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Ho Chi Minh National University University of Social Sciences and Humanities Department of English Linguistics and Literature

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COURSE: POPULAR CULTURE

A RESEARCH ON HO CHI MINH CITY TEENAGERS’ PERCEPTION OF GENDER ROLE IN DISNEY CHANNEL

Instructor : Phan Thị Kim Loan, M.A. Students : Group 4 Trương Võ Hoàng An Nguyễn Ngọc Diễm Bùi Ngọc Diễm Châu Châu Chiêu Bình Nhan Kiết Lệ Phạm Thị Thu Hà 0771007 0771039 0771296 0771025 0771107 0771060

Ho Chi Minh City December, 2010

Popular Culture Research

Group 4

ABSTRACT
Group 4 (2010): “A Research on Hồ Chí Minh City Teenagers’ Perception of Gender Role in Disney Channel” - A Research Project for the course Popular Culture

In recent years, Disney Channel has grown more and more popular among teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City. Since teenagers are in the stage of life when they are developing their own sense of identity, they are vulnerable and easily influenced by the media. Therefore, our research paper aims to figure out how HCMC teenagers perceive gender role from Disney Channel. First, through analyzing Disney Channel text in terms of physical appearance, behavioral traits, romantic involvements, family structure and practices, and socioeconomic status of characters of both sexes from Disney Channel program, we explore the messages of gender role conveyed in the shows that are currently very popular to the youth worldwide. Then, based on the survey that we conduct among teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City, we find out how actively teenagers in HCMC engage in perceiving gender role stereotypes shown on Disney Channel and examine how teenagers in HCMC respond to messages of gender role in Disney Channel.

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Popular Culture Research

Group 4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First and foremost, we would like to express our deepest gratitude to Ms. Phan Thi Kim Loan, our supervisor, whose encouragement, guidance and support from the initial to the final stage enabled us to develop the understanding on the subject. We are also indebted to the teenagers of both sexes in Ho Chi Minh City for their enthusiastic participations in taking our survey. Their contribution had helped us a great deal in conducting this research. Finally, it is an honor of us to send our regards and blessings to our families and friends who supported us to the completion of the project. - Group 4

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...................................... ii TABLE OF CONTENTS .............................................................iii - ................. Aims of research .................................................................................... Physical Appearance .......... Reason for choosing the topic .......................................... 1 III.......................................................................................Popular Culture Research Group 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT.............................................................................................................................................. 7 III..................................................................................................... 1 II........ Summary ................................................................................................................................ iii LIST OF FIGURES.............................................................. vii PART 1: INTRODUCTION I................................. Social Learning Theory ............. v LIST OF TABLES ... Impact of Media on Adolescents .. Disney Channel Overview ........................................................................................................................................ Research methodology ...... 11 .............................................................................. 2 PART 2: LITERATURE REVIEW I............ i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.................... 9 PART 3: ANALYSIS ON DISNEY CHANNEL TEXTS I................... 8 IV.............................. 3 II......

... 56 APPENDIX 4 ....................................................... Socioeconomic Status ............................. 52 APPENDIX 3 .......................................... Family Structure and Practices ..................................................................................................................................... 46 PART 5: CONCLUSION ............................................... Romantic Involvement .................. 60 REFERENCES ....................... 22 IV....Popular Culture Research Group 4 II................................................. Behavioral Traits .................... Physical Appearance .......... Family Structure and Practices .......................................................................................... 24 V........................ 62 ................................................................................................................................................... 47 APPENDIX 1 ........................................................................................ 43 V............... 40 IV............................................................... Socioeconomic Status ................... 29 PART 4: SURVEY ON HO CHI MINH CITY TEENAGERS’ PERCEPTION OF GENDER ROLE IN DISNEY CHANNEL I........................................................................................................... 17 III.............................................................................................................................................. 37 III........................................................... Romantic Involvement ... Behavioral Traits ....................... 50 APPENDIX 2 ........................................iv - .................................................................... 35 II.....

................................................... 21 -v- ........................................................................... 16 12) Tarzan’s muscularity ................................ 15 9) Lily and Raven with beauty ideal of “the girl next door” .................................... 15 10) Cory’s overweight image ...Popular Culture Research Group 4 LIST OF FIGURES 1) Snow White’s beauty ........................ 13 4) Pocahontas’s beauty .................................................... 15 8) London’s “trendy” beauty .................................................. 13 5) Identical Beauty of Disney Princesses ..................... 17 15) Snow White’s domestic....................................... 19 19) Troy’s sporty............... 17 16) Ariel’s independent and outspoken personality ............................................................. 12 3) Cinderella’s beauty ................................... 14 7) Sharpay’s “trendy” beauty ....... 18 17) Belle’s smart and strong-willed characteristic .................................................................. 21 20) Milo Thatch’s lean and nerdy personality.......... 13 6) Miley’s and Lily’s below-average figure ..................................... 16 13) Mr.............................................................................. Incredible’s muscular figure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 16 11) Small and skinny brothers Phineas and Ferb ..... cute and muscular trait ......................................................................... 12 2) Belle’s beauty ..................................................................................... 16 14) Phillip’s slender build ..................................................................................................... 19 18) Hannah Montana’s feminist representation ...... frail and weak trait ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

................................................. 28 31) Jim and Darling with unequal house chore sharing ... 28 ......................................... 28 32) The Queen of Hearts with the image of women as being more powerful than men ............... 25 25) Bambi’s mother as a caregiver and protector ...................................................... 27 29) King Triton as a self-sacrificing father ........................... 25 26) Kala as a caregiver and protector........................... 26 28) King Triton as a tyranny father....................................................vi - ............................................. 27 30) Pongo as a nurturing............. 22 23) Perdy as a mother and protector .......................................................... 25 24) Carey as a mother and protector .................................................................................................................................................................Popular Culture Research Group 4 21) Snow White’s Prince and Prince Phillip as rescuers ............................................................ 26 27) Kerchak as a controlling and aggressive father .. affectionate and self-sacrificing father......................................... 22 22) Love at first sight in Cinderella and High School Musical ...........................

