds of strophe among which six are quite complicated. 271."75 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 Goed. 209. in exact accord with the type of melody prevalent in the XVIIth century. Goed. 76. o barmherzigs Herz. 125. as appear in the poems. 10. F. "Gib dich zufrieden. 155."69 Just as Gerhardt was a loyal devotee to his mother-tongue. 58. 317. Eighteen73 times he uses the well known seven-line ballad strophe and twice74 the six-lined strophe of the Wanderlied "Innsbruck. wie schlecht wirst du geacht!" (Goed. Goed. p. 325. "Frölich soll mein Herze springen.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 20 effect and as being in accord with the Sprachpoesie of the people. Goed. On the other hand in so comparatively small a number of poems the variety of his verse structure is unusual. 134. 94. For example. "Erbarm dich. 60 and 71. 7. Gerhardt knew Buchner71 in his Wittenberg student days and owes to him his technical training in versification which his strophes show. Hahne. 93. 27 . What real fervor is indicated in the lines: "Dasz ich dich möge Eir und für In." Goed."67 as well as the frequent repetition of words or use of refrains68 show the power of his language and offer a striking method of expressing inmost sympathy. 171. 252). the richness in alliteration. 19-34. nevertheless. 21. trochaic and especially dactyllic-anapaestic metres which Buchner had declared permissible. "Ich mein Heil und Hülfe hab. p. and "Die güldne Sonne. 6. 235. so also he stood aloof from the tendency of his time to adopt foreign characteristics in verse. 106. 100. bei und an mir tragen. 260. must be regarded as original with Gerhardt."64 "Ich lechze wie ein Land. P.

p. Cf. pp. he wished to teach the people song79 and it is evident that in composing he usually had some definite melody in mind. 84 Cf. To this choir master we owe the first significant publication of our poet's hymns. The verse-structure in the remainder of his poems may generally be traced back to lays long-since native to the church. 1900) and especially the Bavarian clergyman. Rist. Gerhardt u. 310. 30 ausgewählte Lieder von Karl Schmidt. Many musicians have adapted his hymns to music. Deichert. 1907. as far as we know. Cf. even in the Cologne Cathedral. Mergner. H. 301. J." a poet of occasions. P. Smend: P. He has also frequently employed the rhymed couplet in the four-lined stanza. Lieder in neuen Weisen von Fr. Thus he composed "Ein Lämmlein geht und trägt die Schuld" to the melody "An Wasserflüssen Babylon. 1899).Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 21 which even as early as the Reformation had come into wide use in hymnody. Leipzig. Cf. 235."78 and in fact his hymns were known at first only through their musical setting. 25. C. ich musz dich lassen. though one strophe "Sollt ich meinem Gott nicht singen"76 appears for the first time. I. 2. Bach made use of them in a number of his cantatas and his Passion Music. 150.84 Gerhardt was essentially a "Gelegenheitsdichter. and "O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden" can be heard in many Catholic churches to-day. Kirchenlied in Der Protestantismus am Ende des 19. p. We may define him more precisely as a poet of consolation. Realizing. 43. 1607-1667. who has so thoroughly caught the spirit of Gerhardt. 155. von Herzogenberg (d. p. Friedrich Mergner83 (1818-1891). 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 Goed. Jahrh. that a composition becomes truly a poem only through its harmony Gerhardt clung to the well known melodies. choosing for his themes the various vicissitudes of life and such events as would present themselves to an earnest pastor devoted to the flock under his care. ff. p. and what Johann Walther had been to Luther. furthermore. thirteen of Gerhardt's hymns. Cf. Cf. 158. From Goed. sieh hier dein Leben" and "Nun ruhen alle Wälder" to "Innsbruck. 100. Crüger80 was to Gerhardt. adapting his new text to them that through the music his hymns might the more easily become familiar. 10. Gerhardt's Geistl. Like Luther. das evangel. in Johann Rist's77 hymns.81 and five82 times in his rapturous Weihnachtsoratorium do we find Gerhardt's words. As early as 1732-1800 six Catholic hymn books in quite general use throughout Germany had included in all. 28 . Of recent musicians who have been interested in his poetry as a basis for their compositions mention must be made of Albert Becher (d." and "O Welt.

90 In the poem beginning "Schwing dich auf zu deinem Gott" the word seems clearly to be used in this sense in line 7: Merkst du nicht des Satans List? Er will durch sein Kämpfen Deinen Trost.) 33 times. of "Freudenlicht" (-quell." "Wonne. besides numerous phrases such as "Erschrecke nicht. Goed." "freudenvoll." "tröstlich" 2. Herr Jesu Christ. o Freudenlicht. 289. of "froh. 40. also Goed. 150. also Goed."86 "Sei unverzagt. 19. Goed. lasz dich erblicken! 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 Cf. "trostlos." With him it seems often to have a wider meaning than merely solace. For the frequent use of "Trost und Freude" and "Freude und Trost. "getrost" 11. we find in his verses a host of phrases embodying cheer and joy: Lasz deine Frömmigkeit Sein meinen Trost und Freud." "Freudigkeit. 135. Ehe mir mein Herze bricht. etc. cf. cf. Stanza VI of the "Adventgesang" (Goed. of "freuen" and "erfreuen" 22 times. 296. of other kindred expressions. 132. "trösten" 10. 42. 16. 65. 3. dämpfen. or at least that comfort or assurance which is born of trust. 50 times. p.93 By enumeration we find the use of "Freude" 161 times. 158 ff. Dein Erfreuen ist die Weide. An enumeration of "Trost" words shows the use of "Trost" 51 times. At times it approaches even its English cognate trust. Goed. Da man sich recht frölich iszt." "selig. 30. 8 times. Cf." "frö(h)lich. 43. such as "Lust. 7. Goed." cf. 217." etc. 317. 127. Goed. Appendix. or comfort." "Seligkeit. 59. 271. the meaning of the modern German "getrost. 74." Goed. 22."92 Since joy is to Gerhardt innately associated with the theme of comfort. an dir erquicken! Jesu.91 den Jesus Christ Dir erworben." "freudig."89 In this connection we should consider Gerhardt's use of the word "Trost. komm.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 22 for at least seventeen of his hymns are to be classed as "Songs of the Cross and Consolation."87 "Sei ohne Furcht. as in the line: "Dein Arm ist mein Trost gewesen. At other times the meaning is apparently the ground of confidence or reliance. Goed. 8. 29 . 46. 108) is a fair example of Gerhardt's fondness for singing of joys both temporal and spiritual: Aller Trost und aller Freude Ruht in dir. Leuchte mir." etc. Lasz mich. 185. 135. Index by subjects. pp. Herr. 153."88 "Gott hat mich nicht verlassen. -schein. Appendix."85 and fully half his work contains much that is intended as a source of comfort in the many afflictions of the troublous times in which he lived. 155 and p. 31. 145. 150.

anxiety. Goed. Having hoped and prayed during the war for a cessation of hostilities and horrors he could at last burst forth at the conclusion of the Peace of Westphalia in his magnificent Gott Lob! nun ist erschollen Das edle Fried.e. however. "O heilger Geist. and wait patiently for him" (Ps. It was the everpresent hardships of war." "Stille. 274) where each stanza has these words as the refrain." Cf. 1612. XXXVII. 263] to his Paradiszgärtlein aller christl. gib meiner Seel Was Mark und Bein erquicket! Du bist der Geist der Herrlichkeit. Das Gott vom Himmel schicket. 200. Following Arndt. 1555-1621. p. the subjective development of his spiritual songs is shown in two directions--in the poetic glorification of nature and of family life. and which gave him the widest opportunity to grasp the inner life of the Christian believer in its different tendencies and phases. 24 Aside from the hymns of Cross and Consolation discussed above. 30 ." Of this word and its compounds we note 33 examples. 95. Joh. 21. Gerhardt believes the material as well as the spiritual 94 95 96 97 Goed. 7) he reveals to his fellow-men the joys and comforts that await the true believers even though they must pass through pain." A pastor and poet whose spirit amidst the hardships of the war can not only remain undaunted but bring so large a measure of cheer to his flock is indeed destined to have an immortal name. 16. XIV. Notably does this appear in the poem "Gib dich zufrieden" (Goed.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 23 Compare with this the lines from the hymn based on Johann Arndt's "Gebet um Geduld in groszem Creutz" (Goed. that made him long not merely for an earthly peace but also for spiritual rest. so a day of rest is at hand when God shall receive the meek in the abundance of peace. Tugenden. As their tears are counted and their sighs are heard. Cf. and of "Ruhe. Cf. the references on pp.'95 But how very deeply Gerhardt felt this yearning for spiritual as well as material peace is best seen from the constant recurrence of the root "Friede. Arndt. Weiszt.96 which among Gerhardt's poems are by far the most numerous." Rast" and similar words. 63 ff. The "Vier Bücher" appeared in 1605. 209.und Freudenswort. Erfreue mich. du Freudenöl. 209): St. and 'they shall then be exalted to inherit the land. Gerhardt's knowledge of nature is limited to the ideas set forth in Johann Arndt's97 Viertes Buch vom wahren Christentum. 205. where each of the 14 stanzas begins with the word "Geduld. 212. a Protestant theologian. As an advocate of peace and contentment he has among his contemporaries no equal."94 Furthermore he preaches patience and contentment with life's experiences. also the poem "Geduld ist euch vonnöten" (Goed. 267). and even death. [i. Taking as his theme "Rest in the Lord. was für Freud und Seligkeit Mein in dem Himmel warte.

hence the prophetic significance of comets which he mentions in two poems. In a time so bereft of virtues as the XVIIth century the firmly grounded idea of the home must be given first place. 104 and 142. bringing joy and cheer to her husband. Gerhardt is open to all the world and is at all times sensible to the appreciation of nature. Even no.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt phenomena on earth are influenced in a mysterious way by the heavens and their constellations. He scorns trouble. However. For married life he sings the praise of quiet domesticity. Oel. bringt herfür Korn. the most sublime and the most commonplace. His own family life. faithful in her tasks. Wein und Bier.100 and to inspire his people with gratitude for the infinite mercy of the Most High. portrays rain and sunshine. 139. 31 . (Goed. too. within this limited knowledge nature appears to him as of independent grandeur. and the many contributions he made to occasional poetry bear testimony to this. Fourteen years later another comet was regarded as prophecy of the death of the Swedish King. Brot. In this wise he sings: Die Erd ist fruchtbar. wholly subservient to God and freely enjoyed by all Christians. 98 99 Goed. It is a noteworthy characteristic of him that in one glance he includes with sense of fitness and artistic certainty both large and small. die sie hie verrichtt. Goed.101 picturing the Christian housewife in the midst of her surroundings. then. 242. earth's sorrows and joys. Most. He celebrates evening and morning and takes us in summer through the flowering gardens of God. 99 25 The other direction of the subjectivity of Gerhardt's writing is that of the family life. Sind wie ein schönes helles Licht. 15 which begins with a seemingly very pessimistic complaint about the disastrous weather and consequently meagre harvest closes with a prayer full of hope for the future. 49 ff.98 In the year 1615 just such a threatening "torch" had appeared to announce the frightful war. in 1652 Gerhardt is terrified with all others at the appearance in the sky of the third "Flammenrute" (Goed. Sie dringen bis zu Himmelspfort Und werden leuchten hier und dort. from the horrors of the Thirty Years' War he turns to thank God for the return of peace. He closes the poem with the eulogy: Die Werke. cheered by domestic felicity. ministering to the poor and teaching her children the Word of God. Naturally. 104). distress seems merely to accentuate happiness. In his life. 100 101 Goed.) To Gerhardt the world lies in continual sunshine. Was Gott gefällt. as well as in his songs. 95.

Mathesius102 had sung the praises of domestic happiness in "Wem Gott ein ehrlich Weib beschert. and he imagines the child in heaven joining the chorus of the angels. 18. His Leben Luthers (1566) is his most famous work. and the problem of the Trinity is dismissed without consideration. he has in his power the cure for others." (Goed. just because the severe afflictions of his own life cannot break his spirit. For the dying he allays the fear of death. The devil107 is to him a terrible reality.104 He speaks as a father who has lost his son. 302) placed German home-life in a poetic light it had not known before. O Jesu. 6. 14. 60. 102 103 104 105 107 Johann M. also 62. 135. Every pain and every punishment in which his poems abound at once lose their bitterness because on them is reflected the sunlight of God's love."105 bears the title "Freudige Empfahung des Todes. Zum Leben kräftig rüsten mich. 108. 171. The poem beginning "O Tod. When he does speak of sin and its curse of death with its terrors. 7)." but the sincere note of Gerhardt's "Wie schön ist's doch. 284). 40. a Lutheran theologian. he still contrives at once to take from them the sting. auferwecket: Viel mehr wirst du. 55. of the Savior is easily understood on the theory of punishment. Was todt war. 34. du greulichs Bild. 108 Cf. "Will Satan mich verschlingen" (Goed. Dasz mich der Tod so schrecket? Hat doch Elisa Todtenbein. 32 . The Atonement. 232.103 and has spent many a day in distress and care.. Gerhardt towers above his time in that amid all his despondent fellow-men he is always fearless and shows a cheerful heart reliant on God. Der alles schuf und noch erhält. "Dazu kommt des Teufels Lügen" (Goed. 335). 33. The sympathetic pastor takes his place with the parents beside the bier of their deceased child. den Trost hab ich. Gerhardt scrupulously avoids this and is therefore able to reduce everything to the simplicity of beauty. "Es wird im Fleisch hier fürgestellt. 317. 256. "Ich bin ein Gast auf Erden" (Goed. "Weint. Cf. 310. 173. sein. 40. 26 In hymnody both before and since Gerhardt there has often been a vivid portrayal of the tortures of hell to terrify the soul. Goed. O Tod. 328. The candid reader must admit that there is evident in some passages of Gerhardt's poetry a certain dogmatic constraint. und weint gleichwol nicht zu sehr" (Goed. Drum schlaf ich ein mit Freuden. 37-38). 122. 312. 1504-1565. 41. 46). man is but a stranger on earth. 31. But Gerhardt has written very few hymns of death or of penitence. ("Gebundenheit"). Herr Jesu Christ" (Goed.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Before Gerhardt. 185." and concludes with the lines: Was solls denn nun. too. his home is yonder where hosts of angels praise the Mighty Ruler. the Christchild in the manger is the creator108 of the world.

giving itself out whenever it composed poetry. so his contemporaries failed to appreciate him. Critics have sought in vain for traces of poetic development in Gerhardt's work.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt while the resurrection109 of the flesh is an undeniable truth. He never regarded himself as a poet by calling as did Opitz. his poetry can bear no marks of development." As he knew neither himself nor the greatness of his gift. Johann Franck and Rist. but only a poet by avocation. nor was he ever "hailed as the Homer or Vergil of his time. it is destined through the present world disaster to bring its message of hope. he sang "as the bird sings that lives in the branches. 33 . But in other respects Gerhardt is far less dogmatic than Luther. Goed." In the same proportion that Gerhardt's poetry brought strength and comfort in the grievous period of the Thirty Years' War and later eras of confusion. a fact which shows that his personality was immediately poetically endowed. 109 Cf. It has often been said that "Gerhardt had and sought no laurels". If his individuality shows no development as such. Such findings as have been claimed can be regarded only as more or less probable conjecture. To quote Goethe. 51.

The choral hymns in England. were in Latin and many of them were exceedingly beautiful. the establishment of the universities. nevertheless there were a few English authors of Latin hymns. These literary influences from Germany in satire. such as Faustus. vocibus. this chapter deals with the development of the English hymn up to that period. the Renaissance and the Reformation the literary relations were increased and became important. a great architect and theologian. the nightingale and daisy serve as interpretations of the play of love. too.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 27 PART TWO. Christi. however. In order to get the story of the development of the hymn we must go back a little. not to the congregation. England. Not a little of the quality of the Minnelied. of German influence in History. In the Mystery Plays there existed doubtless germs of the Meistersänger school: the occasional strophic passages in the Towneley plays resembled to a great extent the normal Meistergesang. While psalms and hymns have been used by the Christian Church since its beginning. The reformers in both countries were chiefly concerned in simplifying religious worship. reappears in much of the verse of the English lyric writers of this century. Although the early English Church received from the continent the most of the Latin hymns used in its service. Brant's "Narrenschiff" translated in the first years of the century helped essentially in accelerating the development of this type of literature in England: reprinted there after an interval of sixty years it was still an inexhaustible model of satire. Among this number were Bede. did not develop markedly because in England the cultivation of poetry never became a serious occupation. Church music in the mediaeval times belonged to the choir. This germ. A wonderful development of this religious lyric poetry sprang up in England and Germany at the beginning of the XVIth century. The record. the particular form of psalms and hymns now in use originated with the Reformation. Thus by introducing a new class of situations into English drama the unusually gifted Germany of the sixteenth century was of great moment for its neighbor. HISTORY OF ENGLISH HYMNODY AND THE GERMAN INFLUENCE UPON ENGLISH HYMN WRITING FROM THE EARLY XVITH THROUGH THE XIXTH CENTURY. and Thomas à Becket. Another source of dramatic effect destined to have great success on the English stage was found in some hero endowed with supernatural powers." and Anselm of Canterbury. in Minnelied and in Meistergesang had direct effect upon English intellectual life. when the rose. however. commonly called Venerable Bede (673-735?) who wrote "Adeste. Lyrics and Hymns was more broken and disconnected.110 28 Any direct traces of literary intercourse between Germany and England before the XVIth century are hard to find. In the wide region of satire which was at that time serious and often steeped in theological ideas Germany's works left enduring traces. on the other hand. as in Germany. CHAPTER I. 34 . and in giving to the laity 110 Inasmuch as Gerhardt's influence was not fully felt in England till the middle of the XIXth Century. with the invention of printing. and continued uninterrupted through the centuries.

Edinb. Here is the first stanza of his version of "Ein' feste Burg": "Oure God is a defence and towre A good armour and good weapen. He hath ben ever oure helpe and sucoure In all the troubles that we have ben in. A.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 29 a more active participation in it. This disappearance in England of the work of the Reformers in church music was due not only to the lack of great translators but also to many other causes. the imaginative poetry of German Protestantism which had been caught up in England with such momentary enthusiasm was as rapidly forgotten. however. therefore. The few men at this time who recognized Germany as the mother country of the Reformation and a seat of literary accomplishments had no wide influence in England. The first effort." Although these bleak translations were read in England for a time. and therefore casting aside all suggestions from other countries wished to study history and hymns of English sources only. and mistaking vulgarity for simplicity turned into bathos what they found sublime. the dying out of Sternhold and Hopkins' and other similar attempts at translation. the choir and anthem. Therefore wyl we never drede For any wonderous dede By water or by londe In hilles or the sea-sonde. that although Coverdale's writings had little influence upon the people of his own time. Mitchell: The Wedderburns. Sternhold and Hopkins who were translators of the psalms became more noticed. When Miles Coverdale in his ungifted way translated Luther's hymns into English his unpoetical and lumbering versions were ill received and were soon proscribed by the Crown." 35 . they soon disappeared leaving only small traces which were picked up by Wesley more than two centuries later. but their versions too seem to have been deficient in taste and feeling of lyric poetry. An example will show the nature and degree of Coverdale's imitation. set to the simplest music and sung by the whole congregation. The criticism of the poet Campbell seems to be justified when he says of the authors that "with the best intentions and the worst taste they degraded the spirit of Hebrew Psalmody by flat and homely phraseology. they have been appreciated by later generations and are among the most sincere monuments to Luther in the English language. This change was first made by Luther and eagerly copied in England. All German residents in England belonged exclusively to the commercial class and brought no literary influence with them.. So with the royal proscription of Coverdale's work111. the old liturgic hymn and antiphonal chant gave way to a great extent to hymns in the vernacular. in the early XVth century to introduce Lutheran hymnody into the English world contributed little. Church music was again sung by the choir. also a reason for the literary alienation at this time was the fact that Germany did not enter the religious wars in 111 It must be remembered. Cf. Our God hath them al i his hond. 1868. Early in the Renaissance England came to think of the Reformation as her own movement.

Ch. The work appeared about 1540. and Fischart. In this collection are eleven metrical versions of the "Te Deum" and "Da pacem. and those of Doddridge while perhaps more artificial in general than those of his predecessor Watts are nevertheless distinguished by their graceful style. Century. Of these writers Watts and Doddridge are certainly preeminent. Herford: The Literary Relations of England and Germany in the XVIth. a representative of the English Independents. IV-VII. for nearly two centuries England knew little of Germany except what booksellers found it to their profit to advertise on their sign directories as the "wonderful strange Newes from Germany. He was the first to understand the nature of the want. 112 For a good account of contemporary German drama and satire in England. two penitential and a hymn of faith. Miss Steele. 113 Clement Marot. 36 . Domine. In short. cf. The tunes which accompanied the words were German. they began to feel the want of a more lyric hymn. although the English people used the stern canons of Calvin." and the satires of Brant. In spite of the fact that Luther had little influence on English literature in the early Reformation his hymns came to their own in England in the middle of the XVIIIth century. Faustus. valet de chambre to Francis I of France. Calvin was organizing his ecclesiastical system at Geneva. and by the publication of his Hymns in 1707-1709 and Psalms (hymns founded on psalms) he led the way in providing for this want. While German Protestantism had developed at once a rich hymnody there was actually no English hymnody until the XVIIIth century. collaborated with Theodore Beza on a metrical translation of the Old Testament Psalms. These narrower canons admitting nothing but paraphrases of scripture and even of scripture little outside the Psalms became the firm fashion of English hymnody for the next century and a half. In the meantime. Dedekind. the hymns of the former are of unusual fervor and strong simplicity." two original hymns of praise. may be justly considered the real founder of modern English hymnody. the influence of Luther from a literary standpoint early in the Renaissance ceased to exist in England and was replaced by Calvin's stern rule. His immediate followers were Simon Browne and Doddridge. although the religious influence of the Reformation was always strong in England from the beginning of the movement. Barney: History of Music. This example produced in England the translation commonly known as the Old Version of the Psalms begun in the reign of Henry VIII (1509-1547).114 Therefore.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 30 which Englishmen were so deeply interested. and later in the century Grigg. To men like Jonson and Fletcher Germany was famous only as a land of magicians and conjurers such as Paracelsus and Dr.112 Another most vital cause of the retardation of the development of hymnody in Great Britain so soon after the Reformation was the example and influence of Geneva. and introduced into it Marot's Psalter113 which was then very fashionable. Beddome and Swain succeeded them. 114 Cf. Isaac Watts.

The Gesangbuch. Each of these factions had its own hymn writers. 11. 37 . through a large portion of which may be traced this Moravian influence. one half are from Watts. without his name. had been published in 1735 by Count Zinzendorf. These are the years when a renewed strong current of influence from Germany is felt. richness and spirituality as German hymns. who in all the changes of weather. and are meditations after 115 116 117 The Moravians were a vigorous religious cult established in Herrnhut. those who adhered to the Moravians. made a great deal of hymn singing. After determining upon missionary lives John and Charles Wesley embarked on October 14. Charles-Town 1737. for the new colony of Georgia. were for the most part poor. 1735.117 These translations. Spangenberg came to England116 and established a branch of the Moravian Church there. M. Among these many English hymn writers at this time whether writing entirely from English sources. Saxony. Cf. nevertheless he caught much of its tone and manner and its atmosphere of confiding love. The Moravians in England began to translate many of the hymns contained in the German Moravian Hymn Book. fifteen of the remainder are hymns of the Wesleys. Although Charles Wesley knew no German. G. respectively. and therefore derived his impressions of the Moravian hymnody indirectly. some of whom did. however.115 and the Calvinists of whom Whitfield was the leader.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 31 About 1738 came the "Methodist" movement which afterward became divided into three sects. five of which were translated from the German by John Wesley. John Wesley was much impressed with the fervor and piety of these hymns and with their spiritual possibilities. Toplady. secede from the Church of England. The reason for this is the fact that the authorities insisted that the melodies sung at Herrnhut be kept. but in later editions they were somewhat improved. In his third collection printed in England in 1750 the immediate impression the hymns produce is that of foreignness because of the many lengthy stanzas and the unusual metres. especially during storms. Of the seventy lyrics in the book. Of great value to English hymnody are the contributions of the Calvinistic Methodists. and few writers of hymns have had higher gifts than A. the Arminian under John Wesley. who was for a long time a member of the English Moravian Church. In 1737 and 1741. the Wesley brothers are deserving of the first place. or influenced by German ideas and philosophily or merely translators of the German hymn. especially in the one revised in the XlXth century by James Montgomery. the first of the hymn books for the congregation at Herrnhut. p. the well known hymn writer. The translation movement first sprang up in the middle of this century when Count Zinzendorf and A. irrespective of the language in which they might be sung." His hymns have the same warmth. In all he wrote about 6500 hymns. mere doggerel. the author of "Rock of Ages. One of the German sources which had great influence upon Wesleyan hymnody was Freylinghausen's Geist-reiches Gesang-Buch (Halle 1704 and 1714). and others did not. Among their fellow passengers were twenty-six Moravian colonists. John Wesley introduced hymn singing into the "companies" formed in Georgia and his first hymn book appeared as a Collection of Psalms and Hymns.

and bears the date Jan. notably Latin and German hymn writers. One who took much interest in its preparation was James Montgomery of whom mention has already been made. owing direct obligation to German originals. p. "To love hymns in eighteenth century Scotland was to be accused of heresy: in England.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt the German manner. 13. German hymns and chorals had a place in the Church Psalter and Hymn Book of William Mercer of Sheffield (1854).118 While German Protestantism developed at once a rich hymnody there was actually no English hymnody until the XVIIIth century. When the Hussites in Bohemia created this hymnody in the vernacular their hymns were designed for worshippers rather than for the choir. the interest in German hymnody has at The earliest extant hymn book is that in the Bohemian Museum at Prague. though English hymnody was undoubtedly enriched by this process of adaptation. additional interest in hymnody had been aroused by the prominence given to congregational singing in English churches. The congregational hymn in England is the direct although exceedingly slow outgrowth of the German Reformation but it must be borne in mind that the foundations of congregational singing were laid even before Luther. as well as words. If general congregational singing after the manner that prevailed in Germany for so long has been an incentive to the development of English hymnody. but in Scotland and America also. p.'" Since the days of Luther Germany had given her hymns general esteem. 38 . 139. In this XIXth century when the study of the German language and literature became so much more common than before it is natural that an impulse be given also to translation of German hymns. in the people's hymn books. but in England it was the middle of the nineteenth century before hymns won anything like popular favor. Bishop Heber's Hymns and Keble's Christian Year introduced a new epoch into English hymnody. Beside the improvement in the standard of taste. 1501. singularly. 32 Two publications in 1827. 'enthusiasm. Thus we see that the success of congregational singing of the better type required a return to the Reformation practice of including the tunes. but this hymn book is. it was to be convicted of that worse thing.119 This was the most successful of all the books of the decade for the reason that it aided in placing the hymnody back in the people's hands and making it congregational. destroying the barrier which had previously existed between the different theological schools of the Church of England. This movement received a great additional impulse from the publication in 1833 of Bunsen's Gesangbuch. 31. with the result all too often of spoiling the originals thus altered. During the first quarter of the nineteenth century came the practice of hymnodists of altering without scruple the compositions of other men. 119 118 Cf. to suit their own doctrines and tastes. never mentioned among the works of the Brethren (Moravians). and there has been a larger and more liberal admission of good hymns from the German. From this time hymns and hymn writers multiplied not only in the Church of England. With such influences as we have mentioned the more recent collections have evidenced an improved standard of taste. For Gerhardt's influence on Montgomery cf.

1866. and the first of four parts (1854-1862) of Hymns from the Land of Luther by Jane Borthwick and her sister Mrs.Praxis = Crüger's Praxis pietatis melica. The aim has been to give mainly those which first included versions of his hymns. = Chorale Book for England.S. Unv. note 2]. = Library of Religious Poetry. Songs of G.L. the complete title of the work is usually to be found in the respective biographical note in the Appendix. The citation of hymn books is by no means exhaustive. by Mrs.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 33 the same time been quickened by the good work done in Frances E. 1854 etc. 1843. by Miss Winkworth. 1881. even the arrangement of the hymns is based on an old Lutheran hymn book. Russell. 144 ff. (In this thesis the poems are numbered according to the page on which they begin in this Goedeke text. 1855 etc. 1851. 1867. = Goedeke: Gedichte von Paulus Gerhardt. = Gesangbuch. Buckoll's Hymns translated from the German (1842). This also found expression in the Psalms and Hymns. and G. ABBREVIATIONS AND EXPLANATIONS. = Hymns from the Land of Luther.Bk.--Runge = Runge's edition of the above. The work of this group of translators which has secured so firm a place in English hymnody for a number of German hymns and more particularly those of Paul Gerhardt will be discussed in the following chapter.L. Berlin.) G. the Latin a very small one. = Lyra Germanica. = Songs of Grace and Glory. p.&H. = stanza.P. by Catherine Winkworth.B.S. C.Bk. When merely the translator's name is given. partly original. Goed. 1648 etc. ed. = Unverfälschter Liedersegen. Lib.L. Findlater. Wackernagel = Wackernagel: Gerhardts Geistliche Lieder. and Christian Singers of Germany (1869). Crü. 1863. Findlater and Miss Jane Borthwick. 1872. 39 . H. Kelly: Paul Gerhardt's Spiritual Songs.) H. Kelly = J. Snepp. G. In 1854 appeared Richard Massie's Martin Luther's Spiritual Songs.P. 34 Bachmann = Bachmann: Gerhardts Geistliche Lieder. Lyra Ger. = Mercer's Church Psalter and Hymn Book. 15 and note 6 [elec. following them in 1863 with the Chorale Book for England. by Charles B. partly selected (Cambridge 1851) of Arthur T.L. Ebeling = P. Crü. 1854 etc. Cf. in which the German hymns played a very large part. st.B. pp.R. (The numbers following the date refer to the "dozen" in which the poem appeared. C. 1667 etc. = Geistlicher Liederschatz. In 1855 and 1858 Catherine Winkworth published the first and second series of her Lyra Germanica. 1832. Selections from Gerhardt's hymns are to be found in nearly all modern hymnals. = Hymn Book. Gerhardi Geistliche Andachten. Berlin and Frankfurt a/M. Cox's Sacred Hymns from the German (1841) and Henry J. 1877.

Bio of Paul Gerhardt

Theodore Brown Hewitt

As a rule, the German stanzas are indicated by the Roman numerals I, II, III, etc., the English stanzas by the Arabic 1, 2, 3, etc.

40

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CHAPTER II.
35

ENGLISH VERSIONS OF GERHARDT'S HYMNS.

While the first influence of Gerhardt on English hymnody dates from the earlier part of the XVIIIth century it was not until the middle of the following century120 that his influence was most fully felt. For it was then that the whole subject of church music and congregational singing in England received renewed and special attention. The English hymn writers and compilers of hymn books naturally appropriated all embodiment of Christian experience and devotion that Germany, a country so nearly akin to their own, could offer. The translators of all German hymns were subjected to certain limitations the observance of which affected the character of the rendering. The accompanying versions of Gerhardt's poems are illustrations of this statement. A parallel arrangement of these various versions reveals the following interesting facts. First, that literalness has been rarely attained for the reason that a certain measure of freedom has to be used in any metrical rendering. Some, as for example, Dr. J. Kelly, have striven to maintain fidelity to the sense of the original and thereby have often sacrificed euphony to fidelity. Secondly, there has been made necessary the frequent use of the double rhymes which are as common in the German language, on account of its peculiar structure, as monosyllabic rhymes are in English. The limited number of double rhymes in English has presented a serious obstacle in the way of rendering German hymns with their native force and simplicity without which qualities the hymns cannot become truly naturalized. In so many cases have the German hymns and tunes been considered as one and inseparable, that the translators have sought to preserve the original metres for the sake of the tunes which would not of course admit of any deviation without harm to their characteristic beauty. In the following pages we shall discuss those of Gerhardt's hymns (84 in number) which have been translated into English, and cite in most cases the hymn books which have been among the first to recognize the excellence of the English versions.121
Du liebe Unschuld du, wie schlecht wirst du geachtt!--(Goed. 3.)
36

Appeared in the Crü. Praxis, 1656, p. 650.

English Version:

1. By J. Kelly, under the heading, "Under the vexations of the wicked prosperous world," the first stanza as follows:

120 121

Cf. p. 27 and note. The hymns selected for discussion with their respective English versions are arranged according to the sequence in the Goedeke text (Gedichte von Paulus Gerhardt, Leipzig 1877). The ten most widely translated hymns (nos. 25, 49, 59, 60, 68, 122, 150, 185, 229, 239) and hymns showing adaptations are treated in a separate part of this chapter, pp. 82 ff. In some instances specimen stanzas selected from the English versions have been added for comparison or reference.

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Ah! lovely innocence, how evil art thou deemed, How lightly oft thy work by all the world's esteem'd! Thou servest God, thy Lord, and to His word thou cleavest. For this, from men thou nought but scorn and hate receivest.

This translation is somewhat labored as is especially evident in line 4 above for the German:
"Darüber höhnt man dich und drückt dich aller Orten."

Goedeke in his note to this hymn points out that from the use of the Alexandrine verse, the freedom from biblical phraseology and from the generality of the expressions it is probable that this is one of Gerhardt's earliest poems composed at a time when he patterned his writings after the model of Opitz.122

Wie ist so grosz und schwer die Last.--(Goed. 7.)
Appeared in Crü.--Runge, 1653, no. 299.

This fervent appeal for protection during the Thirty Years' War has been translated into English only by J. Kelly 1867, p. 246. In line 36 he renders (from the Wackernagel text which he used):
"Behold! my heart, on every hand."

As mein Herr is very evidently the proper reading from the sense of the context and the character of the other stanzas, it is unfortunate that his otherwise excellent rendering should be made to suffer by this one weak stanza. "Protection of God in hitherto dangerous times of war."
Stanza 1. How heavy is the burden made That Thou upon our backs hast laid, O God! the Lord of Hosts, O God, whose anger rises high 'Gainst workers of iniquity.

37

O Herrscher in dem Himmelszelt.--(Goed. 15.)
Appeared in Crü.--Runge, 1653, no. 315.

This poem and "Nun ist der Regen hin" (cf. Goed. 17, below) were both written during the Thirty Years' War and inspired by the same occasion. Gerhardt in two instances uses the same set of rhymes:
Goed. 15 l.   51 bekehrt 5 gekehrt 1 2 zelt feld l. Goed. 17 31 32 feld zelt

122

On Gerhardt's use of the Alexandrine cf. p. 20 f, and on the influence of Opitz cf. p. 18.

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52

erhört

6

erhöret

The long metre lends itself well to English translation, and Kelly in his English version has observed with precision the pleading and melancholy tone of the original.
Stanza 1. O God! who dost Heav'n's sceptre wield, What is it that now makes our field, And everything that it doth bear, Such sad and ruined aspect wear?123 J. Kelly, 1867, p. 294.

His last stanza forms by its fervor an even stronger conclusion than Gerhardt's. The alteration from "bis in unsern Tod" to "as long as we may live" is a decided improvement, and more consistent with the thought of the context: Verleih uns bis in unsern Tod And, Lord, as long as we may live   
Alltäglich unser liebes Brot Und dermaleins nach diser Zeit Das süsze Brot der Ewigkeit! Our daily bread in bounty give And when the end of time we see The bread give of eternity.

Nun ist der Regen hin.--(Goed. 17.)
First published in Crü.--Runge, 1653, no. 315.

This simple nature poem expressing to the Almighty thanks for gracious sunshine after a storm has appeared but once in English verse, the version of J. Kelly, 1867, p. 298. The many poetic allusions and references to nature he has imitated very acceptably, at times even surpassing the thought of the original. In the first stanza the rhymes "gekehret" and "erhöret" have been especially aptly rendered by the accented ed in "turnéd" and spurnéd."
Stanza 1. Now gone is all the rain, Rejoice my heart again, Sing after times of sadness To God thy Lord with gladness! 38 Our God His heart hath turned Our pray'r He hath not spurned

How successfully Kelly has caught the spirit of Gerhardt's nature description is evident in stanza 9:
Die Bäume werden schön In ihrer Fülle stehen, Die Berge werden flieszen, Und Wein und Oele gieszen, Das Bienlein wird wol tragen Bei guten warmen Tagen.

  

The trees so very fair Fruit-laden will stand there; From hill-sides like a river Will wine and oil flow ever In warm and quiet weather Will bees their honey gather.

Nun laszt uns gehn und treten.--(Goed. 19.)

123

On the pessimistic tone in this stanza cf. p. 24.

43

E. 1653. Gerhardt. Now let each humble creature. 507 (1849. p. Christians all. 122.. Berlin G. Kelly. in 15 stanzas of 4 lines.. 39 This hymn of consolation seems to refer to some particular disaster that had befallen the community during the Thirty Years' War. 30125 are rendered: 124 125 alt. S. Psal. 1867. Dr. Lines 29. 24. 1106) greatly altered and beginning. 1867. no. no. The Lutheran Hymnal. 1789. 1754.: 1863. R. God soon will cause to shine on thee The light of consolation. 200. Maguire. 1883.. O come with prayer and singing.] Evidently written during the Thirty Years' War. and Select Hymns from Ger. p. 1765. 4. no. 1941. From this 8 stanzas are included in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal. L. Psal. thence in Wackernagel: no. 8. R. Jan. 814. Massie in the British Herald. 12.. 168. by J. With notes of joy and songs of praise. The "drum" in line 1 may possibly refer to some address or announcement made to the congregation. no. In full. p.." On the other hand his interpretations of several rather obscure lines (cf. p. to Ger. 1880. p. 4. In patience wait. He never can do evil. no. Bachmann: no. Stanza 1. In the Suppl. 30: 44 . 23. It first appeared in Crü. In the Moravian Hymn Bk. Noch dennoch must du drum nicht ganz. He makes no attempt to render the doubtful meaning above referred to in the word "drum. lines 29. 1656. The poem has been well translated in full by J. 1865. 7. In prayer your voices raise ye. p. 230. Tranquebar.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt [New Year.--(Goed.--Runge. Massie. Thou must not altogether be O'ercome by sad vexation. 5. Praxis. with one accord." 3. Kelly. and be thou still And let the Lord do what He will. English Versions: 1. 45. 106.) Appeared in the Crü. "Year after year commenceth. 1867. p. 124 2. lines 29 and 43 below) are undoubtedly correct. no. 24.

44:126 Afflicted band! oh. and doctor. 127 Bernard of Clairvaux. 1609. abbot. He died in 1153. p. saint." ascribed to St. oh our crown! Watch eternal art thou keeping. 338. 1867.) Nun du lebest. Here it is entitled "A Drum fährt uns Gott durch unsern Sinn Und läszt uns Weh geschehen. 44: Drum falle." a long poem on the "Name of Jesus. Endless joy thy portion now! Why should tears so freely flow? What should thus in sorrow sink us? Up! aright let us bethink us! 40 A complete translation by J. 1655-56. The hymns by which he is best known are (1) "Jesu dulcis memoria. Wie soll ich dich empfangen.) (Cf. Lets trials overtake us.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt God therefore all our joys doth blight.) This poem was appended to an address delivered in Berlin on the 23d of March. du betrübtes Heer. the President of the Consistory. 82. 126 lines 43. fall ye now With contrite hearts before Him. Sei mir tausendmal gegrüszet. p. 25. entered the monastery of Citeaux in 1113.) Taken from the "Salve mundi salutare.--(Goed. In Demut für Ihm nieder. In this last citation Kelly is right in assuming it is not literally the "army" but rather the congregation or community that Gerhardt is here addressing. 40. and lines 43. English Version: 1. cols.--(Goed. 1648. Standing near thy Savior's throne. was born in Burgundy in 1091." and 45 . Bernard's Opera Omnia.127 The text of this beautiful poem is in St. Bernard of Clairvaux. 28. Kelly. Paris. In 1146 he spent much time in traversing France and Germany to rouse the people to participate in the ill-fated second crusade.--(Goed. On thy bier how calm thou'rt sleeping Yet thou livest. unsre Krone. at the funeral of Peter Fritzen.