........................... The way girls attract boys ................................................................................................................. Favorite body shape of female characters .... The way boys attract girls .................................................................................................................. Career and social position in Disney classical films ............... 44 Table 14....... Favorite behavior pattern of male characters ..................... 40 Table 6...... 41 Table 9. Favorite behavior pattern of female characters ........... 46 .. 41 Table 8..........vii - ................................... 43 Table 12........Popular Culture Research Group 4 LIST OF TABLES Table A......................................................................................... 36 Table 3.................................................. Preferred family pattern ........................................... View on the idea of eternal love ................................................... Preferred type of father ..... House chores sharing between parents ................. 37 Table 4............................................................ View on love at first sight ............................. 35 Table 2...... 40 Table 7... 42 Table 10.................... 30 Table B.. View on the portrayal of romance in Disney Channel shows ................. 37 Table 5............................... Career and social position in Disney modern films .......................... View on the idea of “happily ever after” ............................ Favorite body shape of male characters .... 43 Table 13............... 42 Table 11... View on female leadership ........................ 31 Table 1...........................

And this research attempts to give an answer to it: how Ho Chi Minh City teenagers perceive gender role on Disney Channel. . -1- . II . in which American teenagers are vulnerable to the images of gender role in most of Disney programs. romantic involvement. Worth noticing. .To help parents and teachers have critical views of gender role portrayed in Disney Channel so as to provide children and teenagers with guidance in their perception of gender role.To find out how actively teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City engage in perceiving gender role stereotypes shown on Disney Channel.Popular Culture Research Group 4 PART 1: INTRODUCTION I .To examine how teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City respond to messages of gender role in Disney Channel. behavioral traits.To analyze how gender role is portrayed in Disney Channel in terms of physical appearance. family structure and practices. and socioeconomic status.Aims of Research . they are living in Disney world. . The issue alarms us to put a question on teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City.Reason for choosing the topic Teenagers are people who the most easily get influenced by popular culture.

We also deliver questionnaires to examine Ho Chi Minh City teenagers’ reception. How is gender role described in Disney Channel in terms of family structure and practices and how do HCMC teenagers perceive this? 5. How is gender role described in Disney Channel in terms of romantic involvement and how do HCMC teenagers perceive this? 4. websites.Popular Culture Research  Research Questions: Group 4 1. which are mainly based on secondary sources collected from various sources such as previous researches. How is gender role described in Disney Channel in terms of socioeconomic status and how do HCMC teenagers perceive this? III . Disney texts. articles. How is gender role described in Disney Channel in terms of behavioral traits and how do HCMC teenagers perceive this? 3. Document review Data collecting Information synthesis Textual analysis Personal observation Survey analysis and evaluation -2- . books.Research Methodology Our research uses qualitative and quantitative methods. How is gender role described in Disney Channel in terms of physical appearance and how do HCMC teenagers perceive this? 2. etc.

org/wiki/Disney_Channel>. the free encyclopedia. The Beginning (1983 . This variety television show immediately became a hit.1997) Disney Channel was first launched on April 18. 1. -3- .wikipedia. which was a big hit and has become part of the cultural lexicon. Wikipedia. 5 Dec. they began to broadcast 24 hours a day. 2010 <http://en. Like Kids Incorporated. A year later. the show also 1 Disney Channel. in April 1984. 1983 as a premium channel. the channel increased the program to 18 hours a day. The All-New Mickey Mouse Club was launched. Its program currently includes original series and original movies as well as programs from other third parties. the channel debuted the musical sitcom series Kids Incorporated. The cast of the series included many young actors that later became stars in both music and acting such as Jennifer Love Hewitt and Stacy Ferguson (currently known as Fergie of the band The Black Eyed Peas). in recent years. History1 The history of Disney Channel is divided into four eras: a. At the beginning. In early 1989. it only aired 16 hours a day. it has grown more and more popular with older audience. In 1986. it specializes in television program for children. However.Disney Channel Overview Disney Channel belongs to Disney-ABC Cable Networks Group – a division of Walt Disney Company. In December 1986. As an American television channel.Popular Culture Research Group 4 PART 2: LITERATURE REVIEW I .

" and has become “the greatest teen-star incubator since the NBA stopped drafting high schoolers. So Weird. among them are Christina Aguilera. the Channel “has been adding a million viewers a month—every month—for the last five years. Justin Timberlake. the channel began to gain more popularity as well as viewers outside its main target audience demographic.” Sweeney’s strategy was to “discover. It reduced the number of prime time movie from two each night to only one. Disney Channel went from a premium cable channel to an expanded basic cable and started to gain viewers. The channel also stopped producing drama and reality show to shift focus to live-action comedies and animated series. By 1995. Disney Channel was seen in more than 8 million households in the United States.2002) In 1997. Anne Sweeney took control of Disney-ABC Television Group and was very successful in turning Disney Channel into “the major profit driver in the company”. which are preschoolers. The Relaunched Era (2002 . b. nurture. etc. Kim Possible and Lizzie McGuire – the show that helped launch the career of Hilary Duff.Popular Culture Research Group 4 spawned many future stars. Disney Channel’s original program included shows like Flash Forward. c. Ryan Gosling. During this period.” Around the same time. The Zoog/Vault Disney Era (1997 . pre-teenagers and young adolescents. In 2004. and aggressively cross-promote teen music stars whose style and image were carefully targeted to pre-teenagers and teenagers. Even Stevens. -4- . By 2008. Britney Spears.2007) Disney Channel began to remodel again in September 2002.

the second movie in the phenomenal trilogy High School Musical. The Current Era (2007 . and Wizards of Waverly Place: The Movie. The crossover special Wizards on Deck with Hannah Montana (involving Wizards of Waverly Place. The Suite Life on Deck and Hannah Montana) was -5- . The movie received 84 million viewers worldwide and led to the creation of other successful music-themed programs like the original movie High School Musical and the original series Hannah Montana. The Cheetah Girls. Other successful programs of this era were That’s So Raven (2005) – the highest-rated series of the network since it became basic cable. Hatching Pete. Princess Protection Program. The most successful DCOM in that year was High School Musical 2. with 17. d. the hit original movie High School Musical in 2006. Wizards of Waverly Place: The Movie was the highest-rated cable program of 2009 (excluding sporting events) with 11. New movies in 2009 were: Dadnapped.present) In 2007. in 2003. the hit show that launched the career of one of Disney Channel’s biggest stars Miley Cyrus. two new series were launched: Sonny with a Chance and JONAS. Disney Channel reduced the number of original movie and series premieres to four Disney Channel Original Movies (DCOM) and two Disney Channel Original Series premiering each year.4 million viewers. In 2009. These four original movies each starred at least two stars from Disney Channel's original series. and in the same year the original series Hannah Montana.2 million viewers.Popular Culture Research Group 4 One notable event of Disney Channel in this period was the release of its first musical made-for-cable movie.