III. VII. 2. Massie in the British Herald.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt rhythmical prayer to anyone of the members of Christ suffering and hanging on the Cross. Deus (to the Breast). All hail to Thee. no. Salve mundi salutare (to the Feet).--(Goed. The whole poem has been frequently translated into German.: 1851..) This appeared in the 5th ed. 18. 1851. Of Gerhardt's versions." and is divided into 7 parts viz: I. Bachmann: no. Unv. A. 150. English Versions: 1. VI. VI. 116. IV. 1865. Gott. ed. 1856. Feb. 52. thence in Wackernagel: no. Thousand times by me be greeted. III. p. 1754. and VII have passed into English. 1653. Ever by my love be owned (st. Repeated in later editions. and the Frankfort ed.. All hail! my Savior and my God. or founded on. 116. 40. Bachmann: no. V. V. 41 V. St. of Crü. English Versions: 1." an address to the various members of Christ on the cross. T. Salve Jesu. The best known translations are those by Paul Gerhardt. I. 46 . as follows: I. mein Heil. pastor bone (to the Hands). translated from. 46. Salve salus mea. my Savior and my God. Gegrüszet seist du. thence in Wackernagel: no. no. which are free versions of all the seven parts from the Latin text of 1609. I of the Moravian H. of Crü. S. Salve caput cruentatum (to the Face)... Russell in his Psalms and Hymns. R.) Appeared in the Frankf. Stanley Carr in her translation of Wildenhahn's Paul Gerhardt. Bernard's will be found in almost every modern hymnal. Mrs. 16. Bk. 48. 20. IV). Salve Jesu. Hymns. summe bonus (to the Side). Praxis.--(Goed. Praxis. Berlin. Summi Regis cor aveto (to the Heart). L. 2. II. (2) "Salve mundi salutare. I. Rex sanctorum (to the Knees). In pt. Salve Jesu. 1656. p. Sei mir tausendmal gegrüszet. nos. ed. 1656.

It is pervaded with deep humility and devoutness. O Heart of Him who dwells on high. no. Let not such a thought e'er pain thee. mit den Gedanken. 83. p. 1869. 260. 258. Luke XV. 95 ff. 210. 1648.) (Cf. 1866. thence in Wackernagel: no. Shun. 47. ed.) Wach auf. 1867. 1656.] [See Appendix. English Versions: 42 47 . 98 ff. Hence.--(Goed. mein Herz. O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden. 62.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt VI. S. Kelly. p. Appeared in Crü.) [Lent. Praxis.] Founded on St. Praxis.) Appeared in Crü.) Weg. This Prayer for favor in judgment is based on Psalm CXLIII. p. und singe. English Versions: 1. L. was mein Mund. VII.) (Cf. 86 ff.) (Cf.. Massie in the British Herald.: 1863. [3. R. my heart. 1648. Berlin. the thought forever. 2.) Nun ruhen alle Wälder. 21. p. 37. of Crü. my heart.--(Goed. 59. no. 53. p. no. 36 in 12 stanzas. English Version: 1. 49. Bachmann: no. May. höre. with such a thought. p. 60. 65.) Appeared in the Frankf. 155.--(Goed.] Herr. Miss Winkworth. O Herz des Königs aller Welt.--(Goed. Praxis. mein Herz. no. J.--(Goed. G.--(Goed.

sieh hier dein Leben. 2. Kelly.)128 [Passiontide. 1841. By a breath we're swept off.) (Cf." English Versions: 1. 48 . 43. 71. 92. 97 in 4 stanzas. gives stanzas III. p. 1648. It appeared in Crü. Vergänglich wie ein Gras Ein Wind kann mich fällen.] 128 For adaptations of this hymn cf. 1867.) [New Year. Sünder. lend a gracious ear To my desire sincere From heart all free from guile And glad me with Thy smile. p. from Bunsen.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 1. no. stanza VI: Betrachte.     I'm like a thirsty land. p. 21.] Based on St. . Ein Lämmlein geht und trägt die Schuld. . IV. Miss Cox. His rendering of the similes and metaphors of this hymn is especially good. and in stanza X: Ich lechze wie ein Land.) O Welt. Mortals. Like hart upon the heath . . allerwegen. Kelly. also stanza XI: Gleich wie auf der Heid Ein Hirsch . Bunsen. 120. p. p. wer ich bin. Cf. who have God offended. J. Praxis. what are we? As brittle as frail glass As fading as the grass. Lord. Warum machet solche Schmerzen. .--(Goed. altered to "Freut euch. J. 21.--(Goed. Luke II. 67. 137. A moment. Consider what we be-  Im Hui fahr ich dahin. Zerbrechlich wie ein Glas. 1867. Why should they such pain e'er give Thee. no. in his Versuch 1833. 104 ff. Accept my petition.--(Goed. 68.

Works. 7. p. 1858. no. it is altered to "See. R. 143. also in his Memoir and Remains. XVI. 21. First published in Crü. 1869. Dr. p. J. Altered to "O World. S. 711. 1859. 54.. 87. no. thy great Salvation see. Dr. In the Suppl. 246. 1868-72. I. 10. 232). 49 . beginning "My Savior. and thence in Schaff's Christ in Song ed. see thy Creator. 1872. how shall I proclaim" were included in the American Sabbath Hymn Book. VIII-XI. Kelly.. p. III. 1754. ed. J. 1858. H." (1886. Bk. 54. p. 442 in pt. Matthew and St. to Ger. p..) 6. Burns. Bach and used by him in his St. upon the shameful tree. Here. reprinted in Wackernagel: no. no. Praxis. 1867. in the Family Treasury. 94. 9. p. as no. and thence in the Wesleyan H. 1780. 5. 1863. Bk." In Kennedy. 1754. 1869. O. World! behold upon the tree. O World! see thy life languish. Bk. Boston. The translation of stanzas IX-XI. O World! attention lend it. A translation by P. Molther of stanzas I-X in the Moravian H. 1883. VI. Here. Vol. World. O World! see here suspended. and slightly altered and beginning: "Lord. 787. Unv. 1869. 1765. D.. Selected Stanzas: 129 Cf. I. p. upon the bloody tree. thy Lord. IV. thy Life. by Miss Winkworth. Behold. pt. In Reid's Praise Book. Wesley. 8. Gambold. 2. Psalmody. 15. 1742. L. 119. of her Lyra Ger. p. 113. 1871. 3. no. Stanzas III-V were favorites with J. John Passion Music. 174. 1009. Koch IV. J. XVI. 16. in 16 stanzas of 8 lines." The hymn appears in several English hymn books in different abridged forms. World. A free translation in long metre by J. and the Baptist Service of Song.: 1851. p. Extended on a cursed tree. Maguire. in Hymns and Sacred Poems. of stanzas I. 1648. See World! thy Life assailed. In the 1789 and 1886 eds. 161. and since in other hymn books of the Methodists. World. See. 4. I of the Moravian H. A good translation omitting stanza VII. Bachmann: no.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Cf. Guthrie. World. in the 2d Series. O World. 8. 1740 (P. S. see thy Redeemer. J.129 43 English Versions: 1. be Thy Cross before our sight.

71.. Thy Life's on Cross suspended Thy Healer sinks in death: The sov'reign Prince of Glory (Tis no fictitious story) With Shame and torment yields his Breath. 10. 1648. H. Kelly. English Versions: 1. 1648. Bachmann: no. no. Molther in Part I of the 1754 edition of the Moravian Hymn Book. thence in Wackernagel: no.--(Goed. 1. Praxis. Frothingham. in her Lyra Germanica.) [Easter. Gambold in Part I of the 1734 edition of the Moravian Hymn Book. p. Auf. J. Koch IV. my heart. Behold his Body swims in blood. to scorn and death. See. with gladness. 30. Thy Savior yields His dying breath. 1867.] First published in the 3d ed. Up! up! my heart with gladness. Cover'd with Stripes and wounds for thee Thy Savior yields his breath. 232. Oh world! behold upon the tree Thy Life is hanging now for thee. Auf. 2. 141. 1. 76. O World! attention lend it. in 9 stanzas. in his Metrical Pieces. 1. See. 44 P. 155 in 10 stanzas of 8 lines. H. Up. 228. O du allersüszste Freude!--(Goed. Up. of Crü. 1858.] It appeared in Crü. Miss Winkworth. mein Herz mit Freuden. 1870. p. Note in the above stanzas the inconsistencies in capitalization.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt J. Praxis. Receive.) [Whitsuntide. 50 . 2. Cf. The mighty Prince of glory now For thee doth unresisting bow To cruel stripes. world. no. 74. Deep sighs and Groans he sends to God In his excessive smart. L. Out of his tender Heart. upon the bloody tree Thy Life there sinks in Death.

From this text is derived no. X. 2d Series. in Bickersteth's Christian Psalmody. p. Toplady. 51 .8. M.7. 4.7. III. 73. C. 1776. in Stopford Brooke's Christian Hymns. Ger. C. Thou Source of sweetest gladness. From that height which knows no measure. A good translation. in her Lyra Ger.. 55. The alteration in Sedgwick is. Selected Stanzas: J. Y. 1883. are omitted. as in Lyra Ger. as: (1) 8. metre. in the Gospel Magazine. Be our Friend on each occasion.7.: 1863. in the Schaff-Gilman Library of Religious Poetry. 105 in Stryker's Christian Chorals. 5. Jacobi. stanzas II and IV. 1725. Holy Ghost. In Sedgwick's ed. Source of gladness. 10 centos. (2) Come. in the American Unitarian Bk. 6. 169. Jacobi." in her C. altered in metre. of Toplady's Hymns and Sacred Poems. It is widely popular in Germany.4. as "Sweetest Fount of holy gladness. II. 6. 3. M. In this..8. in Great Britain and America. Book. in his Psal. therefore." by A. no. and Pennsylvania Lutheran Ch. 1860. Jacobi's stanzas I-IV. S. and other collections. dispel our sadness. C. and is included in the Berlin G. Cf. though it usually begins with the first stanza of the text above. 2. 1885.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt This is a fine hymn of supplication to the Holy Spirit for His gifts and graces. Book. IX.7 metre. a greatly altered version of stanzas I. A full and good translation by J. 2 stanzas. 366." There are many centos in the original metre. Cong. omitting stanzas VIII and IX.. no. Sweetest joy the soul can know. 1881. but other metre has been employed also. Jacobi it has also been very largely used in various forms. 1836. June. Known to Thee are all recesses. H. Other centos are: (1) Holy Spirit. Come. 1864. B. Toplady. 2. were considerably altered. these stanzas appear: 1. N. by Miss Winkworth. 1722. of Hymns 1848. dispel our sadness. (2) 8. altered by A. Through the version of J. dispel our sadness. Thou best of all donations. p. which is taken from the Chorale Book text. Cf. 1858. English Versions: 45 1. 1881. L. Manifest Thy love for ever. as "Holy Ghost. pt. also no. and again.. 1863. 408 of the American Hymns of the Spirit. as follows: II 3 III 2 IV 4 V VI 5 VII (VIII IX) X 6 Gerhardt: I Toplady: 1 The hymn appears in many centos. Both these centos are altered forms of the Jacobi-Toplady text. O Thou sweetest source of gladness. p. Cf. 1868. 1776. "Holy Ghost. in 3 stanzas of 8 lines.7. for England.

Lord. oh. "All ye who on this earth do dwell. Kelly." and in the second stanza a virtual repetition of 130 131 Cf. 24. God of peace! Great distributer of grace! Rest upon this congregation. 78.. 1941. It is based on the Apocryphal book Sirach I. in her Chorale Book for England."] 52 . 238. The only English version published is that of J. p. 132 [But now cf. The melody as it appeared in Crüger's Praxis. Hear. p. 1863. Miss Winkworth. thou source of sweetest gladness. cf. 1648. hear me. like Gerhardt's. etc. 132 Stanza 1." which may be called the German Te Deum. Hear me. Nun danket all und bringet Ehr. In grateful songs your voices raise. but it was quite likely adapted from a motet by Rinckart. Spirit of the Highest God. 581. 11. spent amid the horrors of the Thirty Years' War it is natural that Gerhardt should have been influenced by this voluminous writer. Rinckart's hymn was translated by Miss Winkworth in her Chorale Book. The Lutheran Hymnal. p. no.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 46 1. and inspired also of course by the famous hymn of Martin Rinckart130 "Nun danket alle Gott.) Appeared in Ebeling. To Him whom angels ever praise In heav'n His glory show. Sweetest Fount of holy gladness.--(Goed. was. As Rinckart was a good musician and his melody131 was well calculated to please the popular ear it is not strange that his hymn has maintained itself ahead of Gerhardt's. Breathe thy life and spread thy light! Loving Spirit. 181. As a great part of Rinckart's life. All people here below. "In grateful songs" as compared with "Nun danket all. Who upholdest ev'rything. is marked with Crüger's initials. Pierce the clouds of sinful night. hear our supplication! 1. The translation has much more flowery language than the original and is far less direct. but for some reason she has passed over Gerhardt's verses. Fairest light was ever shed Who alike in joy and sadness Leavest none unvisited. while I sing. 1867. Holy Ghost. from whom is life bestow'd. dispel my sadness. Come.

    To all eternity. 240. stanza 6: And may his blessing ever rest. and the last two lines of stanza 8: Our portion when from earth we part.--(Goed. Father.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 47 this "with gladsome songs now fill the air" for the very forceful reflexive construction "Ermuntert euch. The German is a fervent prayer that God may close our eyes and appear to us in eternity.: stanza 2 stanza 3 stanza 4 stanza 5 stanza 6 poverty may lay mood good bestowed swell well extol artifice practices is graciously me be 133 Er drücke. Praxis. 1867. Ere my soul to Thee must go From the body's bands below. stanza 9.     In everlasting rest. is my pray'r. Twofold. when strength decays. no. XXX.) Appeared in Crü. 1648. J. The rhyme of the German has offered great difficulties in the last three lines of each stanza. while the English. p. Kelly. who dost give What's good for us to receive. English Versions: 1." Cf. Cf. In the closing stanza the translation by losing the fervor of Gerhardt's verses is almost anticlimactic. Cf. in too evident an effort to effect a rhyme with rest. Zweierlei bitt ich von dir. 7-9.133 When sinks the heart. would seem to assign to the Deity a place almost secondary in importance to "our eyes. 53 . The translator's success in meeting this obstacle has been indifferent. Twofold the desire I there Lay before Thee. wann das Herze bricht Uns unsre Augen zu Und zeig uns drauf sein Angesicht Dort in der ewign Ruh. Grant the pray'r that Thou dost know. 80." Throughout the poem the English version brings out more emphatically than the German the idea of life in eternity. By Him our eyes be press'd Then may we see His open face. 107. Based on Proverbs.

For while I'm living I am dead.--(Goed. e'en while living were I dead. Whose with Christ. English Versions: 1. no. p. It appeared in Crü. Nicht so traurig. mein Schöpfer.. The true life he hath never Beheld one moment even.] Founded on Psalm CXVI. 2.) [Resignation] It appeared in Crü.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt O Gott. 213. J. 54 . 7. Kelly.--(Goed. 1867. 89. Father. Psalm XLII. Must sink to death eternal. p. 1867. VI. Miss Winkworth. To me thy constant grace afford. no. 83. S. L.) 48 Based on the Apocryphal book Sirach. To God's all-gracious heart and mind. Unless Thou guid'st my life aright In vain here am I living. Or life--I well may fear it:-Nay. no. 1856. edler Fürst. Kelly. 851. Shall fail his soul to nourish. Appeared in the 3d ed. Bachmann: no. Creator. I into God's own heart and mind.--(Goed. 1 Tim. English Versions: 1. 251. thence in Wackernagel: no. the living bread. 6-12. Ich hab in Gottes Herz und Sinn. in 15 stanzas of 6 lines. God.: 1863. XXIII 1-6. 248. 6. p. Praxis. and my Lord. nicht so sehr. Praxis. Dr. 81. 1648. 1648. J. no. Praxis. Prince of might! Who life to me art giving. 249.) [Christian Contentment. Mills in his Horae Germanicae. in 12 stanzas. Thou Father of my spirit. To sin devoted ever. Berlin G. my Creator. 16. 1648. Whose life in mire of sin is led. 53. H. 109. And in my sins must perish. 2. 1869. 219. of Crü.

L. der schwebt in deiner Hand. Praxis.--(Goed. pants my longing heart. 1648. Nach dir. 50). zu dir. Not so darkly. My soul! nor troubled sigh.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt English Versions: 1. nor so lament. p.). nor so lament. 1884. Miss Dunn. that he has given us. Kelly is at his best in rendering the "long metre" hymns (cf. no. 3.) Based on Psalm CXXI. Findlater and Miss Borthwick of stanzas I. Kelly. verlanget mich. Because some joys to others sent Thy Father may deny. 2. 1858 (1861. 88. 287. 1867. 93. English Version: 1. It appeared in Crü. II. Du siehst. O my soul.   Mein Geist. 55 . Ah! grieve not so. L. XV.) Based on Psalm XXV. Herr. 4. not so deep. 91. Findlater (and Miss Borthwick) in their Hymns from the Land of Luther.--(Goed. p. XIII. Kelly. p. why dost thou grieve. My hope and confidence Thou art. VII-X. p. 276. My spirit lives and moves in Thee. 279. 260. Why this sad and mournful guise. Lord. Ah! grieve not so. 1857. Nor e'er be put to shame by Thee. Ich erhebe. wie meine Seele thränt Und sich nach deiner Hülfe selint. 1648. 49 of the H. no. A free rendering by Mrs. 58). in the first Series. ich bin dir wolbekannt. Appeared in Crü. 1. p. Stanza 9 is especially noteworthy: Nun. Goed. p. A full translation by J. Praxis. Miss Warner. Ah! Lord full well Thou knowest me. 48 (1884. 155. My hope can never shaken be. 1867. For thee. 85. etc. Selected Stanzas: Mrs.. This is one of the best pieces of interpretation as regards harmony and rhythm and the spirit of the original. J. Thou seest how my bleeding heart Longs for the help Thou canst impart. 1854. Take all as love that seems severe-There is no want if God is near. Herr. O Herr.

Lord! to Thee alone I raise Evermore mine eager eyes. yes..--(Goed. Gott Lob! nun ist erschollen. Kelly. in 6 stanzas of 12 lines. Thank God it hath resounded. 1653. still thou art mine own.--(Goed. 1885. 49. . And spear and sword at last may cease. It was first printed as one of the Dulcia amicorum solatia at the end of the funeral sermon by Georg Lilius. in M. Berlin. Mary's Church. The blessed voice of joy and Peace! And murder's reign is bounded. Kelly. 72. 409. 156. 1863. 1650. Bright hope is breaking o'er us Arise. my land once more.] It appeared in Crü. no. 95. 1667. 56 . 251. 1858. English Versions: 1. 135. form no. L. Miss Winkworth in her Lyra Ger. 401. J. . . Berlin.) [Thanksgiving for the Proclamation of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 after the Thirty Years' War. no. p. no. Wackernagel: no. Praxis. English Versions: 1. And sing in full-toned chorus Thy happy songs of yore. Thou'rt mine. Bachmann: no. 64. pastor of St. 6. 1867.] This is a beautiful hymn for consolation of parents on the loss of a son The occasion of the poem was the death of Constantin Andreas.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt English Version: 1. and her Chorale Book. Du bist zwar mein und bleibest mein. 1867. VI. S. 2. Unv.) [For the Bereaved. Praise God! for forth hath sounded. Stanzas I. Included in Ebeling. 84. in 12 stanzas. no. V. younger son of Johannes Berkov. 589. 100. p. 1656. Upturn'd is my constant gaze To the hills that pierce the skies: To the hills whence flow to me Help and saving health from Thee! 50 Stanza 1 of the complete translation by J. p. W.: 1851. Stryker's Christian Chorals.

Kelly. Buckoll. English Versions: 1.) [Morning. 2. J. S. J. G. no. B. Praise God! revere Him! all ye men that fear Him! This is from the version in Bunsen's AlIg.. 100. J. and his Remains. 51 Dr. All His glory raising. Guthrie. 27. denn er ist sehr freundlich" (which Wackernagel quotes from a Nürnberg broadsheet about 1560).. signed "A. art still mine own. p. 3. p. still mine. no. I own that He who cross'd My hopes. and mine shalt be. Burns. It appeared in the Dalston Hospital H. all ye men who fear Him. 1848.] Included in the Crü. Selected Stanza: 1. Thou'rt mine.] 57 .: 1863. in 10 stanzas of 5 lines. alle die Ihn fürchten!--(Goed.--(Goed." 2. my son. p. p. My wish. 333. 1846. 8. J. 1653. Mine art thou still. 106.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Miss Winkworth. 7.--Runge. Yea. Bachmann: no. Warum willst du drauszen stehen. O my son. Bk. 1867.. Our Lord be praising. yes. 108. Yes. in the Family Treasury. still thou art mine own! Who tells me thou art lost? But yet thou art not mine alone. no. H. 1842. Thou art mine own. 1858. p. thou art mine.) [Advent. Lobet den Herren. no. 3. 123. Kelly. 167. 100. 1869. from "Lobet den Herren. stanza 1 being from Gerhardt and stanzas 2. though He ask and take from me Thee. hath greatest right in thee. my heart's delight. my thought. in her Lyra Ger. thence in Wackernagel: no. L. Praise ye Jehovah. D. 4. Miss Winkworth. J. G. p. 249. 1858. 1867. 1869. 3. 1063. Berlin G. by day and night. p. 21. 279. 55.

no. 1707. 1653.] Cf. with Thy healing! Miss Winkworth. Koch IV. XI. In her C. Helper in the needful hour! Sharpest wounds my heart is feeling. Bachmann: no. 1856. Fount of pow'r. 1858. 1863. in 12 stanzas. 2. S.. viz: stanzas I-VIII. 58 . 25. 231. It appeared in Crü. This is a free translation omitting stanzas X-XII. 1858. 184. in 9 stanzas of 8 lines. Zeuch ein zu deinen Thoren. of 1732. 134 For adaptations of this hymn cf. Feustking's ed. Retake thy own Possession. blest of God. 3. L. 2. the translation of stanzas III." From this form the translations of stanzas I. The hymn was undoubtedly written during the Thirty Years' War. no. English Versions: 1. O Thou my Star. 1725. p. viz. Massie. no. Thou my Jesus.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Suggested by Gen. stanzas VIII-X being added in Ebeling. 9. VI. II. in her Lyra Ger. 1653. S. 23.: 1851. XIV. XII. XVI. L. 1666-67. The full text. XII. no. and Bachmann: no. omitting stanzas VIII-X. R.. and stanzas IX-XI in J. Miss Winkworth. p. Selected Stanza: 1. of J.--(Goed. of the full poem. 2d Series. 111. 52 J. without. Come to Thy temple here on earth. 6. LXXX. H. 5. in Lyra Domestica. it is greatly altered. p. Wherefore dost Thou. In his ed. Wherefore dost Thou longer tarry Blessed of the Lord afar? Would it were Thy will to enter To my heart. then. Wherefore dost Thou longer tarry. 153. 5.)134 [Whitsuntide. 78. English Versions: 1. in pt. C.. appeared also in Wackermagel: no. of the full form. B. 50. 157. 90. Jacobi's Psalmodia Germanica.--Runge.--Runge. for England. 32. p. 1667. 1864. XI. XXIV. 20. 1867. 136. stanzas I-VII. no. XVI. were included unaltered in the Scottish Evang. in 12 stanzas. Unv. V. Kelly. The full form in 16 stanzas is in Wackernagel: no. Union H. Appeared in Crü. p. 2. Why. Touch them. Stanza XV was added in Ebeling. no. XIII. are omitted. Bk. art Thou staying. Savior. no.: 1851. 31. and the Unv. and begins "In me resume thy dwelling.

483 in Dr. ed. 1855. V-VIII.: 1863. 1653. by Miss Winkworth in her Lyra Ger. my soul with singing.) [Thanksgiving. Though here to dwell Thou deignest. and as no. English Version: 1. O Come. 1st Series. no. O Thou Holy Dove. enter Thine own portal. is stanzas I. Miss Cox. 115. 250. 27. O enter. p. 1855. Thou mighty Lord... Du Meine Seele. Ch.--Runge. Art equally adored. Who givest us of mortal birth A second birth more blest.. p. 4. Be Thou my spirit's guest! Who at my birth didst give me A second birth more blest. 5. II.. 26. were repeated in the Pennsylvania Luth. Psal.) [Psalm CXLVI. to Ger. 6. H. based on her Lyra Ger. Bk. Thy temple. 1653. Retake thy own possession. 1865. 118. 1880. 3. in the British Herald. Bachmann: no. 423 in Reid's Praise Bk. Lord. XIV. version. O Spirit" (stanza VII). 1872. Miss Burlingham. 117. Thou glorious Guest of Hearts. XIV. 59 . no. p. Bk.] Cf. 482. Come.. No... Koch IV. Psalt. 43.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt A good translation omitting stanza IV. Thy temple. 186. In the Pennsylvania Luth. Lord. Thomas' Augustine H. Jan. and in the Ohio Luth. thence in Wackernagel: no. A good translation by Miss Winkworth in her Chorale Book. From this the translations of stanzas I. no. L. XII. Come to Thy temple here on earth. First published in Crü.] Appeared in Crü. II. p. Lord. XVI. II. no. Who with the Father and the Son Reignest upon an equal throne. Spirit beloved. Praxis: 1656. singe. 53 Miss Dunn. 113. Lyra Ger. VIII. Bk. In Select H. 106.. Hyl. Forever equal reignest. Be Thou my spirit's guest. is stanzas I-III. 1866. Tranquebar.. 1864. Chorale Book. 1863. from Ger. Crü. Art equally adored! Stanzas 1 of Miss Winkworth's versions are given below:   O enter. 1868. p.--Runge. Ich singe dir mit Herz und Mund. Thou in the Godhead. 1754. and the Suppl. Included in full and unaltered as no. 1765. 1857.. p. S.--(Goed. in 18 stanzas of 4 lines. VI. 1866. 207. 95. Come. 85. p. Berlin G.--(Goed. of stanza I. 183. in 10 stanzas. XVI. 483 begins "All love is thine. 104. VIII. V.

120. 1867. My empty soul appointest Of every good and pleasure A full o'erflowing measure. Translated in full by J. p. English Versions: Stanza 1.--Runge. no. the earth who ruleth. p. 266. Kelly. 6. 135 2.) 135 [alt. I'll sing to Thee with mouth and heart. Stanzas XVII. XVIII. 1863. A cento in 6 stanzas is found in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal. 1789.. in part I of the Moravian H. A good and full translation by J. 224. 1941. And with His hand controlleth. 1867. I sing to Thee with Heart and Tongue. 1867. and beginning: "I'll praise Thee with my heart and tongue. He never yet has made mistakes. . Whose goodness never endeth. Bk. 647). I'll sing to Thee with heart and mouth. Kelly. 802 (1886. no. 54 E. no. ed. with a rather unusual combining of literality and metre. Mit vollgeschenktem Masze. der aller Enden. 1653. p. Der Herr.. Appeared in the Suppl. Bk. My heart's warm gush breaks forth in mirth. Psalmody.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt English Versions: 1. Appeared in the Crü. The Lutheran Hymnal. 1880. Miss Cox. Warum sollt ich mich denn grämen. He watcheth me and tendeth.--(Goed. to Ger. as no. p. Miss Manington. 1864. 1754. 475.--(Goed. 569. 364.) (Cf. 154. 5. p.) Founded on Psalm XXIII.. p.] 60 . 108 ff. O Lord! I sing with mouth and heart. no. 108. 225. 122. 3. altered. 1765. The Lord. . p. Die leer und dürstig sasze. . Included in the Moravian H. 65. Massie." 4. especially in stanza 9: Du salbst mein Haupt mit Oele My head with oil anointest   Und füllest meine Seele.

1867. Of all that to him is given By the bounteous band of Heaven. The translation by J. But he who in sin's ways goeth Is like chaff the wind before. 241. Stanza 1. is the only English version published. Stanza 1. The CXIIth Psalm of David celebrating the prosperity of the godly is the basis for Gerhardt's beautiful hymn which has found great popularity in German hymn-books. In the following stanzas the translation brings out excellently Gerhardt's simile and metaphor. 243. Who the scorners' friendship spurns. (Lines 1 & 2. 1867. der nicht wandelt. Bless'd is he the Lord who loveth. (Lines 1 & 2) Wol dem. This his meditation maketh. Who delight in God's word taketh. Nor in sinners' paths is seen. 136 [But now cf. #455: "Blessed is the man that never. At His word doth tremble aye! Bless'd whose heart him freely moveth God's commandments to obey. 130. Who the Highest loves and fears. p.--Runge. Bless'd is he who pleasure taketh In God's laws' most perfect way. From their seats away who turns. It would be inconceivable that Gerhardt should omit the first Psalm from his themes."] 61 . Stanza 2. He will truly ever flourish Who God's word delights to do. no. der den Herren scheuet. 1653. Kelly. 124.) Appeared in Crü. While Gerhardt follows quite closely the poetic language of the Bible. (Lines 1 & 2. Kelly.--Runge.--(Goed. Findeth increase with the years.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Wol dern Menschen. 1653. the translator departs often from what might be expected as the normal English equivalent of Gerhardt's diction. 132. and his hymn adapts so well the biblical text that we should expect more than the one English version of J. p. 136 In his rendering the translator has done well to infuse much of the poetic language of the English Bible.--(Goed.) 55 Stanza 4. Lutheran Hymnary.) Appeared in Crü. 130.) Stanza 3. the right who ne'er forsaketh. no. Bless'd is he who never taketh Counsel of ungodly men! Bless'd.

line 36: "Wie ein Vöglein in der Kluft. Nearly every line has the force and directness of the original especially in the verses addressed to the Soul.--Runge. 723. 37. Kelly. Soul." IN DESPONDENCY AND TEMPTATION. And the pealing thunders shock They shall sit and nought shall frighten. 1867. 1653. What God decrees.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Stanza 5.) Appeared in Crü. 290. English Versions: 1.138 Cf. charging it to defy the wiles of Satan and to seek strength and consolation in Nature's bounties. Look up to thy God again. S. Unv.*288. Gerhardt's poem is one of close introspection and self analysis. 137 138 Cf. under the title "Trost in schwerer Anfechtung.: 1851. Bachmann: no. 139." 56 The only English version of this fervent hymn of consolation in despondency and temptation is that of J. L. also lines 1 and 2 of stanza 2: His dear children shall stand ever139 Like to roses in their blow. thence in Wackernagel: no. 135.--(Goed. no. sunk in affliction! Shall He be reproach'd by men Through thy sore dejection? Satan's wiles dost thou not see? By severe temptation.) [Resignation to "what pleases God. child of his love. . no. Gladly would he keep from thee Jesu's consolation. 195. p. Like the dove hid in the rock. . When the black clouds o'er them lighten. Schwing dich auf zu deinern Gott. As their branches trees are sending." 139 Seine Kinder werden stehen Wie die Rosen in der Blät. And their memory shall be Upon every side extending. Was Gott gefällt. mein frommes Kind. Stanza 1. 62 . no. .--Runge.137 They'll remain eternally." Line 40: "Wie die edlen Zweig ausbreiten."] First appeared in Crü. in 20 stanzas of 5 lines. and the translator interprets with feeling its spirit of "Trost.--(Goed. 60. 1653.

my faithful child. XV. Adelaide. though thunders roll And tempests lower on every side. 189. J. 1867. in her Lyra Germanica.-Be comforted! thou needst not fear     What pleases God. 1858. 193. 1872. Selected Stanzas: Miss Winkworth. Take patiently. And we may rest there calm and still. by Mrs. V. Mrs. of the H. XX. 1860. 171. L. 1884. What pleases God. His thought is aye the wisest thought. L.] 63 . take patiently.   1. Miss Dunn. p.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt A good rendering of stanzas I. Miss Winkworth. What pleases God. child of his love. XII. p. no. What pleaseth God with joy receive. Included in full in Bishop Ryle's Collection. 1857. What pleaseth God. O pious soul. 94. p. O pious soul. The best will is our Father's will.. 142. Findlater in her Hymns from the Land of Luther. 2. Mistake or weakness in it lurks. Accept with joy.     Which pleases God. p. Oh make it hour by hour thine own. And wish for nought but that alone." in Kennedy. 1858. though it may prove The storm that wrecks thy treasure here. The wisest will is God's own will: Rest on this anchor. p. 1858. Findlater in the 3d Series. no. VIII.   57 Die Zeit ist nunmehr nah. 1. 1344. 3. II.--(Goed. When only wishing here below     What pleases God. 3. and seldom works     What pleases God. What God decrees. XVIII. 170). 4. VI. It brings forth ill. 1863. Thou knowest nought can thee betide     But pleases God. How oft man's wisdom comes to nought. 49 (1884.) [Day of Judgment--Second Advent. and beginning "What God decrees. and be still. 2. For peace around thy path shall flow. 2. Kelly. and abridged in Christian Hymns.

1867.) O Jesu. 40. 26. no. 1863. 1858. my Lord. (Stanza XI) in the Moravian H.--(Goed. 242. p. VI. 20. 153. Charles in her Voice of Christian Life in Song. Selected Stanza: Miss Winkworth in her Lyra Germanica. p.--(Goed.--Runge.: ed. Wir singen dir.) [Christmas. 1789. Kelly. 3. O Blessed Jesus! This Thy lowly manger is The Paradise where oft my soul would feed: Here is the place.. 18. English Versions: 1. It appeared in Crü. in 18 stanzas of 6 lines. no. p. 119 (1874. 18. 4. S. 58 J. 1656. Where lies the Eternal Word Clothed with our flesh. 2. in 15 stanzas. (in later eds. 1653. Jesus Christ! Thy cradle is. J. Thy manger is my paradise. English Versions: 1. VIII. Bachmann: no. Berlin G.) "I shall when time is o'er. X-XIII." 3. 150. Be not dismay'd--in time of need. IV. GOD WITH US. Miss Winkworth. O Christ! how good and fair. May I when time is o'er. no. by Mrs. 1517. Bk. 341. A translation of stanzas III. The time is very near.. XVII. It first appeared in the Crü. thence in Wackernagel: 1843. no. 1864. p. 1789. Kelly. A translation of stanzas VII.. 124). Bk. Emanuel. L. 41. O blessed Jesus! This. no. p. 1867.) (Cf. no. Christ! dein Kripplein ist. 1858. 367. Stanza 1. 1858. p. VII. in her Lyra Ger. p. 1653. Praxis. 64 . in the Moravian H. 236. made like to us indeed. 110 ff. 2.] At the Manger in Bethlehem.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Based on Acts III. Miss Manington. 101.

28. but the melody generally used (in Church Hymns called "Bonn") is that by J. Praxis. English Versions: 1. XIII. Unv. Now in His manger He so humbly lies. Hymnal.] (Cf. to draw near. etc. the Hymns and Songs of Praise. as no. All my heart this night rejoices. 1848. the Evangelistic Hymnal. Lauxmann. by Miss Winkworth in the 2d series of her Lyra Ger. and repeated. in the Ohio Luth. to "Warum sollt ich mich derm grämen. 5. 100. hence generally abridged. 1884. but somewhat long. He adores the child as the source of life (XII). Kennedy in his Hymnologia Christiana. his Glory (XIV). 59 A beautiful. 35. in part. by Dr. no. and promises to be ever true to Him (XV). XI. thus analyses it: "First a trumpet blast: Christ is born. 5. omitting stanzas III-V. reprinted in Wackernagel: no. 1653 and 1656. and Bachmann: no. as no. no.--(Goed. p. It is very generally included in cento form in nearly all current American hymnals. In the following 4 stanzas the poet seeks to set forth the mighty value of the Incarnation: is it not love when God gives us the Son of His Love (III). Erk's Choralbuch. 108. as in Matt. 15. God's Champion has appeared as a Bridegroom from his chamber (I. 1851. 1858..) [Christmas. L.) Appeared in Crü. all men (VIII). Loy. IX. and all the poor (XI). his Lamb of God (XIII). 13. VI-IX. 1880. 86). Then in conclusion he approaches in supplication like the shepherds and the Wise Men (XII-XV). all the heavy laden (X). ringing. Russell. 2. and Laudes Domini. XIV. in his own Psalms and Hymns. Lightly bound my bosom. N. etc. He bids.. 104. 155. A translation in full. S. p." Crüger gave the hymn an original melody in 1656 (as in L.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Frölich soll mein Herze springen.: 1851. 56. in 15 stanzas of 8 lines. but rather free translation omitting stanzas III-V. 1863. in the Dalston Hospital Hymn Bk."140 The hymn is very beautiful. T. 3. 130. 1890. XIV. 1666. 1874.. XIII. all they that labor (IX). 65 . 4. VIII. All my heart with joy is springing. G. Y. Y. Now he places himself as herald by the cradle of the Divine Child (VII). by A. N. no. the Kingdom of Joy (IV) and His Fellowship (V)? Yes.. 26. 1869.. Y. II). A free translation by Dr. laid as a garland on the manger at Bethlehem. no. Ebeling in the Geistliche Andachten. 1872. In America it appeared in the Dutch Reformed Hymns of the Church. Parts have appeared also in the New Zealand Hymnal. 44. p. it is indeed the Lamb of God who bears the sin of the world (VI). Let the voice of glad thanksgiving. 140 Cf. 1863. It is a glorious series of Christmas thoughts. A good translation of stanzas I-III. N. Koch IV. in Koch. M.

) [Christmas. Selected Stanzas: A.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt A translation of stanza V in the Moravian H. 1870. abbot of a monastic brotherhood in Bethlehem 386-420: "As often as I gaze on this place (the manger at Bethlehem). p. 11. 1. All my heart this night rejoices. Up. so often does my heart converse with the Infant Jesus which lay there in the manger . p. 18. upspringing. Molther. As a broadsheet for Christmas. 1770. Joyful be my spirit singing." and the child answered--"Give it to the poor. I say . It is very probable that in composing it the poet had in mind the words of St. J. . p. with gladness heavenward springing. Rise. in the Moravian H. 1. "I must give Thee something. 9. W. Koch IV. 1851." their choirs are singing. my heart! rejoice with singing. 435. Massie.--(Goed.. 150. 155. I will accept it as if it were given me. 310. T. p. 1754. far and near. Let the voice of glad thanksgiving Upward rise. p. in her Lyra Germanica. 1867. Bk. 30. 1789 and 1886. M. no. Hark! the angel-choirs from heaven Hither fly! hark! they cry. Stryker. in his Psalms and Hymns. 158. 137. Up. 312). N. Russell."--cf. 6. . 66 . E. L. Sweetest angel voices: "Christ is born. Christ to earth is given! Miss Winkworth. . Bk. As I hear. shake off all sadness. Kelly. P. 260. Joyful shall my heart. 8.. Till the air everywhere Now with joy is ringing. 10. 1858. 153. 1867. 60 Ich steh an deiner Krippen hier.]141 141 This is Gerhardt's third Christmas hymn (cf. Frothingham. H. 7. Dear Child! I will give Thee all my wealth. 1883. Now with joy my heart is bounding. to the skies-Praises from all living. . 24. Jerome of Strido. my soul. also Goed.

in the British Herald. no. mind. 1656. Come now. 57.. It appeared in Crü.: 1863. Thee in my heart my faith enfolds. 1865. in 15 stanzas.)] Founded on the hymn of J. Now at the manger here I stand. 61 R. p. Miss Manington. S. Selected Stanza: Dr. take them all. 1856.--(Goed. to Thee resign'd: Make all to Thee well-pleasing. Praxis: 1653. no. English Versions: 1. 309. My Life and my Salvation. And brings Thee her oblation.) [Passiontide. 133. Massie. J. Praxis. 137. 32. Kelly. Dr. no. XV. 105. 1867. 67 . Berlin G. no. have been translated by Rev. 167. This is a beautiful hymn in which the poet puts himself in the place of the shepherds and the wise men visiting Bethlehem. L. Bachmann: no. no.. T. His translation of stanza I is as follows: My faith Thy lowly bed beholds. 45. and Hys. Russell in his Ps. 1867. (The seven words from the Cross. in 15 stanzas of 7 lines. Sept. my soul. My heart! the seven words hear now. I stand beside Thy manger-bed. spirit. Oh. Seven times the Savior spake--my heart. VII. p. Hör an! mein Herz. H. Kelly. his love and his all to the Infant Savior in the manger. 137. 1656. 3. 1851. J. no. IV. 38. 161. p. Wackernagel: no. 1856. p. 105. 2. 3. 9. Stanzas I. Mills. 1845. 63. thy thoughts engage. Böschenstein: "Da Jesus an dem Kreuze stund" (which was called a translation from the Latin of Peter Bolandus. and in praise and adoration tenders his devotion. die sieben Wort. p. My heart and soul. will. A. English Versions: 1.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Included in Crü. "Stabat ad lignum crucis"). 1864. H. Mills in his Horae Germanicae. 1653. 2.

This is stanza 1 of a complete translation of the seven stanzas of Gerhardt's Easter hymn. . Cf. 171): "In Crüger's Praxis ist Christ(ian) Bartholdi unterzeichnet. Welt. aber von Ebeling als Gerhardt's aufgenommen. p.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 1. at the same time observing the literality in an unusually difficult metre. for aye hath vanquish'd. . English Versions: Stanza 1. sin. devil. . Sei frölich alles weit und breit. 1867.) Appeared in Crü. der die Sünd und Tod. With entrance into Heaven. no. O Father! send Thy spirit down. Teufel. from Thy high heaven. 198. Be joyful all. and woe. 173. my soul.--(Goed. His words may prove A gift of love. Kelly. Praxis. 1656.--(Goed. no. Höll und was in Not Uns stürzet. When on the cross man's deadly rage With griefs his heart had broken. what our overthrow Would seek. Hath purchas'd. And learn their pow'r. World. When call'd thyself to suffer. und auch wol von ihm selbst mitgetheilt. 142 Goedeke states in his note to this hymn (p. both far and near. stanza 7: Nu Gott sei Dank.) Appeared in Crü. Who peace for war. 171. überwunden. thy thoughts engage On what by Christ was spoken. To us through Jesus given. 62 Gott Vater. The best his love could offer. sende deinen Geist. who death. Whom God Himself elected As our Redeemer. 1656. Who lost were and dejected: To-day the Lord of glory here. Come now. . who His blood Upon the cross shed for our good. keeping well the spirit and fervor of the original.142 English Version: 1. J." 68 . Praxis. Whom we are bidden by Thy Son To seek. . Hath from the grave arisen. der uns den Sieg Now praised be God. . and life for death. who vict'ry hath   Durch Jesum hat gegeben Und uns den Frieden für den Krieg Und für den Tod das Leben Erworben. 171. 75. Keep them in store.

in 8 stanzas of 9 lines. 50. Who while on earth permit this Guest To make in them His dwelling. a version of very varying excellence. in seven stanzas of seven lines each.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt A complete translation by J. 1867. p. ne'er human ken. Scarce Tongue can speak. 178. In uns ist kein Vermögen. stanza 15 seems hopelessly weak when compared with the vigorous and simple German: O selig. Their souls with rapture filling. R. no. Wie bald würd unser Glaub und Treu. Bachmann: no. no. 1867. Weisheit in der Welt. 2. Kelly. Was alle. in his Lyra Domestica. utterly Turn from me? wilt ne'er look on me In grace and in compassion? 69 . English Versions: 1. A translation in full. Translated by J. Our pow'r is unavailing. Who now receive him joyfully.--(Goed.) [Trinity Sunday. 206. For example. 212. with the result that the version is one of this translator's least successful contributions. 1. no. p. Praxis: 1653. 1656.) Appeared in Crü. O Herr. 235. wo du uns nicht stündest bei Sich in die Aschen legen! The Holy Spirit's strength we need. p. S. wer in dieser Welt Oh! happy are the souls and bless'd   Läszt diesem Gaste Haus und Zelt In seiner Seel aufschlagen! Wer Ihn aufnimmt in dieser Zeit Den wird er dort zur ewgen Freud In Gottes Hütte tragen.: 1863. On the other hand in stanza 5 the translator has coped very successfully with the many difficulties of rhyme and metre: Und das ist auch ein Gnadenwerk This is a work of grace indeed. Herr. p. The mystery hidden from the eyes. Kelly. 1867. thence in Wackernagel: no. 1656.--(Goed. 1. Massie. 78. How long.] Appeared in Crü. 1864. Lord. Praxis. 365. L. 59. He'll take up to God's house on high.   Und deines heilgen Geistes Stärk. O Lord! in ashes lie Were not Thy help unfailing. 87. Our faith and our sincerity Would soon. Berlin G. in forgetfullness And darkness wilt Thou leave me? How long will sorrow on me press And deep heart-anguish grieve me? Wilt Thou Thy face. 63 Stanza 1. no. Wie lang. 176. Kelly. wie lange soll. The rhyme and metre have been altered after the first four lines in each stanza. Lord. by J.

of Hymns. 1653. 138). Savior. 297 being founded on Arndt and 4 original. 1. S. S. Praxis.. my God's I am.. 1789.) Still nigh me. 143 This hymn led Philipp Friedrich Hiller to think of turning all of these prayers in the Paradiszgärtlein into hymns.) Thou Friend of Sinners! Who hast bought. 73. (Stanza IX altered. and G. after Thee. Bk. Wesley. Koch IV. of this translation of J. (Stanza III. (2. 294. in teutsche Lieder. mein schönstes Licht.] 70 .: 1851. (6. 1876..) (Cf. A. . The result was his work entitled "Arndt's Paradiszgärtlein . 144 [Cf.. Father. L. (4. XV. Wesley. and G. after Thee. 1739 (P. . The book is in four parts and contains 301 hymns. how cheering is Thy ray. It is founded on Prayer V of Class II in Johann Arndt's Paradiszgärtlein. and in J.) [Love of Christ. S. Jesus. Pennsylvania Luth.. of Hymns.--(Goed.. Bk. L.) O draw me.. To this is added in Snepp's Songs of G." by C. p. Unv. Ch. (3. Bachmann: no.) 64 Bk. 185. Unitarian H. A. (Stanza VI.) American Sabbath H. U. Bk. This is one of the finest hymns on the Love of Christ. stanzas XII.) O Love. 114 ff.] Cf. XVI. no. A full and very fine translation by J. Porter's Collection. 1858. Works.) O draw me. 1848. U.) Wesley. XVI.144 In the Wesleyan Hymn Book. doubting heart. 1656. 402. 45.) O Jesu Christ. and the Frankfurt ed.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Befiehl du deine Wege. 1612.143 English Versions: (A. XIV. 1868-72.) Snepp's Songs of G. of Crü. Amer. Collection of Hymns." Nürnberg (no date given). Centos of the Wesley version are: (1.) More hard than marble is my heart. (7. Wesley in Hymns and Sacred Poems. O my Savior stand. 1848. 1869. 771. stanzas XII. This stanza is taken from a hymn "Peace.) Bk. #373. VIII. in 16 stanzas of 9 lines. vol. Boston.--(Goed. I. p. Bk. 1780. Berlin. Included in the 5th ed. Boston.) Moravian H. Thou Thy love to me. (Stanza V.. thence in Wackernagel: no. 1868. it was reduced to 9 stanzas. (5.. 200. (Stanza IX. Thy boundless love to me.) My Savior.

My strength. 1754 (author's name not given). Selected Stanzas: In the Moravian Hymn Book.. "Gebet um zeitliche und ewige Wolfahrt. in Snepp's Songs of Grace and Glory. 4). O my Savior stand" in Snepp. 1886. 1. p. beginning "Thou cam'st in love to my relief. ed. Thine wholly.. my bread to stay. when parched with drought. no. to German Psal. 17. My wine to cheer.--(Goed. dasz ich nicht / In deiner Liebe habe?" etc. o Schönster. Bk. J. 1872." 2. 1754 (and with slight change in the ed. my safe abode. Kelly.. What in Thy love possess I not? My star by night. 1621. rewritten by E." 71 . 1765. it begins "O Christ. of 1789.) Other English versions: 1." In the 1789. Praxis. viz: In the 1746 ed. and 1849 ed. 3. Wesley. J. p. of the Moravian Hymn Book. My spring of life. Wesley. Part I. 29. XVI. in part II there appear as a separate hymn stanzas V-VII. and 1849). Bk. thine alone I am: Be thou alone my constant Flame.. my sweetest Life and Light. 1739. O Christ.     That my notion Of Mercy may improve With ev'ry thought and motion. and Gerhardt's stanza XII: "Was ists. From Johann Arndt's Paradiszgärtlein (Goslar. (B. p. my Light. 294.) Appeared in the Crü. Bk. It is stanza 2 of a hymn beginning "Still nigh me. 1836. J. 65 Stanza 1. thy boundless Love to me No thought can reach.. 1867. IV. no tongue declare: O knit my thankful heart to Thee And reign without a rival there. In the Moravian H. Osler and published in the Mitre H. my shield. Jesu. O Jesus Christ! my fairest Light.. my gracious Savior. In the Suppl. my sun by day. 1. my only Life and Light. and the Moravian H. 205.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt This is stanzas V. 318. in the 1754 ed. O Christ my sweetest Life and Light! Whose loving Condescension Embraces me by day and night Beyond my comprehension: Lord! grant me to return thy Love With due and true devotion. 3. 122. O Christ. My robe before the throne of God! Ich danke dir demütiglich. 1656. 1739.

Arndt's145 Paradiszgärtlein.--(Goed. in 16 stanzas of 7 lines. 1656. 391. . no. and was included in many subsequent hymn books.. 80. "O God of mercy full and free. Ach! treuer Gott. The correspondence of stanzas is as follows: Gerhardt I stanzas Wn w rh 1 i k ot stanzas II 2 (III) IV 3 V 4 VI 5 VII 6 VIII 7 (IX) X 8 (XI) XII 9 (XIII) XIV 10 X V XVI 11 The translation of stanzas X. no. XVI. etc. It appeared in Crü.] Founded on a prayer "for patience under great trial. In stanza 14 the translator has. . 693. as follows: & Gerhardt stanza I Russell stanza 1 (II III) IV 2 V 3 (VI VII VIII IX) X XI 4 This version appears in an altered form in Kennedy. XIV. who diedst to give us life. also in Wackernagel: no. beginning "O Thou. 117. . my Father! thanks to Thee I bring with deep humility. 145 Cf.. most merciful! A good adaptation in 4 stanzas by Rev. pp. 1883. . 1863. T. 1867. . English Versions: 1. p. as recently as the Unv.: 1851." appear as no. and thence in the Gilman-Schaff Lib. O God most true. in honor to Queen Victoria. of her Lyra Ger. . p. and in Bachmann: no. 72 . barmherzigs Herz. 1612. A. XII. altered the original which reads: Insonderheit nimin wol in Acht Den Fürsten ." 2. That Thou Thine anger endest. 57. O God. 1883. XXV in Class III of J. P. O faithful God! O pitying heart. etc. L. 66 A good translation in 11 stanzas by Miss Winkworth in the 2d Series. 837. 1858. Praxis. S. 209. A complete translation by J. Russell in his Psalms and Hymns.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt English Versions: Stanza 1." no.) [Cross and Consolation. 24 and 63. And that Thy Son Our joy and Crown Into the world Thou sendest. to Make Her Thy care especially. of R. Frankfurt. no. . 327. 665. . in Church Praise. Whom Thou as monarch hast raised high This land and nation over. Kelly.

IX) by Miss Winkworth in her Chorale Book. p. L.--(Goed. 40. G. S. p.] A prayer for success in all Christian works and purpose. Ich weisz. 1653. 1863. 1867. 102. Kelly. 2.) [Supplication. 121. 175. Arndt's Creutzgebet.: 1863. Cf.) Based on Joh. p. 38. 1656. 39. 1867. 23. in 18 stanzas of 5 lines. to thee. Berlin. dasz all mein Thun. "Knock at my door and cry. no. J." etc. J. 1656. 1863. Praxis. mein Gott. I know. 98. My God! my works and all I do. Deign graciously to hear me. 212. Barmherziger Vater. my God. 321. Father of mercies! God most high.         As urgently     Thou long'st. höchster Gott. It appeared in Crü. 71. Bachmann: no. 73 . (Stanzas I-III. English Versions: 1. 332. Thou joyfully may'st praise me.     That with thy mouth. J. In time of need draw near to me. Included in Crü. Kelly. English Version: Stanza 1. thence in Wackernagel: no. founded on Jeremiah X. XI. 382. Kelly.         In very truth. Selected Stanzas: 67 Miss Winkworth in her Chorale Book. 1867. Ah! faithful God.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 3. and Acts V." It has on many occasions been given as a farewell injunction by parents to their children on leaving home.--(Goed. Praxis. no. 164. Koch IV. compassionate heart. no. 217. In the Ebeling edition the hymn has the title: "Um Glück und Segen zu allem christlichen Thun und Vorhaben. Thou say'st. and I rejoice. no. VIII.

374. A hymn of self-abnegation.     Who trod the way 68 Wherein the world delighteth. I have deserv'd it.) Appeared in Crü. Kelly. 124. 1867. Upon thine end thou pond'rest What it will be thou wond'rest. 76. 127. Cf. Kelly. Thou art but man. I know. 1656. p. Highest.--(Goed. 108. Ich habs verdient. 330. 1656. to thee 'tis known. 145. 149. 1867. nos. . cease t'oppose The Lord's will. 224. 130. 148: Stanza 1. 307. What Thou shalt send is surely best. 100. 220. and I rejoice That on Thy righteous will and choice All human works and schemes must rest: Success and blessing are of Thee. Come hither to me ever! From pain all free     May never be He 'gainst the Lord who fighteth. no. ab ab cc dd. In spite of all thy wit can do. even self-denunciation. das weiszt du wol. Why dost thou then endeavor To do what God should do alone.--(Goed. p. 2. emphasizing the frailty and insignificance of mortals. my God. thou heavy cross. 256. J.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 1. Praxis. 817. and closing with an admonition of resignation to God's wise dispensations. English Version: Stanza 1. no. . 165. Thy counsel. Du bist ein Mensch. 321. shall I never? Thou bitter cup. Both have been strictly observed by J. Or can accomplish ever? A thousand griefs thou goest through. .e. Praxis. 62. It stands not in the power of man To bring to pass the wisest plan So surely that it cannot fail.) Appeared in the Crü. 74 .     As I each day. 263. 146 I. must ensure That our poor wisdom shall avail. Though Gerhardt frequently employs this form of rhyme146 only rarely does he combine it with this metre. Was will ich doch.

" Ist Gott für mich. . but very acceptable rendering in which the easy colloquial style of the original has been well retained. Praxis. no. 1855. Ich hab oft bei mir selbst gedacht. 1865. p. Cf. In her 1856 ed. lines 7 and 8: "Denn.) Auf den Nebel folgt die Sonne. Bk. and 1656. 87.--(Goed. I ask myself if earthly life Be good. . no. 249. 1st Series. Cometh sunshine after rain. 545.) Appeared in Crü." What station is there here below ." 2. 100 (omitting stanzas IV-VII. 126 ff. the translation of stanzas X and XI is added. Bachmann: no. 331. Miss Winkworth in her Lyra Ger.--(Goed. XI). so trete. Has he not acted for the best Who laid himself betimes to rest? J. 1867. S. A free. 1653. X. 402.] It appeared in Crü. 232.. 1656. L. XIII "Now as long as here I roam. denk und sage mir: "Reflect. Cf.: no. Koch IV. Kelly. and worthy of the strife. p. English Version: Stanza 1. After clouds we see the sun. English Versions: 1.) [Thanksgiving after great sorrow and affliction. thence in Wackernagel: no. 1855. Unv. if you know   Was für ein Stand ist wol allhier. Kelly. 261.) (Cf.. say.. 75 . Praxis. p. Selected Stanzas: 69 Miss Winkworth in her Lyra Ger. 64. J. Full often as I meditate Upon the world's disordered state. no. my friend. no. Lieber. 226.--(Goed. in 15 stanzas of 7 lines. In the Christian H. 236. 1867. 799 begins with her stanza no.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt This is one of the least adaptable poems of Gerhardt and it is evident that the translator has struggled with the many difficulties of metre and frequent rhyme. 229. Cincinnati. 143. p.

redemption and sanctification of the world. #436] 76 . VIII in her C." were included in the Amer. U. 1845. who from her height Sank to realms of woe and night. 2. All the day and all the night. Lutheran Hymnary. 70 A good translation omitting stanzas VI.147 147 [Cf. Luth. no. I pray Thee. Bachmann: no. Berlin. Gen... 1653. Synod's Collection. Poured o'er all my heart for good. & H. 722. 200. Bk. IV. The hymn was included in the 5th ed. Mills in his Horae Germanicae. 141. p. 1850-52. no. 91 ff. thence in Wackernagel: no. 235. 1864. stronger. One of Gerhardt's finest hymns. A full and good translation by Miss Winkworth in her Lyra Ger. Cometh sunshine after rain. no. After mourning joy again. Massie renders: Grant me grace. p. about me wound. Massie to the 1857 ed. Included in full in Cantate Domino. 195. Shall I not his praise be singing. omitting stanzas III-VI. also.--(Goed. After heavy bitter grief Dawneth surely sweet relief.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 1. whom this world dares not face. And my soul. contributed by R. and in the Frankfurt ed.: 1851. 1855. p. Shall I not sing praise to Thee. Dr.] Cf. 1656. Soll ich meinem Gott nicht singen. Koch. Quicker. I will sing my Maker's praises. of Crü. for England. 10. no. His care in trouble. 1859. 2. He. O God. Unv. IV-VII beginning "As the eagle fondly hovers. of Mercer's C. L. no. It closes with a prayer which R. And his mighty hand unbound Chains of hell. Praxis. reprinted in his own Lyra Domestica. And when this brief life is o'er Love and praise Thee evermore. 185. A.. 1st Series. S. 3... 60. S. VIII. English Versions: 1. This is a mediocre version. and 1856. 81.) [Thanksgiving. Hath refreshed me with his grace. Boston. Wingeth now to heav'n her flight. like a flood. setting forth God's love in His creation. His stanzas II. That I may with all my might Love and trust Thee and obey Thee. Since his mercy. 35. B. 230. P. 1863. as it misses the characteristic points of the German. leaps my blood.

240. All things last their portioned day-    God's love to eternity. C. Pagenstecher's Collection. For the blessings of his love? Those. 38. 22. In Lyra Davidica. 1. when Time is past. 153. IV. Kelly.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 4. J. p. Miss Winkworth. p. W. 1732. Thank my gracious God above Whom I see on all things pouring Forth the sunshine of His love? For 'tis naught but Love's own loving In his constant heart. 218. who with sincere endeavor Keep the way that He has shown." 8. in service proving. and Christian Chorals. All things else their time will last But His love. doth care Endlessly to love and bear Those their love. my God. C. 1. Selected Stanzas: Dr. III. in his Christian Chorals. 71 77 . J. Yielding them a father's favor. 7. Jacobi. W. 6. Helping. cheering. Can I cease. 1863. on their road All who in Thy service move. 1867. He will as his children own. A translation of stanzas I. my God. Shall I not my God be praising. from singing. "I will sing to my Creator. in meek adoring. Mills in his Horae Germanicae. by F. in her Chorale Book for England. Repeated in the Moravian Hymn Books. 5. Shall I not sing praise to Thee. Stryker in his Hymns & Verses. 1708. p. O Lord? Since for us in all I see How thou keepest watch and ward. How the truest tend'rest love Ever fills Thy heart.. no. M. 1882. as no. 1864. p. 1856. A translation of stanzas I-III by M. Shall I not His praise be singing Who in glory reigns above:-Him my thanks and honors bringing. 36. 1754-1886. in some editions beginning. 1883. C. Stryker. in Dr. 1885. Can I fail my God to praise. in meek adoring. 1. Should I not. Should I not. Shan't I sing to my Creator. Shall I not give thanks. 1885.

  Sie ist meins Herzens Freud und Licht. no. Weisheit. 72 Jesu. Kelly.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Geh aus. I love her lovely face so bright. 260.) (Cf. 16.--(Goed. of stanza 16. 1789 (1886. 181 in the Moravian H. 148 i. 78 . Praxis. 1661. und suche Freud.) Appeared in Crü. 1.) Also hat Gott die Welt geliebt. no.e. .--(Goed. no. . Kelly has resorted to a device common to translators.--(Goed. Then all my labor is in vain. English Version: 1. 92. All I can do Thou well dost know. 576. 1661. in 17 stanzas. "very" for "sehr" makes literality and meter perfect. If Thine own grace doth not sustain. 131 ff. die mich halt Und meinen Augen wolgefällt.. As exact and appropriate translation as is possible word for word is found in stanza ???: Ich lieb ihr148 liebes Angesicht. mein Herz. Sie ist die schönste. of course. 239. Here. In the fourth stanza. Praxis. Bk. 374. It appeared in Crü. 256. It appeared in Crü. H. P.) [Good Friday.) Based on Johann Arndt's Paradiszgärtlein. Be of good cheer in all your wants. first line. She is my joy and heart's delight The fairest is that holdeth me Mine eyes she pleaseth wondrously. 372. English Version: O God! from Thee doth wisdom flow. 263. A complete and very good translation by J. 373. as no. 1661. by selecting instead of a monosyllabic adverb an adverb of two syllables. The long metre of 8 syllables seems to lend itself more readily to adaptation into English. Herr. allerliebster Bruder. aller Weisheit Quell und Grund. no. 33. Molther. . 217). p.] Founded on John III. Mein Leben ist sehr kurz und schwach My life is very short and weak. that of making up the extra accent where the corresponding English cognate has lost the ending.--(Goed. Praxis.

By J. Bleib mein Freund bis in mein Grab! Bleib mein Freund und unter allen Mein getreuster stärkster Stab!   Gracious Savior! let it please Thee. and Rudder And my truest Bosom-Friend. A complete translation by J. 112. Thou. Praxis. . Thy mercy still extending.   And in my dying hour. Thou mine Anchor. no. 1661. 'Tis patience must support you When sorrow.--(Goed. Who dost well to me intend. p. 375. An unavoidable weakening by translation appears in the last stanza: Nun. Be my Friend in every hour Be my Friend. To Thee.--(Goed. A complete translation of the 14 stanzas. 1867. till death release me Be my faithful Staff of pow'r! Geduld ist euch vonnöten.) Subjoined to a funeral address by Johann Meiszner. It appeared in Crü. 73 Nun sei getrost und unbetrübt. Kelly. 35-37. Or whate'er else may hurt you Doth rend your aching heart. It is noteworthy that the first line of each stanza contains the word "patience" as does the poem of Gerhardt the word "Geduld. grief." and though less well known than most of his hymns is deserving of wider recognition than it has hitherto received. English Version: 1. 1867. e'en me. Had the race of man been given. As far as is at present known 79 . 184. p. 267. Oh! grant a patient ending Then need I nothing more. .Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt English Version: 1. Mast. Belov'd and chosen seed! If not a death will kill you. 271. Kelly. This is one of Gerhardt's many "Trostgesänge. poor guest of earth. So gib durch deine Hände Auch ein geduldigs Ende! So hab ich alles gnug." Kelly's rendering of the last four lines illustrates as well as any the faithfulness of his version. Yet once again I tell you 'Tis patience that you need. and in general very true to the original.) Based on Hebrews X. . . Chosen hadst before my birth. my dearest Brother. The translator has well rendered a hymn of rather unusual difficulty of interpretation in a foreign tongue. Jesus! Thou. . or smart. ere was earth or heaven. Herr lasz dirs wolgefallen. . Kommt dann der letzte Zug.

1867. Christ lives." Stanza 1." and the English reader is denied the poetic force of "ward"150 also beautifully illustrated so frequently in the German Bible. Nought here or there can part us. "Geblüte. the first stanza of which is as follows: "JOYFUL RESIGNATION TO A HAPPY DEPARTURE FROM THIS WEARY WORLD. My light and life art ever! Thou boldest me. Stanza 7 preserves more of the "Stimmung" of the original: Thou Jesus! O thou sweetest Friend. 74 It is difficult to see. The German passive is never used without sufficient reason. The psychology of language would presumably never allow in poetry a literal word-for-word rendering of "Geblüte. p. who lov'd thee long before Thy being He did give thee.--(Goed. It is unfortunate that the translator has been satisfied with "glad" for the forceful "getrost" which connotes "confidence" and "trust" (to which it is indeed cognate)149 and even "comfort in that confidence" to the point of being "courageous. Und Fleisch und Haut ward zugericht." More pardonable is his balking at the characteristic alliterative "Geist und Gemüte" which must mean not only the "feelings.151 and similarly in line 48. If "heart" be accepted in this broadest sense it is undoubtedly the best English equivalent." which seems rather forced. Kelly. His love remaineth still the same. line 5. Here the English is too specific. und sei stille. Haut. 5). dost me defend." but also "soul" and "intellect" as well. 4. 6)." (1. The foe can move Thee never." instead of "As we are here. Again it must be accounted a defect that the passive "ward zugericht" (1. In Thee I am. p." 80 . Line 43: "Thou Jesus! O Thou sweetest Friend. 274.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt there has been published but one English version. 3). we'll ever be. why "allerliebster Freund" (line 43) could not have its logical equivalent "dearest Friend". As we are here. Let nothing ever grieve thee. "Dein Jesus" (1. that of J.) 149 150 151 Cf. On the other hand where the German is direct. my heart! now fear no more. Be glad. "Der" (1. 22. Gib dich zufrieden. 329. Fleisch. the English descends to the general. however. Haut. And ere He made thy wondrous frame. Fleisch. It ne'er can change to hatred. Thou art in me. "Und wie wir stehen. and Gerhardt chooses here to imply the divine mystery of birth. 5) is changed to an active construction." might equally be "And as we are.

L. Miss Winkworth. Frothingham.              Be thou content. Be thou contented! aye relying. 152 153 For adaptations of this hymn cf. J.) [Eternal Life. 269. 586. Be thou content. 1870. 1860. 98. in 15 stanzas. Stanza 1. and Bachmann: no.] 81 . L. 12. 11. p. Kelly.       On earth have no abode. 156. p. English Versions: 1. 3d Series. no. as all my fathers were.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt [Cross and Consolation. and included as no. be still before His face. 202. p. p. 2. 1666. 156. no.--(Goed. 1855. in the Unv. 824.: 1851. Berlin. 13. p. Tranquilly lead thee.       I journey here below. 1858. p. 1855. p. L. "I am a stranger with thee. 7. A pilgrim here I wander.. peace possessing. English Versions:152 1.. S. 1941. 284. 112. A good translation in 7 stanzas by Miss Jane Borthwick." It was first published in Ebeling. [alt.] Founded on Psalm XXXVII. 1884." Cf. thy sun. "I am a stranger in the earth. 139 75 153 . The Lutheran Hymnal. no. reprinted in Wackernagel: 1843. 140 ff. Without whom all thy toil is vain. It appeared in Ebeling. A pilgrim and a stranger. He is thy living spring. as follows: Gerhardt: Br wk ot i : hc I 1 II 2 III IV 3 (V) VI 4 VII VIII 5 IX (X) XI XII 6 XIII XIV 7 2. 1. also Psalm CXIX. and in Bishop Ryle's Collection. 246. 1867. at whose right hand doth reign Fulness of joy forever more. L. and a sojourner. Selected Stanza: Miss Winkworth in her Lyra Germanica. N. in H. p. Ich bin ein Gast auf Erden. Be thou content: be still before. whose rays Make glad with life and light thy dreary days.] Based on Psalm XXXIX. 1666. 3.

A pilgrim here I wander. See if my way be right and good. Lord. G. There in eternal rest Will God his gracious gift bestow On all the toil-oppress'd. 1869. But there my God shall lead me To everlasting rest. Und führe mich bald himmelan Den ewgen Weg. 4. p. Lord. English Versions: 1. My home is with my God. Far distant is my country.. 148. p. p. & In his last stanza Kelly has nearly equalled the original in happily choosing for many of the words the exact English cognate: Erforsch. search and know my heart and mood.--(Goed. Wade in the U. 23. A Pilgrim and a stranger. 2d Series. Stanza 1. p." 3. My fatherland is yonder. 2. ob mein Weg sei recht und gut. J. P. A rest here have I never.       A guest on earth am I. On earth I'm but a pilgrim. Herr. no. 1863. Kelly. 1867. The everlasting joyful road Lead me that brings me home to God. Oft weary and opprest. no. Selected Stanzas: Miss Winkworth in her Chorale Book. J.   On earth have no abode. all mein Herz und Mut   Sieh. du erforschest meinen Sinn. altered by stanzas as follows: Gerhardt: Wk o: nwr i h t I 1 II 2 III 3 (IV V VI VII) VIII 4 IX 5 X 6 XI 7 XII 8 XIII XIV 9 10 In Holy Song. I journey here below. 1863. Stanza 1. die Freudenbahn. 138. 1858. Herr. Juvenile Missionary Magazine. it begins: "As pilgrims here we wander. 1858. Here I must toil and travel.   Miss Borthwick in her Hymns from the Land of Luther.1884. Kelly. 173.) Appeared in Ebeling. and in her Chorale Book. 287. Thou my heart dost search and try. 1867. 252. 1859. The home to which I go. 316. For here I journey to and fro. 1666.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt A translation in 10 stanzas by Miss Winkworth in her Lyra Ger. 82 .

mainly because of the mixed metaphor and the many unpoetic lines.--(Goed. Stanza 1. o edle Ruh. My face.: 1851. da mein Hirt mich leiten wird Zur immergrimen Weide. no. Of Gerhardt's hymns treating of Death. however. Praxis: 1672. with the omission of the translation of Gerhardt's stanzas II. O blessed rest! To all true-hearted given. ne'er fearing. O sweetest joy.) 76 Appeared in Ebeling. 101. IX. He has. The golden sunbeams with their joyous gleams. let mine eyes by Thee be pressed.       May I roam there       'Mong pastures fair Where day ne'er knoweth even. Hymnal "Franconia. Contemplate it. L. full of sparkling thoughts of God. It is called in the Irish Ch. S.   O fromme Seelen Freude. Kelly. VIII. Die güldne Sonne. 2. Come. golden as the sun going forth in his beauty. thence * in Wackernagel: no.) [Morning. no. and Eternal Life. 293. 25. 449. in stanzas of 7 lines.") Lauxmann in Koch. Komm." "leiten" and "immergrün": O süsze Lust. In peace take me to heaven. been obliged to omit what in the German are the best touches. 1867. Dasz ich mit Fried abscheide Hin. no. why should'st thou troubled be When thou of death art hearing? Know it. A translation by Miss Winkworth in her Lyra Ger. 1666. Bachmann: no. 98. it cannot injure thee. mein Angesicht. namely the thoughts contained in "mein Hirt. 814. full of force and blessed peace in the Lord." English Versions: 1. 1863. schleusz mir meine Augen zu. Crü. Unv. 185. 83 . It is translated in full by J. the Last Day. Her translations of verses as follows: Gerhardt: W k ot: i wr n h 77 I 1 II 2 III 3 IV 4 (V VI VII) VIII 5 IX 6 (X XI) XII 7 Her version appears in Kennedy. 3. the long fifth line with the double rhyme being written as two short lines.--(Goed. calls this "A splendid hymn of our poet..] First appeared in Ebeling. entitled "Morgensegen". VIII.       When thou dost know       Death. no. 289. In stanza 19 Kelly has made the first personal pronoun predominant with the result that greater smoothness is obtained. 1666. (The melody is by Ebeling. 24. 322.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Was traurest du. 1855. and has not been retained in many German hymn books. this is one of the least well known. all its woe Will soon be disappearing.

Evening and Morning. The sun's golden beams. 379. Stanza 1. and has much similarity of thought to Gerhardt's hymns. 3. and this full form appears in Reid's Praise Bk. 84 . Massie. no. meine Krone") "Father. of Mercer's Church Psalter and Hymn Book. 1867. The version has these stanzas: Gerhardt: IV VIII IX X XI XII R. mein Geist und Sinn. E. Are kindling o'er earth. 3. 7. Sunbeams all golden. Through the dark hours' chill I lay silent and still. 1867. 1855. I gaze on the heavens all glowing and bright. p. What is our mortal race. 636. R.) also (b) "Der Tag vergeht.--(Goed. Massie. The golden sunbeams with their joyous gleams. (Beginning with stanza VII) by E. p. II. 1872. Miss Cox.. p.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 2. Liederschatz. But risen at length to gladness and strength. 1863. A good translation beginning with stanza IV ("Abend und Morgen") by R. p. A. Compare with this: (a) The hymn of J. O hear me. her life and mirth. 21. Massie in the 1857 ed. 1857. Freylinghausen (1704) "Der Tag ist hin. 106. Miss Dunn. 1864. 13. 1666. 1864. 1837. and included it in his Lyra Domestica. See the sun's glorious light. p. Massie.) Appeared in Ebeling. 26. p. In Kennedy. 87." (This has been translated by Miss Winkworth. The golden morning. 4. p. Selected Stanzas: Miss Winkworth in her Lyra Germanica. 270. 6. Massie: 1 2 3 4 5 6 This version in whole or in part appears in various hymn books. Shedding forth lovely and heart-cheering light. 296." Massie subsequently added a translation of stanzas I. III. it begins with the translation of stanza IX ("Gott. die müde Sonne sinket" in Knapp's Evang. no. Der Tag mit seinem Lichte. 216. Miss Borthwick and others. Kelly. 8. J. 1866.

With slumber to o'erpower us And all the wearied earth. 1874. Bachmann: no. 1004. In full by J.: 1863. Kelly. 1858. in 18 stanzas of 7 lines. 38. 307. 105. 1666. 27.) [Marriage. It fleeth and night neareth.--(Goed. p. A translation of stanza VIII as stanza 4 in the Moravian Hymn Book. 1880. An alteration and adaptation of stanzas VI. in her Lyra Germanica. L. 1869. L. Who is so full of tenderness. beginning "O God! how many thankful songs. 103. my God and King. .: 1851. S. 1855. IV. thence in Wackernagel: 1843. 1886. Oh hear me then. no. 149. 109. no. Its gloom is spreading o'er us. in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal. I who so oft in deep distress. English Version: 1.. 298. First published in Ebeling. Unv. 339. Wie schön ists doch. and omitting stanzas III-V. 2d Series. Kelly. Miss Winkworth in her Lyra Ger. p. no. 537. thence in Wackernagel: no. p. S. no. III. VIII. no. Will now my God with gladness bless. Bachmann: no. 108. And all His mercies tell. I who so oft in deep distress And bitter grief must dwell. English Versions: 1. 1666.] Founded on Psalm CXXVIII. 282. Herr Jesu Christ." appeared as no. While of Thy Holy Name I sing. 95.--(Goed. Miss Winkworth. 2. The translation omits Gerhardt's stanzas II. etc. 85 . no. 1867. Ich. in 8 stanzas of 12 lines. 4. 1. IX. Oh Jesus Christ! how bright and fair. 168 in Holy Song. 1867. First published in Ebeling. repeated altered. 680. Who doest all things well. Berlin G. . The daylight disappeareth.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt English Version: 78 1. 3. 302. no. der ich oft in tiefes Leid. no. Stanza 1 of a complete translation by J. XI.) Based on Psalm CXLV.

40. Full of wisdom. 1869. 4. 26 beginning with the translation of stanza XIII. Full of wonder. voller Kunst. p. full of art. p. Full of wonder. H. full of skill.) [Christmas. 55. Selected Stanza: Dr. 215. 1666. 1880.. In full by J. 1836. p. English Versions: 1. 215. 1867. Full of wonder. 4.) 79 [Holy Matrimony. 1. English Version: 1. 14. 5. 26: no. full of skill. 1856. 4.] First published in Ebeling. Dr. 302. p. thence in Wackernagel: no. 312. Full of wonder. 2.--(Goed. und laszt uns Christum ehren. Full of wonder. J. Mills. 1845. 304. 1667. in her translation of Wildenhahn's Paul Gerhardt.] First published in Ebeling. Kelly. in 17 stanzas. 52. in 18 stanzas of 4 lines. Stanley Carr. Kelly.--(Goed. 310. Full of comfort and delight. Behold! Behold! what wonders here. Mills in his Horae Germanicae. 1867. Full of mercy and good will. Miss Winkworth in her Christian Singers of Germany. p. Mrs. as no. full of might." Kommt. 1856.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Voller Wunder. H. The hymn is often used in Germany at marriages. full of art. Bachmann: no. Schaut! Schaut! was ist für Wunder dar?--(Goed. "It is a time of joy today. full of skill. no. ed. 3. 109.) [Christmas.] 86 . 25.-Full of wonder--once again-Is of love the marriage chain. From this 12 stanzas were included in the Ohio Lutheran Hyl. no.

: 1851.) Based on Psalm XC.--(Goed. 56. English Version: 1. It appeared in Ebeling.. Bachmann: no.) Contributed by Rev. Of all things the beginning. no. 2. 15. A full and good translation by R. no.] Herr Gott. Luke.) Based on Chap. p. 1861.] [Composite. And Thou existence hadst before Was laid the earth's foundation! Ere yet the hills began to be Thou livedst in eternity. English Version: 87 . 1667. 110. 6. 68. where Kelly offers the feeble Latin derivatives for the virile "Die Zuflucht deiner Heerde" and "Grund. 96. 84. Lord God! Thou art forevermore Thy people's habitation. du bist ja für und für. 319. Miss Manington. Unv. Bk. Kelly. T. 90. 312. 25. no. 1941. unite in praise and singing. (Omitting stanzas VI. 1872. 5. ff. 43. 1667. Come. II. no. repeated in Snepp's Songs of Grace and Glory." Johannes sahe durch Gesicht. 7. S. of Revelations. First published in Ebeling. Kelly. 1867. Bring to Christ your best oblation. [5. 1864. Come. in 8 stanzas of 4 lines. Stanza 1 of a complete translation by J. 1864. 6. Witness the second and fourth lines above. and Christ the Lord be praising. 9. L. p. J. Russell to Maurice's Choral H. Come and let us Christ revere now. The Lutheran Hymnal. It appeared in Ebeling. 707. Massie in his Lyra Domestica. p.--(Goed. VII. your hearts and voices raising. In this version the translator has lost much of the poetry and spirit not only of Gerhardt but of the ninetieth Psalm on which Gerhardt's poem is based. 4. 315. VII. p. A.. English Versions: 80 1. thence in Wackernagel: no. p. 1867. and Reid's Praise Bk. 3. Come.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Founded on St. 1667. 24.