along with 525. Not only are their shows popular among young viewers. As we can see. 9-15.5 million viewers among Total Viewers.9 rating share among Tweens 6-9. Wizards of Waverly Place and Good Luck Charlie earned six of television’s top 10 telecasts that month in key child demographics. they are also the stepping stones for many famous movie and music idols that have great influence on many young people like -6- . Disney Channel ranked #1 for the 63rd consecutive month in the Kids 6-11 demographic and for the 62nd straight month among Tweens 9-14.000 viewers with a 1. In the May 2010 Nielsen ratings. Good Luck Charlie. According to Nielsen Media Research.000 viewers with a 2. the month of May 2010 had finished as Disney Channel’s most-watched May in the network's history with an average of 1. Disney Channel is also the second most watched cable channel during primetime. beating out its competition on the night of its premiere with 9.A. as well as the final season of Hannah Montana which was renamed Hannah Montana Forever and the series Jonas L. with Phineas and Ferb ranked as the #1 animated series on TV among Kids 6-11 and Tweens 9-14 for that month.1 rating share among Kids 6-11 and 459.1 million viewers. the channel launched the first original sitcom intentionally targeted at family audiences. In 2010.Popular Culture Research Group 4 also a big hit. Disney Channel has become the top channel in children and teenagers program. more than two decades since it first launch in 1983. First-run episodes of The Suite Life on Deck.

In two years since its launch in May 2005.pdf?sequence=1>.tamu. Miley Cyrus. 2010 <http://en. The first step is attention. 5 Dec. it is necessary to note that retention does not mean the viewer will reenact the event. Britney Lynn Hibbeler.Social Learning Theory Social learning theory suggests that individuals may model behavior based on available role models4. cognitive organization. Britney Spears. Free Online Library.3 II .1/ETD-TAMU-2009-08-7023/HIBBELERTHESIS. Disney Channel Expands Its Audience Reach in Vietnam. 5 Dec. 2010 <http://www. including Vietnam2. we should understand two types of viewing: instrumental 2 3 4 5 Disney Channel Asia. The process of modeling includes several steps.thefreelibrary.wikipedia. To examine the possibility of the event being carried out. 2. Wikipedia. Hibbeler 12 -7- .com/Disney+Channel+Expands+Its+Audience+Reach+in+Vietnam. positive. The next step is retention. Disney Channel has increased its Vietnamese subtitling from 10% to 70% of its program and it is now available in 75% of all pay-TV households. That is the indicators of how popular and influential Disney Channel is among youngsters. Events that are distinctive. and symbolic rehearsal and enactment. Exploring representations of masculinity in Disney animated feature films (2009) 11<http://repository. Disney Channel Asia Disney Channel Asia is a franchise of Disney Channel.Popular Culture Research Group 4 Justin Timberlake. simple and prevalent will be more likely to be modeled. broadcasting in most parts of Southeast Asia.” 5 However.-a0165724076>.edu/bitstream/handle/1969. the free encyclopedia. Characteristic of viewers like attention span or their personal preference will affect their attention. which is accomplished by “symbolic coding.org/wiki/Disney_Channel_Asia>. Motivational process and other factors will determine this. etc.

viewers will watch Disney film to gain information about several topics. ritualistic viewing is concerned with the entertaining content of the text and it is habitual and mindless. Media influence. with the rapid development of technology. Responsible adults like parents and teachers and even teenagers themselves may not be 6 7 8 9 Hibbeler 13 Hibbeler 13 Hibbeler 13 Hibbeler 14 -8- . “This consumption of media for pleasure. is not transparent but it is subtle and occurs over a long period of time. “provides implications for gender performance” because those who view program with gender stereotype may be more likely to model the stereotype being viewed. Since the goal of this type of viewing is to seek information.Popular Culture Research Group 4 viewing and ritualistic viewing. including gender role. however. therefore. exposes children to gender stereotyped ideas of what it means to be masculine and feminine in the form of entertainment. viewers pragmatically choose the program and involves in a great degree of selectivity. 6 In instrumental viewing. 7 However. media has more and more influence and plays greater role in the life of adolescents worldwide. III . Most of children’s television viewing is ritualistic.9 Because of the great popularity of Disney Channel among teenagers. rather than to gain information.Impact of Media on Adolescents Nowadays.”8 Social learning theory. And programs on Disney Channel can provide opportunities for this process to happen. such as the Disney animated feature films. they may be influenced by ideas of gender on the show and may internalize and model those ideas.

The impact on this front is greater in adolescent because they are still “in the process of learning their values and roles and developing their selfconcepts”12. 2002) 54.aef. 506-519. we focus on the impact on gender role because “images having to do with gender strike at the core of individual identity. In addition. Since Disney Channel is very popular worldwide. Current Problem in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care (California: Sage Publications. 11 Sut Jhally. teenagers’ favorite TV characters may become some kind of role model to them and they will watch and learn from those characters. Available at <http://www. sex and drug use.Popular Culture Research Group 4 aware of the impact that media has. 1990. 12 Jean Kilbourne. Among those influences is the message conveyed in the media. Children. Jul. they are also under the pressure of their peers. Inc. IV – Summary To summarize.. violence among the youth. Can't Buy My Love: How Advertising Changes the Way We Think and Feel. Image-Based Culture: Advertising and Popular Culture.” All things considered. the More You Add . especially messages concerning the ideal of genders. The World and I. -9- . As suggested in the social learning theory. etc. it is important to analyze the images of gender role presented in popular cultural texts and find out how teenagers interpret and respond to them. and the Media. teenage years are the time when people are most vulnerable to the influences and pressure around them since they have yet to develop their own identity.Cutting Girls Down to Size. The More You Subtract. our understanding of ourselves as either male or female (socially defined within this society at this time) is central to our understanding of who we are”11.com/industry/news/data/hot_issues/1361>. In this research. making it even more difficult for them to resist the dominant message “perpetuated and reinforced by the media. its 10 Victor C Strasburger. 10 Impact of media on adolescent can be found in many aspects: teenagers’ ideal of beauty. Adolescents.

Popular Culture Research Group 4 characters are more likely to become youngsters’ role models.10 - .  . For that reason. we conduct this research to see what messages conveyed in Disney Channel shows and how teenagers in Ho Chi Minh understand and respond to those messages.

ucla. family structure and practices.Popular Culture Research Group 4 PART 3: ANALYSIS ON DISNEY CHANNEL TEXTS As proved by many well-known scholars and experts. <http://www.ac. Associated Content. specifically of gender role. and socioeconomic status. Structure of gender stereotypes: Interrelationships among components and gender label. in and of itself. an important part of the gender stereotype. “gender is determined socially. . 2010 <http://www. articles and essays have recently paid attention to how Disney influences its viewers’ understanding as well as whether it produces good or bad effects on them. “physical appearance is. articles and essays regarding this topic.com/>.com/article/1142336/are_disney_movies_a_negative_influence_pg2. different expectations of physical appearance are also generated regarding femininity and masculinity. 16 S. In fact.L.13 the media have a very important impact on people’s perception. 2000) 91. it is important to mention people’s perception of their physical appearance.” 16 For this reason. Working women in America: Split dreams (New York: Oxford University Press. Jean Kilbourne. Deaux and L.11 - .L. I . with their various books. more and more researches. Lewis. it is the societal meaning assigned to male and female.html#A> <http://gseis.Physical Appearance Concerning gender role. 5 Dec. 14 In terms of physical appearance.edu/faculty/kellner/> <http://jeankilbourne.” 15 According to Hesse-Biber and Carger. Hesse-Biber and G. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. this part is to make an analysis on Disney Channel texts regarding gender role. Carger. 46. (1984) 991–1004.aber. therefore.associatedcontent. 1 Nov. In fact. romantic involvement.html?cat=9>. Are Disney Movies a Negative Influence?. 15 K. And Disney Channel is not an exception.uk/media/Modules/TF33120/gendertv. 2008. etc. Daniel Chandler. will provide us a detailed analysis on images of male 13 Such as Douglas Kellner. behavioral traits. 14 Christopher Wiegering Gianoli. This part.

as stated by Stacy and Crystal. who is the fairest one of all? Mirror: Famed is thy beauty. Hair black as ebony.”18 (See Figure 1 in Appendix 1) Belle is supposed to be attractive to the people around her like Gaston. First of all. Snow White and other Disney main female characters are almost portrayed by Disney to be beautiful and attractive fairy tale princesses. Smith and Crystal Allene Cook. reveal her name. Behold. she is more fair than thee. 18 Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.Popular Culture Research Group 4 and female characters physically portrayed in Disney programs. fair skin. The Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media (2008) 16.12 - .”17 Cinderella. Sleeping Beauty. blue and white peasant dress with a white apron. William Cottrell et al. being “slender. they are “valued for their appearance. Mirror: Lips red as the rose. […] yellow ball 17 Stacy L. As a matter of fact. which is clearly shown in classical Disney animated movies. Skin white as snow. While Snow White’s beauty is a response to her mother’s wish and is told by the mirror on the wall. Queen: Alas for her. 1937. Ariel. it is crucial to discuss about female beauty defined by Disney programs. Walt Disney Productions. blue bow in her hair. Gender Stereotypes: An Analysis of Popular Films and TV. Dir. “Queen: Magic Mirror on the wall. a lovely maid I see. black shoes. Alas. thereby helping us in examining the expectations of gender in terms of physical appearance produced by Disney Channel. almost all the females are praised for their appearance or physical beauty. [having] both brown hair and eyes. majesty. In other words. . Rags cannot hide her gentle grace.

My answers to an interesting Fairy Tale Princess Survey.com/wiki/Belle>. 24 Kilbourne . 141. 23 Kim Hongsook.. 7 Jan. they have one thing in common – being “always stunningly beautiful. the other is with John Rolfe. blond hair.” and that “thin is beautiful. one is with John Smith. the fact that the identical image of thinness is repeated from one main female character to another and that it is considered beauty ideal gives an affirmation. Cinderella deserves the love of Prince Charming and the happy life in the palace.”24 In 19 20 Belle. [having] petite and slender build and evidently extreme youth. of the so-called “obsession with thinness. blue eyes and fair skin.) they are all young ladies and have the same body figure . Psyched Out.com/wiki/Pocahontas_%28character%29>. Women’s Studies Forum 01021793 (1997) 138-147. eye and hair color. as if they “go hand in hand” together. brown eyes.blogspot. 2010 <http://disney.com/2009/01/my-answers-to-interesting-fairy-tale. 2010 <http://disney. 5 Dec. However. 23 (See Figure 5 in Appendix 1) In addition. 2009. 21 Pocahontas. Moreover. if with her slim figure.13 - . Disney Wiki. Disney Wiki. 5 Dec. 22 Mary. Cinderella. no matter how differently their beauty is described (with different skin. The Structure and Reconstruction of Marriage Scenarios in Picture Books for Children – A Comparative Study of Fairy Tales and Feminist Tales [Part 2 of 2].wikia. despite their different appearances.wikia. as Jean Kilbourne stated in many of her articles and essays on the influences of the media on adolescents.that is thin. etc. 2010 <http://disney. black hair. In truth. 5 Dec.wikia. Disney Wiki.Popular Culture Research Group 4 gown which shows her breast cleavage. 2010 <http://psychedoutsw. fairly tan skin”21 (see Figure 4 in Appendix 1) gives her two love involvements.” 22 With the same body image.” 19 (see Figure 2 in Appendix 1) she has so strong an attraction to Gaston that he many times tries to win her over.html>.com/wiki/Cinderella_%28character%29>. 20 (see Figure 3 in Appendix 1) then it is also notable that Pocahontas’s “slender figure. 5 Dec. they all have the beauty of disposition according to Disney.