First published in Ebeling. is throughout more moderate in tone and does not reflect the utter self-abnegation of Gerhardt.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 1. 2. thence in Wackernagel: 1843. On heav'nly plain victorious.) Appeared in Ebeling. p. p. Miss Manington. . English Versions:155 1.] Founded on Job. Their heart and mood Were full of good. 301. 1859. 155 88 . no. 118 (1847. L. 1667. no.: 1863. A full and spirited translation by J. 779 in Kennedy. Kelly. 10. Kelly. 347. 1863. 259. III.) [Easter. The English version by J. For adaptations from this hymn cf. VII-IX were included. . By John was seen a wondrous sight. Berlin G. 8. no.       A noble light. . so high 'tis o'er us. His translation of stanzas I. in 9 stanzas of 7 lines. p. Wie ist es müglich. That mortal man With gold ne'er can Procure. Oxenford. I know that my Redeemer lives. 2 ff. 96. 135 ff. and fear banish? Ich weisz. 78. no. p. 154 This is almost the only poem in which Gerhardt has not employed his characteristic alliteration or assonance. 25-27. altered as no. 1867. p. S. 1863. I know that my Redeemer lives.--(Goed. 119. dasz mein Erlöser lebt--(Goed. 119. On these characteristics cf. This hope. That my poor feeble flesh and blood Can summon a courageous mood To meet Thee. 331.154 Stanza 1. or introduced "Friede" or "Freude" words. p. 1867. Bachmann: no. 324. 122. höchstes Licht. 81 Stanza 1 of a complete translation by J. my highest Light! That as before Thy face so bright All things must pale and vanish. In this my faith is fast. 123). How can it be. A picture very glorious: A multitude stood 'fore him there All bright and fair. in Lays of the Sanctuary. XIX.

and also in later editions with alterations. 3. 22. N. 1801. A translation in full.. S. Bk. A good translation of stanzas I. 77. II.] First published in Crü. the Gospel for the first Sunday in Advent. for England. Cf.) "We go to meet Thee. and the People's H. 1874. and Hys. 1872. C. V. 1863. 1872. The hymn is founded on St. T. Savior" (stanza I altered). VII. VI. by Miss Winkworth. 1864. Other forms are: (a. 1876. Stanzas 1. 1801. 1653. Altered forms have appeared in other hymnals. 4.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt From the foregoing statements it is evident that even of Gerhardt's less well-known hymns there has been a comparatively large representation in English and American hymnals. 4. It is inferable from stanzas VI-IX that the poem was written during the Thirty Years' War. and G. in Walker's Collection. in 10 stanzas of 8 lines. Included in the Moravian Hymn Book. 21. of Mercer's C. by J. 1860. 1851.: 1851. in her C. (b. 3.. and is probably the best German Advent hymn.. VIII.. Russell's version and stanzas 3. VIII. Jacobi. The entire first stanza has been set to music by Bach in the Weihnachtsoratorium. 1-9. 89 . are based on A. p. from the Moravian H. Oh. 1801. how shall I receive Thee.. Part I. Koch IV. no. How shall I meet my Savior. thence in Wackernagel: no. in his Psalmodia Germanica.) [Advent. In the 1857 ed. and Snepp's Songs of G. Matthew XXI. no. VI). Repeated in Kennedy. 3 (1732. N. X. Y. 119 ff. Varying centos of this version are found in Montgomery's Christian Psalmist. Bk. Pagenstecher's Collections. I shall discuss the individual merits of the different versions and compare their relative values as interpretations of the originals. and Songs of Praise.. Unv. 36. by A. Ah! Lord. as altered in the Moravian H. 2. 1863. 722. and abridged in J. 1855. X.--(Goed. 25. 1825. Bachmann: no. A translation of stanzas I.. L. Y. B. how shall I meet thee. T. Bk. Porter's Collection. slightly altered). Bk. 82 Wie soll ich dich empfangen. 1884. and Bishop Ryle's Collection. H. in Reid's Praise Book.--Runge. English Versions: 1. P. 21. Russell in his Ps. Oh! how shall I receive Thee.) "Love caused Thine Incarnation" (stanza V altered). etc. Laudes Domini. and H. V. 5 (Gerhardt's IV. L. no. are based on Jacobi. 1754. that making the treatment more detailed. no. Dr. The ten hymns which follow are so widely known through the excellent versions of Miss Winkworth and others.. II. 2. It is one of Gerhardt's finest productions. 1867. mainly from the Moravian H.

6. and his own Breaking Crucible. 1867. 1863. p. 10. and his Christ in Song." In this effort as well as in the case of "Befiehl du deine Wege" Jacobi has left out so much. 20. Alexander. Miss Winkworth. 1850. repeated. 83 R. W. J. p. Miss Manington.. also the translator creates an unpleasant impression by abruptly changing from the third person in the opening line to the second person in the next line. the diction of stanza two is particularly strange. A Version of this Kind lies under various Disadvantages. 90 . known only to those. how shall I receive Thee. Lord. In full by J. 9. How shall I meet Thee? How my heart. 65. would be quite bewildering if we did not have at hand the German which is so forceful in its very simplicity: Mein Herze soll dir grünen In stetem Lob und Preis. in Schaff's Kirchenfreund. 96 and note. 176. who in any degree are acquainted with any Poetical Translations of this Kind. The first hymn in the Psalmodia Germanica156 of Jacobi (1722) is a translation of Luther's "Nun kommt der Heiden Heiland" ("Now the Savior comes indeed"). p. 1869. p. The second place in the book is given to Gerhardt's "Wie soll ich dich empfangen" which is translated as " How shall I meet my Savior. Bishop Ryle has altered the last quatrain to this form: I wait for Thy salvation. in the Ohio Luth. 1880. 1861. Hyl. 7. Lord. that may happen to use it. Say with what salutations. Massie. 156 Cf. 1855. p. Again. Kelly. how shall I be meeting. How shall I come to meet Thee. The effect Gerhardt produces in the first line by the use of the direct form of address is entirely lost by Jacobi. 8. 93. 11. p. 1864. and incorporated so many ideas of his own which are at variance with Gerhardt's theme that it is difficult to recognize its kinship with the original. 7. I'll raise with all my Powers More Notes than Unison. p." In a rather quaint preface Jacobi writes: "The present Specimen hopes for a charitable Allowance from those. at least to modern readers.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 5. when it appears in another Language. Thus will my preparation Be pleasing in Thy sight. Grant me Thy Spirit's light. A great Deal is lost of the Life and Spirit of an Hymn. abridged. p.

Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt It is plain that Jacobi had not much appreciation of the spirit of Gerhardt. Even the alliteration and repetition for emphasis of which Gerhardt is so fond find in her poem at least a partially corresponding place: In heavy bonds I languished long (1855. 91 . repetition for emphasis. 10) is given in most American hymnals. 5) And labor longer thus (1855. 2 f. for the distinctive touches of alliteration." "Nun ruhen alle Wälder. 2. (stanza 5) It is apt renderings like these that have won for Gerhardt a place in English hymnody. 8. And guide us on our way To yon fair mansion in the skies Of joyous cloudless day. p. stanza 3. Her anthem shall prepare. but. In fact the impression he leaves is almost one of gloom! Contrast with this the translation by A. 157 Cf. stanza 6. the prevailing note of joy and peace accompanying the Savior's advent are certainly not adequately reproduced. As Miss Winkworth was so thoroughly at home in the German she was able to reproduce a surprising number of details. 7. 2) The original has been characterized as the best German Advent hymn and Miss Winkworth has transfused it in her earlier version undiminished into her own language so that it reads like an original poem. 1) This weary world and all her woe (1855. stanza 4. a cento of which (stanzas 1." and for this Advent hymn. The earlier version (1855) of the Advent hymn omits only the third stanza ("Was hast du unterlassen"). Of the 20 hymns of Gerhardt which Miss Winkworth translated there are three for which she has made two renderings: "O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden. Russell. The later one (1863) is written in the original metre for church use to be sung to the traditional melody "Wie soll ich dich empfangen" by Johann Crüger157 (1653) and contains but six stanzas. Her final quatrain is worthy of Gerhardt: O Sun of Righteousness! arise. (stanza 10) it is uninspired and lacking in fervor. excepting such lines as: My heart shall blossom ever O'erflow with praises new (stanza 2) and O come Thou Sun and lead us To everlasting light. (stanza 2) and That in the light eternal our Joyous home may be. Kelly's rendering (1867) is characteristically accurate. Far more cheerful and more appropriate for the Advent season than anything in Jacobi are such lines as: 84 My heart to praise awaking. T.

Jacobi. My soul in praise (*My heart to praise) awaking. my sole delight! Kindle the lamp. give me Now by thine (*Thy) own pure light. Russell. The children of His Father.) 3. Stanza 1. With (*and) branches fresh and fair. Ye who with guilty terror Are trembling.) Omitted. How shall I meet Thee? How my heart Receive her Lord aright? Desire of all the earth Thou art! My hope. fear no more: With love and grace the Savior Shall you to hope restore. And (*I) to Thy Name the service Of all my powers I (*will) bring. 92 . 2. 1863. Thy Zion (*Sion) palms is strewing. 1722. Her anthem shall prepare. 116. (*3. in Psalmodia Germanica. Thou Lord. 1855. How meet Thee on Thy way. My soul's delight and stay? O Jesus *(Jesu). The heirs of life and grace. Perpetual thanks and praises Forth from my heart shall spring. O how shall I receive Thee. alone. And make Thy gracious pleasure known How I may greet Thee best. To know whate'er is pleasing And welcome in Thy sight."158 I How shall I meet my Savior? How shall I welcome Thee? What manner of Behavior Is now requir'd of me? Lord. 86 Miss Winkworth. 158 159 Cf. That this my Preparation Be pleasing in thy Sight.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Selected Stanzas: 85 C. in his Psalms and Hymns. This altered cento of three stanzas is the one usually given in American hymn books. T. To the Tune: "COMMIT THY WAYS AND GOINGS. An asterisk placed before the word indicates the form in the original. Miss Winkworth. Half-dying in my breast. p. He comes. who contrite sinners Will (*shall) with the children place. A. in her Chorale Book. Jesus *(Jesu). (*5. in her Lyra Germanica.) (*4. Blest hope of every nation.159 1.) (Omitted. 1851. thine Illumination Set Heart and Hands aright.

160 The Latin original follows: DE PASSIONE DOMINI: AD FACIEM. 49. Mors apparet in aspectu. Ah! Lord. 3. O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden. 1. Attritus aegra macie. Totum spinis coronatum." which is part VII of the "Rhythmica Oratio. 40 and note. Bernard of Clairvaux.--(Goed. my sole delight! Brighten the lamp that burneth But dimly in my breast. Omnis vigor atque viror Hinc recessit. Non me reum asperneris. Totus pendens in defectu. Immutatus et incultus Immutavit suum florem Totus versus in pallorem       Quem coeli tremit curia. pastor bone. Cuius sumpsi mel ex ore. 2. Arundine sic verberatum Facie sputis illita Salve. Nec indignum dedigneris Morte tibi iam vicina Tuum caput hic acclina. vulneratum. sic despectus Propter me sic interfectus. Peccatori tam indigno Cum amoris intersigno       Appare clara facie.] A beautiful but very free translation of the "Salve Caput Cruentatum. caput cruentatum. Conquassatum. that yearneth To honour such high guest. How welcome Thee aright? All nations long to greet Thee My hope. cuius dulcis vultus. 87 160 Cf. Sic affectus. And teach my soul. ascribed to St. p. how shall I meet Thee.       In meis pausa brachiis.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Stanza 1. Salve. In hac tua passione Me agnosce.) [Passiontide." 1153. 93 . non admiror. Haustum lactis ex dulcore Prae omnibus deliciis.

Gerhardt's version appeared in the 1656 ed. in Some other Hymns and Poems. pie Deus. L. The story is told that a Roman Catholic from Bohemia on hearing this hymn sung in a Protestant church was so overpowered that he shed tears of joy. knowledge. Koch. 163. Bachmann: no. O amator amplectende. In hac cruce tecum mori Praesta crucis amatori. O Head so full of bruises. Frederick William I. Book. Scriptural. Jesu care. of Crü." The melody to which the hymn is sung. and to Luther's words on the death of his daughter Magdalen "Who thus dies. IV. Qui es clemens. by J. 1754. as redrawn from the deeper spring of evangelical Lutheran. London. Noli mihi tune deesse. Kübler: Historical notes to the Lyra Germanica. Lauxmann thus characterizes it: "Bernard's original is powerful and searching. a new translation of stanza IX was substituted for Gambold's version.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 4.       Tuere me et libera. 12. 54. in 10 stanzas of 8 lines. ordered in his will that at his funeral this hymn should be played by the band. Jesu care. 47. 22. absque mora.. 1752. Tuae sanctae passioni Me gauderem interponi. 5. Dum me mori est necesse. for he saw clearer than ever his own sin and the Savior's grace." Nürnberg." first appeared in Hans Leo Hassler's "Lustgarten. no. Gambold. his translation of stanza IX "When I shall gain permission" being given as a separate hymn. The English versions are many. Quum me jubes emigrare. set to a love song. In Koch VIII. For other incidents connected with this hymn cf. Th. 1. and he became from that time a true evangelical Christian. 47. Praxis. dies well." The hymn has often been signally blessed. VIII. 1865. King of Prussia from 1713 to 1740. he understood better than ever the secret of justification by faith alone. S. pt. 222 (1789 greatly altered). p. In tremenda mortis hora Veni. and fervency of faith. In the 1789 ed. usually called "Passion Chorale. 156. but Gerhardt's hymn is still more powerful and profound. no." 88 Stanza X Lauxmann traces not only to Bernard but to stanza II of "Valet Will ich dir geben" of Herberger. In full. Jesu. London. Repeated in the Moravian H.: 1851. no. Centos of the above version are: 94 . Unv. thence in Wackernagel: no. Ut absque te non finiar. Temet ipsum tune ostende In cruce salutifera. 1601. Cf. Fac quod petit tuns reus. 109. the father of Frederick the Great. Morti tuae iam amarae Grates ago.       Sub cruce tua moriar. beginning "Mein G'müth ist mir verwirret. tune appare. and of some of the versions there are several centos: 1.

d.. "O Sacred Head! once wounded" (stanza I altered). were first published in the Christian Lyre. "I yield Thee thanks unfeigned" (based on Gambold's version of stanza IX) in E. 4. 14. b. 1864.. H. c. 1876. no. 1871. Ah wounded Head! must Thou. 1872.161 In his note Dr. A good translation by R. the Lutheran. 1857. II. Wilson's Series of Praise. in Schaff's Christ in Song. Y. IV. c. 1866. Ah wounded Head. N.[ 95 . W. so pierced and wounded" in Dr. and wounded. S. "O blessed Christ. and Hys. some of which follow: a. "O Head. Alexander for Schaff's Deutscher Kirchenfreund. Y. 1864. omitting stanza VI. that bearest. Book.. in his Lyra Domestica. Hatfield's Church H. J. U. 80. for England. Alexander's version has passed into very many English and American hymnals. in Dr. in Scottish Presb. 1861. Miss Winkworth in her Lyra Ger.. The full text is in Dr. were added by Dr. e. g. Porter's Collection. #172. 1878. 1855. omitting stanza VI. and in the name of three Confessions--the Catholic. no. 91. p. Oh! bleeding head.. 1941. Thou pierced and wounded brow. Bk. 1863. 1863.. and from the German into the English. and the Reformed--with equal effect. 1860. in J. Thomas's Augustine H." People's H. p. and proclaiming in three tongues. 1864. line 5. 1830. A. Miss Dunn. VII-X. in The Lutheran Hymnal. p. etc.. sore wounded" (stanza I altered). 1867. These stanzas were revised. and in Kennedy. 136. and translations of stanzas III. 161 [Alt. Ps. p. in her C. 1865. 7. 7.. "O Christ! what consolation" in the Amer.. Schaff says: "This classical hymn has shown an imperishable vitality in passing from the Latin into the German. J." Dr. 1858. Bickersteth's Christian Psalmody." appears in J. L. Boston. 1867. "O Sacred Head. VI. the dying love of our Savior and our boundless indebtedness to Him. Hyl. 1871. This version was abridged in Mercer's Oxford edition. Hymns and Songs of Praise. d. 39.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt a. His translations of stanzas I. b. "I give Thee thanks unfeigned" in Bishop Ryle's Collection. in the Ibrox Hymnal. A cento of this beginning with stanza VIII. Massie. in the Stoke Hymn Book. 1849. 6. N. N. B. once wounded" (stanza I altered). 59. Bapt. "O Lamb of God. so wounded" (stanza I altered). 1874. "O Sacred Head. Y. p. Bk. "O Lamb of God. Bapt. 1876. Pagenstecher's Collection. A very beautiful translation by Dr. O Sacred Head! now wounded. and in very varying centos. 1869. etc. "O sacred Head. 1833. 5. p. and the Cantate Domino. Kelly. Hymnary. now wounded. 51. once wounded" (stanza I altered). H. Alexander's Breaking Crucible. 3.. Ah! Head. Alexander. 1850. 89 f. sore wounded" (stanza I altered). 2. Miss Winkworth. "Oh! that Thy cross may ever. 1872. so pierced and wounded.

The quatrain cited above appears in Reid as follows: And oh! what consolation Doth in our hearts take place. Mein Heil. 92. translated by Samuel M. Cf. Her two renderings of this hymn 162 163 164 Cf. Warm ich in deinem Leiden. 9. A good translation omitting stanzas II. Baker of stanzas I. V. 1873. 10. An English writer who faithfully transplanted Germany's best hymns and made them bloom with fresh beauty in their new gardens was Catherine Winkworth. VII. Gambold has made no effort to do more than reproduce in doggerel the main ideas of the original without even attempting to gloss over the indelicate expressions which Gerhardt introduced from the Latin of Bernard. The "facie sputis illita" which in Gerhardt is modified to "Wie bist du so bespeit" (line 12) is given by Gambold with extreme literalness. of Religious Poetry. W. His style becomes often ridiculous if indeed not wholly flippant when he attempts to imitate Gerhardt's familiarity163 in addressing the Savior. p. The earliest known English translation of Gerhardt's Passiontide hymn is that of J. in the Schaff-Gilman Lib. that in Reid's Praise Book (1872) will show how changes were made to suit the more refined taste of the century following the early Moravian period. Witness the first quatrain of stanza 7: 90 It gives me solid pleasure My heart does not recoil When I dive in some measure Into thy Pangs and Toil. This version is among those that adhere most closely to the original. Oh. blood-stained and wounded. but it is also obvious that more recent hymnals should have made drastic alterations and judicious omissions. Jackson. Cf. 1880. of Religious Poetry. p. III. III. lines 49-52: Es dient zu meiner Freuden Und kömmt mir herzlich wol. When we Thy toil and passion Can joyfully retrace. by Miss Margarete Münsterberg in her Harvest of German Verse. wounded head and bleeding. 18. Gambold. IX. published in 1752. O Head. Of the centos adapted from Gambold's unpolished verses.164 It is easy to understand why this hymn should be printed in full in the crude Morazian Hymn Book of 1754 and even in later editions. O sacred Head. and X. mich finden soll. In the Schaff-Gilman Lib. 1916.162 It is written in his characteristic vein.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 8. 96 . at the same time showing traces of the Latin of Bernard. surrounded       By crown of piercing thorn! A translation in 3 stanzas by Sir H.

however. p. This. It would be difficult to judge between the two versions as to which the more successfully retains the force of the German. 97 . A comparison of the first quatrains of the two versions of the final stanza illustrates this: 1855. Winkworth. also on "a" in line 4. The music to which the hymn is usually sung is the original melody for the hymn "Herzlich tut mich verlangen"165 and was. 1563-1650. Jackson. then. my Defender. the stress would fall upon "tortured"166 in line 2 and. 1863." The earlier one (1855) does not preserve the metre of the original. Stanza 3. Cf. of Jackson. and an English translator would not ordinarily refer to the original of Bernard. (Version for church singing. as has been stated. 94. Aside from this feature. In general it may be said that the earlier version with the expanded third and seventh lines follows more closely the fervent thought of Gerhardt. would not be selected as a satisfactory version for church singing. Cf. p. My comfort and my shield. Then gazing on Thy cross can I Calmly my spirit yield. Stanza 3. 87. for example. Such lines as "Death triumphs in his pallour"167 and "The pallor of the dead"168 are 165 166 167 168 By Cristoph Knoll. 91 Of the twenty or more forms in which this hymn is familiar to English and American readers that of Dr. In both versions she has omitted stanza VI beginning "Ich will hie bei dir stehen. the flow of Gerhardt's language is more successfully imitated and the deep fervor of the German more effectively brought forth in Alexander's hymn than in any of the other translations unless we except the earlier one of Miss Winkworth. Alexander's version is without question the one which best suits the cadence of this melody.   1863. line 7. while the later one (1863) was written for her Chorale Book with the accompanying melody. While Gerhardt's hymn is more searching and profound than its Latin prototype. In the version. though thoroughly suitable for the expression of the awfulness of Christ's passion. as the music repeats for the third and fourth lines. 1873. line 4. still there seem to be in the phraseology of the Jackson and Winkworth translations evidences that these authors were at least familiar with it.) Come to me ere I die. Appear then.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt are well adapted to awaken responsive feelings in Christian readers. as the English can rarely be expressed as concisely as the German. written for a secular song. an effect made possible in the longer stanza. My Comfort. ere I die This life I can surrender If I but see Thee nigh. The reason is not far to seek. Alexander has found most general acceptance for church use.

"171 A short paraphrase by Sir H. 98 . 169 170 171 172 Line 9. and for no apparent reason changes the order of the others. Line 26. (stanza 2) follows the idea in Peccatori tam indigno Cum amoris intersigno Appare clara facie. although he omits the first four stanzas entirely. 86. Winkworth.172 In 1860 Bishop Ryle selected and arranged Three hundred and sixty-six Hymns and Spiritual Songs--a song for every day in the year. p. Oh turn thy face to me. W. With thy most sweet compassion. His first quatrain of Gerhardt's stanza VII is almost identical with that given in Reid's Praise Book as an alteration of the old Gambold version. What heavenly consolation Doth in my heart take place. Bernard. Stanza 4. with the idea of the word "indigno" above brought into these later lines: In this thy bitter passion. 1863. pastor bone. p. 87. (lines 9. When I Thy toil and passion Can in some measure trace. line 8. 8: Yet angel hosts adore thee And tremble as they gaze are evidently suggested by: Totus versus in pallorem Quem coeli tremit curia.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt quite suggestive of the Latin: "Totus versus in pallorem". In hac tua passione Me agnosce. Baker contains several ideas taken from the Latin which Gerhardt has omitted. Bernard. Good Shepherd. 10) and O Love to sinners free! Jesu all grace supplying. 22. Lines 21. think of me. Unworthy though I be. (lines 18-20) 92 The same is true in the first quatrain of Baker's stanza 3. arranging them as follows: Ryle: Gerhardt: 1 VIII 2 VI 3 VII 4 V 5 IX 6 X.169 and "Redeemer spurn me not"170 of the Latin "Non me reum asperneris. His 166th poem is a cento of this Passiontide hymn and is assuredly deserving of mention. Stanza 1 lines 7.

in Some other Hymns and Poems. here I fall. With grief and shame bow'd down. now wounded. Lo. Thy only crown. though despised and gory. The joy can ne'er be spoken. Thy pity without end? O make me Thine for ever. e'er now surrounded With brightest Majesty. Thou Countenance transcendent. O Sacred Head. VIII. Now scornfully surrounded. Look on me with Thy favour. Thy dying sorrow. 1752. of Religious Poetry. Alexander. what glory What bliss till now was Thine Yet. O Head so full of bruises. And should I fainting be. 4.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Selected Stanzas: J. Lord of my life desiring Thy glory now to see. hast suffered. 1. With thorns. 99 . What language shall I borrow (Gerh. Lord let me never. O Sacred Head.) To thank Thee. my Savior: 'Tis I deserve Thy place. For this. Gambold. At other times rever'd By Worlds on thee dependent With Spittle now besmeared!           etc. dearest Friend. IV. never Outlive my love for Thee.) Was all for sinner's gain: Mine. my Lord. Beside Thy cross expiring I'd breathe my soul to Thee. (Gerh. Vouchsafe to me Thy grace. What Thou. 1. Now pitiably Wounded! Accept a kiss from me. 'Midst other sore Abuses Mock'd with a crown of Thorn! O head. J. 3. I joy to call Thee mine. (Gerh. W. 2. When in Thy body broken I thus with safety hide. So full of pain and scorn. VII. in the Schaff-Gilman Lib.) Above all joys beside. mine was the transgression But Thine the deadly pain. 93 2. 1849.

For he. Thou who wast crown'd on high With light and majesty. 1. Lord. J. 1867. From Jesus shall not move.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 5. Grant to lean unshaken Upon Thy faithfulness. In death once bow'd and wounded. in his Paul Gerhardt's Spiritual Songs. I give Thee thanks unfeigned. Mock'd with a crown of thorn! O Head! ere now surrounded With brightest majesty. 94 1. Yet here I welcome Thee! Miss Winkworth. 1855. who dies believing. 1860. (Gerh. Until I hence am taken To see Thee face to face. Kelly. Ah wounded Head! must Thou Endure such shame and scorn! The blood is trickling from Thy brow Pierced by the crown of thorn. 1.) For what Thy soul sustained When Thou for me didst bleed. 1. Come. O Head! so full of bruises. 1863. In deep dishonor here must die. Cento from J. Miss Winkworth. Dies safely through Thy love. Yet bruised and spit upon! . Be near me when I'm dying. . X. Dishonored here Thou diest. . in Reid's Praise Book. These eyes new faith receiving. Thou countenance transcendent. That now so meekly wearest The mocking crown of thorn! Erst reigning in the highest In light and majesty. in his Spiritual Songs. etc. and set me free. 1866. in her Lyra Germanica. in her Chorale Book. 100 . stanza VIII. (Gerh. Gambold's version. Thou life-creating Sun To worlds on Thee dependent. So full of pain and scorn. Midst other sore abuses. A cento by J. 1st Series. Yet here I worship Thee. Ryle. C. Accursed on a tree! 2. Friend in need. Ah wounded Head that bearest Such bitter shame and scorn.) O show Thy Cross to me: And to my succour flying. O Jesus.

The glow of life decays. 101 . and soon passed into universal use. Now tortured so and hated. 1. blood stained and wounded. By pain and scorn bowed down! Oh head. 59. thence in Wackernagel: no. no. Miss Margarete Münsterberg. English Versions: 1. in Schaff-Gilman Lib. 1.) [Morning. My Soul. Jackson. 1653. O Sacred Head. This is one of the finest and most popular of German morning hymns. And full of pain and scorn. mein Herz! und singe. But now so deeply scorned. of Religious Poetry. L. S. M. 1863. stanza VIII being best known. Koch. It was repeated in Crü--Runge. Reviled and put to scorn! Death's pallid hue comes o'er Thee. 1873. wounded head and bleeding. All hail I bid to Thee! S. 595 ff. I greet and worship Thee! Wach auf. and also in the Berlin G. W. Tortured by pain and scorn! O Head in jest surrounded By a rude crown of thorn! O Head. 1648. IV. To thee I lift my praise! 1. in her Harvest of German Verse. 1916. once decorated With honors gloriously. Oh. Baker in Schaff-Gilman Lib. O Head. Yet angel-hosts adore thee And tremble as they gaze.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 1.: ed. awake and tender. 1890. Bound with a thorny crown! Oh head. 1. Praxis. once rich adorned With highest laud and lays. Bachmann: no. 1.--(Goed. no. the gibes unheeding. 95 Sir H. 1. 1132. in 10 stanzas of four lines. 99. of Religious Poetry.] Appeared in Crü. no. Cf. Insulted now and scornèd. surrounded By crown of piercing thorn! O bleeding Head so wounded. Oh! bleeding head and wounded. In mockery surrounded With cruel crown of thorn! O Head! before adornèd With grace and majesty.

2). In spite of Hell and Devil. 1842. The other two are "Befiehl du deine Wege" and "Wie soll ich dich empfangen?" The Psalmodia Germanica is a collection of 60 hymns from the German. my heart. 2. my Soul. 1754." the idea of such an animal in the verse: Nay.. J. Thy Thanks. Such alterations of the original. p. E. and accounted for only by saying that the translator probably regarded this as one of the methods of "resolving all the jarring Discords of Self-love into the heavenly Concords of Mutual Love and Affection. just why in this instance the translator has chosen to add to the text. Concluding lines of Jacobi's preface to his Psalmodia Germanica. My presence shall release Thee From frightful Pain and Evil. The eighteenth century English versions of German hymns invariably abound in extravagant figures. 276. Wake. mein Herz. 1870. X. 5. 4. being from I. 104)." stanzas 1. p. 4. der dich betriege! Schlaf wol. L. I of the Moravian H. Possibly to his own mind that creature was more terrifying than Satan himself. where no mention is made of a "lion.. Massie. 1867. p. In the Moravian H. Kelly. lasz dir nicht grauen. Du sollt die Sonne schauen. be easy. und singe." As this song of trust is one of Gerhardt's oldest pieces and may be said to set the key for all the later hymns. it is appropriate that Jacobi should find for it a place in his very limited selection. The third174 hymn of Gerhardt which Jacobi included in his Psalmodia Germanica175 is "Wach auf. 1789 and 1886. Still less pardonable is the distortion in stanza IV: Du sprachst: Mein Kind. 3. be raising. in his Psalmodia Germanica. Frothingham. VI (lines 1.   Trotz dem. by J. p. Buckoll. can be justified on no ground whatever. 28. 4). my heart. 1867. VIII. is difficult to explain. 96 173 J. 33 (1722. Wake up. my heart..Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt In full. elater. Awake."176 The singularly inapt paraphrase of the couplet in stanza 3 Thy gracious Condescension. we shall never be worthy to hear the glorious Anthems of the Seraphic Quire above. Has crossed his sore Intention 173 174 175 176 alt. 192. always with the idea of bringing a more terrible picture to the mind of the reader. 1720. when that Lyon's Fury. The Lutheran Hymnal. N. and sing His praises. C. 1941. it begins "My soul awake and render. nun liege Thou saidst: my Child. 102 . Bk. p. repeated in pt. 1722. 5. If this be not effected here below. Jacobi. 2. be singing. Bk. H. V (lines 3.

II. although there is in the German no suggestion whatever of Satan or his deeds. and strophe 8 is particularly well done in that it has so large a predominance of Anglo-Saxon words: So wollst du nun vollenden Thou wilt. just as in stanza 4 above. C. I. Today his care will make me. when lying senseless. after the pleasing opening lines. 97 Another characteristic of the English versions of this period is the emphasizing of the tortures of Hell and the Devil. in his Psalmodia Germanica. we are not surprised to read in stanza 8: From Satan's woeful doings. 1867. Last Night. Soul. Selected Stanzas: J. Nor Body. causes something of a shock by its abrupt descent to the grotesque: Thy Bliss be my Salvation. and tender To God. Similarly. I was in greatest Danger From Darkness and its Ranger. Jacobi. the concluding stanza.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt appears to slightly better advantage in stanza 7: In gracious Condescension Despise not my Intention. The line: The sunlight shall delight thee. Thy work in me and sending Who in his hands will take me. thy great Defender Thy Prayer and Thanksgiving. nor Spirit Can boast of any Merit. Because thou art still living. Till thou destroy'st what's Hellish. O Lord! be ending   Dein Werk an mir und senden Der mich an diesern Tage Auf seinen Händen trage. 1722. takes on a new significance when compared with Du sollt die Sonne schauen. Thy Word my Food and Relish. John Kelly. My Heart thy Habitation. My Soul awake. And utterly defenceless. Except for the imperfect rhymes in most of his stanzas Kelly's version is unusually good both as a scrupulously faithful rendering and a successful attempt to keep the simple language and reproduce the characteristic touches of Gerhardt. 98 103 . in his Paul Gerhardt's Spiritual Songs.

A little way distant. Praxis. at the foot of a mountain. quaeque aspera dumis Rura tenent. 194. 177 Cf.--(Goed. 102. S. III. or children in the fields on their homeward way. et corda oblita laborum). Cf. 2338. on the 14th of September. et placidum carpebant fessa soporem Corpora per terras. pecudes pictaeque volucres. 1648. Nun ruhen alle Wälder. cum medio volvuntur sidera lapsu. L. Unv. II. 1796. no. plundered and killed the inhabitants. 1748. a small town of Hesse. after Holy Communion at Herrnhut. in the final "Zugabe" to the Herrnhut Gesangbuch.: 1851. VI. IV. Its childlike simplicity combined with its deep poetical charm has won the hearts of old and young to the present day. 529. Koch. for Gerhardt followed in thus beginning his hymn a much admired passage of Virgil. "Jetzt schlafen weder Wälder. Quaeque lacus late liquidos. As the door burst open and a furious soldier rushed in.) [Evening. 13. she spread her hands over the child and cried: Breit aus die Flügel beide. 15. my heart! be singing. thence in Wackernagel: no. was a small cottage in which a mother sat by the bedside of her sick child.177 But the shallow wit showed how little poetry was then understood. 2. 2." This is a parody on the style of Gerhardt's stanzas I. in 9 stanzas of 6 lines. 522-528: Nox erat. Hearing the noise in the town and seeing the burning houses she locked the door and knelt by the bedside and prayed.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 1. Cum tacet omnis ager." 104 . VIII. and many have laid themselves down for the long sleep of death with this hymn on their lips. Aeneid IV. Bachmann: no. as "Tho' now no creature's sleeping. In the time of Flat Rationalism in Germany the first stanza became the object of much derision. It was translated and included in Part II of the Moravian H. As shades of night spread over Earth as a pall did cover. 60. 607. VII." as no. women. 1754. 99 Among the common people the hymn became an exceeding favorite and was generally used as an evening prayer.] First published in Crü. 1735. Book. no. Of every good the Giver. and burned the whole town. Frequently it has been sung on starry nights by men. This is one of the finest and one of the earliest of Gerhardt's hymns. Praise to thy Maker bringing. Who men protecteth ever. dated "On Aug. somno positae sub nocte silenti (Lenibant curas. A troop of French soldiers entered Lisberg. silvaeque et saeva quierant Aequora. Then Satan sought to have me But God was near to save me. Awake.

9. D. our Guardian. 195. our joy and loving Friend. I of the Moravian H. 1854. Now Woods and Fields are quiet. 11.. 1863. 133. meine Freude. 8. Miss Winkworth.. E. Lo! Man and Beast are sleeping. . Then going outside he stood guard that none of his troop might harm the cottage. to Ger. 1857. 100 Miss Manington. ed. Now hushed are woods and waters. 13. in Schaff's Kirchenfreund. In the Suppl. and lo! the wild soldier suddenly dropped his arm. Bk. 2. 38). Now woods their rest are keeping. A translation of stanza VIII as no. the translations are numerous. p. A full and good translation by Miss Winkworth. 4. Guide and Friend. my soul. included in Cantate Domino. S. L. 1842.. H. Omitting stanza VIII by Mrs. A. 6. Now rest beneath night's shadow. 1754. stepped to the bed. Boston. 1863. p. Quietly rest the woods and dales. 14. S. 1742. A translation of stanza VIII as no. 105 .. Now rest the woods again. 200 in the Appendix of 1743 to the Moravian H. Included in full in her C. 765 in the Moravian H. p. 1855. 1859.. 1853. 156 in pt. Bk. J. . Yeomans. thy vigil keep. Now every greenwood sleepeth. 9. p. Bk. . 1765. and Curwen's Harmonium and Organ Book. 1859. in the Tonic Solfa Reporter. 10. Although in limited use in the English hymn books. (stanza VIII). p. 228. 1789 (1886. Buckoll. as no. and laid his rough hand gently on the child's head. in the 2d ed. as follows: 1. 1874. 36 (1884.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt O Jesu. no. and the Ohio Luth. III. of the 1st Series of her Lyra Ger. A translation of stanzas I. January. Display thy both wings over.. 18 in the Uppingham and Sherborne School H. Hyl. p.. VIII. 1st Series. for England. Jesus. p. 7. 58. Bk.. 1190). p.. A translation of stanza VIII as no. L. J. 1855. 76. Miss Dunn. p. Now resteth all creation. IX. Psal. 3. 226 (see no.. Stallybrass. 1856. p. U. 73. 2 above). B. Findlater. 12. by Edward Thring. in H. Jesu. 5. 1880. Now all the woods are sleeping. Rise. 1863.

and is now familiar to English-speaking peoples through the beautiful translations of Miss Winkworth and Mrs. The duteous day now closeth. Findlater. The one used up to that time was the old and then well-known lay." Gerhardt liked the air. and beast. J. p. Y. In the version which appeared in her Lyra Germanica Miss Winkworth evidently overlooked the fact that line 3 of her first stanza had an extra foot: O'er field and city. 1916. In the Yattendon Hymnal. 179 Breit aus die Flügel beide O Jesu. Und nimm dein Küchlein ein! Will Satan mich verschlingen. 17. For this end he composed "Nun ruhen alle Wälder. 3 ff. 9. N..Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Miss Cox." 178 In Mittenwalde. Both they and Dr. but also God's children in general.178 "O Welt.). and in many districts of Germany is used at the close of the baptismal service to commend the dear little ones to the protection of their Lord Jesus. Kelly. In our hymnals it is usually called "Innsbruck. conductor of the choir of Maximilian I."179 has been a special favorite in Germany. J. Quaint and homely as it is. says of it: "How many a Christian soul. Y. meine Freude. So lasz die Englein singen: Dies Kind soll unverletzet sein. 1913. 1899. there prevailed the custom of playing an evening hymn from the tower." but in German hymn books it is given as "O Welt. Now spread are evening's shadows. Guthrie. 1855. 16. man. 285. Dr. "Innsbruck. and Lauxmann in Koch VIII. Guthrie have successfully imitated the sweetly domestic tone in poems that have soothed many a careworn spirit at the close of day. children mostly. 106 . The woods are hushed. 1863. In the version for church singing printed in her Chorale Book the line is changed to the normal six-syllable iambic measure to admit of its being set to the old German melody. thence in Hymns of the Kingdom of God. o'er town and plain." Gerhardt's stanza VIII. but longed to see it associated with a better and more really evening hymn. p. which was set to it. this hymn has done much to enkindle devotion and strengthen grace among Christian readers in Germany. and the Hymnal of Praise.. 1910. 15. ich musz dich laszen. "Breit aus die Flügel beide. It has often been the last prayer uttered on earth." The melody was originally composed in 1488(?) by Heinrich Isaac." from the first line of the hymn of Johann Hesse. 194. p. The great masters Bach and Mozart are reported to have said that they would gladly give their best works for this single tune. 1864. where Gerhardt had a pastoral charge from 1651-1657 (cf. ich musz dich laszen. does this verse serve as their last 101 evening prayer. 1869. N. ich musz dich laszen.

etc. Interesting and amusing by its grotesqueness is the Moravian version of this stanza. . Cf. But still Thine angels round me sing. Breit aus die flugel (sic) beide. Now hastes the body to repose (19). However a less unpleasant sound than the repeated sibilant which he has used. Shield and Sun! When Satan on my soul would spring.181 and certainly the iambic line is more suited to an English treatment of the theme of rest and repose. which would indeed do justice to Gerhardt. Note this effect in Guthrie's lines: The woods are hushed o'er town and plain (1). O let him never harm me.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Miss Winkworth has successfully caught the truly childlike popular spirit of the stanza in the lines: My Jesus. Matthew XXIII. and ye would not!" 181 182 Line 3 in his stanza is the same length as Gerhardt's.      O Jesu. the same effect in Adelaide Procter's hymn: The shadows of the evening hours Fall from the dark'ning sky Upon the fragrance of the flowers The dews of evening lie.180 printed as a separate hymn in the edition of 1754: Matt. Guthrie has obviously endeavored to imitate by the alliterative. Guthrie's version has in England gained some popularity through the melodious rhythm he has given his lines by not restricting himself to Gerhardt's metre. "O Jerusalem . Savior mild! If devils would disturb 'em. 37. 102 The sound sequence in stanza VIII to which the lines owe some of their popularity Dr. My Savior. My laden eyes to slumber yield182 (31). would suit the English ear better. Let holy angels curb 'em And bid them never touch thy Child. . And let no foe come nigh me. In the rich language in which such hymns were conceived and expressed they possess a force that is not easily retained in a translation especially where as in the present instance there is such an abundance of double rhymes. even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings. 107 . J. XXIII. 180 Founded on St. Dr. Display thy both Wings over Thy Chickens and them cover. stay Thou by me. But would the foe alarm me. how often would I have gathered thy children together. Safe shelter'd by Thy wing. 37.