the beauty ideal as being thin seems normal to not only young girls but also males. adults and even the society.14 - . Cinderella Skinny.a skinny one. 1986. As a twelve year-old boy once said. and the Beautiful: Beauty Ideals on the Disney and Nickelodeon Channels. 2010 <cinderellaskinny. In fact. 5 Dec. it is shown by textual analysis of Disney programs that “body size and beauty ideal messages [have been] analyzed. . Chicago. IL. the Bad. Survey of Three Sixth Grade Classes at University Park Elementary School. Disney viewers. Miley and Lily in Hannah Montana for example.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/2/9/9/1/1/pages299114/p299114-1. Perdue. The Good.”28 That is to say. B. it is found that the supermajority of female characters were thin.tumblr.Popular Culture Research Group 4 fact. white beauty ideal that is present in adult program is also alive and well in program for a younger audience. “When I was little I made my mommy or daddy read me Cinderella every single night. 14.php>. Peterson and L. people are obsessed with thinness and that thin beauty ideal is normalized in people’s mind and perception from the early age. I want to be a princess . Marriott. especially children and teenagers. 9/10.25 Furthermore.com/>. Salinas. CA. L. Kelly.”27 Additionally. 27 Skinny Me. are also portrayed as “below average” in spite 25 Temple Northup and Carol Liebler. 519-532. are considered to be vulnerable to this influence. Sex Roles. Cinderella is beautiful because she “is skinny and has blonde hair. with results suggesting that the thin. 26 Debbie Mead. 2002.allacademic. the idea that “beauty is good” is reinforced through verbal messages to thin characters. Vol. 25-28 Feb. 29 Female characters that are not to be praised by their beautiful appearance. (2009) Available at <http://www. Nos. The role of mass media in promoting a thin standard of bodily attractiveness for women. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association.”26 Or as a female sharing about her childhood. Silverstein. 28 Northup 29 B. as a result. Fairy Tale Females: What Three Classics Tell Us About Women. while very few were heavy.

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of their stronger and healthier figure compared with the weak and gentle beauty of fairy tale princesses. (See Figure 6 in Appendix 1) This actually even reinforces adolescent girls’ obsession with thinness because of the fact that they are of the same age and in the same period of time as compared to the princesses and adult models in a magazine. Besides, it is also worth noticing that in modern Disney programs supposedly beautiful females are also described as being sexy or sexually attractive. They are considered to be “trendy,” that is, the “ditz” of the group, preoccupied with appearance, wearing the latest of clothing, and usually obsessed with boys.30 An example for this type of beautiful females is Sharpay in High school Musical. She is always wearing the most fashionable clothes, good-looking in her appearance (see Figure 7 in Appendix 1) and trying to steal Troy – a popular basketball boy - away from Gabriella, his girlfriend. Moreover, London in The Suite Life of Zack and Cody is other example for this kind of beauty. This is a very rich girl with an extreme obsession with boys. In addition, other kind of beauty ideal is “the girl next door.” This is a girl who is not overly-stylized or concerned with fashion, but still manages to always look “cute” and draw the attraction of boys – she is, perhaps, unaware of her beauty.31 Lily in Hannah Montana (see Figure 6 in Appendix 1) and Raven in That’s So Raven are some examples for this type. Anyway, no matter how they are aware of their beauty, Disney females are all supposed to be thin. As a matter of fact, from the fairy tale princesses to the modern-time

30 31

Northup Northup

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famous star like Hannah Montana, the image of their beauty does not break out of the obsession with thinness. Regarding physical appearance, just as femininity is defined by the beauty of Disney females, male characters in Disney shows also contribute to produce the image of masculinity. While characters that are overweight like Cory (see Figure 8 in Appendix 1) in Cory in the house or small and skinny like Phineas and Ferb (see Figure 9 in Appendix 1) in the movie series of the same name are approved by Disney audience for their humorous words and behaviors serving for entertainment, their body figure is not what Disney’s portrayal of male beauty ideal. However, what is considered masculinity in terms of physical appearance must show either physical strength or fitness. First, the body figure showing physical strength appears to be a typical element in Disney’s building male image. In fact, being powerful physically is related to the main role of Disney males; that is, they are characterized to be protective and assertive. (We will have more detailed discussion on this in the part of Disney traits.) According to Hibbeler’s statistics, good characters (37%) are more likely to display physical strength than evil (18.3%) and neutral (26.7%) ones. 32 This also implies that to be a good man, males should first have physical strength. To put it this way, males are not necessarily required to be muscular as long as they are physically strong enough. For example, beside the characters with visible muscles like Tarzan (see Figure 10 in Appendix 1) in Tarzan and Mr. Incredible (see
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Hibbeler 53

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Figure 11 in Appendix 1) in The Incredibles, Phillip the Prince (see Figure 12 in Appendix 1) from Sleeping Beauty also shows his physical power while he is described as being slender and fit. In fact, “the prince is not overweight and wears clothing that clearly displays his physical build. He has a frame that is of average size. He is tall and slender.”33 As seen, while females in Disney Channel are portrayed to be thin, which is considered to be beautiful, Disney males are required to have physically strong figure. All of these not only express the gender expectations in terms of physical appearance but also give us a message for behaviors regarding gender shown in Disney that is discussed in the next part.

II - Behavioral Traits
Regarding gender role, Disney Channel is widely considered to set boundaries for American set of values, perceptions, preferences and behaviors through a process of creating a dynamic system teenage models. The earliest and most loved Disney animated role models such as Snow white, Cinderella and Sleeping Beauty have stereotyped girls as “weak,” “emotional,” “passive,” “frail,” “domestic” and “troublesome.”34 In Disney films, while the basic traits of femininity are to be obedient, quiet and beautiful, it is crucial they have constant attention of male characters. Being ultimately subordinate to males is vital for all the princesses in these classic tales. The codes of behavior for
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Hibbeler 53 Amanda Yerby, Samantha Baron, Youjin Lee, Gender roles in Disney Animation, History of Animation, Assignment 1, Part 4, Website Collaborative Content Available at <http://www.american.edu/soc/film/upload/Gender-Roles-in-Disney.pdf>.

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like me! Belle: Imagine that. . While her sisters are more complying with her father’s wishes. an attack against women since these values have proposed and advocated the false idea of social degradation of women. Belle in Beauty and the Beast. Dir. One of the first pioneering princesses is Ariel from The Little Mermaid. she is expressive and quick to speak her mind.18 - . However. Pocahontas. while the little ones play on the floor with the dogs. Their successors. if we analyze Disney females’ set of behaviors through timeline. Belle: Dogs? Gaston: No. Jasmine in Aladdin. my latest kill roasting on the fire.Popular Culture Research Group 4 women imposed by males are the reason for this moral illness.”35 35 Beauty and the Beast. Walt Disney Pictures. picture this: A rustic hunting lodge. 1991. have become more independent and free-spirited. Gaston. Gaston: Say you'll marry me! Belle: I'm very sorry. We'll have six or seven. “Belle: What do you know about my dreams. Belle is another example of breakthrough role model during the 1990s. Gaston? Gaston: Plenty! Here. Belle! Strapping boys. and Mulan for instance. and my little wife massaging my feet.. Ariel in The Little Mermaid. It is. therefore.. Gary Trousdale and Kirk Wise. although their main purpose in life consistently focuses on husband-searching-journey. gender roles do progress with changes.

Female characters start demanding to be liberated from the male dominant society. she will not exchange her independence in return of wealth. Hannah Montana TV series is one of the most successful teen franchise so far when “the movie grossed $29 million” regardless to “a production budget of less than $7 million. Belle pictures her future differently. 2010. The revolutionary traits demonstrating by Ariel and Belle have also freed the other princesses such as Mulan. and self-learnt. . Jasmine. Elastic Girl in The Incredibles. Pocahontas and the upcoming non-animated teenage models from “dominant male – submissive female” stereotype.Hannah Montana. 5 Dec. playful. Kim Possible. 22 Nov. The combination of traditional and other opposite traits like being smart. American feminism: A contemporary History. Hannah Montana.co. witted and fun loving. In other words. (New York: NYU Press.nebusiness. 37 Mary Barabe. <http://www. This characteristic makes her one of the earliest representatives of feminism in Disney world. . 2010. Will Hannah Montana Forever be a Successful End to the Franchise? NeBusiness. has “opened an era for militant feminism in more than one way. Feminism and the Law. etc. While Gaston tries to convince her into marriage by opening up a peaceful prospect with strapping boys. 36 Ginette Castro. 1990) 233.” 36 In the 21st century.” 37 Best of Both Worlds show reached media popularity because the female character. as a result. Alex Russo in Wizards of Waverly Place. a rustic hunting lodge.19 - . She is the first female character who does not desperately try to find a future husband.Popular Culture Research Group 4 The lines above portray a smart and independent Belle whose primal ideal of life is learning.uk/business-news/special-features/2010/11/22/will-hannah-montana-forever-be-asuccessful-end-to-the-franchise-51140-27694099/>. the type of female leading roles . free-spirited.which is introduced as downto-earth. has discarded thoroughly notions of remaining submissive traits in the previous Disney princesses.

more independent.20 - . confident. intelligent.e. Is Hannah Montana Really Such a Great Model? Socioquest. athletic.e. responsible. 2009. Prince Adam in Beauty and the Beast). “We must be swift as the coursing river (Be a man) With all the force of a great typhoon 38 Anne Glass. Li Shang in Mulan) and even teenage models in nonanimated movies and TV shows (i.e.e. assertive. upgraded modern princes (i. important. The Prince in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.e.”38 The other characters from different Disney TV series are also outspoken. 29 Jul.com/Opinion/Is-Hannah-Montana-Really-Such-a-Great-Role-Model/2904661>. technical. 5 Dec. Tarzan. These male characters “have been more prominent and portrayed as more likely to have a recognizable job. Disney male leading role seems to make less progressed as opposed to female characters in terms of behavioral norms. Prince Charming in Cinderella).Popular Culture Research Group 4 is capable of “[harvesting] the fruits of the battles fought by liberal feminists in the 1960s and 1970s. Nonetheless. hence represent the feminist world – i. 2010 <http://www. Disney Channel has endeavored to erase gender distinction through the process of shaping female’s traits. and stronger than female characters. the cartoon male leading roles in the 90s (i.groundreport. an average girl can achieve success through their talent and dedication without the presence of male.”39 The song “I’ll make a man out of you” introducing on screen through an animated movie Mulan has somehow summed up all the values of being a man in Disney. 39 Yerby . competent. Eric in The Little Mermaid. Izzy Daniels in Jump in) fell desperately into the same category. princes from the classic tales (i. To some extent. Phillip in Sleeping Beauty.

worldlingo. . Minutemen feature men lacking of manly charm. 5 Dec.”41 . the products will not be sold well in the market considering with movies featuring traditional male behavioral traits. instead of being a basketball player. he appears to be an odd-one-out since he is fond of singing and dancing. 1998. Atlantis: The Lost Empire. At first glance. Wendy Wu: Homecoming Warrior. a supposedly feminine trait. WorldLingo.21 - . Unsurprisingly. Other shows such as The Suite Life of Zack and Cody. Audience preference also contributes to create gender gap in Disney Channel. Milo Thatch.an undesirable result when the animation was assumed to be well marketed. in High School Musical trilogy hit. For example. Unfortunately. the animated movie Atlantis: The Lost Empire whose hero. having less attractive masculine characteristics equals bankruptcy. his other prominent traditional characteristics like being sporty. 40 41 Mulan. they are also less popular than ones featuring traditional males. Walt Disney Feature Animation. Had the audience kept stereotyping them. cute and muscular have made this positive side seemingly unaffected to gender revolution. Tony Bancroft and Barry Cook.com/ma/enwiki/en/Atlantis%3A_The_Lost_Empire>. a supposedly masculine trait. Dir. 2010 <http://www. male characters in Disney movies would not be able to free themselves from masculinity’s values. Predictably. There obviously exist other types of male characteristics trying to get their images on screen. is particularly lean and nerdy managed to “make [only] approximately $85 million dollars in its theatrical run.Popular Culture Research (Be a man) With all the strength of a raging fire Mysterious as the dark side of the moon.”40 Group 4 Another example is Troy. In other words.

marriage opens the door to luxurious life of the princesses. Taking a close observation. Male characters in those films are shown as rescuers. romance is one of the prominent themes portrayed in Disney Channel. the research also examines the characters’ romantic involvement. Disney films provide little information about how couples maintain their relationships but only focus on creating romantic love which people consider “a blink of love. III . Still with a kiss. And those magical elements help to push romance into a situation in which females are subservient to males. For instance.Popular Culture Research Group 4 It is apparent that behaviors of the two genders portrayed in Disney movies are completely opposite regarding to their roles. the Prince’s kiss in Snow White and Seven Dwarfs saves the princess’s life. While gender role in Disney Channel has managed to reduce its gap through the upgraded portrayal of female behaviors. which is hard to find in their single life. female characters are the ones who are rescued. we will see that it is a special key which is used by Disney to develop characters’ emotions. Frankly. “Love at first sight” is also a key concept in Disney films. through the films. Therefore.” The relationship .22 - . meanwhile. In Disney Channel fairy tales.Romantic Involvement Analyzing the ideas of gender role in Disney Channel. it is obvious that girls and young women are willing to throw themselves into marriage. the idea of romantic love in these programs is always exaggerated. male set of conducts has not achieved great success so far. Also. Actually. the princess one more time is saved by Prince Phillip in Sleeping Beauty.