  When I hear my Lord's command To leave this earth and upward fly. It is interesting to note in the examination of the various English versions of Gerhardt's poetry the treatment which the "homely element" receives from the translator. Findlater: Now the body seeks for rest From its vestments all undrest. and that such similes while appropriately introduced into hymns of the seventeenth century are out of place in nineteenth century hymnody. however. The difficulties in the double rhymes he overcomes by the device of inflectional endings and repetition of pronouns which although at first moderately satisfactory must eventually become monotonous: declining shining sing ye bring ye hasteth divesteth make me o'ertake me tirèd expirèd183 send you defend you. And angels send to guard their home. 183 This rhyme occurs in two successive stanzas. lines 5 and 6. Kelly: To rest the body hasteth Itself of clothes divesteth. is not content with what is in the German but takes the opportunity offered by the extra syllables in his longer line to describe the vestment more explicitly: Now hastes the body to repose Throws off its garments. whose version as a whole would doubtless be considered the best literary production. Findlater has in her version changed the metre of the original for all lines except the third and sixth. 108 . Guthrie. Mrs. The omission of stanza VIII containing the figure of the hen gathering in her chicks is partially justifiable on the ground that the poem is complete without it.   Give to my beloved sleep. The poem under consideration will form a good basis for discussion. in the closing couplet or even the concluding line of each stanza she has more than any other translator reproduced the idea of peaceful repose which was so evidently Gerhardt's intention. Legt ab das Kleid und Schuhe. Almost invariably the translator offers a paraphrase departing more or less widely from the original and effecting a colorless result: Gerhardt writes in stanza IV: Der Leib eilt nun zur Ruhe. Stanza 8. Miss Winkworth renders: 103 The body hastes to slumber These garments now but cumber. On the other hand by this ruthless pruning the distinctive touch that Gerhardt gave the hymn is lost. lines 5 and 6. shoes and hose. Stanza 3.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt As an attempt to translate with scrupulous faithfulness Kelly's version is of some interest. Mrs.

J. Stanza 2. The world is all asleep. and meadows. 1863. Forgets his selfish being For joy of beauty not his own. 1854. o'er town and plain. Thy marvel seeing. our Maker calling. my every sense. man and beast. in her Hymns from the Land of Luther.] 109 .) [Passiontide.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Selected Stanzas: Mrs. Guthrie. And night and stillness creeping O'er (field and) city. my soul. soft slumbers reign: The world has gone to rest. Let us. O'er forests. And man. Miss Winkworth. 1913 (translator's name not given). Awake my powers and sing ye. Give thanks to Him. Now all the woods are sleeping. Thou. The duteous day now closeth. my heart. Stanza 1. Kelly. To prayer awhile betake thee. Stanza 1. Now spread are evening's shadows. 1869. Silence round the hearth prevails. 104 Wake up. awake thee. Each flow'r and tree reposeth. But thou. But thou. in his Sacred Lyrics. Seek thy Father in the skies. And holy vigils with Him keep. in thought arise. Stanza 1. thy Maker's praise commence. And praise thy Maker ere thou rest. Now all the heavenly splendor Breaks forth in starlight tender From myriad worlds unknown. And be that praise thy best. And sleepeth every eye. That your Creator please on high! J. 68. The woods are hushed. as night is falling. In the Hymnal of Praise. 1863. Quietly rest the woods and dales. towns. Shade creeps o'er wild and wood.--(Goed. And pray'r and praises bring ye. Ein Lämmlein geht und trägt die Schuld. in his Paul Gerhardt's Spiritual Songs. O'er man and beast. my soul. Stanza 1. On God. Stanza 1. in her Chorale Book. the Giver good. Findlater.

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Appeared in Crü. Praxis, 1648; thence in Wackernagel: no. 13; Bachmann: no. 7. Lauxmann in Koch VIII, 40, designates it as "the masterpiece of all Passion hymns." It is commonly sung in Germany and was included in the Unv. L. S.: 1851, no. 95, but because of the complexity and variety of figures it has not come into extensive English or American use.

English Versions:
1. A Lamb goes forth: the sins he bears       Of every generation.

A translation of stanzas I and II and part of IV by A. T. Russell in his Psalms and Hymns, 1851.
2. A Lamb goes uncomplaining forth.

Mrs. Charles' translation (combining Gerhardt's stanzas II and III as 2) appears in her Voice of Christian Life in Song, 1858, p. 232. The second part of her version, beginning, "Gate of my heart, fly open wide" (stanza VII), appears in the following: (a) Bishop Ryle's Collection, 1860; (b) Reid's Praise Book, 1872; (c) Christian Hymns, Adelaide, 1872.
3. A Lamb bears all its guilt away       The world thus to deliver.

A full translation by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 49. The Ohio Luth. Hymnal, 1880, reduces it to 4 stanzas.
4. A Lamb goes forth and bears the Guilt       Of all the world together.

J. Gambold, as no. 24, in part III, 1746, of the Moravian H. Book. In part II of the 1754 edition it begins "A Lamb goes forth and on him bears." In the ed. of 1801 it begins "A Lamb went forth," etc. Stanzas V, IX, X, of this version, beginning, "Jesus, I never can forget," are included in E. P. Hood's Our Hymn Book, 1868.
105
5. A Lamb goes forth and bears the Guilt       Of Adam's Generations.

A translation in the Suppl. to Ger. Psal., ed. 1765, and also Select Hymns from Ger. Psal., Tranquebar, 1754.
6. See, bowed beneath a fearful weight.

Miss Dunn, 1857, p. 32.
7. A Holy, Pure and Spotless Lamb.

Miss Cox, in Lyra Messianica, 1864, p. 230, and also in her Hymns from the German, 1864, p. 107.
8. Forth goes a dear devoted Lamb.

Dr. J. Guthrie, in his Sacred Lyrics, 1869, p. 82.
9. Behold a Lamb! so tired and faint.

Mrs. E. J. Carr, in Songs of the Inner Life, 1871. This version appeared also in Reid's Praise Book, 1872, with slight alterations.
10. A Lamb goes forth--for all the dues.

Catharine Macrea, in Reid's Praise Book, 1872, no. 990.

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The unusual figures in this Passion Hymn have prevented its receiving in English-speaking countries the wide popularity attained by "O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden."184 Yet because of its dealing with a theme that appealed so strongly to Gerhardt and its being so characteristic of his piety and simplicity, a glimpse into the treatment accorded it by English translators should not be without interest. With hardly less depth of feeling than in "O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden" but with stranger imagery Gerhardt portrays the passion of Christ and reflects upon its significance, and the comfort the Christian derives from it. The Moravian Hymn Book contains Gambold's translation in Gerhardt's metre of nine of the ten stanzas; the seventh, which abounds in metaphors, he has omitted. Mention has elsewhere185 been made of Gerhardt's familiarity of tone in addressing the Savior. Gambold equals his master in this respect; witness stanza 5:
Whilst I live here, I never shall Forget thy Grace amazing; Our love shall be reciprocal, I also Thee embracing. My heart's Light thou shalt be always, And when it breaks once (as one says) Thou'lt be my Heart thenceforward . . .
106

The figure in the concluding stanza of the bride clothed in purple is rather spoiled by Gambold by the baldness of the couplet:
Thy Blood shall of my Wedding-dress Be then the only splendor.

Nor have we in the German anything to suggest the final lines:
Then will the Mother, who bore me, And nursed me up, my Lamb, for thee, Present me as thy Purchase.

Russell's short version of two stanzas presents an effective paraphrase of the last three lines of Gerhardt's stanza IV:
O süszes Lamm, was soll ich dir Erweisen dafür, dasz du mir Erweisest so viel Gutes?   O Lamb beloved! How shall I Thee Requite for all, thus unto me Such wondrous goodness showing?

Under the title "The sin-bearing Lamb" Dr. Guthrie gives in his Sacred Lyrics perhaps the most readable English translation, as it combines Gerhardt's beautiful piety and spiritual simplicity; it is also unique among translations from the German, in that it introduces more of the direct address than is usual, translators preferring as a rule to render quotations in the indirect form: "Give me," he says, "the wreath of thorn," etc.

184 185

Cf. p. 86 ff. Cf. pp. 18 and 89.

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Stanza 7, which Gambold omitted entirely, is the beginning of a hymn in Reid's Praise Book. It is a cento taken from Mrs. Charles' very free translation (1858) and is cited here to illustrate the liberties often taken by translators. Here, of course, the free paraphrase is reasonably justifiable: STANZA 7. Gerhardt.
Erweitre dich, mein Herzensschrein, Du sollt ein Schatzhaus werden Der Schätze, die viel gröszer sein Als Himmel, Meer und Erden. Weg mit dem Gold Arabia! Weg Calmus, Myrrhen, Casia! Ich hab ein Bessers funden. Mein groszer Schatz, Herr Jesu Christ Ist dieses, was geflossen ist Aus deines Leibes Wunden.   

Mrs. Charles.
Gate of my heart, fly open wide-Shrine of my heart, spread forth; The treasure will in thee abide Greater than heaven and earth: Away with all this poor world's treasures, And all this vain world's tasteless pleasures, My treasure is in heaven; For I have found true riches now, My treasure, Christ, my Lord, art Thou, Thy blood so freely given!

Selected Stanzas:
107

In the Moravian Hymn Book, 1754 ed., part II (author's name not given).
Stanza 1. A Lamb goes forth and on him bears The Guilt and misdemeanour Of all the World, and patient wears The Likeness of a Sinner. Stanza 2. Great King! in ev'ry age confest, Yet never more or greater, Than when thou with thy Wounds wast drest, Could I but praise thee better!

J. Gambold, in the 1754 edition of the Moravian Hymn Book.
Stanza 1. A Lamb goes forth, and bears the guilt Of all the world together, Most patiently by his Blood spilt To pay for ev'ry Debtor; Sickness and toil he on him took, Went freely to the Slaughter-block All comfort he refused; He underwent reproach and blame, Death on the Cross, and Stripes and shame, And said, I gladly chuse it.

A. T. Russell, in his Psalms and Hymns, 1851.

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Stanza 1. A Lamb goes forth: the sins He bears       Of every generation: Himself with patience He prepares To die for every nation. All faint and weak, behold! He goes, His life resigning to His foes: No thought His grief can measure. He yields to scorn, reproach, disdain, Wounds, anguish, cross, and dying pain, And saith, "It is my pleasure."

Guthrie, 1869, in his Sacred Lyrics.
Stanza 1. Forth goes a dear devoted Lamb And dies an expiation For sinners all, of every name, Of every age and nation. Forlorn and faint, behold He gains The scene of more than deadly pains, No earthly good possessing: "Give me," he says, "The wreath of thorn, The stripes, the curse, the Cross of scorn, That men may have the blessing."

Warum sollt ich mich denn186 grämen?--(Goed. 122.)
108

[Cross and Consolation.]
Founded on Psalm LXXIII, 23. Appeared in Crü.--Runge, 1653, no. 240, in 12 stanzas of 8 lines; thence in Wackernagel: no. 64; Bachmann: no. 29; Crü. Praxis: 1656, no. 320; Unv. L. S.: 1851, no. 784. Cf. Koch IV, 525; VIII, 471-9.

This is a very beautiful hymn but difficult of translation. It was a source of comfort to the Salzburg emigrants on their way through Swabia in 1732 (cf. Goethe's Hermann und Dorothea), and to Frederick William I. of Prussia on his deathbed, May 31, 1740. The eighth stanza was the last utterance of Gerhardt on the day of his death, May 27, 1676. It has since cheered and comforted many Christians, both in the season of trial and in the hour of death. It was joyfully sung by the pious pastor Hosch of Gächingen in Württemberg, when on the 2d of July, 1800, French soldiers had plundered his house, leaving him almost nothing but his harp, with which he accompanied the cheering strains of this hymn. The words of the seventh stanza:
Unverzagt und ohne Grauen Solt ein Christ, Wo er ist, Stets sich laszen schauen. . . .

were spoken by the pious lawyer in Stuttgart, John Jacob Moser, when, in consequence of his fearless remonstrances against injustice, he was called before his sovereign, the Duke of Württemberg, to be sentenced to imprisonment. The Queen of Poland and Electress of Saxony,
186

"denn" is probably the authentic reading, although Goedeke prints "doch." Cf. p. 16.

113

" 4. Kelly. Although the line Han't I still Christ my Hill. XI. p. But cuts short grief and Smart That doth here annoy us. This "Christliches Freudenlied" has an especial interest. but with stanzas VIII. 523. p. 5. 188 3. then. Bk. Miss Winkworth in her Lyra Ger. The translator in the 1754 edition of the Moravian Hymn Book has with a few characteristic exceptions treated the peculiar rhythm and metre skillfully. Da man kann Gehn zur Himmelsfreuden. p.] Cf. my soul. derived great consolation in her dying moments from the eighth stanza which was repeated to her by her chaplain. Sondern reiszt Unsern Geist Aus viel tausend Nöten. We know that in his last moments189 he repeated stanza VIII: Kann uns doch kein Tod nicht tödten. VIII. Benson. p. 1868. Schleuszt das Thor der bittern Leiden Und macht Bahn. Angelo A. 58. 1867. 1862. 1754. to Ger.187 2. thus trembling ever. Why. In the Suppl. 1870. should I be gloomy. Why should sorrow ever grieve me. 5. L. Hymnal. 232 in the Anglican H. X-XII.. A good translation of stanzas I. are repeated in the Ohio Luth. (line 2) would not be acceptable to-day. Psalmody. English Versions: 1. Lutheran Hymnary.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Christiana Eberhardina. 109 N. altered and beginning "With undaunted resolution. 114 . 214. still our attention is forcibly drawn to the rhythm and note of genuine fervor in the reproduction of our poet's last words: Conquered Death cannot destroy us. no. Wherefore should I grieve and pine. Frothingham.. Translated by the Rev. p. and in the Supplement of 1808 to the Moravian H. His translation of stanzas I. ed. 144. IV. 420. who died on the 5th of September. The Lutheran Hymnal. Bk. It was fitting that one whose hymns are so replete with expressions of earthly and the far greater heavenly joys should go to his final rest comforted by the full realization of their meaning. of 1801. In full by J. p. X. 1941. for it seems to have been the hymn that was most comforting to Gerhardt. in the Moravian H. VII. 1880. #342] [Cf. Bk. 1726. V. 1765. Why should I continue grieving. Wherefore. Shuts the door on sin and sadness 187 188 189 [Cf. 198.. XII. as no. 1858.

Han't I still Christ my Hill. Stanza 1. Stanza 1. 150. It does close life's mournful story         Make a way         That we may     Pass to heavenly glory. Why should I continue grieving. Emanuel. Selected Stanzas: 110 In the 1754 edition of the Moravian Hymn Book (author's name not given).) [Christmas.] 115 . His stanza 8 suffers greatly by comparison with that of the Moravian version-given above. Wherefore should I grieve and pine? Is not Christ the Lord still mine? Who can sever me from Him? Who can rob me of the heaven Which the Son of God hath given Unto faith though weak and dim? Wir singen dir. And my Savior living? Who'll deprive me of Salvation Which by Faith Jesus hath Giv'n in expectation? John Kelly in his Paul Gerhardt's Spiritual Songs.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt And makes way for the Day Of eternal gladness. Stanza 1.         But relief         From all grief     To us then is given. Why should sorrow ever grieve me?         Christ is near         What can here E'er of Him deprive me? Who can rob me of my heaven         That God's Son         As mine own To my faith hath given? Miss Winkworth in her Lyra Germanica.--(Goed. Death can never kill us even. 1867. 1858. John Kelly in his Paul Gerhardt's Spiritual Songs although he does not retain much of the lyric grace of the original translates the poem with scrupulous faithfulness.

Kelly. 1871. omitting the translation of stanza V. Bachmann: no. 1853. 1869. O Immanuel. in J. V-VII. it begins. etc. we sing to Thee. To Thee. 1863. V-VII. Immanuel." in Kennedy. Few of the English versions of German hymns which appear in the old Moravian hymn books rise above a mediocre grade. 1864. no. Immanuel. 1653. signed "F. etc. XVIII-XX.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Included in Crü. 35. E.: 1851. Immanuell to Thee we sing. XIX. we sing" (stanza II). The complete text in 20 stanzas is in Wackernagel: no. XVIII-XX. in Boardman's Selections. etc. VI. 1870. L. etc. by Miss Cox. she added a translation of stanza IX. 26 in Dr. 1864. Emmanuel. thanks and praise" (stanzas II. VIII. we sing Thy praise. many on account of their crudity deserve only passing mention. omitting the translation of stanza XIX. T. (1754. no. 100 in 16 stanzas of 4 lines. In her 2d ed. 5." as no. part I. abridged. of the Moravian H. 1871. A translation of stanzas I. Thee. 1789. Paisley. Bk. contributed to Lyra Messianica. Immanuel! Thy praise we sing. and beginning "Emmanuel. English Versions: 1. Thy name we sing. appeared in the British Magazine. 36. for England. and thus in her C. based on the earlier versions. C. Russell in the Dalston Hospital H. for St. 55. it is in full. IX. 109 in part III. Bapt. B.. p. Immanuel. to Thee we sing. This translation of stanzas I-III. XX. 45 (1886. p. XVII. & Tune Bk. 35. The Prince. S. Miss Manington. The Prince. in her Lyra Ger. and Flett's Collection.. XX. four stanzas were added as IV. we praise. III. A good translation of stanzas I-III. p.. XIX. Pagenstecher's Collection. we sing to Thee. Miss Fry.. 6. C. Bk. 42. p. Koch IV. p. Hy. Immanuel. 1867. 111 A translation of stanzas I-III. and in Jellicoe's Collection. no. F. Thrupp's Psalms and Hymns. John's. p. 436). 5. 37. 1856. Immanuel. others 116 . L. January. 24. J. Repeated. First Series. 35. Philadelphia. We sing to Thee. we sing. 1864. 136. 7.. 58. 1855. In Ebeling. Of life. by A. Thou Prince. 1748. 8. 1861. 56. 1838. We sing to Thee. in the Hyl. Immanuel! Thou Prince of Life. 163. no. p. Aberdeen. Unv. As no. The Fount. no. 4. no. and beginning "With all Thy saints. 35. Schlecht. p. 2. Thee. 10. Bk. Repeated.. in the Moravian H. and in her own Hymns from the German. II. Lord. 10. in Schaff's Christ in Song. XVIII-XX. XX). no. 1667. A good translation of stanzas I-III. 52. Emmanuel. V-VII. A translation of stanzas I-III. 1867. In the Amer. Cf. no. Thou Prince of Life. We sing to Thee. 1848. 9. by Miss Winkworth. 3. 11. V. 1864. 45). worship. p. 1863. Praxis. 28. "All glory. 1859.

The translator of this Christmas hymn has. 1560). The editions up to that of 1886 published no authors' names and it is now largely a matter of conjecture as to who may have written these earlier versions. however.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 112 are interesting merely by way of comparison with later renderings. 117 . whom Mary bore! Dost thou a stranger chuse to be (stanza 3). choosing from Gerhardt's discursive strophes the most significant ideas. Winkworth (stanza 9). There thou a little Infant rest'st. Du Jungfrausohn Herr aller Herrn. I'll be thy Servant. Thou cloathest all (stanza 3). 190 By Nicolaus Heermann (d. a free paraphrase of stanza XI in the original. Bk. thou Eden's Flow'r The Lord of Lords. reproduces admirably the childlike confidence with which Gerhardt writes. though he will recoil at the pronunciation of the first two lines of stanza 5: Stanza 6. The modern reader will enjoy the orthography in the lines: and     Thou in a manger ly'st with beasts. even the alliteration finds a partial correspondence in her third line: Gerhardt (stanza XIX).    5 6 7 Thou Morning-star. if thou please. In her Chorale Book and set to the old tune "Erschienen ist der herrlich Tag. and we suspect that irnperfect knowledge of the exact meaning of the German or even indifference to the effect their versions produced may too often have been the cause of the crude and even grotesque language. loving Lamb! that thou On my account didst stoop so low. The correspondence of strophes is as follows: Gerhardt: I II VII VI VII VIII VI IX XI XX Mor.: Especially happy are the epithets in lines 3 and 4: Du Himmelsblum und Morgenstern. 1 2 3 4 Hy. been a notable exception. And as thy Spirit gives me grace. The translator appreciates keenly the personal tone which pervades the poem when he sings: I thank thee. he has developed a poem of seven stanzas superior to most contemporary hymns from the German."190 Miss Winkworth gives the following arrangement of her ten-stanza version: Gerhardt: I II III V VI IX VII XVIII XIX XX Winkworth: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Stanza 9 shows how successfully she can imitate Gerhardt's simplicity and fervor. Rarely did the translators succeed in giving even a fair impression of the original.

And in Thy Spirit's strength would still Serve Thee according to Thy will. Miss Cox. Stets dienen dir. as witness these stanzas: Gerhardt (stanza VII). Gerhardt's is certainly the more direct. Jesus lives. May we in heaven thy name adore! Selected Stanzas: From the Moravian Hymn Book. And though thy power makes angels blest. Our hallelujahs shall resound. my Lord Divine. whose translation of Gellert's Easter hymn is so well known." If her poem is rather more polished. she has respectively "Our love grows bold. thy terror now Can no longer." and "Our hallelujahs. Trinkst Milch aus deiner Mutter Brust Und bist doch selbst der Engel Lust. Her stanzas correspond as follows: Gerhardt: I II III V VI VII XVIII XIX XX Cox: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Miss Cox makes a less personal appeal to the worshipper and thereby loses much that is so excellent and characteristic of Gerhardt. appal us. And they shall sound before thy throne. Where time nor number more are known.    Thus will I sing Thy praises here With joyful spirit year by year. so viel dein Geist mir gibt. So also in stanza 10 (Gerhardt XX) for Gerhardt's favorite expression "für und für" we find a very happy equivalent.    Thou who both heaven and earth dost sway.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Du bist mein Haupt. instead of keeping the pronoun in the singular." "Thou art our Head. wie dirs geliebt. I am Thy member. The concluding stanza is inferior to the others and suffers by comparison with the excellent lines of Miss Winkworth cited above: it is a very free paraphrase and leaves the impression of having been hastily constructed: As each short year goes quickly round. Und dort in deinem Ehrensaal Solls schallen ohne Zeit und Zahl. has given us one of the best modern versions of this Christmas hymn of Gerhardt's. hinwiederum Bin ich dein Glied und Eigentum Und will. Dost seek thy food from human breast. Winkworth (stanza 10). Du kehrst in fremder Hausung ein. And when we reckon years no more. 1754. Und sind doch alle Himmel dein.    Thou art my Head. wholly Thine. and also an exact rhyme which the German lacks: Gerhardt (stanza XX). Death. 118 . "So fasz ich" (stanza XVIII) "Du bist mein Haupt" (stanza XIX) and "Ich will dein Alleluja" (stanza XX). Cox (stanza 6). In strangers' inn are fain to stay. 113 Ich will dein Alleluja hier Mit Freuden singen für und für.

The Virgin's Son. 333. and praise. Long years our fathers hoped of old Their eyes might yet Thy Light behold. L.] Appeared in Crü. Miss Winkworth in her Lyra Germanica. According to tradition Gerhardt wrote the hymn in a Saxon village to console his wife after they had been compelled to leave Berlin. The Prince of life. The Prince of Life. Unv. calls this hymn "the most comforting of all the hymns that have resounded on Paulus Gerhardt's golden lyre. 1. Stanza 2. 24.) [Trust in God. Thee. the virgin-born! Stanza 2. Emmanuel. Thee. in Koch VIII. 72 in 12 stanzas of 8 lines. Wackernagel: no. S. salvation's well! Thou Morning-star. O long-expected guest. and although 119 . thou Eden's Flow'r The Lord of Lords whom Mary bore!               Hallelujah. those of the Wackernagel edition being printed in blacker type. Lord. "Befiehl dem Herren deine Wege und hoffe auf ihn. 1864. 185. we sing. thanks. thanks to Thee we bring. O Immanuel. Bachmann: no. 114 Frances Elizabeth Cox.--(Goed. That thou so long expected guest Didst come to visit us at last. All glory. 66. How many a heart hath longed for Thee. 5.: 1851." formed by the initial words of the stanzas. we praise. Stanza 1." It is an acrostic on Luther's version of Psalm XXXVII. 620. no. 1656. Praise. We sing thee 'midst thy chosen race With all our strength we give thee praise. The Lord of Lords. expected long. sweeter to many souls than honey and the honey-comb. We sing to thee. 1865. and Fount of Grace. no. in the Schaff-Gilman Library of Religious Poetry. worship. Hast come at last to make us blest! E'er since the world began to be. Praxis.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Stanza 1. The plant of heaven. salvation's well. p. honour. This acrostic form has been preserved by Jacobi and Stallybrass. the star of morn. the Heavenly Flower. The Morning Star. We hail thee with a joyful song. That thou art come in these our days! Thou heavenly guest. But the hymn was printed as early as 1653. er wirds wohl machen. Befiehl du deine Wege. the Lord of Power! With all Thy saints. Lauxmann. We sing to thee Immanuel! Thou Prince of life. That Thou. 392.

His translation has been included in many hymn books and collections. when Muhlenberg. Gettysburg. English Versions: 1. therefore.. Lauxmann relates that it was sung when the foundation stone of the first Lutheran church at Philadelphia was laid. in 8 stanzas of 8 lines. p. 120 . (b) Thy everlasting truth (stanza V). (g) Thou seest our weakness.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 115 Gerhardt had to give up his position in 1666. 1869-72. but generally abridged.       Give thou into His hand. and his Horae Ger. it began "To God commit thy griefs. In the United Presb. p. Lord (stanza XV). the father of the American Lutheran Church. and I. 1849. that the hymn was written during the Mittenwalde period when as yet he could have had no thought of a position in Berlin.. 1856. 1852. The perfection of the hymn is strikingly evinced by the fact that it soon spread through Germany. V. Hence there appear to be two good reasons for discrediting this story. (h) Put thou thy trust in God. Thy way and all thy sorrows. VI. II. and again on October 20. We must assume. 172. A very free but spirited rendering omitting stanzas V. Commit thou all thy griefs. 3. (f) Leave to his sovereign sway (stanza XIII). XI. 191 Cf. Wesley has here caught. Wesley in his Hymns and Sacred Poems. p. while his wife died in Berlin in 1668. Vol.) (d) O cast away thy fears (stanza IX altered). (This is the heading under which it appears in most American hymnals. Commit thy way. by J. in the Ohio Luth. were included in the Lutheran General Synod's Hymns. This last is a greatly altered cento with the stanza arrangement as follows: Wesley: Cento: 2. H. 1880. July. confiding. XII. p. XII. 125). II. 4 f." It is also found under these headings: (a) Thou on the Lord rely (stanza III). finding its way into all hymn books and ranking as one of the finest hymns of its class. the real ring and spirit of Gerhardt. H. 202. 1743. 1739 (P. Hymnal. His stanzas I. far more successfully than any other. Review. (c) Give to the winds thy fears (stanza IX). 1852. III 1 I 2 III 3 V 4 In this form also it has appered in many hymnals. (e) Through waves and clouds and storms (stanza X).191 he did not leave Berlin until his appointment to Lübben in 1669. IX-XI. Cf. May 2. and has come into very extended use. Works. A complete translation by Dr. Mills in the Evang. Bk. VI. held the opening service. I.

510. 8. II. 1732. The Lutheran Hymnal. T. 17. p. thy sorrows. Commit thou thy each grievance. Commit thy secret grief. R. 1860. Bk. J. O mortal. Dunn in Sacred Lyrics from the German. 11. In part I of the Moravian H. p. A translation omitting stanzas IX. 85. oppose": (Gerhardt's stanza V). July. 192 cf. Mrs. Poetry. Commit thou all thy ways. Guthrie in his Sacred Lyrics. C. A translation of stanzas I-III. Commit thy ways. 13. repeated in Curwen's Child's Own H. 1867. Commit whatever grieves thee. 124. Kelly. 1864. J.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt A complete translation by Rev. Commit thy way to God. 161. 1720. 6. XII. VIII. 283 in Bishop Ryle's Collection. 138 in Jellicoe's Collection. J. Stanley Carr in her translation of Wildenhahn's Paul Gerhardt. p. 7. O weeper. 5. Miss Cox. XII. 1858." 116 4. Bevan. Commit thy way unto the Lord. In Madame de Pontes's Poets and Poetry of Germany. 233 in his Psalms and Hymns. 121 . Commit thy way. Part III (Gerhardt's stanza IX) begins "Awhile his consolation / He will to thee deny. 92. 1722. Bk. 1754 and 1849. A free paraphrase in 6 stanzas of 4 lines by J. A. 89.. S. 1859. 1859. Mrs. 9. by Miss Borthwick in Dr. Part II begins "In vain the powers of darkness / Thy will. Dr. 1851. XI) appears as no. Charles in her Voice of Christian Life in Song. 1862 and 1874. 1857. 1857. Stallybrass for the Tonic-Solfa Reporter. XI) appears as no. 1867. p. 424. VI-VIII. Russell as no. 12. Commit thy Ways and Goings. p. 14. A cento of her version (Gerhardt's stanzas I. 239. Philadelphia. 1858. 1883. And care. Pagenstecher's Collection. in 3 parts. 240. 1941. Jacobi. 192 16. 1864. Commit thy way. O weeping. p. Commend thy way. O God. 15. 10. by Mrs. no. 225. Dr. p. VI. p.. and another cento (Gerhardt's I. p. vol. I. Commit the way before thee. Commit thou every sorrow. and all. To God thy way commending. 520. 1845 and 1856. p. X. thy heavy. Miss Dunn. and in the Gilman-Schaff Lib. 1869. P. of Rel.

combining. 117 In the interesting and now very rare old Psalmodia Germanica193 compiled and edited by J. (sic!) AND Princess CAROLINA. as it does. and forsake wrath. 18. L. 1870. later eds. 164. 1850. John Cairns. 6) is not clear: possibly here Jacobi had in mind the scriptural passage (Psalm XXXVII. c. ." The book is dedicated to "Their Royal Highnesses. in 1722 and 1732. and introducing new elements altogether. Commit thy course and keeping." and in one paragraph of this dedication we read: "As a sincere Desire to promote Divine Psalmody has prompted me to this Translation. Through the kindness of the Hartford Theological Seminary Library it was the privilege of the writer to have access to the 1722 edition.) where in verse 8 we read "Cease from anger. In most cases facing the beginning page of the hymns is an inserted leaf (not numbered) containing the traditional melody unharmonized." and "Befiehl du deine Wege. Dr. und singe. p. but first published in Edinburgh. Princess ANNE Pincess AMALIA. etc.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt N. to be approximately as follows: Jacobi: I    II    III    IV    V 7348 12 10 Which line of Gerhardt suggests the injunction "Shake off that yoke of Hell" (2. in the five stanzas ideas from the twelve of the original. 5. ff. 1720. mein Herz." Stanza 4: And he shall clear the Dullness That sits upon thy Mind Gerhardt: 1 25 7 perhaps finds its basis in stanza VII: 118 . 1881. for no other End than to promote thereby the Singing the Praises of our blessed Redeemer". Jacobi there are three of Gerhardt's hymns--"Wie soll ich dich empfangen. so I presume to address the same. The correspondence seems. however. such as it is to YOUR ROYAL HIGHNESSES. was das Herze Betrübt und traurig macht! 193 1st ed. that except for the first and fifth strophes it is difficult to connect the themes definitely with any particular lines in Gerhardt's poem. and the historical value and interest of the books themselves as well as the versions they contain cannot be overestimated. C." "Wach auf. . as an eight-page tract. It is a reasonably safe conjecture that these books of Jacobi were among the very first printed copies of anglicized German hymns. The version of "Befiehl du deine Wege" is so free a paraphrase. Frothingham. 122 .

e. It is altogether probable that it was the singing of this hymn with its reference to winds and seas that first appealed to these Englishmen when on their voyage to America on the same vessel with a company of Moravians. entirely an interpolation of his own. Das Werk hinausgeführet. Death. for example. John Wesley's version (1739) is the second of the three earliest translations of this hymn which has come into such extensive use both in Germany and English-speaking lands. has hitherto been too much wanting in Abundance of Families. . lines 5 and 6) seem not well calculated to carry out the hope that the translator utters on the last page of his "dedication": "If the Lover of Psalmody. . in line 3 "To his sure truth and tender care. it seems." Again he profits by being able better to express in English the more pithy German. Das dich bekümmert hat. g.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt or in stanza VIII: Wann Er . in stanza 14: "When fully he the work hath wrought" reproduces very acceptably the idea contained in the compound "hinausgeführt. the Translator will think his Time well bestow'd. dwells upon the punishment for sin. can find in these Hymns an edifying Sunday's Entertainment. which. and Hell. 31. lines 7 and 8) and Our Life and Conversation Lead by Thy Holy Hand (5. p. O du arme Seele Hoff und sei unverzagt . 119 In another chapter194 mention has been made of the relation of John and Charles Wesley to the Moravians. Jacobi again. as Give to the winds thy fears 194 Cf. as in strophe 2. ." Omitting stanza V Wesley gives a free but spirited version of the stanza beginning Hoff. 123 . made still further difficult of interpretation and appreciation through the use of words far more remote from our modern English than is the German vernacular of the seventeenth century from the modern German. but in general the main features are quite faithfully reflected. with no bearing on the original whatever: Redeem us all together From Sin. World. Phrases such as: His Fatherly Dilection is never at a stand (3. Firstly he has divided the 8-line strophes into quatrains. Finally it must be said that for the modern reader this version must seem little more than a distorted paraphrase. To conclude his hymn. These variations enable him often to introduce an additional thought. ." where in Gerhardt there is only the idea of "faithful care. has disregarded the feminine rhymes of lines 1 and 3 and changed to iambic tetrameter the original iambic trimeter ending in a feminine rhyme. A number of changes have been made by the translator.

J. for it has many of the characteristics of other hastily made translations in his collection of "German Hymns in the Seventeenth Century.     Rely on God who good is     Fix on his work thy notice.     When least thou hop'st that Favour     He extricate thee will. It is very likely the work of the editor himself. 195 196 Cf. with our latest breath.     Sometimes he his Assistance     Does not directly show. The stanza is not far inferior to its prototype. Wesley offers in his final strophe a strong conclusion. If the immediate impression this version makes is that of foreignness owing to its phraseology. The author has rendered all stanzas but the fifth ("Und ob gleich alle Teufel. which one would expect for the appropriate conclusion of a poem beginning "Befiehl du deine Wege. Thy steadfast truth declare And publish." Many of the hymns of the early and exuberant development of Moravian hymnody seem at first sight like a highly-colored and almost morbid growth that had been grafted from without upon the stem of English church song. Stanza 8. While Gerhardt asks to be guided to Heaven. in death. p. to be entrusted ("empfohlen") to God's care. Stanza 9. Gambold. in life. 124.)." Wesley prays only that God's children may remember His care: Let us. 197 Und wenn die Welt voll Teufel wär 124 . and dwells upon the weakness to which man is prone." etc. at first perverted into fantastic forms. Dr." and would seem worthy of being included. though he departs from the idea of Gerhardt's theme of distress for which termination is besought.195 Omitting also stanzas IX-XI inclusive. in which the original emphasizes or repeats in sameness of strain the thoughts of the earlier part of the poem. An unbiassed critic must concede that the whole atmosphere of this hymn in spite of its crudity is still that of childlike simplicity and tender devotion to Christ. omitting this possibly because Wesley before him (1739) had omitted it. Cf. stanza III197 of Luther's "Ein' feste Burg. Thy love and guardian care! 120 The nearest date that can be set for the other early English translation of this most famous of Gerhardt's hymns is 1754 in the Moravian Hymn Book of that year where it appeared without the name of the author.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Hope and be undismayed God hears thy sighs and counts thy tears God shall lift up thy head. Stanza 2. but certainly capable of culture and ultimately becoming a characteristic and permanent type of English hymn.196 it must be remembered that in reality these efforts are part of a new development of a real spiritual life.

" and seems to have divined Gerhardt's meaning and use of "Trost"199 as being that comfort which has its source in Trust and Faith. We tread the pathway tending To heaven's eternal rest. Much of the native beauty and lyric grace of this charming hymn is to be found in one of the less well known translations--that of Dr. . Where others fail her translation here excels in that it follows the idea which Gerhardt emphasizes throughout the poem. And our probation close. 125 . Thy steadfast truth declare. For a discussion of Gerhardt's use of the word "Trost" cf. But undeniably the closest parallel. Taken as a whole her appeal is far less direct than Wesley's.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt The diction of the concluding lines shows evidently the influence of Wesley. empfohlen sein (stanza XII). is the concluding stanza. with our latest breath. departs here widely from the idea of Gerhardt. He seems to hear thee not. uns . . 22. perchance to try thee. . John Guthrie (1869). in the very first quatrain her word "Trust" gives the keynote of the whole poem at once. Note Guthrie's treatment of this theme in stanza 2: Und wollt uns gar verschlingen. . All comfort to deny thee. . . in death. who. Strophe IX which is among those passed over by Wesley finds here a good English parallel in what appears to be a well-studied rendering: Gerhardt:       Er wird zwar eine Weile Mit seinem Trost verziehen . Till then we fain would borrow Strength to support life's woes: To thee our way commending. Cox: 121 Awhile. p. Whose wisdom orders best. As if thou wert forgot. He very appropriately designates the hymn "The Triumph of Trust. deiner Pflege . . . Miss Cox preserves the eight-line form and the original metre in her complete translation of the twelve stanzas. showing too that she was at home in both languages. that of the heart trusting198 in God: End if thou wilt our sorrow. 198 199 Lasz . Wesley has: Let us. etc. as has been seen. On the other hand. in life. . . and beyond death's valley Let us thy Truth declare Yea then emphatically Boast of thy Guardian care. . Thy love and guardian care! The Moravian version reads: Till. her sentences and the ideas contained in them being much more involved. And publish. a touch that the original certainly contains and which no other translator has successfully reproduced in the first stanza.

Dr. John Kelly's version adheres more closely than any other to the metre and language. stanzas I. . but nevertheless sensible of what Gerhardt intended to be the closing theme. Guthrie gives us this couplet: That on thy care depending. as is apparent in stanza 2 where the only virtue is the very doubtful one of the retention of the feminine rhyme: The Lord thou must repose on If thou wouldst prosper sure. IV. nought with Him availeth.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Trust him and soon with wonder His goodness shalt thou see .): God yieldeth nought to sorrow And self-tormenting care: Nought. ending with the very inferior couplet So come we where prepar'd for Us is our bless'd abode. . XII. He has divided the hymn into three separate poems: Part I. . II. His work must ever gaze on If thine is to endure. but it would be impossible by this means to popularize for the English reader Gerhardt's poetry. III. .-No power save that of prayer. The translator's effects are altogether too labored. Tis faith and prayer and waiting That draw the blessing down. 122 Dr. as do the other translators. a forcing of the rhyme: evil cavil     graciously early see     misery may we In the last quatrain Kelly fails." etc. stanzas IX. to bring out Gerhardt's strong repetition of the dominating theme. T. VII. And bid thy troubles flee Trust Him. VI. VIII. In the very passage where others have made their poorest offering Russell has been unusually successful. A. namely in the last quatrain of stanza II ("Mit Sorgen und mit Grämen. as has been noted already. or again in stanza 8 where the true "Stimmung" is present: Trust Him to guard and guide thee. He has obtained literality in a marked degree in the fourth stanza as a close examination will show: 126 . . Part II. stanzas V. Russell (1851). Part III. Not as successful in the concluding quatrain as Miss Cox. whate'er betide thee . . Another translation that. like Kelly's is somewhat ultra-faithful to the original metres is that of Dr. We heavenward still may go. XI. Throughout the poem occurs the same defect. . X.