S. No matter what one’s sex is. It shows a shift in the way of winning the opposite sexes’ hearts of characters conveyed in Disney Channel. Not only in fairy tales but also in modern movies do characters of the opposite sexes involve in love at the very first time. they willingly fall in love. Disney’s Influence on Females Perception of Gender and Love. men are almost always in active position. he keeps his unchanging love for Gabriella. 2008.A. 13.23 - . Tanner. Sharpay in High School Musical clearly expresses her determination to win Troy’s heart. This kind of love is unwavering under any circumstances. The American Journal of Family Therapy. Images of Couples and Families in Disney Feature-length Animated Films. Haddock and T. 368. they can have a happy ending and live happily ever after. A Research Paper Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Science Degree. In fact. there are some exceptions. They believe that with this undying love. they fall heads over heels and cannot help thinking of one another. Theresa Tonn. In Disney movies.” 43 Ariel in The Little Mermaid is a very clear example for using beauty to win Eric’s heart. 31. Although Troy is constantly hit on by Sharpay. One more thing concerned about romance in Disney films is the “attackers” and how they attract their objects of affection.Popular Culture Research Group 4 between Cinderella and the Prince in Cinderella is an example. he or she can start the campaign to win one’s love first as long as they are attractive. . However. The character 42 43 L. Without spending much time getting to know each other. Besides.R. Zimmerman. That is why men usually make the first move in the relationship.S. there are many other characters who are faithful to their partners. Their love does not start with a kiss but with merely an intimate look. there is a “belief that physical appearance is the most important thing when entering an intimate relationship”42 and that “women use good looks to get a man. Dec.

Namely. both mothers and fathers are represented. Peter Pan or Tarzan. Hannah Montana and Alex Russo. those single fathers are shown in Beauty and the Beast. his mother presented him to all the animals in the forest while his father stood in the mountain and he kept the distance until Bambi’s mother was killed. Accordingly. it can be seen that there are movies in which both parents are included and the ones in which only one parent is presented. they are the presence of parents. IV . Dir. For instance. Walt Disney Pictures. . Disney animated movies and live–action shows also present only one parent.24 - . image of mothers. Ron Clements and John Musker. we can see that most of girls and boys also have good appearance and with this appearance. In particular. they easily find the one to love such as Troy Bolton. in the night when Bambi was born. in some classic animated movies such as Bambi. and do not underestimate the importance of body language!” 44 In modern films. there are four main points to discuss. Little Mermaid.Popular Culture Research Group 4 Ursula in the film tries to convince Ariel that “you got your looks. the presence of 44 The Little Mermaid. Specifically. image of fathers and power division in family. Pinocchio. Hannah Montana. it is a matter of fact that single fathers are illustrated more than single mothers. Nonetheless.Family Structure and Practices When it comes to the display of gender role in family structure and practices depicted in Disney Channel movies and shows. and in such cases. On the other hand. fathers in those movies only play a minor role while mothers are portrayed as major in family. your pretty face. First and foremost. etc. 1989.

Pinsky 89 . Pinsky. “there would be no problem with the mother thanks to the maternal instinct. Next. mothers are portrayed as primary caregivers who are automatically attached to children and give unconditional love to them. To be specific. Likewise. The Gospel according to Disney: Faith. in the sitcom The Suite Life of Zack and Cody. image of mothers as both caregivers and protectors is depicted in Disney movies such as Bambi and Tarzan. 2004) 62.Popular Culture Research Group 4 parents in Disney movies and shows suggests that fathers are only required to take care of children when mothers are not able to do so. Bambi’s mother was not only 45 46 Mark I. Second. image of mothers in Disney movies and shows is depicted in three different patterns. (Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press.” 45 In addition. Disney’s image of mothers as protectors is also common in animated movies.25 - . At first. Trust. To illustrate. Perdy. this can put a negative effect on both male and female youngsters’ beliefs about fathers’ relationships with and responsibilities to children. As a result. Moseby – the hotel’s manager whenever they cause a new mess with their jokes.” 46 said panther Bagheera in The Jungle Book when he found Mowgli and decided to bring the human baby to a pair of wolves with the belief that the baby would be safe there. Similarly. Wendy in Peter Pan describes a mother as “someone who loves and cares for you. the female dog in 101 Dalmatians was very dynamic during the process of saving her puppies from the men kidnapping them. the twins’ mother Carey usually protects them from troubles with Mr. For example. and Pixie Dust.

the selfsacrificing one. In the meantime. Forgive me. In truth. In the first place. Our family will look to you now. . Kerchak: No. disciplinepracticing father. she kept him safe from the hatred of other gorilla in the jungle and from the tiger. aggressive and discipline-practicing fathers. That doesn't make him my son. for not understanding that you have always been one of us. he ensures that all the gorillas are under his control and only accepted Tarzan as one of his children until Tarzan proved that he was worthy: “Kerchak: I said he could stay. […] Tarzan: Kerchak. and tender to children.Popular Culture Research Group 4 in charge of raising him but also responsible for protecting him from danger until she died. Moreover. and last but not least. Kerchak the gorilla in Tarzan is an illustration for those controlling. although being portrayed in three different patterns. the nurturing and affectionate one. aggressive. it can be seen that they are depicted in three images which are the controlling. the female gorilla Kala gave Tarzan all her love and care.26 - . forgive me. In short. the image of mothers in Disney animated movies and sitcoms has fell into a stereotype in which mothers always appear as close. caring. Turning to the portrayal of fathers in Disney movies and shows.