It brings to happy issue Plans for thy children's good. Contrast with this in Miss Cox's otherwise good translation her only poor stanza. Thy work can no man hinder. Thy every act a blessing. Means. Dein Arbeit darf nicht ruhn. Thy path light without end. One final observation is interesting that in his last strophe Russell offers a compromise between Wesley's interpretation and that of Miss Cox: Thy truth and Thy protection Forevermore we pray: With these in heavenly glory Shall end our certain way. Dein Thun ist lauter Segen. 123 The success is plainly due to the fortunate choice of Anglo-Saxon equivalents and the coincidence of verse accent and important words. In one unbroken tissue. Wann du. all but unintelligible to modern readers through the use of the obsolete word "let" (line 6) for "hindrance. was deinen Kindern Ersprieszlich ist. Thy purpose none can stay. Whose wisdom orders best. Selected Stanzas: J. And all that grieves thy Soul. Commit thy Ways and Goings. Jacobi in Psalmodia Germanica. and Reasons 127 . An Mitteln fehlt dirs nicht. Thou dost on nought depend. Resources rich possessing. 1722. I. To him. Thy pathway cloudless day. This prayer for protection is closer to Gerhardt's lines and therefore better than Wesley's bold paraphrase. C. That love still finds a way. Which no let e'er withstood. Since Thou to bless Thy children Through all dost make a way." Stanza 4.    Thy way is ever open. willst thun. Thine act is only blessing. Dein Gang ist lauter Licht. but it falls far short of the simple and forceful conclusion of Miss Cox: To Thee our way commending. whose wisest Doings Rule all without Controul: He makes the Times and Seasons Revolve from Year to Year And knows Ways. It is unfortunate that a version so excellent in other respects should include this wide departure from the fervor and whole-heartedness of Gerhardt.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Weg hast du allerwegen. Dein Werk kann niemand hindern. We tread the pathway tending To heaven's eternal rest.

He gently clears thy way. 1851. Commit thou thy each grievance And Case into his Hands. The cento given in most American hymnals: Stanza 1. Who heav'n and earth commands: He who's the Clouds Director. Stanza 4. Wesley. II. Whom Winds and seas obey. He shall prepare thy Way. He'll be thy feet's Protector. 1754 (by Gambold. He shall direct thy wandering feet. Stanza 2. Give to the winds thy fears. 128 . What though thou rulest not. Wait thou His time. Russell. Far. God hears thy sighs and counts thy tears. To his sure Care and guidance. Who earth and heaven commands. When fully He the work hath wrought That caused thy needless fear. (Note: In the wording accompanying the musical score the second line reads "And all what grieves thy Soul.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt When Help shall best appear. so shall this night Soon end in joyous day. Stanza 1. To his sure truth and tender care. And ruleth all things well. God shall lift up thy Head. far above thy thought His counsel shall appear. T. Commit thou all thy griefs And ways into his hands. He shall prepare thy way. Hope. In the Moravian Hymn Book. Stanza 3. God sitteth on the throne.) A. Who points the clouds their course.") 124 J. in the Schaff-Gilman Library of Religious Poetry. in his Psalms and Hymns. Through waves and clouds and storms. Yet heaven and earth and hell Proclaim. himself?). Whom winds and seas obey. and be undismayed. 1739. (Note: the orthography of the Moravian Hymn Book has been retained. I.

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Stanza 1. Thy way and all thy sorrows, Give thou into His hand,-His gracious care unfailing, Who doth the heavens command. 125 Their course and path He giveth To clouds and air and wind: A way thy feet may follow, He too for Thee will find.

H. Mills, 1856, in his Horae Germanicae.
Stanza 1. Commit Thy way, confiding, When trials here arise, To Him whose hand is guiding The tumults of the skies: There, clouds and tempests raging, Have each its path assign'd,-Will God for thee engaging, No way of safety find?

Frances Elizabeth Cox, 1864, in the Schaff-Gilman Library of Religious Poetry. I.
To God Thy way commending Trust him whose arm of might, The heavenly circles bending, Guides every star aright: The winds and clouds and lightning By his sure hand are led; And he will, dark shades brightening, Show thee what path to tread.

J. Kelly, 1867, in his Paul Gerhardt's Spiritual Songs.
Stanza 1. Commit whatever grieves thee At heart, and all thy ways, To Him who never leaves thee, On whom creation stays. Who freest courses maketh For clouds, and air, and wind, And care who ever taketh A path for thee to find.

J. Guthrie, 1869, in his Sacred Lyrics.
Stanza 1. Commit thy way, O weeping And care-encumbered soul, To His all-trusty keeping, Who guides the glowing pole. No cloud or wind fleets o'er thee But God directs its flow; That God will cleave before thee A path wherein to go.

Mrs. Charles, 1858, in Bishop's Ryle's Collection of Hymns and Spiritual Songs, 1883.
126

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Stanza 1. Commit thy way to God; The weight which makes thee faint-Words are to Him no load! To Him breathe thy complaint. He who for winds and clouds Maketh a pathway free, Through wastes or hostile crowds Can make a way for thee.

Ist Gott für mich, so trete.--(Goed. 229.)

[Trust in God.]
Based on Romans, VIII, 31-39. Cf. Kock, IV, 457. Included in Crü. Praxis, 1656, no. 330; thence in Wackernagel: no. 63; Unv. L. S.: no. 418. Lauxmann, in Koch, VIII, 408, quotes Langbecker: "This heroic hymn of Gerhardt's is worthy to be placed side by side with Luther's 'Ein' feste Burg.'"

The poem was written undoubtedly at the time when the Elector, Frederick William of Brandenburg, Gerhardt's sovereign, threatened with his severe displeasure those of the Lutheran clergy who would not sign a declaration200 binding them not to say anything publicly against the Reformed party. To this, most probably, the words of the thirteenth stanza refer,
Kein Zorn der groszen Fürsten Soll mir ein Hindrung sein.

This hymn, springing from a heart full of faith and courage, has gone into the hearts of many, especially the tried and afflicted, cheering and encouraging them in the struggles of faith. The third stanza in particular has often been made a blessing:
Der Grund, da ich mich gründe, Ist Christus und sein Blut; . . .

A pious watchman in Berlin who, when calling the hours of the night, used to sing suitable verses, once sang these lines before the house of a shoemaker, who with some friends, just then assembled late at night, was in danger of leaving the Church and setting up a self-righteous sect. The well-known words, coming so unexpectedly, had the desired effect, the shoemaker declaring to his friends, "As for me, I will rest upon that ground of Jesus and his blood, and not seek any other master." The final stanza:
127

Mein Herze geht in Springen Und kann nicht traurig sein. . . .

has been the dying song of many a believing Christian.
English Versions:
1. If God be on my side.

200

Cf. p. 4.

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A good translation omitting stanzas IV-VI, by Miss Winkworth in her Lyra Ger., 1855, p. 130. Included, abridged, in Holy Song, 1869, and the Evang. Hyl., 1880, N. Y. Centos from this translation are: (a) "If Jesus be my friend" (stanza I, line 5), in the Andover Sabbath H. Bk., 1858; Hatfield's Church Book, 1872, etc. (b) "Since Jesus is my friend" (stanza I, line 5 altered), in Robinson's Songs for the Sanctuary, N. Y., 1865; Laudes Domini, 1884, etc. (c) "Here I can firmly rest" (stanza II), in the Andover Sabbath H. Bk., 1858; Pennsylvanian Lutheran Church Book, 1868.
2. If God Himself be for me.

A good translation omitting stanzas IV-VI, X, by R. Massie in his Lyra Domestica, 1864, p. 110; from this are varying centos, e. g. Laudes Domini, 1884, no. 378 beginning: "I build on this foundation" (stanza III).
3. Is God for me? I fear not.

A free but spirited version, omitting stanzas V, XI, XII, by Mrs. Bevan in her Songs of Eternal Life, 1858, p. 39. This version was repeated and abridged in Snepp's Songs of Grace and Glory. In Reid's Praise Book, 1872, it appears as three hymns, the first as above; (2) "There is no condemnation" (stanza VI), and (3) "In heaven is mine inheritance" (stanza X).
4. Is God for me? t'oppose me.

In full, by J. Kelly, 1867, p. 208. The Ohio Luth. Hyl. includes a part of this version, i. e. the translation of stanzas III, XIV, XV, beginning "My Faith securely buildeth."
5. Is God for me? what is it.

J. C. Jacobi, 1725, p. 41 (1732, p. 139). Included in the Moravian H. Book, 1754, and altered in Bishop Ryle's Collection, 1883. In later editions it is abridged, beginning "Is God my strong salvation?"
6. The world may rise against me round.

Also "The world may fall beneath my feet," translations of stanzas I and XIII, by Mrs. Stanley Carr in her translation of Wildenhahn's Paul Gerhardt, 1845 (1856, p. 173).
7. If Christ is mine, then all is mine.

A hymn of three stanzas in M. W. Stryker's Church Praise Book, 1884, no. 485, marked "Benjamin Beddome 1776." Another cento is given in Bishop Ryle's Hymns and Spiritual Songs, 1883, p. 71.

128

"If God is mine, then present things." The earliest accessible English version is that of Jacobi, 1725, printed in the 1754 Moravian Hymn Book. The translations by this author are usually very crude and painfully laborious, but in the present case, with a few notable exceptions, he has very well caught the ring and spirit of Gerhardt. Later compilers and publishers of hymns would of course omit the lines:
"His Grace has cleansed and polished My humble Soul within." (stanza 5.)

and
"All this I have digested." (stanza 12.)

131

Bio of Paul Gerhardt

Theodore Brown Hewitt

Like many of the early translators of German hymns Jacobi is guilty of frequent imperfect rhymes:
Merit spirit stanza 4       spectre conjecture stanza 14       alone begun stanza 15

If we overlook these defects the version is one of the best that has appeared so far in English or American hymnals and considerably above the standard201 of the Moravian hymns of the early eighteenth century. The following lines offer a very true counterpart of the German:
"All woes give way and flee," line 4. "And that in Change and Chances He stands at my right hand." lines 13, 14. "The ground of my possession Is Jesus and his Blood." lines 17, 18. "Should Earth lose its foundation Thou stand'st my lasting Rock." lines 97, 98.

Bishop Ryle in taking over this version into his Hymns and Spiritual Songs has made a number of alterations, presenting a cento of four stanzas. His stanza 3, for example, is a combination of Jacobi's last quatrain of stanza 9 and first quatrain of stanza 10: Ryle (stanza 3).     Jacobi (stanza 9).
For me there is provided A city fair and new; To it I shall be guided,-Jerusalem the true! And how he hath provided A city new and fair Where things, our Faith did credit Shall to our eyes appear.

(stanza 10.)
My portion there is lying, A destined Canaan lot; Though I am daily dying, My Canaan withers not. My portion there is lying A destin'd Canaan-lot Tho' I am daily dying, My Heaven withers not.

129

American congregations are familiar with the hymn: Since Jesus is (If) (be)
And I to him belong . . .

my friend

It is often called "The Rest of Faith," and is a cento of Miss Winkworth's very excellent version. Although she has not preserved the metre of the poem Miss Winkworth has thoroughly caught its spirit even imitating in the widely known last stanza202 the sound sequence and alliteration:
My heart for gladness springs, It cannot more be sad, For very joy it laughs and sings, Sees nought but sunshine glad. The sun that glads mine eyes Is Christ the Lord I love, I sing for joy of that which lies

201 202

Cf. pp. 30 and 71. Cf. p. 127.

132

If God is mine. 130 Miss Winkworth in her Lyra Germanica. For free adaptations from this hymn cf. p. He will support my feeble power And every foe repel. Selected Stanzas: J. then present things And things to come are mine. 1855. Beddome. 203 If God my Head and Master Defend me from above. 3. and Spirit too. His Word. 130. 1776. 1754). in Bishop Ryle's Hymns and Spiritual Songs. And glory all divine. If He is mine. Stanza 1.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Stored up for us above. Yes Christ. What pain or what disaster Can drive me from his Love? B. pp. My refuge in distress What earthly tribulation Can shake my inward peace? 133 . I need not fear The rage of earth and hell. Jacobi (1725) in the Moravian Hymn Book (ed. Stanza 1. C. All woes give way and flee. Is God for me. 139 and 136. 203 In Bishop Ryle's collection the quatrain reads: If God be my salvation. what is it That Men can do to me? Oft as my God I visit.

I rest upon the ground Of Jesus and His blood. He rules the battle fury. For 'tis through Him that I have found The True Eternal God. 1872 (abridged version). And tempts me to despair. He prospers day by day His work within my heart. Kelly. That God. J. Where'er He bids me go He checks the storms and calms the waves. I say it fearlessly. the tempest and the tide. Till I have strength and faith to say. Who readest in the heart full well If aught there pleaseth Thee. Bevan. forever loveth me! At all times. But what no tongue can tell. A SONG OF CHRISTIAN CONSOLATION AND JOY. that alone Is worth all love indeed. From dangerous snares He saves. Thou God canst hear and see. though all against me rise. His spirit in me dwells. If God doth love me well. in all places. I believe it. 1867. Is God for me? I fear not. Thou God my Father art! When weakness on me lies. Nought in the life I lead. 134 . though coming as a flood? 131 I know it. My Friend and Father is. 1858. What matters all my foes intend. the host of evil flies. Mrs. If God be on my side. Then let who will oppose For oft ere now to Him I cried And He hath quelled my foes.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Stanza 1. My Friend--the Lord Almighty. and He who loves me--God. If Jesus be my Friend. He standeth by my side. He speaketh words and utters sighs Of more than mortal prayer. What enemy shall harm me. Mightiest. in his Paul Gerhardt's Spiritual Songs. etc. Though strong they be and fell? Here I can firmly rest. Nor lets aught work me woe. When I call on Christ my Savior. O'er all my mind He reigns. I dare to boast of this. And soothes away all pains. Nought have I of mine own. That God the Highest and the Best. Stanza 11. the Highest. What Christ hath given me. in Snepp's Songs of Grace and Glory. All care and sadness He dispels.

L. and revel in joy's flow." 135 . my heart. no. VIII. 15. And doth the Head befriend me. beginning "Go forth. if e'en earth's sin-stained ground. Stanley Carr in her translation of Wildenhahn's Paul Gerhardt. Unv." a translation of stanzas I. nor linger here. mein Herz. 732. 463 (1864. In the Appendix to the Second Series of Lyra Domestica Mr. and H. Miss Cox. 1845 and 1856. 1861. N. 591. IX. and seek for praise. 500). my heart. Ringwald's     "Gottlob. J. Praxis. Come forth." was included in the American Sabbath Hymn Book. 412. and included in Wackernagel: no. A good translation beginning with stanza VII. 136. of Crü. Gerhardt showed himself in this inspiring poem a real lover of God's creation. no. The wild opposing brood! Geh aus. of Mercer's C. 3. Like Luther. 1861. Go forth.: 1851. Cf. by Mrs.. English Versions: 1. Am I belov'd by God? Let foes then rise to rend me. 1855. 1849. 141. and seek delight." and B. by Miss Winkworth. 4. reprinted in his work The Breaking Crucible. p. 1858. Philadelphia. contributed by R. Bk.)204 This beautiful poem of thanksgiving for the divine goodness in the gift of the delights of summer and of anticipation of the joys of Paradise appeared in the 1656 ed. in Schaff's Kirchenfreund. no. He'll chase mine enemies.. my heart. 85. Her translation of stanzas VIII-XI. my heart. in the First Series of her Lyra Ger. and seek delight. p. W. Alexander. Massie to the 1857 ed. The golden corn now waxes strong. who fondly loved nature and admired its beauties. also the Volkslied:     "Herzlich tut mich erfreuen     Die fröhlich Sommerzeit. und suche Freud--(Goed. 103. mighty God. Dr. P. my heart. p. 1872. 2. Go forth. no. in 15 stanzas of 6 lines. and repeated in Boardman's Collection. Massie reprinted his translation at page 102. beginning "Thy mighty working. IV. S." In this form it appeared in full in Reid's Praise Book. Is God for me? t'oppose me A thousand may uprise. 204 Cf. Koch. and prefixed a version of stanzas I-VI. 132 Also "And oft I think. 1841 and 1864. Friedrich von Spee's hymn: "Der trübe Winter ist vorbei". When I to pray'r arouse me. It was also printed in H.. es ist vorhanden die frölich Sommerzeit. A good translation omitting stanza XIV. 419. 239. Bachmann: no. 5. Go forth.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Stanza 1. 1659. Y. Müller's Geistliche Seelenmusik.

Massie whose version except for the last stanza has more truly poetic lines than any other offers this paraphrase: Make for thy spirit ample room. in her Lark and Linnet. or of flowers and fields. p. by Miss Margarete Münsterberg. my heart. 9. my heart.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 6. Dr. Follen. 1916. p. 10. Dr. None of Gerhardt's poetry has so well lent itself to English words as this hymn of praise for God's goodness and of contemplation of the joys in the next world. Massie. 854. Gerhardt sings: Die Lerche schwingt sich in die Luft. Go out. That thus I may forever bloom. Go forth. my heart. A good translation omitting stanzas IV. Massie's verses are both more literal and harmonious than the others. And coos the woods among. Go forth. Which never shall be shaken. J. and pleasure seek. 1867. L. whether he be singing of forest and brook. my heart. p. 7. Massie interprets: 133 The lark mounts singing to the skies: The dove forsakes her clefts. and they do so apparently on the ground that it contains a complexity of figures. E. and flies To shady groves and alleys. and seek the bliss. and the translators have without exception reproduced most successfully the exquisite feeling for nature which Gerhardt manifests. E. Mrs. Only Miss Winkworth and Dr. and XIV. 289. V. Das Täublein fleugt aus seiner Kluft Und macht sich in die Wälder. and seek delight. 36. Go out. Flies from her cleft the dove so shy. Like plants which root have taken: Oh let me in thy garden be A flourishing and righteous tree. in her Harvest of German Verse. 164. Miss Manington. Kelly. and seek delight. Of stanza III Dr. Go forth. 136 . Kelly: The lark aspiring soars on high. VI. my Heart! the year's sweet prime. Dr. 8. 30. Miss Winkworth: The lark soars singing into space. The dove forsakes her hiding-place. p. 1863. Alexander of the four or five prominent translators omit stanza XIV. 1866.       In this summer. So well have all the translators succeeded that it would be perhaps merely a matter of individual taste as to which of the many excellent lines are deserving of highest praise.

And can no longer rest. Alexander: The lark floats high before the breeze. These pleasant summer hours: Look how the plains for thee and me Have deck'd themselves most fair to see All bright and sweet with flowers. Winkworth. Stanza 1.) whose ring gives the freshness appropriate in an outdoor hymn of Spring and Summer. And bear my heavenly palm! Then.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt And seeks the woodland shadow. If Thou in Thy great love to us. Thy mighty working. when on our sight Christ's garden beams in cloudless light And rings with God's high praise. must sing when all things sing. The dove toward the forest-trees From covert speeds along. like the angels would I raise My voice. What nobler glories shall be given Hereafter in Thy shining heaven Set round with golden towers! 10. 1855. Dr. O. 137 . too. 8. Alexander. 9. were I there! oh. This last version is marred by the accent's falling on the unstressed syllable of "toward" in line 2. in the Schaff-Gilman Library of Religious Poetry. C. in her Lyra Germanica. my God. I look abroad. mighty God. that I now Before Thy throne. could bow. 134 J. I. and sing thine endless praise In many a sweet-toned psalm. And from my heart the praises ring. W. Where all the thousand seraphim In one accordant voice and hymn       Their Alleluia raise! 11. Several of our American hymnals contain the cento of four stanzas from Miss Winkworth's version (Gerhardt stanzas VIII-XI incl. The Highest loveth best. Go forth my heart and seek delight In all the gifts of God's great might. Wilt scatter joy and beauty thus       O'er this poor earth of ours. 1849. What thrilling joy. Wakes all my pow'rs.

Stanza 1. How lavishly for me and thee It doth its charms disclose! R. in his Paul Gerhardt's Spiritual Songs. Go out. in the Schaff-Gilman Library of Religious Poetry. 1867. 1863. 1916. my heart. And look. When God his gifts dispenses. my heart. On these delightsome summer days. In this dear summer time so bright. Go forth. Stanza 1. and seek delight In this summer time so bright. my heart. Kelly. Go forth. Go forth. The beauty of these gardens see. Stanza 1. 138 .       In what thy God bestows! How rich the garden's beauties be. and seek for praise. See how the gardens in their best For you and me are gayly drest. In God's abundance daily. Miss Margarete Münsterberg. and seek delight. my heart. And ravish all the senses! J. how they for me and thee Have decked themselves so gaily. nor linger here In this sweet season of the year.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Stanza 1. The bounties God displayeth. The garden's splendour go and see Behold how God for me and thee Them gorgeously arrayeth. Massie. in her Harvest of German Verse.

Job. Ich selber werd in seinem Licht Ihn sehn und mich erquicken. der starke Held. and it would be presumption to attempt to prove that all these had received any direct impulse from his verses. .     I know that Redeemer lives: my I.       In This Reanimated Clay I surely shall behold Him near. von Maden . HYMNS SHOWING ADAPTATIONS OF IDEAS AND EXPRESSIONS FROM GERHARDT'S POEMS. and on the Earth shall stand."Studies in German Literature. Er lebt fürwahr. Bayard Taylor." says: "Most authors may be shown to be not imitators. (Cf. . . Lust 17 18 50 51 52 53 My Dust lies numbered in His Hand. Mein Auge wird sein Angesicht   Stanza 3. 81. Gerhardt (Goed. . (a) C. XIX. zerbrochen .25-27.   Stanza 2. p. Wird . . inheriting more or less of their natures.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 135 Many hymn writers since Gerhardt have drawn from the same scriptural sources as he. . 1879. dasz mein Erlöser lebt: Er lebt . Wesley in Hymns and Sacred Poems. 331.)205 line 1 3 5 30 31 32 33 He lives. 1742. Ich weisz.) Stanza 1. yet it must be realized that it is to a certain extent impossible that the conceptions of the hymn writers of one age should remain inseparable from the ideas of later poets. . 139 . . Mit groszer erblicken. Shall see Him at the Latter Day So wird er mich doch aus der Erd H e r n a c h m a l s auferwecken.   And tho' to Worms my Flesh he gives Das Fleisch . p. but the spiritual descendants of others. . . 205 Cf. In the pages which follow are cited some hymns containing phrases thoroughly suggestive of Gerhardt's lines which will contribute evidence in addition to that already adduced to show the prominent place his works hold as influencing English hymn writing. 124. In all His Majesty appear. in speaking about what he calls "intellectual genealogies in literature.

  Stanza 13. I believe. der ewig bleibt In meinem Fleische schauen. 206 Cf. 180.   13. Cf. Mast und Ruder Und mein Herzensfreund. Friend On whom I cast my every Care. in Hymns and Sacred Poems. Lord. 136 (Goed. 53 (b) C. and rest secure In Confidence Divine. 124. 229.) Ich weisz.) Stanza 15. p. On whom for all things I depend.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt     I feel what then shall raise me up. And to Thyself receive.) Und fasz ein fest Vertrauen. With me. Ders am besten mit mir meint. Ich werde den. Das hab ich je und je gegläubt (no. Wesley in Hymns and Sacred Poems. above no.)206 Jesu. dasz mein Erlöser lebt. (cf. Wesley. and then accept my Prayer. allerliebster Bruder. Inspire. 263. stanza 3. and claim me. 217. p. . 331. 1. I hang upon Thy Word. cf. I know. p. Du mein Anker. 49)     This is my Confidence of Hope That God I Face to Face shall see. Thy Spirit dwells. 72. 229. p. Mast und Ruder. 1. Lord. Stanza 1. 331. Er wird mich reiszen aus dem Grab Sein Geist wohnt mir im Herzen 19 (no. . Here let my Soul's sure anchor be (Goed. 43 ff. 140 . my Savior. treuster Du mein Anker. Th' Eternal Spirit lives in me. I know that my Redeemer lives And ever prays for me Sein Geist wohnt mir im Herzen (no. 49) Jesu. 52. Jesu. I stedfastly believe Thou wilt return. (c) C. Brother. line 2 above. . also stanza 23. Wesley. 331.

deep disease Spirit of health remove Spirit of perfect holiness Spirit of perfect love. fear and sin! The inward.   Jesu. Cf. (Cf. my Hope. Cf. 52. der Höchst und Beste Mir gänzlich günstig sei. lasz mich empfinden Und schmecken deine Kraft. Wesley in Wesleyan Hymn Book. (d) C. . 141 . line 9. That blessed law of thine 137 (Goed. Father. line 3 above. 126. Erfülle die Gemüter Mit reiner Glaubenszier 105 207 208 Cf.) And know Thou hearst my Prayer.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Here let me fix my wishful Eyes. Spirit of power within And bring thy glorious liberty From sorrow. 2. O come and dwell in me. lines 51. p. 1780. . lines 1. 111. 146. impart. der lehret 33 5 9 ff. 367.)208 Zeuch ein zu deinen Thoren. die uns von Sünden Hülf und Errettung schafft. my Strength. p.)207 Ist Gott für mich. (Cf. O hochgeliebter Geist. .-O write it in my heart. so trete Gleich mich. Du bist ein Geist.) With humble Confidence look up (Cf. to me.   (Goed. alles wider 1 2 9 11 12 Nun weisz und gläub ich feste Dasz Gott. Sei meines Herzens Gast. p. Entsündige meinen Sinn. 229. no. Stanza 1. Wesley in Hymns and Sacred Poems. Thy nature be my law Thy spotless sanctity Wie man recht beten soll. Zeuch ein. (Sein Geist) Vertreibet Sorg und Schmerzen Nimmt allen Kummer hin 51 52 (e) C. The Spirit's law of life divine.) On Thee I cast my Care. 52. Die Kraft.

56 ff. . Hohn und groszen Spott. Tritt her und schau mit Fleisze: Sein Leib ist ganz mit Schweisze Des Blutes überfüllt. Entsündige meinen Sinn Du bist ein Geist der Freuden . Du. of three stanzas. No scorn. Erleuchtest uns in Leiden Mit deines Trostes Licht. Behold! He dies for Thee: He who in glory reigneth. hast selbst in Händen Die ganze weite Welt. no shame disdaineth. Gerhardt (stanza 1). Rev. 1851. no.) 13 41 ff. bears such a striking resemblance to Gerhardt's "O Welt. So gib doch deine Gnad.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Gib Freudigkeit und Stärke And sweetly every moment draw zu stehen in dem Streit Richt unser ganzes Leben Allzeit nach deinem Sinn. p. In his Psalms and Hymns. From our fears and sins release us Israel's strength and consolation . no. . . T." One of them.   O World. behold Him dying Who is thy life supplying. 111. Wesley in Pilgrim Hymnal. R. Now from my Savior floweth The blood His love bestoweth On us that we may live! What grief His spirit rendeth! 138 O Welt. 94. From endless death my soul to free. Russell includes a group of hymns entitled "The Sufferings of Our Lord. Herr. T. 96. Stanza 2. So hilf uns Frölich sterben My happy soul to Thee! Und nach dem Tod ererben Des ewgen Lebens Haus. (Goed. 42. . . A. . Aus seinem edlen Herzen Whilst thus He condescendeth Vor unerschöpften Schmerzen 209 Cf. sich hier dein Leben"209 that we should be inclined to trace its source to this hymn. sich hier dein Leben Am Stamm des Kreuzes schweben! Dein Heil sinkt in den Tod! Der grosze Fürst der Ehren Läszt willig sich beschweren Mit Schlägen. Joy of every loving heart. though it is signed merely with the author's initials A. . 126 121 (f) C. Born to reign in us forever Now thy gracious kingdom bring. and is offered as original: Russell (stanza 1). 142 .

Hoff und sei unverzagt Gott wird dich aus der Höle. . Wenn dein Werk soll bestehn. my soul He planned for thee thy life Brings fruit from rain brings good from pain And peace and joy from strife. children of transgression To Jesus make confession." Cf. Du springst ins Todes Rachen.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt His life for us His foes to give. Psalm XXXVII. o du arme Seele. Line 5 might well be regarded as a condensation of the repeated ideas of confession and repentance in Gerhardt's strophes. Mich frei und los zu machen Von solchem Ungeheur (Lines 16 and 17. (Cf. (Lines 9-12. line 25 "ich sollte büszen"). yet stanza 3 as a whole appears to be influenced by the thoughts in Gerhardt's stanzas VIII and III.) Rest in the Lord. Ein Seufzer nach dem andern quillt. p. Auf sein Werk muszt du schauen. my soul Commit to him thy way What to thy sight seems dark as night To him is bright as day. my soul: This fretting weakens Thee. Dem Herren muszt du trauen. 114 ff. 143 . "O Father! mercy show:" Come.) Of His own will He dieth.) Du bist ja nicht ein Sünder Wie wir und unsre Kinder (Line 48. 139 Befiehl du deine Wege Und was dein Herze kränkt Why not be still? accept his will Da dich der Kummer plagt. "Commit thy way unto the Lord . 210 Cf. line 19 "ich und meine Sünden". Gerhardt. Who to His Father crieth. Rest in the Lord. yet because of the marked similarity of phraseology Gerhardt's hymn "Befiehl du deine Wege" must have been more or less familiar to him through the version of Wesley or another translator.) Hoff. Rest in the Lord. Wenn dirs soll wolergehen. . (Lines 43-45. Maltbie D. Rest in the Lord. Your all to His great love you owe. Russell (stanza 3).) O unerhörtes Liebesfeur! A hymn by Dr. (Lines 41-48. 5-7. Although its second and third lines are taken directly from the Bible. Babcock which has been included in several American hymnals would indicate that while the author may have had before him only the scriptural passage from the Psalms210 as he composed his verses.

and particularly the marked traces of Gerhardt's influence upon the English verses. 229). . God is my strong salvation: What foe have I to fear? In darkness and temptation My light. dasz ich finde Das ewge wahre Gut 19 20 6 Gleich alles wider mich 1 2 8 1 2 Was kann mir tun der Feinde 7 Mein Glanz und schönes Licht 26 Wenn ich gleich fall und 75 sterbe His might thine heart shall Sein Geist spricht meinem strengthen Geiste His love thy joy increase Manch süszes Trostwort zu: 211 212 213 214 215 Cf. A hymn212 now familiar to many congregations written by James Montgomery213 in 1872 and avowedly based on Psalm XXVII214 bears so strong a resemblance to this poem of Gerhardt's that two stanzas are here cited to show first the similarity of treatment of the general subject of Faith in the Power of God. Und Widersacher Rott? Though hosts encamp around Ist Gott für mich. is near. What terror can confound me With God at my right hand? Und bin geliebt bei Gott   2. Ist Gott für mich. whom shall I fear?" Cf. Gerhardt (Goed. in the Pilgrim Hymnal.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Mit groszen Gnaden rücken: Erwarte nur die Zeit. 32.] Cf. 126. [Quoted here in full.215 1. so trete Gleich alles wider mich. p. 9 . Nun weisz und gläub ich feste. . p. so trete" is but one of many sacred poems that treat this theme of the Christian's Hope. 136. 144 . Place on the Lord reliance My soul with courage wait His truth be thine affiance. So wirst du schon erblicken Die Sonn der schönsten Freud. Thou shalt his glory see. Wesley's adaptation211 of the thought in "Ist Gott für mich. so trete me Firm to the fight I stand. Babcock. When faint and desolate. my help. p. Maltbie D. 1912. "The Lord is my light and my salvation.

Cf. 4. Alike they're needful for the flower. thy will. . Father. 5 steigt Hat mir meinen Geist erquickt. p. 9 Sarah Flower Adams. p. Poetry. be done." The final line of each stanza introducing the theme of Resignation to God's Will may well have been suggested by the refrain "Was Gott gefällt. in his Songs of Zion. Hiefür bringen Lob und Dank. 1822. James Montgomery. yet showing much of the spirit of "Auf den Nebel folgt die Sonne"216 is Sarah Flower Adams' hymn. of Rel. 140 With less direct influence than appears in the hymns hitherto mentioned. be done!   Can loving children e'er reprove Gott Läszt keinen traurig stehn 50 52 53 54 With murmurs whom they trust and Der sich Ihm zu eigen schenkt love? Creator. . so lang ich in der Welt Haben werde Haus und Zelt ."217 He sendeth sun. When falls the shadow cold of death. Father. 145 . Father. Ich will gehn in Angst und Not Ich will gehn bis in den Tod Ich will gehn ins Grab hinein Und doch alIzeit frölich sein 85 86 89 91 99 100 101 102 Und Ihn in sein Herze senkt. . "He sendeth sun. in the Schaff-Gilman Lib. I would ever be A trusting. 1841. Enough that thou hast made it mine. Meine Seele . And joys and tears alike are sent To give the soul fit nourishment: As comes to me or cloud or sun. 56. loving child to thee: As comes to me or cloud or sun. . be done!   Oh. not mine. not mine. 216 217 Cf. 68. . he sendeth shower. thy will.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Mercy thy days shall lengthen The Lord will give thee peace. . he sendeth shower. thy will. . ne'er will I at life repine. not mine. . Wer auf Gott seine Hoffnung setzt Auf den Nebel folgt die Sonne Auf das Trauren Freud und Wonne 1 2 Trost und Labsal. Ich will all mein Leben lang . I yet will sing with parting breath As comes to me or shade or sun. Nu.

Danger and sorrow stand Round me on every hand.'" In America it is usually sung to Arthur S. There at my Savior's side. and headed "Heaven is my home. Those I loved most and best. Manch harter erschreckt. Hab ich doch müszen leiden 23 218 Cf. .   3. Air--'Robin Adair. I shall reach home at last   Heaven is my home. 60 Mein Heimat ist dort droben. 74. Wind und 19 Regen So will ich swar nun treiben 57 Mein Leben durch die Welt 58 Doch denk ich nicht zu 59 bleiben And time's wild wintry blast Hat mir manch Angst erweckt. Short is my pilgrimage. 20 Soon will be overpast. .   2." The hymn so closely resembles Gerhardt's lines in "Ich bin ein Gast auf Erden"218 that the parallels are given below: 1. Du ausgeschmücket hast Da will ich .Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt A very familiar hymn in English-speaking countries is Thomas Rawson Taylor's "I'm but a stranger here" written in 1834. Earth is a desert drear. In diesem fremden Zelt.   Heaven is my home. I shall be glorified.   Heaven is my home.   4. 146 . Therefore I'll murmur not. In meinern Erbteil ruhn. I'm but a stranger here.   Heaven is my home. Sullivan's "Saint's Rest. Sturm 18 Blitz.   Heaven is my home. 65 Da aller Engel Schaar 66 Den groszen Herrscher loben 67 Die frommen heilgen Seelen 41 Die giengen fort und fort 42 105 107 108 109 112 There with the good and blest Da will ich immer wohnen. Heaven is my fatherland. p. die mit Kronen I shall forever rest.   Heaven is my home. 141 Ich bin ein Gast auf Erden Was ist mein ganzes Wesen Als Müh und Not gewesen Da ist mein Vaterland 1 9 11 4 What though the tempests Mich hat auf meinen Wegen 17 rage. It was published in 1836 in his Memoirs and Select Remains. Bei denen. Donner.

meine Freude . 6. quoted opp. 219 147 . Although Lyte based his hymn on Hebrews IV." he treats in his concluding stanza the additional theme of hope and cheer which. . Since this chapter of Hebrews has no direct reference to this theme we have good reason to assume that from the striking similarity Cf. Lyte.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Und tragen mit Geduld. My rest is in heaven.-Heaven is my fatherland. 142 Stanza 1. A scrip on my back.219 was a constant and favorite topic with Gerhardt. . Then why should I murmur when trials are near? Be hushed. 5. they cannot destroy. They only make heaven more sweet at the close. Whate'er my earthly lot. I march on in haste through an enemy's land: The road may be rough. my rest is not here. Ins Haus der ewgen Wonne. . . I pant for a country by sin undefiled. and hastens thee home. my dark spirit! the worst that can come But shortens thy journey.   Heaven is my home. 1833 and 1845. in his Poems chiefly Religious." by Sarah H. Other similarities to "Ich bin ein Gast auf Erden" are: (a) "The Pilgrim. 22. And I'll smooth it with hope and I'll cheer it with song. . . and a staff in my hand. One glimpse of thy love turns them all into joy: . above. 58 There at my Lord's right Cf. 24 53 54 So will ich zwar nun treiben 57 Mein Leben durch die Welt. These lines are certainly suggestive of Gerhardt's words in his stanza XIII: Du aber. A Pilgrim am I on my way To seek and find the Holy Land . Poetry. . but it cannot be long. . . Palfrey. in the Schaff-Gilman Lib. as has been seen. . 2. . "There remaineth therefore a rest to the people of God. hand. 4. 9." by H. For I shall surely stand Es musz ja durchgedrungen Es musz gelitten sein. p. This poem would perhaps bear but slight resemblance to Gerhardt's were it not for the final stanza where the element of joy is introduced: While Joy shall spring With me through heaven's straight door. my progress oppose. F. .   Heaven is my home. Rel. and danger. It is not for me to be seeking my bliss And building my hopes in a region like this: I look for a city which hands have not piled. Afflictions may damp me. (b) "The Pilgrim's song. . du zeuchst mich . Let doubt then. . stanza 3. lines 105-112.

In Thring's Collection. lines 4-8 is altered to: And we shall rise in that great day In bodies like to Thine And with Thy saints in bright array. C.. Lyte stanza 6. under the signature "A. C. (Cf. [Septuagesima. line 104." Especially in stanza VII is the likeness most noticeable: So will ich zwar nun treiben Mein Leben durch die Welt.) 143 There are of course numerous adaptations of Gerhardt's work which have less merit than those which have been mentioned. and is definitely known to have been suggested to Canon Cooke by Gerhardt's hymn. Die zu der Heimat führt. 1872. but it would be beyond the scope of this thesis to discuss them. 1882.) (c) "In exile here we wander. Lyte stanza 1. lines 65. 144 148 . From our consideration up to this point we may draw the following conclusions: many translators have taken the liberty of altering the original versions thereby injuring perhaps just those hymns possessed of the greatest warmth and vigor and have in this way prevented our poet from being more fully acknowledged. (Cf. Cooke. stanza III. 66. (Cf." (i. "A Canon of Chester"). e.) Shall in Thy glory shine. Lyte stanza 5. at the same time the best of his hymns as devotional lyrics with a pathos and sympathy which are exceptionally beautiful and powerful have become naturalized in English-speaking countries by the really good translations and will always serve to enkindle devotion and strengthen grace in the true Christian worshipper. Doch denk ich nicht zu bleiben In diesem fremden Zelt.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt of language of the two hymns Lyte was influenced by Gerhardt's "Ich bin ein Gast auf Erden. FINIS.) Da mich ohn alle Maszen Mein Vater trösten wird.) Ich wandre meine Straszen. (Cf. (Cf.] This hymn appeared in the Hymnary." by W.

Catherine Hannah Findlater. Edward Massie. Princeton. Mrs. D. Edward Warner. Philipp Heinrich Montgomery. John Jackson. Pastor in New York. Catherine Alexander. Frances Elizabeth Dunn. and Pastor of the Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church.D. James Steven Stryker. Emma Frances Borthwick. Arthur Tozer Stallybrass. Nathaniel Langdon Gambold.. John Winkworth. and was successively Professor of Rhetoric at Princeton. Elizabeth Cox. Richard Mills. 1820. James Waddell Beddome. James Drummond Charles. Jane Buckoll. James Waddell. Benjamin Bevan. Alice Massie.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt APPENDIX SHORT BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF TRANSLATORS Alexander. James Russell. (Sarah Borthwick) Frothingham. John Guthrie. Professor of Church History. Henry Molther. Samuel Macauley Jacobi. under the title The Breaking Crucible 149 . born 1804. John Kennedy. Melancthon Woolsey Thring. Charles Wesley. His works include some translations published about two years after his death. He died in 1859. New York. Anna Wesley. John Christian Kelly. Benjamin Hall Manington. Henry James Burns. graduated at Princeton.

49. She has translated nos.. she translated from the German Hymns from the Land of Luther in four series. In 1839 he edited a Collection of Hymns for the Rugby Parish Church. He was apprenticed to a surgeon in Bristol. That collection contains 14 of his hymns. Warwickshire. Emma Frances. L. 106. but removing to London. These translations have attained great success and hardly a hymnal in England or America has appeared without containing some of them. Many of these found their way into the General Baptist Hymn Book of 1793. He took Holy Orders in 1827 and died at Rugby in 1871. 25. 239. It was his practice to prepare a hymn every week to be sung after his Sunday morning sermon. 185 and 284. Buckoll. and in 1850 compiled a new edition of the Collection for the Rugby School Chapel." Miss Borthwick has written various prose works and contributed many original poems to the Family Treasury and to other collections. Jane. Bevan published in 1858 a series of translations from the German as Songs of Eternal Life (London) which are above the average in merit. This prolific hymn writer was born at Henley-in-Arden." He has translated nos. 1827. 1717. He died September 3. He was educated at Rugby and Queen's College. He has translated nos. Mrs. he joined in 1739 the Baptist Church. M. née Shuttleworth. Under the signature of "H. born at Oxford. The early name of Brown University. Oxford.A.A. born 1803. L. Mrs. from Rhode Island College. 59. 150 . He has translated no. Benjamin.220 Beddome. 220 221 The numbers refer to the page on which the poem begins in the Goedeke text. 229. Borthwick. and other collections. M. Henry James. 1795.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt and other Translations. Findlater. a few of which were translations from the Latin and German.221 Providence. Together with her sister. She has translated nos. His Hymns translated from the German was published 1832. His popularity is now mainly in America. January 23. Of these translations the most noted is "O Sacred Head now Wounded. and became one of the most respected Baptist ministers in England.A. graduating in 1826. 185 and 229. 60. born 1813 at Edinburgh. Bevan. In 1770 he received the degree of M. where his father was at that time Baptist minister.

1823. Frothingham. Boston. 139. He has translated nos. containing 49 translations printed with the original text together with biographical notes on the German authors. M. 1st ed. 111. Among his hymns which have become widely popular are 39 translations from the German which appeared in the Family Treasury. 122. Gambold. 89. 142. 155. 1811. Taking Holy Orders. Nathaniel Langdon.D. London. 68. 139. sister of Miss Jane Borthwick. She has translated nos. She has translated nos. 185. where he was also sometime Tutor. In 1857 she published a little volume of 36 Hymns from the German. 274. 1841. She has translated nos. Frances Elizabeth. 145 Charles. of Luther and his times and of Wesley and his work. Oxfordshire. 293. 68.. 1730. James Drummond. Cox. Dunn. (Sarah Borthwick) born 1823. 1793. 185. 185. John. 71. Findlater. 60. Elizabeth. He died in 1870. 185. He has translated no. born at Edinburgh. Mrs. 68. 89.. She has translated nos. D. 60. 74.A. 293. was born 1711. 150. and educated at Edinburgh University. well known as the translator of hymns from the German.A. Vicar of Stanton Harcourt. born at Oxford. the number was increased to 56. M. They appeared in The Voice of Christian Life in Song. born in Devonshire. She has made some valuable contributions to hymnody. 67. In 1855 he became minister of Hampstead Presbyterian Church. born at Boston.A. 60. In the 2d ed. 1815. 111.. 49. Her translations were published as Sacred Hymns from the German. and graduated at Harvard. born at Nottingham. 239. He died in 1864. M. B. 59. 1858. 1734. They are rendered exactly in the meters of the originals and many had not previously been translated. From 1815 to 1850 he was Pastor of the First Church (Unitarian). Catherine Hannah. His Metrical Pieces were published in 1855 and 1870. but 151 . about 1739. he became.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Burns.A. including original hymns and translations from the Latin and German. died 1863. Oxford.. England. London. née Rundle. the author of numerous and popular works on the early Christian life in Great Britain.. 118. graduated at Christ Church. 1864.

19. graduated Edinburgh M. 15. 17. 200. He graduated from the College of the City of New York in 1870 and from Union Theological Seminary in 1873. 91. . John. 310. 124. 78. He held that post for 42 years and died in 1750. 68. visiting Europe and the East. 74. 302. about 1708. 25. 287. 108.222 He has translated nos. 263. 324. 71. 153. A collected edition of his works was published at Bath in 1789. 71. 226. He has translated nos. 222 In the XVIIIth Century this term was current for "High German. Hymns original and translated from the German. 185. 23. 319. and the author of Huldreich Zwingli (Heroes of the Reformation Series). 289. Among his publications are Psalmodia Germanica . Sympathizing with the views of Dr. 106. 239. Jackson. 93. Jacobi. Samuel Macauley. He died in 1771. 173. 49. 209. 235. 100. 304. He has translated no. 1901. 80. 62." 152 . compiling in 1856 their hymn book. London. 28. have been claimed for them. 161. 135. 146 Kelly. 232. His Hymns of the Present Century from the German was published in 1886. He was editor-in-chief of the New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopaedia of Religious Knowledge. 212. John. He has translated nos. 95. 68. 139. 76. and the Theological College of the English Presbyterian Church. 122.. 111. 229. 205. 68. educated at Glasgow University. 67. 178. New College. 312. . 171. 7. 229. 220. and afterwards reprinted. 296. In 1869 he published Sacred Lyrics. James's Palace. 1901. About 26 translations and 18 original hymns in the Moravian Hymn Book are assigned to him. but the evidence is in favor of Gambold. St. born 1814. 155. was born in 1851. Guthrie. 271. Zwingli Selections. His translations of Gerhardt's Spiritual Songs were published in 1867.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt resigned 1742 and joined the United Brethren (Moravians) by whom he was chosen one of their bishops in 1754. James Morison he was deposed from his pastorate and joined with Dr. translated from High Dutch. 1835. 59. 235. 267. 3. 71. John Christian.A. 185. 25. 60. 158. 284. 83. 1903. New Jersey. 315. 49. 185. 120. 224. 100. 217. after which he spent two years in travel. with versions of Psalms. 81. was born in 1670. Morison in forming the Evangelical Union. 293. 130. studied theology at Bonn. 49. 118. 142. Many of these hymns have much beauty and sweetness. 1869. 59. 260. Edinburgh. 176.D. D. a native of Germany. 60. 65. 274. and appointed Keeper of the Royal German Chapel. 89. He has translated nos. London. from 1876 to 1880 pastor at Norwood. One or two of his hymns. 150. which were published by the Wesleys.

Besides several textbooks of the classics he published The Psalter. 161. 49. She published two sets of translations from the German. She has translated nos. M. and also Hymnologia Christiana. B. He has translated nos. 46. he joined the (Moravian) Brethren in 1737. 293. 312. 331. and took Holy Orders in 1829. In 1864 he published vol. N. 19.D. 229. 293 (2 versions). 185. 161. Henry. He has translated nos. Massie. and graduated from Princeton in 1802. and went to London 1739. Edward. and later lived at Vienna.. 71. 304. 1860. Mills. Benjamin Hall. Cambridge. At Jena. This was enlarged in 1856.A.A. 118. 59. 1860. A Version of German Hymns. Molther. He died at Auburn in 1867. He published a translation of Martin Luther's Spiritual Songs. and Sacred Odes. Oxford. 1827. in 1863. He also contributed many translations of German hymns to Mercer's Church Psalter and Hymn Book. where he studied theology. The latter contain many translations from the German. which included numerous translations from the German. 256. M. 155. 118. 25. Philipp Heinrich. 235.A. 81. 1866 and 1867. He was later Professor of Greek in Cambridge University. J. 1863. 239. B. and educated at St. He published in 1862 A Few Hymns for Occasional Use in the Services of the Church.D. 1854. born 1804. was educated at Wadham College. 155. Massie. In 1775 he was consecrated as bishop of the Brethren's Unity. 153 . 108. Alice. John's College. 1786. and spent the rest of his life 1762-1780 in Dublin and Bedford. He has translated nos. and 1864. II which has an "Appendix" of translations of German hymns by various authors. 1834. D.. 158. 1830. born 1800. In 1845 he published Horae Germanicae.A. 1714. 60. born at Morristown. At the opening of the Auburn Theological Seminary in 1821 he was appointed Professor of Biblical Criticism and Oriental Languages from which he retired in 1854. 153. 239. He was minister of the Brethren's congregation at Neuwied from 1750 to 1761. Manington. 19. He took Holy Orders in 1830. Richard. also Lyra Domestica. born in Alsace. to Reid's British Herald and other periodicals. D.. He has translated nos. 150. 176. 25. 235. born at Brighton. 239.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Kennedy. 312. London. 47..

brother of Godfrey Thring. Thring. contributing many original hymns and several translations. Stryker.A.A. and educated at King's College. He edited many poetical works. g. He has translated nos. and Songs of Zion. Stallybrass. 185. 235. He has held pastorates at Auburn. and translated from the German a number of scientific works. and his original hymns and translations have found their way into many hymnals. He became Head Master of Uppingham School in 1853 and held this position until his death in 1887. 185. 1844. The Sabbath Hymnbook. graduated at Hamilton College 1872 and Auburn Theological Seminary 1876. and St. educated at Manchester College. E. In 1829 he was ordained by the bishop of Lincoln.D. 32. He died in 1874. born 1771. was born 1821. 139. and in 1851 appeared Psalms and Hymns. 25. 154 .. 68. He was the author of several important works for schools and colleges and the joint editor of a hymn book to which he contributed some translations from the German. Private and Social Devotion. B. Arthur Tozer. Cambridge. 155. 1822.. Ithaca. He was twice imprisoned in the next two years for items which appeared in the columns of the Iris. John's College. Edward. Stallybrass of the London Missionary Society. James. the son of Rev. He has translated nos. He also contributed many translations of German hymns and poems to the various publications of Mr. Cf. 155. He was the author of many works covering a wide range of subjects of a religious nature. born in Siberia in 1826. 158. 1825. 60. Curwen. and has edited six works on hymns. among them Original Hymns for Public. D. 147 Russell. His early years covered a varied experience as bookseller. e.. born in 1851. He became editor of the Sheffield Iris and continued this work for thirty-one years. York. Holyoke and Chicago. He was President of Hamilton College 1892-1917. 1853.A. The Christian Psalmist.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Montgomery. Melancthon Woolsey. Cambridge. born 1806. 209. He has translated no. 312. 31. He died in London in 1888. pp. He was well known as an educationist. 60. auctioneer. 40. printer's assistant. He has translated nos. 150. James Steven. In 1848 various of his own hymns. M. original and translated from the German. M. appeared in Hymns for Public Worship.

During his short ministry in Georgia he met with many discouragements and returned home much dissatisfied. She is the author of the novel Say and Seal. (3) The Chorale Book for England (containing translations from the German. but it is reasonably certain that more than thirty translations from the German." In 1735 he went as a missionary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel to Georgia where a new colony had been founded under the governorship of Gen. Oxford. His headquarters were at Bristol till 1771 when he moved to London devoting there much time to the spiritual care of the prisoners in Newgate. perhaps the great hymn writer of all ages. 1863. Her translations are the most widely used of any from the German and have had more to do with the modern revival of the English use of German hymns than have 155 . Wesley. French. the great hymn writer of the Wesley family. were exclusively his and although somewhat free they embody the fire and energy of the originals and have had a wide circulation. Wesley. She edited Hymns of the Church Militant. no less than 6500 hymns being ascribed to him. 1869. She has translated no. Anna. 1869. 1858. 31. and went in 1735 with his brother John to Georgia as Secretary to Gen. 2d Series 1858. born in London in 1829. Moravians. Oglethorpe. and published Wayfaring Hymns. born near New York City about 1822. travelling. 1707. 71.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Warner. Cf. p. He died in 1788. and Spanish. together with music). 185. he returned to England 1736 and shortly afterward came under the influence of Count Zinzendorf and the Moravians. Although not the earliest of modern translators from the German into English. He was educated at Christ Church. His stay there was very short. He was the youngest son and 18th child of Samuel and Susanna Wesley and was born at Epworth Rectory December 18. John. receiving his education at Westminster School and Christ Church. He has translated nos. Oglethorpe. She published (1) Lyra Germanica. 148 Winkworth. and (4) Christian Singers of Germany. and in 1729 became director of the little band of "Oxford Methodists. Original and Translated. Catherine. 1st Series 1855. 1859. 89. Oxford. (2) Lyra Germanica. On his voyage he was deeply impressed with the piety and Christian courage of some German fellow travellers. preaching and making converts. chiefly from the German. He died at the age of 88 in the year 1791. He became one of the first band of Oxford Methodists. She took always a deep and active interest in the educational work in connection with the "Clifton Association for the Higher Education of Women" and kindred societies. born at Epworth Rectory in 1703. Charles. Miss Winkworth is surely the foremost in rank and popularity. In London he again fell in with the Moravians and from now on he labored to spread what he believed to be the everlasting gospel. 200. The part which he actually took in writing the many hymns ascribed to the two brothers John and Charles is difficult to ascertain.

153. 49 (2 versions). 76. 111 (2 versions).Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt the versions of any other writer. 25 (2 versions). 232. 304. 139. 150. 108. 60 (2 versions). 235. 155. She has translated nos. 209. 83. 293. 239. 122. 71. 217. 62. 284. 156 . 100. 229. 95. 274. 298.

2 150. line 12.22 190.80 223 In these tabulations the poems are numbered according to the page on which they begin in the Goedeke text.3 95.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt TABULATIONS223 149 ALLITERATION (cf. of W. Of the other consonants there is an average of only two or three each.120 274. Friede. 157 .3 331.47 D 28. 36. An enumeration shows the following results:224 Sequences of F. .42 47. A few somewhat forced cases are omitted. 12. of H. B beiszt und brennt Ohne dasz du. 20. 27.44 G 7. rarely is there alliteration of vowels. 6.7 232.22 77. 224 The tabulation is not exhaustive. 12 means poem no.47 93.und Freudenswort Mit Freuden singen für und für Ist meiner Feinde Freude Trost. 19) Gerhardt clings to the traditional fondness of the German poet for alliterative phrases. . 20. thus: 153.97 178.44 270. drang dich doch Entzünde mich durch dich dienen dir Und aller Erden Ecken Ist ihr erfüllet Fried und Freude Freund und Feinde für und für Fried.40 150.7 47. Freud und Leben Frisch und freudig Die vollkommene Freude Freuden Fülle Und fasz ein fest Vertrauen Gottes Gnad und Güt Gott gönnt ihm Guts 153. of Z.98 244. die du hier Ich will dein Diener bleiben .53 41. The predominating sounds are the consonants. 30.49 13.94 E (a) (i) 220. p. of L. of S. of G. If there be any virtue in the saw regarding "Apt alliteration's artful aid" our poet has found that virtue.12 F (V) 25. 153.

32 89.112 44. Geld ist ihr Licht Geist und Glauben Hat er nicht Gold.5 59.23 158 .23 86.90 74.11 248. so hat er Gott Hie ist Gott und Gottes Grund Gottes Gaben Des groszen Gottes groszes Thun Geld und Gut 150 15.44 239.75 115.14 153.9 255.38 105. Gut und Ehr Gnad und Güte Gottes Gnad und Gab güldne Gut und Geld Gottes Geist Gottes Grimm Gutes gönnen Geistes Gnad dein Geist mir giebt Gift und Gallen Gut und Geld Gottes Zorn und groszen Grimm ganz und gar Gold ist ihr Gott.11 253.79 150.20 80.93 153.41 267. 111.7 (cf.2 254.13 97.11 97.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt ganz und gar Gottes Grimm Es grüszet dich mein ganzes Geist Dem Geber aller Güter Gegen Gott Gnad und Gütigkeit Gift.17 226.68 & 69 62.43 135.3 62.49 232.44 226.44 242.75 above) 284.32 81. Gall und Ungestüm Gut und Geld Gall und Gift Gut und Geld Dasz dir Gott Glück.20 111.68 293.57 164.6 30.61 178. dein Gesicht ganz und gar Geduld ist Gottes Gabe Und seines Geistes Gut Gottes Grimm ganz und gar Güter und Gaben 244.3 239.8 190. 25 & 26 273.65 Gibt uns Gott dies einge Gut Gott und Gottes Gunst ganz und gar Dein Geberde.3 95.

4 139.85 139.69 19.5 65.54 47.3 200.66 232.7 & 8 120.56 51.85 220.72 267.26 43. mein Helfer Haus und Hof Himmels Haus Die Hände herzlich drücken Ihr Herz und Hand ist hoch bemüht Ich mein Heil und Hülfe hab Meine Hülfe kömmt allein Von des Höchsten Händen her Hiet und Hüter hoch und herrlich Weil heut der Herr der Herrlichkeit hartes Herze ich harr und hoff auf dich Wol halt und herrlich siege Haut und Hülle Sein Hoheit ist des Höchsten Huld Häupt und Halse heilt und hielt Heil und Hort Herr im Haus Heilen im Herzen Knecht und Kind Lob und Liebe Lebens Leben Lieb und Lust Lieb und Leid Des Lebens Leben lebet noch Leben und Leiden Ich lechze wie ein Land liegt und legt Lebens Lauf lebt und lacht Lust und Lachen Alle Luft Laute ruft Leib und Seele laben Lebens Läng 298.5 164.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Gut und Gaben Gut und Gelde Gut und Gelde Mein Herrscher.79 L 17.63 H 5.16 319.78 K 86.32 21.99 217.19 89.29 93.51 212.14 51.36 267.46 74.58 25.24 171.56 293.44 149.6 93.54 232.64 164.36 226.35 155.61 7.9 321.40 65.101 159 .

19 328.50 M 47.4 76.10 274.89 271.33 sanft und stille Spiesz und Schwerter 86.107 235.120 242. und Wind Ruh und Rast Reich und Rachen Ruh und Rast Ich stund in Spott und Schanden Springst und singst In Schlaf und süszer Stille schrickt und scheut So sorgten sie zur selben Zeit du sollt die Sonne schauen Die Sünden aller Sünder Schand und Sünden stiehlt und stellt Schand und Sünde Der Seelen Sitz mit Sinn und Witz Der Schatten einen Schemen 151 173.98 313.71 46.13 83.16 68.48 49.3 242.94 95.47 30. Reif.21 86.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Im ewgen Leben labe Lebens Lauf Lieb und Leid Leib und Leben Kein Lieben und kein Leiden Lob und lieb Ist viel mehr Lobs und Liebens wert Sie thut ihm Liebes und kein Leid Mein Leben lang Lieb und Lust Licht und Leben Lebens Licht Licht und Leben Luft und Leben Mich und mein armes Leben Entnehmen meinen Mut Mein Vater musz mich lieben Alle Menschen müszen leiden Regen.2 S 25.10 51.96 180.31 81.72 209.44 284.47 260.12 74.50 59.29 83.9 252.35 80.41 229.6 62.55 328.86 R 10.93 229.27 28.4 160 .

. süsz.14 120.62 & 63 30. Um welcher willen Aus welcher Wund Hast alles. .16 59. 62 312.43 251.109 & 110 158. Seiden selig.86 111. und schön Stahl noch Stein Mit Schimpf und groszer Schande Ist voller Freud und Singen Sieht lauter Sonnenschein Die Sonne .115. Wird hier auch mit erhöht Werk und Worten Weisz alle Weisheit wertes Wort 95.25 28. Seine Strafen.19 209. Wer dort mit sterben geht. . und dein Stecken sanft und still Ich steh im gewünschten Stande . was ich wünsch und will Dich hat ein Weib der Welt gebracht Mein Weirauch und mein Widder Wer dort wird mit verhöhnt.32 & 33 304. Scham und Schande Sammt.76 293.46 100.7 145.67 104. .62 161 .128 229.6 W 10.69-72 86.26 47.22 287. Steht in steter voller Blütt Thun und Toben Tod und Teufel Wind und Wetter Gott weisz wol.307 46. . 116 & 117 235.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt . . was wir vermögen Wirst du und wir mit dir gehn. . . .2 30.27 139. Wird hier auch mit gekrönt. .68 T 108.23 74. Herr.91 242. zerstörten Schlüsser Und Städte voller Schutt und Stein Stahl und Steine Zu stehen in dem Streit Dein Stab.61 212.17 254. 63 28. weisze Seid Singt und springt schwache Schnur Schosz und Schutz Sind seine Sorgen Segnen . Wenn uns wird .39 & 40 111. seine Schläge Hält sich selbst sauber.69 200.

52 150.99 169. . 19. . . 59.63 287. 28.37 205.5 & 6 ASSONANCE 5. 69 47 62 63 152 grünen und blühn gehn und treten Sei der Verlasznen Vater . Gabe Der Armen Gut und Habe. dein Hülf und Heil Wann Gottes Geist erhebt die Hand Sein Herz ist voller Huld Und gönnt uns lauter Guts. 58 1 45 46 47 48 23. .37 263.10 30. 162 .55 173. 40 SPECIAL CASES OF ALLITERATION 118.33 239. Der Rat und That erfinden kann springst und singst Wirst du und wir mit dir gehn Wenn uns wird .39 111.41 180.35-40 190.75 Z 19. Zank Zeit und Zahl Zur rechten Zeit zu zähmen Zu seinem Zweck und Ziel Dein Schirm und Schild.23 above) 293.29 (cf. . Den Abend währt das Weinen.11 185. Berater .47 293. .Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Wol und Weh Weg und Weisen Der Weizen wächset init Gewalt Wol und Weh All deine Werk sind Wunder voll Weirauch und Widder Wort und Willen Durch Zittern und durch Zagen Mit Zittern und mit Zagen Zorn.38 & 39 270. Des Morgens macht das Scheinen Der Sonn uns gutes Muts Ich liebe dich und leide Pein Bin dein und doch betrübet Lasset uns loben Seliges Sterben 139.

200.13) Jagt und schlagt sing und klinge Scham und Schande Wunden unsrer Sünden Theil und Heil schlecht und recht (cf. Spreu zerstreuet Gut und Blut (cf. so nennt Tritt und Schritt Rat und That (cf. 2 3 5 6 7 60 43 44 45 Der herzlich . 111. 209. Du Träger aller Bürd und Last Du aller Müden Ruh und Rast Ach.69) Tag und Nacht Not und Tod Da wird mein Weinen lauter Wein. 78. 68. Wie schmerzlich . 161. 46.131) So kennt. 176. . 164. 49 1 5 12 40 58 67 70 52 82 49 13 27 16 47 102 110 149. 171. 164.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 44.69. 47. 193. . meine Freude Und nimm dein Küchlein ein! Saft und Kraft geht und trägt matt und krank selbst zum Helfer stellt Füll und Hüll schlecht und recht Weisz alle Weisheit Fleisz und Schweisz Neid und Streit Auf Reu der Freuden Blick sing und spring Gut und Blut . 23. 132. 145. wie bezwang und drang dich doch All seine Zeit vertreibe Breit aus die Flügel beide O Jesu. Rat und That (cf. 217. . 220. 23.58) weit und breit weit und breit (cf. .4) geht und steht Wer brachte Sonn und Mond herfür 65. 124. 118. . 212. 15 88 3 131 1 12 43 4 32 38 110 111 11 4 45 163 . 196. Mein Ächzen lauter Jauchzen sein. 91. 196. . 91. 100. 122. 60. 80. 111. 122.

55. DOUBLETS OF EXACT OR APPROXIMATE SYNONYMS (cf.131. geschickte Gemüt Dessen Gedächtnisz . Furcht.94) Ihre Begierde . 270.26. 298.87) Rat und That (cf. .1) des roten Goldes Kot singt und springt (cf. . 253. 19) A Ach und Weh Adern und Geblüte Angst und Not Angst und Nöten Angst. 325. 239.66.47. Tod und Sterbensnot webt und lebet hebt und leget Tag und Jahre Zahl webt und lebt (cf. 91. 45 46 28 44 72 43 17 19 14 94 Wer machte Kräuter. .89.24 185. 23. 209. Seliges Sterben . 150.9 25. 335. 169. 242. . 333. 274. 15 87 71 53 125 54 Berkow.8.71 78.49) Kraft und Macht Gieng und hieng Rat und That (cf. .Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 46 229. 28. 260. 274. das feine. lasset uns loben . 164. 118. . 244. 254.19 164 .69. 260. 232. 193.10 158. .4) In this poem note the unusual scheme of alliteration and sound sequence (regular except for one line) in the first four syllables of the concluding couplets of the first three stanzas:   stanza 1 5 6   stanza 2 11 12   stanza 3 17 18 271.66. 251. 284. .99. 287. . Ist ihr erfüllet . p. . Sorg und Schmerz 104. 23. Bäum und Thier Kein Urtheil mich erschrecket Kein Unheil mich betrubt Die Wiesen liegen Des groszen Gottes groszes Thun weit und breit (cf.69. 196.

54 328. 164.21 108. 224. 198.37 78.7 153.10.41 190.246 F fall und sterbe Fehl und Mängel 229.64.79 217.16 83.9 23.46 111.7 260.23 165 .5 19.8.82 30.96 115.32 190.88 B Bahn und Lauf Bahn und Steg Berg und Spitzen betrübt und kränket Bett und Lager bewust und wolbekannt brechen und fallen Bund und Zeugnisz Bürd und Last Burg und Schlosz 304.97. 271. 164.16 47.27 267.75 278.15 315.90 D Dampf und Rauch Dieb und Räuber drück und quäle 153.20 324.20. 212.56 E Ehr und Dank Ehr und Dienste Eilend und behend emsich und bemühet Ohn End und alle Masz Erb und Theil Erd und Kot Erd und Staub Erd und Thon Erkenntnisz und Verstand Ernst und Eifer 324.67 91.31 313.22 95.12 220.13 139.12 106.52 293.91.15 145.53. 248.30 65.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Angst und Pein Angst und Plagen Angst und Qual Angst und Schmerzen Angst und Trübsal Angst und Weh ängstet und bemüht Arm und Kraft 153 122.27 284.

4.108 212.29 30.2.40 120. 178.43 51.8.und Freudenswort Fried und Ruh Frisch und freudig Füll und Hüll Furcht und Angst Furcht und Scheu Furcht und Schrecken Furcht und Zagen 145.102 97.19 15.41.97 229.84 271.40 229. 284.6.322.89 278. 232.28 271. 328.12. 229.2 95.78 242.72.75 153.1 125. 254.83 232. 324.15 118.82 71.39 95. 158.30 100.68 251.39 G Gall und Gift ganz und gar ganz und neu Geist und Gemüte Geist und Sinn Geist und Sinnen Geld und Gut Gemüt und Seele gern und williglich getrost und unbetrübt getrost und unverzagt Gift und Gallen Glanz und Bild Glanz und Freudenlicht 81.65 108. 127.181 158. 325.42.49 209.25.115 51.58 284.98 80.33 217.55 71.18.53 242.54 166 .31.2 5.5 135. 205.14 46.70 81.23 15.182.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Fels und Burg Fels und Stein Feuer und Licht Fleisch und Blut Fleisz und Schweisz fliehn und haszen fleuch und haszt fliehn und laszen frech und geil sich freu und jubiliere Freud und Lust Freud und Seligkeit Freud und Singen Freud und Trost Freud und Wonne Freuden und Lust Mein Freund und treuer Rat Fried.14 30. 217.2 78. 253.

9.84 253. 229.6 7. 153.43 324.19 7.29 135.86 Heil und Gnaden Heil und Hülfe Herz und Mut Herz und Sinn Heu und Stroh hoch und herrlich Hohn und Spott Hohn und groszem Spott Huld und Gnaden Hülf und Errettung Hülf und Heil Hülf und Rat 293. 97.57. 267.32 173.24 68.127 25. 205.63 17.15 127.16 68.2 173. Gut und Ehr Glück und Heil Glück und Segen Gnad und Gab Gnad und Gunst Gnad und Güte Gnad und Gütigkeit Gnad und Hulden Gott und Hort Gott und Retter Grab und Sarg Gram und Leid Gram und Schmerze Gras und Laub Gilt und Geld(e) Gut und Heil Gut und Waaren Güt und Segen 229.86 71.76 93.3 95.12 118 55 188.3 97.13 304.88.38.8.43 158. 319.90 293.86.17. 205.68 139.26 103.23 111.22 167 . 321.3 95.84 89.27 H Hab und Gut Hasz und Neid Hans und Hof Haus und Zelt 154 188.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Mein Glanz und schönes Licht Glanz und Schein Glaub und Treu Glück und Freude Glück.40 10.30 108.19 15.16 83.11 62.62.28.8 86.32. 217.60 21. 232.56 10. 183.1 & 2.6 324.

31.16 226. 274.39 86. 25.54 25.17 239. 13.28 15.42 328.45 278. 193.54 30.25 3.54.45 253.22 293.24 21. 127. 30.90 78. 244.26 J in Jammer und in Not Jauchzen und Freuden 198.129.11.87 217.229 91.93 7. 93. 25.32 168 . 325. 60.29 287.85 25.10 5.43.12 287. 30.91 271.22.39.7.5.52.8.79 235. 248. 180.22.84 158.48 10. 226.60.64.20. 232. mein Vermögen Kraft und Macht 118.29.24 25.19 L Last und Bürd Laster und Schande Leib und Leben Leib und Seel(e) lenke und führe Lieb und Ehre Lieb und Gnad Lieb und Güt Lieb und Huld Lieb und Lust Lieb und Treu List und Tück Lob und Preis lobt und preist Lob und Dank Lohn und Sold Luft und Höh Lust und Freude Lust und Freuden 226. 65.46 229. 180.9 M Macht und Kraft March und Bein Mark und Bein Masz und Zahl 108. 319.85.26 124.72 K Kält und Frost kann und mag kann und weisz Klag und Sorge klar und rein Knecht und Kind Mein Können.60.33 15.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Hut und Güte Hut und Wach 106. 164.15 293.329. 7.59.14.68.90 97. 248. 71. 324.88.19. 83. 71.

39 212.55 335.81 106.7 R Ränk und List Rat und Hülfe Raub und Frasz rein und gerecht rein und hell rein und klar wir rennen.60 51.109 169 .14 278.16 46.7 103.30 185.10 256.39 & 40 P Pein und Schmerz Pest und Gift Dein Pilgrim und dein Bürger Preis und Dank Preis und Ehr 328. 183.33 307.52 325. laufen Ruh und Rast Ruhm und Preis rühmt und preist 80.45.94.49 & 50 226. 232. dein Erb und Theil Schild und Hort Mit Schimpf und groszer Schande Schirm und Schild schläft und ruht schlägt und drückt Schmerze und Sorgen Schmerz und Weh schön und klar Das Schönste und Beste schrickt und scheut Schuld und Missethat 224. 139.62. 161.240 86.84 N Neid und Hasz Neid und Streit 321.12 65.2 302.18 315.30 81.128 118.13 119.12 S Sanft und gelind sanft und still(e) Schand und Spott Schand und Sünde dein Schatz.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Masz und Ziel 10.4 321.97 49.10 248.344.37 86.61 293.4 150.53 93.50 328.74 176.60 O Ort und Raum 30.9 158.

) 278.46 244.66 220.54. 307.44 71.176 7.10 T Than und Regen Tbeil und Erbe Thun und Machen Thun und Toben Dein Tichten.70.124 263.192 324. v.51.27 30. q.42.23 31.17 15. 226.340 224.69. dein Thun Tief und See Tod und Ende trifft und schlägt Tritt und Schritt 118. 239.36 28.4 100.84 60.43 170 .34 267.69 (cf.35 161.9 108. Geist und Sinn.84 229.27 7.47 25.37.19.62 5.25.27 120. 205.45 95. dein Trachten.26 81.15 209.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Sclav und Knecht Seel und Geist Dein Seufzen und dein Stöhnen 155 325.17 193.91 singen und loben sinken und fallen Sinn und Geiste Sitz und Ort Sitz und Raum Sonn und Zier Sorg und Schmerzen Speis und Malzeit Spiesz und Schwerter Spott und Hohn Spott und Schanden Dem Stab und dein Stecken Stadt und Land Stärk und Kraft steif und fest Stell und Ort Straf und Last Straf und Zorn Stuhl und Thron(e) Stund und Zeiten Sturm und Regen Sturm und Ungewitter Sturm und Wellen Sturm und Wetter Sturm und Wind 120.73 19. 178.38. 310.23 108. 271.16 229.15 7.30 253.48 212. 135.35 217.47 229. 93.

3. 304. 171. 196.34 220.85. p.82 46. 19. 232.40 REPETITION225 156 Was ist doch gut ohn diesem Gut? Wenn dies Gut nicht im Herzen ruht 10.96 10.14 164. 302.61 185.29 293.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Trost und Freud(e) Alter Trost und alle Freude Trost und Labsal Trost und Licht Trost und Schild 25. 171 .38 335. 158.33 185.111 321.63 139.5 310.1.6 97.72 217. 65. Lauf und Balm Weh und Klagen Web und Schmerz(en) Weis und Art Weisheit und Verstand weir und breit Werk und That Werke und Thaten Wind und Wetter wirkt und schafft Witz und Sinn Wonn und Fröhlichkeit Wort und Reden Würd und Ehr 183.16 W Wall und Mauren Weg und Weisen Wege.27 & 28 321. 284.72 278.50. 242.9 103.131.11 244.18. Cf.41 65. These few selections will serve to illustrate this characteristic of Gerhardt's poetry.35 10.36.97 225 The complete tabulation of words and phrases used in repetition is too bulky for printing.57 164.51.15 205.9 108. 220.73 108.88 Z ihre Zähren und Thränen Zank und Geifer Zeit und Stund Zorn und Eifer Zorn und Fluch Zorn und Grimm Zorn und groszem Grimm Zweck und Ziel 142.20 188.22.50 251.57.62 139.4 328.

p.1 185. 149.5 60. o barmherzigs Herz Als das geliebte Lieben 5.36 108. the last word in the line is repeated as the first word in the next following line.65 7.45 111. 161. as here. the concluding line of each of these stanzas) 150.76 25. ihr sollt beginnen Erdengut zerfällt und bricht Seelengut das schwindet nicht Aller Trost und alle Freude Dein Erfreuen ist die Weide Leuchte mir. Cf.10 (This couplet concludes each of the twelve stanzas) Die Kraft die uns von Sünden JUXTAPOSITION OF WORDS DERIVED FROM THE SAME ROOT.11 139.6 185.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Ist alles Gut verworfen O Häupt voll Blut und Wunden.15.3 49.6 150.1 49.35 89.2 49.44 150.46 150. Emanuel Wir singen dir in deinem Heer Bist aller Haiden Trost und Licht.43 150. etc.23 & 24. Voll Schmerz und voller Hohn! O Häupt zu Spott gebunden O Häupt.7 235. 172 . AND PLAYS ON WORDS (cf.10 111.1 111. Lauf und Bahn Der wird auch Wege finden Sollt ich meinen Gott nicht singen? Sollt ich Ihm nicht dankbar sein? Alles Ding währt seine Zeit Gottes Lieb in Ewigkeit 226 10. sonst schön gezieret Auf.10.47 185. du trotzender Kot! Erbarm dich.98 49.9 235. 19) Trotz sei dir.43 108.44 & 45.2 235.9 111. Suchst selber Trost und findst ihn nicht Du bist der süsze Menschenfreund Doch sind dir so viel Menschen feind Befiehl du deine Wege Gibt Wege.1 235.41 108.20. 158.69 & 70.117 & 118.1 150.5. (i.5 89. lasz mich empfinden Und schmecken deine Kraft Was Gott gefällt Wir singen dir.35 226 Frequently. e. o Freudenlicht Zeuch ein zu deinen Thoren Zeuch ein. 111. auf.

3 . . o Heiland Ein Freund der Freundlichkeit Der Feindschaft bist du feind Zu rühmen seinen Ruhm! Kann uns doch kein Tod nicht tödten Auch tödte mich durch deinen Tod Lasz mich deinen Schutz beschützen Wenn mir Lebenskraft gebricht.4 68. dasz ich mein End Auch also möchte enden Durch Adams Fall gefallen 67.106 39. Der selbst so hoch erhoben Helfer in der rechten Zeit Hilf.3 81.21 155.7 111. .43 132. ergibt sich frei.47 76.2 81.5 97. . Lasz mein Leben in dir leben Ich steh im gewünschten Stande Sein Licht und Heil macht alles heil Du bist meines Leben Leben .70 161. bitt ich dich Wer dich recht liebt.4 81. .6 108.8 91.50 111.74 30.114 173. .76 145. . herzes Herze.28 47.77 145. der dich schändt Und wie mich der so hoch erhöht.323 47.25 74.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Zum Fluch dem. .11 145.5 81.6 97.113 161. .47 67.15 173 .46 47.11 78. . Der Wird zu Schanden.74 122. Der hat das rechte Leben .58 145. mit Beschneidung . . . der Ihm flucht Das nennt der Lästrer Lästerwort Kein Wächter mag zu mächtig sein Drum.53 115.109 153.7 108. .5 68. Ja lebendig bin ich auch todt.28 78. . .12 81.45 74. . In deiner Lieb und süszen Treu Der von unbeschnittnem Herzen 157 25. . Die Sünden aller Sünder O Wunderlieb! o Liebesmacht Die Trübsal trübt mir nicht Das Unglück ist mein Glück Gründst des tiefen Meeres Grund Und wo kein Mensch nicht helfen kann Sich selbst zum Helfer stellt Und Vater meines Lebens Wo du mein Leben nicht regierst So leb ich hier vergebens.

16 185.123 304.79 220. Warum willst du drauszen stehen 2. 13. Wie soll ich dich empfangen 1. . .41 307.80 PLAYS ON WORDS Herr Fromm ist fromm. 174 .48 242.29 242.30 260.46 235. . .82 13.25 220. . Ich steh an deiner Krippen hier 176 ADVENT 108 25 CHRISTMAS 155 158 58 60 79 51 82 62 Page 3. Frölich soll mein Herze springen 2.124 (cf. das weisz man wol Der Frommen Lohn Sein Licht und Heil macht alles heil Da wird mein Weinen lauter Wein Wie seinem Mut zu Mute sei Steht in steter voller Blüt 13.110 223.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Durch dieses Fallen ist die Macht Weg hast du allerwegen . nichts helfen kann.68 INDEX BY SUBJECTS227 158 Goedeke Page HOLY TRINITY 1.80 229. Kommt und laszt uns Christurn chren 312 227 Only 76 of the 131 poems have been included in this index.17 235.21 209. Sein Vermögen beizulegen Wann andre löschen Feuer und Licht. . da ich mich gründe .82) 153. kein Sinnen Ihm hat ersinnen können! Der Grund. der sei mein schönstes Gut 173. Verlöscht doch ihre Leuchte nicht Ich lieb ihr liebes Angesicht Gütig dem. mein Vermögen Nichts vermag. der Gutes thut Nun.79 307.45 235. Was alle Weisheit in der Welt 1.

nicht so sehr 267 274 83 226 229 89 72 74 48 68 67 126 48 38 55 10. Nicht so traurig. Ist Gott für mich. das weiszst du 220 wol 5. Emanuel 1. Nun laszt uns gehn und treten 2. O du allersüszste Freude 3. Vater. O Haupt voll Blut und Wunden 5. O Jesu Christ. Du bist ein Mensch. Schaut. die Sieben Wort 161 4. Ein Lämmlein geht und trägt die 68 Schuld 2. Geduld ist euch vonnöten 7. Noch dennoch muszt du drum nicht 23 ganz 14.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 4. auf. O Welt. mein Herz. Sei frölich alles weit und breit 1. Ich habs verdient. mit Freuden 2. Du liebe Unschuld du 159 3 6. Gott. Gott. Warum machet solche Schmerzen 150 19 67 GOOD FRIDAY (PASSIONTIDE) 1. Zeuch ein zu deinen Thoren 1. Befiehl du dein Wege 46 49 47 71 40 74 171 173 76 111 CROSS AND CONSOLATION 209 212 185 3. Barmherziger Vater. Ich hab in Gottes Herz und Sinn 9. Schaut. Gegrüszet seist du. Ich hab oft bei mir selbst gedacht 11. was ist für Wunder 310 dar 6. Sei mir tausendmal gegrüszet 1. O Herz des Königs aller Welt 6. Wir singen dir. Auf. Hör an. Gib dich zufrieden und sei stille 8. mein Herz. sieh hier dein Leben 7. Ach treuer Gott. sende deinen Geist 2. dein Kripplein ist 153 57 79 110 NEW YEAR 38 42 104 41 60 86 41 42 40 EASTER 44 61 WHITSUNTIDE 62 44 52 65 66 114 67 36 5. was will ich doch 224 13. mein Heil 4. so trete 12. höchster Gott 3. Schwing dich auf zu deinem Gott 135 175 . barmherzigs Herz 2.

der aller Enden 3. Ich singe dir mit Herz und Mund 5. o Herr. allerliebster Bruder 7. und singe 17 60 59 DEATH AND ETERNAL LIFE 160 176 . Der Tag mit seinem Lichte 2. zu dir 287 205 93 PRAYER AND THE CHRISTIAN LIFE 5. edler Fürst 9. wie lange soll 1. mein Gott. O Jesu Christ. Wach auf. Nach dir. Nun danket all und bringet Ehr 6. Weg. Wie lang.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 15. Wie ist so grosz und schwer die Last 7 1. aller Weisheit Quell und Grund 260 2. der nicht 124 wandelt 11. Jesu. Herr. Der Herr. Herr. Gott Lob! nun ist erschollen 4. Ich danke dir demütiglich 4. Zweierlei bitt ich von dir 1. alle. Die güldne Sonne 80 296 293 3. Lobet den Herren. mit den Gedanken 62 8. dasz all mein 217 Thun 6. Was Gott gefällt. die ihn 106 fürchten 4. Sollt ich meinem Gott nicht singen 7. o Herr. mein Herz. Herr. Ich erhebe. was mein Mund 2. verlanget mich 178 REPENTANCE 65 91 PRAISE AND THANKSGIVING 1. Auf den Nebel folgt die Sonne 2. Ich Weisz. Wol dem. höchstes Licht 232 120 95 118 78 235 324 108 56 62 41 49 41 68 54 50 53 46 69 81 36 71 75 65 49 66 72 48 63 55 54 47 MORNING AND EVENING 77 76 51 37 98 95 3. mein frommes 139 Kind 17. O Gott. Wol dem Menschen. mein Herz. Wie ist es müglich. Herr. mein schönstes Licht 200 10. Nun ruhen alle Wälder 6. Nun ist der Regen hin 5. höre. du erforschest meinen Sinn 3. Warum sollt ich mich denn grämen 122 16. mein Schöpfer. der den Herren scheuet 263 81 130 8.

that bearest Page 36 104 104 104 104 104 141 74 74 74 68 65 86 82 86 86 Ah! lovely innocence. Ich bin ein Gast auf Erden 5. Johannes sahe durch Gesicht 6. how shall I meet thee Ah wounded Head! must thou Ah wounded Head. so pierced and wounded Ah! Lord.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 1. The numbers refer to the pages on which the general discussions of the corresponding Gerhardt poems begin. mein Angesicht 142 315 284 319 28 271 289 57 50 80 74 80 39 73 76 2. Nun sei getrost und unbetrübt 8. how evil art thou deemed 36 177 . Pure and Spotless Lamb A Lamb bears all its guilt away A Lamb goes forth and bears the Guilt A Lamb goes forth--for all the dues A Lamb goes forth: the sins he bears A Lamb goes uncomplaining forth A Pilgrim am I on my way A pilgrim and a stranger A pilgrim here I wander A rest here have I never After clouds we see the sun Ah! faithful God. Du bist zwar mein und bleibest mein 100 INDEX OF ENGLISH VERSIONS This index contains in general only the first lines of the translations and adaptations as they are given in Part II. compassionate heart Ah! Head. Herr Gott. du bist ja für und für 4. unsre Krone 7. A B C D E FG H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Index of English Versions: A A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   A Holy. Die Zeit ist nunmehr nah 3. Chapter II (pp. du lebest. Was traurest du. Nun. 35-143).

both far and near Be not dismay'd--in time of need Be of good cheer in all your wants Be thou content: be still before Be thou contented! aye relying Behold a Lamb! so tired and faint Behold! Behold! what wonders here Behold. with one accord Page 69 69 38 178 . thy Lord Bless'd is he the Lord who loveth 161 Page 73 61 57 71 74 74 104 79 42 55 *** 54 79 80 Blessed is the man that never Bless'd is he who never taketh Bring to Christ your best oblation By John was seen a wondrous sight Index of English Versions: C A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   Can I cease. be singing 41 41 58 58 74 95 Index of English Versions: B A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   Be glad. my heart. O World. my Savior and my God All my heart this night rejoices All my heart with joy is springing As pilgrims here we wander Awake. my God. from singing Can I fail my God to praise Christians all. my heart! now fear no more Be joyful all.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt All hail! my Savior and my God All hail to Thee. thy Life.

And care Commit thou thy each grievance Commit thy course and keeping Commit thy secret grief Commit thy way. your hearts and voices raising. and all Commit thou every sorrow. thy sorrows Commit thy way to God Commit thy way unto the Lord. O weeping Commit thy Ways and Goings Commit thy ways. my heart. and seek delight Come now. Thou Source of sweetest gladness Cometh sunshine after rain Come to Thy temple here on earth Come.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Come. O Thou Holy Dove Come. unite in praise and singing Come. and Christ the Lord be praising Come and let us Christ revere now Come. O weeper Commit thy way. confiding Commit thy way. thy thoughts engage Come. thy heavy Commit whatever grieves thee Creator. Prince of might! 79 79 52 131 60 52 44 68 52 79 *** 114 114 114 114 114 114 114 114 114 114 114 114 114 114 114 114 48 Index of English Versions: D A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   Display thy both wings over Page 98 179 . Father. enter Thine own portal Come forth. Commend thy way O mortal Commit the way before thee Commit thou all thy griefs Commit thou all thy ways. my soul.

and seek for praise Go forth. my heart. my heart. full of art (2) Full of wonder. and my Lord Go forth my heart. my heart. and revel in joy's flow Go forth.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Index of English Versions: E A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   Emmanuel. my Creator. my Heart! the year's sweet prime 139 48 131 131 131 131 131 131 180 . and seek delight (3) Go forth. Lord. my heart.") Evening and Morning Ever by my love be owned Extended on a cursed tree 76 40 42 Page 110 110 Index of English Versions: F A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Father of mercies! God most high 66 For Thee. and seek the bliss Go forth. full of skill (2) 49 104 137 68 79 79 Index of English Versions: G A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Give to the winds thy fears 114 162 God is my strong salvation God. nor linger here Go forth. pants my longing heart Forth goes a dear devoted Lamb From our fears and sins release us Full often as I meditate Full of wonder. we sing Thy praise (See also "Immanuel. Thy name we sing Emmanuel.

with such a thought Here I can firmly rest Here. he sendeth shower Hence. my God. my heart. Source of gladness How can it be. see thy Redeemer Here. and I rejoice I know that my Redeemer lives I know that my Redeemer lives I'll praise Thee with my heart and tongue Page 126 86 67 48 66 81 135 53 181 . dispel our sadness Holy Spirit. my highest Light How heavy is the burden made How long. Lord. World. How my heart Page 53 140 41 126 42 42 44 44 81 36 62 82 82 82 Index of English Versions: I A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   I build on this foundation I give Thee thanks unfeigned I have deserv'd it. in forgetfullness How shall I come to meet Thee How shall I meet my Savior How shall I meet Thee. World. cease t'oppose I into God's own heart and mind I know. my heart. my heart. and seek delight 131 131 Index of English Versions: H A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   He never yet has made mistakes He sendeth sun. and pleasure seek Go out.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Go out. thy great Salvation see Holy Ghost.

Thy praise we sing Immanuel! to Thee we sing. then present things If Jesus be my friend Immanuel. The Fount Immanuel.") In exile here we wander In grateful songs your voices raise In heaven is mine inheritance In me resume Thy dwelling In prayer your voices raise ye Is God for me? I fear not Is God for me? t'oppose me Is God for me? what is it Is God my strong salvation It is a time of joy today Index of English Versions: J A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   Page 182 . we sing to Thee (See also "Emmanuel. Thou Prince 163 53 53 140 53 60 78 69 86 126 126 126 126 126 110 110 110 110 142 46 126 52 38 126 126 126 126 79 Immanuel. then all is mine If God be on my side If God Himself be for me If God is mine.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt I'll sing to Thee with heart and mouth I'll sing to Thee with mouth and heart I'm but a stranger here I sing to Thee with Heart and Tongue I stand beside Thy manger-bed I who so oft in deep distress I will sing my Maker's praises I yield Thee thanks unfeigned If Christ is mine. to Thee we sing.

Thou my heart dost search and try Lord! to Thee alone I raise Page 114 41 58 58 98 55 42 80 82 82 41 75 49 Index of English Versions: M A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   May I when time is o'er Mine art Thou still. my Savior.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Jesu. my Hope Jesu. be Thy Cross before our sight Lord God! Thou art forevermore Lord. why should'st thou troubled be Page 57 50 42 76 183 . and mine shalt be Mortals. lend a gracious ear Lord. upspringing 136 136 98 72 63 58 58 Index of English Versions: L A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   Leave to his sovereign sway Let not such a thought e'er pain thee Let the voice of glad thanksgiving Lightly bound my bosom. ringing Lo! Man and Beast are sleeping Look up to thy God again Lord. our joy and loving Friend Jesus! Thou. my dearest Brother Jesus. Thy boundless love to me Joyful be my spirit singing Joyful shall my heart. who have God offended My face. how shall I be meeting Lord. Brother. Friend Jesu. my Strength. how shall I receive Thee Lord.

Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt My Faith securely buildeth My faith Thy lowly bed beholds My God! my works and all I do My heart's warm gush breaks forth in mirth My heart! the seven words hear now My rest is in heaven. awake and tender 126 60 66 53 60 142 42 95 95 Index of English Versions: N A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   Not so darkly. my rest is not here My Savior. how shall I proclaim My soul awake and render My Soul. not so deep Now all the woods are sleeping Now at the manger here I stand 164 Page 48 98 60 98 37 98 58 38 98 98 98 98 58 98 98 Now every greenwood sleepeth Now gone is all the rain Now hushed are woods and waters Now in His manger He so humbly lies Now let each humble creature Now rest beneath night's shadow Now rest the woods again Now resteth all creation Now spread are evening's shadows Now with joy my heart is bounding Now woods and fields are quiet Now woods their rest are keeping Index of English Versions: O A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 184 .

once wounded O blessed Jesus! This O cast away thy fears O Christ! how good and fair O Christ. so pierced and wounded O Heart of Him who dwells on high O how shall I receive Thee O Jesus Christ! my fairest Light O Jesus Christ! Thy cradle is O Lamb of God. surrounded O Thou sweetest source of gladness Page 86 57 114 57 63 63 63 86 136 53 38 52 65 62 71 78 65 65 65 37 86 86 86 41 82 63 57 86 53 48 86 44 O Sacred Head! now wounded (varying centos) 86 185 . Thy temple O faithful God! O pitying heart O Father! send Thy spirit down O God! from Thee doth wisdom flow O God! how many thankful songs O God most true. my Father! thanks to Thee O God of mercy full and free O God! who dost Heav'n's sceptre wield O Head. Lord. my only Life and Light O Christ. my soul with singing O come with prayer and singing O enter. blood-stained and wounded O Head so full of bruises O Head. why dost thou grieve O Sacred Head. my sweetest Life and Light O Christ! what consolation O come and dwell in me O Come. my gracious Savior O Christ.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt   O blessed Christ. once wounded O Lord! I sing with mouth and heart O my soul. most merciful! O God. my Light.

Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt O World! attention lend it O World. how shall I receive Thee Oh Jesus Christ! how bright and fair Oh. all ye men who fear Him Put thou thy trust in God Page 50 51 114 Praise God! revere Him! all ye men that fear Him 51 Index of English Versions: Q A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   Quietly rest the woods and dales Page 98 Index of English Versions: R A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   Page 186 . behold him dying O. All His glory raising Index of English Versions: P A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   Praise God! for forth hath sounded Praise ye Jehovah. World! behold upon the tree O World! see here suspended O World! see thy Creator 165 42 137 42 42 42 42 86 82 78 86 74 39 51 O World! see thy life languish Oh! bleeding head. and wounded Oh. wounded head and bleeding On earth I'm but a pilgrim On thy bier how calm thou'rt sleeping Our Lord be praising.

thy vigil keep 138 52 58 98 Index of English Versions: S A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   Say with what salutations Scarce tongue can speak. the thought forever Since Jesus is my friend Sunbeams all golden Sweetest Fount of holy gladness Sweetest joy the soul can know Page 82 62 104 76 42 42 42 60 69 69 69 69 69 *** 126 76 44 44 Index of English Versions: T A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   Thank God it hath resounded The daylight disappeareth Page 50 77 187 . World. World.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Rest in the Lord. upon the shameful tree Seven times the Savior spake--my heart Shall I not his praise be singing Shall I not my God be praising Shall I not sing praise to Thee Shan't I sing to my Creator Should I not. bowed beneath a fearful weight See the sun's glorious light See World! thy Life assailed See. my soul. in meek adoring Shun. my soul. upon the bloody tree See. my soul Retake thy own Possession Rise. shake off all sadness Rise. ne'er human ken See. my heart.

peace possessing Twofold. o'er town and plain The world may rise against me round 166 98 131 76 54 62 76 57 98 126 110 126 67 50 38 114 86 114 50 40 114 114 57 131 95 114 72 114 114 48 110 74 47 The golden sunbeams with their joyous gleams 76 Thee. be raising Thy way and all thy sorrows 'Tis patience must support you To God commit thy griefs To God thy way commending To God's all-gracious heart and mind To Thee. the earth who ruleth The mystery hidden from the eyes The sun's golden beams The time is very near The woods are hushed. still thou art mine own Thousand times by me be greeted Through waves and clouds and storms Thy everlasting truth Thy manger is my paradise Thy mighty working. Lord Thou'rt mine. to thee 'tis known Thou art mine own. my Soul. we sing. the Prince Tranquilly lead thee. art still mine own Thou must not altogether be Thou on the Lord rely Thou pierced and wounded brow Thou seest our weakness. is my pray'r 188 . Father. Immanuel. yes. we praise There is no condemnation Thou art but man.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt The duteous day now closeth The golden corn now waxes strong The golden morning The Lord. O Immanuel. mighty God Thy Thanks.

my heart. then. my heart. the Prince What God decrees. O pious soul What pleaseth God. child of His love What God decrees. with gladness. my heart. thus trembling ever Why should I continue grieving Why should sorrow ever grieve me Why should they such pain e'er give Thee Why this sad and mournful guise 167 Page 95 95 82 110 56 56 76 56 56 56 51 51 108 108 78 108 108 108 42 48 We sing to Thee. my soul. take patiently What is our mortal race What pleases God. Receive Up! up! my heart with gladness.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Index of English Versions: U A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   Up. See Up! with gladness heavenward springing Page 58 44 44 58 Index of English Versions: W A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   Wake. Savior We sing to Thee. and sing His praises Wake up. elater We go to meet Thee. Emmanuel. Thou Prince of Life 110 189 . blest of God Wherefore dost thou longer tarry Wherefore should I grieve and pine Wherefore. should I be gloomy Who is so full of tenderness Why. Up. Immanuel. my faithful child What pleaseth God with joy receive Wherefore dost Thou. my heart! rejoice with singing Up.

thou art mine. das 220 weiszst du wol Du bist zwar mein und 100 bleibest mein Du liebe Unschuld du 3 Cross and Consolation 1 Eternal Life 4 Cross and Consolation 1 228 This index includes only those 84 poems for which English versions have been found. 74 mit Freuden Auf den Nebel folgt die 232 Sonne Barmherziger höchster Gott Vater. Thee. 190 . of English versions Page Cross and Consolation 3 God's Love. still mine. without. John III. 212 Subject No. 209 barmherzigs Herz Also hat Gott die Welt 256 geliebt Auf.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Why. der aller 120 Enden Der Tag mit seinem 296 Lichte Die güldne Sonne 293 Die Zeit ist nunmehr 142 nah Du bist ein Mensch. we sing With notes of joy and songs of praise 51 110 38 Index of English Versions: Y A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z   Yes. then. 16 1 Easter Praise Thanksgiving 2 and 2 65 71 44 68 66 114 54 77 76 57 67 50 36 Cross and Consolation 1 Cross and Consolation 18 Praise Thanksgiving Evening Morning Eternal Life and 1 1 7 3 Befiehl du deine Wege 185 Der Herr. my son Page 50 INDEX OF GERHARDT'S HYMNS228 Goedeke Page Ach treuer Gott. Lord. art Thou staying With all Thy saints. mein Herz. auf.

deinen Geist nun ist 95 Cross and Consolation 3 Praise Thanksgiving Whitsuntide and 2 1 sende 173 Herr. du erforschest 287 meinen Sinn Herr Gott. höre was mein 65 Mund Hör an. singe 115 Ein Lämmlein geht und 68 trägt die Schuld Frölich sell mein Herze 155 springen Geduld vonnöten ist euch 267 du. der ich oft in tiefes 298 Leid Ich erhebe. zu dir 93 Ich hab in Gottes Herz 83 und Sinn Ich hab oft bei mir 226 selbst gedacht Ich habs verdient. was 224 will ich doch Ich singe dir mit Herz 118 und Mund Ich steh an Krippen hier deiner 158 Prayer and the Christian 1 Life Cross and Consolation 2 Cross and Consolation 1 Cross and Consolation 1 Praise Thanksgiving Christmas and 6 3 191 . die 161 sieben Wort Ich bin ein Gast auf 284 Erden Ich danke demütiglich d i r 205 Repentance Passiontide Eternal Life 1 3 4 41 60 74 65 78 49 48 68 67 53 60 Prayer and the Christian 1 Life Psalm CXLV 2 Ich. mein Herz. Vater. du bist ja für 315 und für 168 Prayer and the Christian 1 Life Prayer and the Christian 1 Life Eternal Life 1 Herr. aller Weisheit 260 Quell und Grund Herr.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Du meine Seele. mein Heil Geh aus mein Herz und 239 suche Freud Gib dich zufrieden und 274 sei stille Gott Lob! erschollen Gott. 46 Psalm CXLVI Passiontide Christmas 1 10 11 53 104 58 72 41 131 74 50 62 71 75 80 Cross and Consolation 1 Passiontide Summer 2 10 Gegrüszet seist Gott. Herr.

so 229 trete Jesu. dein 153 Kripplein ist O Jesu Christ. nicht 89 so sehr Noch dennoch muszt du 23 drum nicht ganz Nun danket all und 78 bringet Ehr Nun. sieh hier dein 71 Leben 169 Prayer and the Christian 2 Life Passiontide 10 Petition during a storm 1 Passiontide Christmas 1 4 Prayer and the Christian 2 Life Passiontide 10 192 . unsre 28 Krone Nun ist der Regen hin 17 Nun laszt uns gehn und 19 treten Nun ruhen alle Wälder 60 Nun sei getrost und 271 unbetrübt O du Freude allersüszste 76 Cross and Consolation 4 Cross and Consolation 1 Praise Thanksgiving Eternal Life and 1 1 Gratitude for Sunlight 1 New Year Evening Eternal Life Whitsuntide 5 17 1 2 O Gott. Cross and 7 Consolation Prayer and the Christian 1 Life Eternal Life Christmas Morning Repentance 1 4 3 1 Johannes sahe durch 319 Gesicht Kommt und laszt uns 312 Christum ehren Lobet den Herren. 91 Nicht so traurig. 25-27 2 81 66 126 72 80 79 51 49 48 38 46 39 37 38 98 73 44 48 86 37 41 57 63 42 Prayer and the Christian 2 Life Trust in God. mein Gott. dasz mein 331 Erlöser lebt Ich weisz. o verlanget mich Herr. Bruder allerliebster 263 Job XIX. mein 200 schönstes Licht O Welt.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Ich weisz. du lebest. mein Schöpfer. alle. 106 die ihn fürchten Nach dir. 217 dasz all mein Thun Ist Gott für mich. 81 edler Fürst O Haupt voll Blut und 49 Wunden O Herrscher in dem 15 Himmelszelt O Herz des Königs aller 47 Welt O Jesu Christ.

der den 130 Herren scheuet Wol dem Menschen. 150 Cross and Consolation 4 Eternal Life Repentance Praise Thanksgiving Praise Thanksgiving 1 2 and 1 and 1 Cross and Consolation 1 Matrimony Advent Christmas 1 8 11 Wol dem. o Herr. 124 der nicht wandelt Zeuch ein zu deinen 111 Thoren Prayer and the Christian 1 Life Prayer and the Christian 1 Life Whitsuntide 6 193 . wie 178 lange soll Wie schouml. mein 139 frommes Kind Was traurest du. mit 62 den Gedanken Wie ist es müglich. schaut. was ist 310 für Wunder dar Schwing dich auf zu 135 deinem Gott Sei frölich alles weit 171 und breit Sei mir tausendmal 40 gegrüszet Sollt ich meinen Gott 235 nicht singen Voller Wunder. 59 und singe Warum machet solche 67 Schmerzen Warum sollt ich mich 122 denn grämen Warum willst drauszen stehen du 108 Christmas 1 79 55 61 40 69 79 95 42 108 51 62 56 76 41 81 36 62 78 82 110 55 54 52 Cross and Consolation 1 Easter Passiontide Praise Thanksgiving Marriage Morning New Year 1 2 and 8 4 5 2 Cross and Consolation 5 Advent Holy Trinity 3 2 Was alle Weisheit in 176 der Welt Was Gott gefällt. mein Herz. voller 304 Kunst Wach auf. mein Herz. Herr Jesu Christ Wie soll ich empfangen Wir singen Emanuel dich 25 dir. mein 289 Angesicht Weg.n ists 302 doch. 324 höchstes Licht Wie ist so grosz und 7 schwer die Last Wie lang.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Schaut.

Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Zweierlei bitt ich von 80 dir 84 Hymns. Prayer and the Christian 1 Life 47 Total number of English versions 271 194 .

) Paul Gerhardt. he will receive thee. (As is common practice. Rest upon God's Word and favor. the thought forever That thou hast been cast away. Composite. Our most secret prayers He heareth. despond thou never! Thou art. by the fall. E'en our smallest cares He knows. Thou wilt find in Him a Father Who is patient. 1925 Lutheran "Hymnal and Order of Service". Hear His word. 1913/1935 "Lutheran Hymnary". 229 195 . Tainted with the bane of sin That the serpent through our father Adam. giving Up his heart. An appendix contains translations from other printed sources229 of selected translations unrepresented in CCEL. All thy sins He will forgive thee. sometimes without notice. other texts were linked if they could be identified with one of the listed translations. my heart. as is ev'ry other. or if no listed translation was available. True and faithful is God's heart. would turn to Me. Hymnal and Order of Service. He doth love thee as no brother And no other friend can do. and true. 1648. Hast thou death deserved forever? God's appeased.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Appendix to the Electronic Edition This text is hyperlinked to translations of available at CCEL. the secondary sources frequently alter or abridge the texts. kind. But if thou God's voice dost hear. "As I am living. The complete works of Catherine Winkworth are exhaustively linked. Never cease to watch and pray. He is touched by all our woes. #400 Shun. brought in. E'en though thou unrighteous art. With a contrite heart draw near Unto God. But that every sinner. And our saddened hearts He cheereth. I the death of none would see. and 1912 "Moravian Hymn Book".

Depend our life and all. Thou art th'eternal source of grace. Ich singe dir mit Herz und Mund. Thy chastisements are nought but love." Never shepherd's heart so yearneth For the sheep that go astray As God's loving bosom burneth For His erring child alway. O Lord. 1653 (1-5) 1765. and let me be Ever nearer drawn to Thee. and longs. On thee. Of such wondrous love and favor Open wide the door to me. Lord. praise and might. J Haberkorn. Moravian Hymn Book. Love me. Let Thy Spirit lead and guide me. #23 I'll praise thee with my heart and tongue. almighty Lord of hosts. From thee unto the human race Flows all true happiness. precious Saviour. And no evil shall befall him. How He thirsts.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt How my heart with rapture burns When a prodigal returns! My own child I love to call him. We thy forgiveness richly prove. The fount of lasting bliss. 196 . When we our sins confess. Declaring to the world in song Thy glory. M. my soul's delight. In Thy loving bosom hide me. (6. 7) 1746-54. Let me ever taste and see. And Thy goodness. and yearns For the soul that from Him turns! Couldst thou know His love so tender. Thou keepest watch around our coasts. Thou wouldst praise unto Him render. Protecting great and small.

And all he doth permit or aid Is blest in the event. how happy do I feel. E'en from our earliest days. thou Prince of Peace. a. #97 Thousand times by me be greeted. but be resigned To his most holy will. O my soul's Physician. thee I view in spirit. J. Fully fathom all that's treasured In thy love's design unmeasured? Heal me. Moravian Hymn Book. When 'fore thee I humbly kneel. Salve mundi Salutare. 1653. All the woes of my condition By thy balm be now allayed: Heal the hurts which Adam wrought. in being still. 197 . rest and comfort thou wilt find. Wheresoe'er I'm sick or sad. 1754. Sei mir tausendmal gegrüsset. And thyself to death submitted For my treason against thee: Ah. Who didst thirst for our release. Our souls with loving-kindness led Through many dangerous ways? God never yet mistake hath made In his vast government. Then murmur not. Peace. See thee on the cross expiring. And true life for me acquiring. Gambold. Jesus. My soul. Bernard of Clairvaux. Jesus.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt 'Tis thy delight to bless. who has lovèd me. Hast thou not tended us and fed. Covered o'er with blood and wounds: Now salvation through thy merit For my sin-sick soul abounds: O who can. 12th Cent.

Can part me from his love? I fully am persuaded And joyfully declare. Dispelling all my care: If he. He stands at my right hand. 198 . Say in answer to my prayer. If thy blood me only cover. My distress will soon be over. 'I will change thy grief and sadness Into comfort. #376 Is God my strong salvation. joy. To me his Spirit speaketh Full many a precious word-Of rest to him who seeketh A refuge in the Lord. My Father hears my prayer. When tempests fierce assail me. I'm never left unaided.' Ist Gott füf mich. my Head and Master.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Or which on myself I've brought. a. No enemy I fear. With the deepest adoration Humbly at thy feet I lie. 1656. The ground of my profession Is Jesus and his blood. J. Gerhardt 1725. He hears my supplication. and gladness. or what disaster. Defend me from above. so trete. Jacobi. He giveth me possession Of everlasting good. They're calm at his command. C. His comforts never fail me. P. And with fervent supplication Unto thee for succour cry: My petition kindly hear. What pain. Moravian Hymn Book.

O Lord. Wach auf mein Herz! und singe. With laughter and with singing. P. For Christ is now preparing His city new and bright. No object. Be thou my only treasure. Where saints his throne are sharing And faith is turned to sight. The God of all the living. 1722. which once did find me. Jacobi. He stands my lasting rock. Gerhardt. my Lover. C. To thee shall ever bind me. Thy word my spirit feeding. no depth. Thy light still onward leading. thy great defender. But happy was my sleeping In his most gracious keeping.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Should earth lose its foundation. In God's own sunshine glad. Moravian Hymn Book. No temporal desolation Shall give my love a shock. a. awake and render To God. shall ever Me from him separate. #727 My soul. With joy I still discover Thy light. Thy love. 199 . My thanks shall be the spices Of morning sacrifices. I'll cleave to Christ my Saviour. My merry heart is springing. Fulfil in me thy pleasure. small or great. It can no more be sad. The darkness helpless found me. When night had closed around me. Nor height. 1648. J. Thy prayer and thy thanksgiving.

#301 A Lamb goes uncomplaining forth. The heart with anguish breaking! O Lamb! what shall I render Thee For all Thy tender love to me. With loving arms enfolding. 200 . P. Thee ever.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt My life to thee be tending Beginning. The Father's Son. whom to that strife Love doth for us deliver! O mighty Love! what hast Thou done! The Father offers up His Son-The Son content descendeth! O Love. Lutheran Hymnary. grows weak and faint. Laden with all the sins of earth. as Thou ever me. and stripes. Fast to that torture nailing. and saith. None else the burden sharing! Goes patient on. God over all forever. and wounds and death. Anguish and mockery. To slaughter led without complaint. Gerhardt. O Love! how strong art Thou! In shroud and grave Thou lay'st Him low Whose word the mountains rendeth! Him on the cross. That precious tide of noble blood. 1848. "Willing all this I suffer. middle. Or what return be making? My lifelong days would I still Thee Be steadfastly beholding." That Lamb is Lord of death and life. O Love. Bears shame. alt. Elizabeth Charles. Mrs. Thou lay'st. ending. Him as a spotless Lamb Thou slay'st. The guilt of all men bearing. That spotless life to offer. 1648. His heart and flesh are failing-The body with that crimson flood.

Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt And when my heart grows faint and chill. My treasure is in heaven. Away. O still Abide unchanged before me! Myself Thy heritage I sign. Thyself my robe of triumph. In thirst my drink. Shall lead me to the Father's throne. Ransomed to be forever Thine. This manna still shall feed me. with thy golden hoard. And all the glories in thee stored. I of Thy majesty and grace Would night and day be singing. A sacrifice of joy and praise Myself to Thee still bringing. In joy. My stream of life shall flow to Thee Its steadfast current ceaselessly In praise to Thee outpouring. My heart's undying light. This ever aid shall yield me. My only hope and glory. world. My company in solitude. In sorrow it shall be my joy. To comfort and to lead me! And when I enter on Thy joys. For I have found true riches now. With Thee Thy kingdom sharing. Thy blood my right declaring. And when all else has lost its zest. Lord. In conflict it shall shield me. Christ. Deep in my heart's depths storing! Shrine of my heart. in want my food. And all the good Thou dost to me I'll treasure in my memory. give larger space For wealth that passeth measure! Thou must become a royal place For all-excelling treasure. my Lord art Thou Thy blood so freely given! This treasure ever I employ. the music of my feast. 201 . Shall place upon my head the crown. My treasure.

Her anthem shall prepare. How meet Thee on Thy way. sinking Beneath your grief and pain. O ye who sorrow. The children of His Father. fear no more. By Thee in bridal constume clothed. 202 . all grief and anguish Shall at His word be still. by Him to Thee betrothed. Perpetual thanks and praises Forth from our hearts shall spring. He comes. With love and grace the Savior Shall you to hope restore.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt And raiment fit provide me. give me. Who shall your souls sustain. A. Jesus. The heirs of life and grace. And every soul awaking. And to Thy name the service Of all our powers we bring. Till I. 1658. Blest hope of every nation. Rejoice in His appearing. To know whate'er is pleasing And welcome in Thy sight. Gerhardt. 1851. Ye who with guilty terror Are trembling. Russell. who contrite sinners Will with the children place. My soul's delight and stay? O Jesus. He comes. He comes with gladness! How great is His good-will! He comes. #157 O how shall I receive Thee. By Thine illuming light. Lutheran Hymnary. T. Stand as a bride beside Thee! P. Thy Zion psalms is strewing With branches fresh and fair.

to judgment. 203 . And gather us to Thee. Gerhardt. Myself shall ever sound His praise. gracious Savior. P.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt He comes. And fill my soul with light. Oxenford. And whatsoe'er against Him strives Will surely fall at last. Rise re-embodied. He lives. and not another. #332 I know that my Redeemer lives. Lutheran Hymnary. And I shall waken at His voice. Who death and hell hath vanquished. Yet He will call me. Whose arm overcomes the strongest foe. He lives. the mighty One. To quit an earthly bed. In life and death I trust. 1859. who hath ne'er deceived. by and by. With all His glory bright. and with these eyes Shall see the God who made me. Myself. though dust shall lie Upon my mouldering head. His promise. Myself shall see Him in my flesh. the Lord. 1667. woe to them who hate! To those who love and seek Him He opes the heavenly gate. Myself shall ever on Him gaze. Woe. In this my faith is fast. His presence shall my heart refresh. He lives. and rejoice To look on my Redeemer. J. The Lord in whom I have believed Will raise my sleeping dust: In this my very flesh that dies I shall revive. I know. That in the light eternal Our joyous home may be. Come quickly.

Cheer up. All anxious fear resign. rejoice and sing. Turned dreaded ills away! His wisdom never plans in vain. the worm--"I know That my Redeemer liveth. in every time and place. I sing. This well I know. faint heart. #383 I sing to Thee with voice and heart. 204 . and life In hope's divine abode! Let earth and Satan vainly strive To tear thee from thy God. that I know Thou art My lips to all may tell. Is thy God. For God. Thy life. In restless thoughts or dark despair Why spend the day and night? On Him who loves thee cast thy care. 1864.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Rise. the sovereign Lord and King. that. then. O Lord. and power Watch o'er thy childhood's day? Hath He not oft. then. and Lord. and truth. the gloom. Miss Frances E. Of all my joys the well. my soul. lay thy hand. e'en now. With blessings richly stored For all. and light. Ne'er falters. Cox. Thy counsellor when doubts annoy. All that His counsels wise ordain A happy ending makes: Upon thy mouth. Lutheran Hymnary. He thy joy. 1653. Gerhardt. even thine: He is thy portion. in threatening hour. or mistakes. let them show The grave. Thy shield and great reward. the coffin. The bier. He makes our burdens light: Did not His love." P. That Thou a fountain art of grace.

Now and eternally. ever green. For the Lord His people knoweth. Those thall be cast off forever. P. But on God's all-perfect law Meditates with holy awe. And his leaf shall wither never. Nor sits in the scorner's seat. B. As the chaff by wind is driven So shall the ungodly fare. In its season e'er is granted Fruits and foliage to bear. 1861 C. Landstad. Gerhardt. All he does shall prosper ever. 1553 M.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt And trust His guiding eye. the righteous. To the wicked 'tis not given Such a happy lot to share. 1906 Lutheran Hymnary. Day and night he delves for treasure In the word--'tis all his pleasure. His pure eyes behold their way. But the wicked ones shall perish. Nor be in the righteous band: These the Lord forsaketh never. So is he. Thus. 205 . They in judgment shall not stand. #455 Blessed is the man that never Doth in godless counsel meet. Doving. Nor in sinners' way stands ever. And the blessing He bestoweth Is their heritage for aye: But the wicked ever tend To their doom and to their end: God will all the righteous cherish. firm as rock. As a tree that has been planted By the flowing waters fair. thy feet shall stand. seen Ever fruitful.

Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt O du allersüsste Freude. P Gerhardt.. God! omnipotent to save. thou source of sweetest gladness. #199 Holy Ghost. a. Perfect thus thy new creation.. P. dispel our sadness. Yea. Moravian Hymn Book.. A. From that height which knows no measure As a gracious shower descend. For in all things I see traces Of the good He meaneth me: Nothing else but love could move Him With such sweet and tender care All who try to serve and love Him Evermore to raise and bear. Fence us in on every side. 1776. Come. be our Salvation. Toplady.] Manifest thy love for ever. support and guide. Guard and teach.. That the Son He loves so well He hath given to redeem me From the quenchless flames of Hell. a.. J. or God can send! [Come.. Lutheran Hymnary. 1653. Raise us glorious from the grave. C. [Be our Friend on each occasion. and spread thy light. Thou best of all donations. Pierce the clouds of sinful night. Bringing down the richest treasure Man can wish. Well of life that springeth ever! 206 . Jacobi. 1648. Breathe thy life.] When we die. 1725.] [Known to Thee are all recesses. And in Him most joyful be. so dear doth he esteem me. #436 I will sing my Maker's praises. In distress be our Reliever. Gerhardt.

All His blows and scourges truly For the moment grievous prove. Benson. But the prodigal still loveth. by the cross and rod. As a father ne'er removeth All his love for some lost child.. And would. That I may with all my might Love. trans. He will not fail me In the time of utmost need.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Sea of love that hath no ground! Fruitless were my best endeavor Depth of love like Thine to sound. but with the rod. #342 207 . I pray Thee. and obey Thee. Gerhardt. Proofs that He is watching o'er me. P. 1653. So my sins and many errors Find a tender pardoning God. 1862. Since then neither change nor coldness In His precious love can be. And yet. when I weigh them duly. All which for my soul is needful He will carefully provide Nor of that is he unheedful Which my body needs beside: When my strength cannot avail me-At the best a broken reed-God appears. Angelo A. O God. Are but tokens of His love. Lutheran Hymnary. Grant me grace. As a child I come to Thee. From this wicked world restore me To my Father and my God. and trust Thee. Yearning to be reconciled. Lo! I lift my hands with boldness. Who doth not with penal terrors Chasten them. Till I reach the realms of light.

I am Thine. Even ere I knew Thee. But Thy blood Free salvation brought me. Thou art mine. take me to Thee! I am Thine. and Christ shall own thee. Lord.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Why. Cares and tears. 208 . Doors of grief and gloom it closes. While the soul. cheerful. Death cannot destroy forever. Christ is near. Death itself cannot appall them. From our fears. Painful cross if He should send me. Soon shall it deliver. Shall I faint With complaint. my soul. Everywhere They appear Who in Christ are planted. my Shepherd. and undaunted. Thou art mine. With the saints reposes. Only peace be o'er me. thus trembling ever? Have no fear. Free and whole. Naught from thee can sever. Heaven is thine. Hopeful. Faithful be Until He Shall with triumph crown thee. for my guiding. They rejoice When the voice Of their Lord doth call them. Soon no pain Shall remain. Lest the grief should end me? He hath borne the cross before me. and. for Thou hast bought me: Lost I stood.

There abide. With Thee ever reigning! 209 .Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Be my bright Shining light In my heart abiding! Savior dear! let me. attaining To Thy side.

1 210 .1 Burns.1 Montgomery. bFrothin-p0. John Christian. Nathaniel Langdon.1 Borthwick. bGambold-p0.1 Charles. James. Charles. Emma Frances. Philipp Heinrich.1 Jackson.1 Massie. bMolther-p0. Mrs.1 Findlater. bWarner-p0. bBuckoll-p0.1 Winkworth. John. James Waddell. bBeddome-p0. bKellyJ-p0. bThring-p0. Frances Elizabeth. bMontgom-p0. Samuel Macauley. bManingt-p0. Richard.1 Molther. Henry. Catherine Hannah. Henry James. bRussell-p0.1 Kennedy. bFindlat-p0. bBevanE-p0.1 Manington. bWesleyJ-p0. Arthur Tozer. bJackson-p0. James Drummond. Elizabeth.Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Indexes Subject Index Alexander. Edward.1 Wesley. bMassieE-p0.1 Thring. bStryker-p0.1 Warner. Jane. bDunnCa-p0. John. Melancthon Woolsey. bCharles-p0. Alice.1 Cox.1 Frothingham. (Sarah Borthwick). John. bKennedy-p0.1 Stallybrass. bAlexand-p0. Edward. bGuthrie-p0. bMassieR-p0.1 Guthrie. bJacobi-p0.1 Gambold. Catherine.1 Stryker.1 Dunn.1 Beddome.1 Wesley. bBurnsJ-p0.1 Mills. Benjamin Hall. bMillsH-p0.1 Buckoll. bCoxFra-p0. Benjamin. bBorthwi-p0.1 4. James Steven.1 Jacobi.1 Russell. John. Anna.1 Kelly.1 Massie.1 Bevan. bWesleyC-p0. titlepag-p0. bStallyb-p0. bWinkwor-p0.

Bio of Paul Gerhardt Theodore Brown Hewitt Index of Scripture References Genesis 24:31 Job 19:25-27   19:25-27 Psalms 1   23   25   27   37:5   37:5   37:5-7   37:7   37:7   39:12   42:6-12   46   73:23   90   112   116:7   119   121   128   143   145   146 Proverbs 30:7-9 Jeremiah 10:23 Matthew 11:28   21:1-9   23:37   23:37 Mark 5   12 Luke 2:15   2:21   12:31   15 John 3:16 Acts 3:20   5:38-39 Romans 8:31-39 1 Timothy 4:6 Hebrews 4:9   10:35-37 Revelation 7:9-17 Index of Pages of the Print Edition i  ii  iii  iv  v  vi  vii  viii  ix  x  xi  xii  xiii  xiv  xv  xvi  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27  28  29  30  31  32  33  34  35  36  37  38  39  40  41  42  43  44  45  46  47  48  49  50  51  52  53  54  55  56  57  58  59  60  61  62  63  64  65  66  67  68  69  70  71  72  73  74  75  76  77  78  79  80  81  82  211 .

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