As regards Ariel’s absence in the celebration concert of her father to go up to the surface. Kerchak. 1999. you'll obey my rules! 48 Meanwhile. . Do you think I want to see my youngest daughter snared by some fish eater's hook? Ariel: I'm sixteen years old . Dir. Walt Disney Pictures. Pongo always shows his tender care to the puppies in 101 Dalmatians. etc. King Triton expressed his anger on her: Triton: They're dangerous. they are seen sacrificing themselves to save their own children from danger. Kerchak: Take care of them.. or 101 Dalmatians. Besides.I'm not a child anymore. Belle’s father in Beauty and the Beast always supports her in her desire of reading books and her refusal of marrying Gaston although he is the most-wanted man in town. The Little Mermaid. 1989." 47 Group 4 Another example for a controlling and aggressive father can be found in The Little Mermaid. Walt Disney Pictures. Chris Buck and Kevin Lima. the display of fathers as nurturing and affectionate can be traced from Disney animated movies such as Beauty and the Beast. As long as you live under my ocean. Indeed. Similarly. fathers in Disney movies and shows are portrayed as self-sacrificing as well. Ron Clements and John Musker.. and so does Gepetto to Pinocchio in the same-title movie.Popular Culture Research Tarzan: No. Take care of them. Triton: Don't you take that tone of voice with me young lady. King Triton in The Little Mermaid signed the contract with Ursula to take 47 48 Tarzan.27 - . In details. Dir. Specifically. Pinocchio. my son.

there was a scene in which Darling prepared the meal when Jim sat in the living room reading newspapers. In the first example. Bambi’s mother was in charge of raising. Truly. there is a variety in Disney’s portrayal of fathers from the controlling. Gepetto in Pinocchio took the risk to sail the ocean and face a fierce whale to save his boy. In truth. In details.Popular Culture Research Group 4 his daughter’s place in the sea witch’s garden after Ariel had failed to gain Prince Eric’s love. When it comes to power division in family. teaching and protecting him while his father kept a distance and not until the mother was dead did he appear.28 - . Bambi. The Lion King and Alice in Wonderland whereas the latter is depicted in 101 Dalmatians and the live-action show Wizards of Waverly Place. In the meantime. affectionate and self-sacrificing ones. aggressive to the nurturing. Meanwhile. it is obvious that Pongo and Perdy share an equal responsibility in taking care of all the puppies and have equal power in making decisions as well. there is only one movie in which the female character was identified as more powerful than her male partner. there is an unequal division in household chores between Jim and Darling in Lady and the Tramp. In brief. regarding the fact that their . Likewise. The former is displayed in some animated movies such as Lady and the Tramp. some illustrations of shared power between males and females can be seen in 101 Dalmatians and Wizards of Waverly Place. Interestingly. two patterns of Disney are unequal power division and shared power. In fact. the Queen of Hearts in Alice in Wonderland was the leading character who had more power than the King and the King was presented as a weak man.

Obviously. 49 One hundred and one Dalmatians. it would have no positive influence on youngsters’ concept of fathers’ and mothers’ roles in family. Thus.Socioeconomic Status The difference in gender socioeconomic status is reflected on Disney Channel through both popular classical films and modern films.29 - .Popular Culture Research children had been kidnapped. . 1961. Pongo told Perdy “It’s all up to us. when turning to the inequality in power. To sum up.” 49 Group 4 not “up to me. Clyde Geronimi et al.” which means he gave Perdy an equal responsibility to be involved in serious matters. Walt Disney Productions. for example. male characters are portrayed in the role of kings while females are hardly found to be queens. Treasure Planet. The Little Mermaid. Alex’s parents in Wizards of Waverly Place are portrayed with the unity: they share work at the family’s fast food restaurant and they agree with each other about the methods to teach their children whenever the children make mistakes. in popular Disney animated films like Aladdin. Mulan. Cinderella. V . Dir. In the same way. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Beauty and the Beast. Male characters in Walt Disney films are usually portrayed with higher social status with the role of leaders while female characters are described in lower status with subordinate positions. As a matter of fact. unequal power and shared power appear to be two patterns of Disney movies and shows as regards power division in family. those animated films and sitcoms are apt to depict male partners as more powerful than female.

Table A: Career and social position in Disney classical films Male Characters FILMS NAME CAREER Female Characters HIGH SOCIAL POSITION George Banks Bank YES management Poppins staff Mary Bank office NAME CAREER HIGH SOCIAL POSITION NO Mary Poppins Admiral Naval officer Boom YES Mrs.30 - . The following table lists all the male and female characters in the two films together with their jobs and social status. male characters involve in white or blue collar jobs with high social status while female characters are working mainly in pink collar jobs with lower social status. In the movies. showing the distinction regarding genders. .Popular Culture Research Mary Poppins and Life is Beautiful 50 Group 4 are of the most popular classical films aired by Disney Channel. Winifred Banks House wife NO Constable Police officer Jones YES Ellen Maid of the Banks residence NO 50 Disney famous classical sitcoms show in 1964 and 1997.

Pocahontas. In fact.31 - . That’s So Raven. Phineas and Ferb . it is less likely to have females taking the role of leaders.Popular Culture Research Life is beautiful Dora’s Fascist official fiancé YES Dora teacher School Group 4 NO In Disney modern movies like Good luck Charlie.51 the male characters are also described with higher social status or as a team leader compared with female characters. Camp Rock.. . The Incredibles. Cory in the House. The following table provides a comparison between Disney male and female characters in terms of socioeconomic status: Table B: Career and social position in Disney modern films MALE CHARACTERS DISNEY MODERN HIGH FILMS NAME CAREER SOCIAL POSITION Cory in the Cory Baxter House Business man YES FEMALE CHARACTERS HIGH NAME CAREER SOCIAL POSITION Meena Singer Paroom NO 51 Disney modern films aired from 2000 to date. etc. High school musical.

hence. However. from the characters who act as parents and adults. Incredible Charlie’s father Leader of the Incredibles Company owner YES Elastic girl Bob’s wife NO YES Charlie’s mother Housewife NO In Disney classical film. their position in the society is not clearly shown. In Disney modern programs.32 - .Popular Culture Research Cory’s Cook father NO Martines daughter Sophie President’ Group 4 NO Bahavia Ambassador YES Alexander Library owner NO Cory’s sister Linda Flynn Candace Getrude Flynn Fashion NO designer Phineas and Ferb Lawrence Fletcher Archeologist NO Singer NO Selling NO assistance Daughter of Pocahontas The father Tribe leader YES Pocahontas YES Tribe leader The Incredibles Good luck Charlie Mr. main characters are usually children. we can realize the difference between males . gender socioeconomic status is reflected among main characters as kings or male leaders.

males are supposed to have physical power.Popular Culture Research Group 4 and females regarding social positions. depicting women in more subservient roles. Next. have emerged as an inspirational source for feminist portrayal. the subordinate social position is still reinforced for females. As regards the portrayal of . the research shows that the image of rescuer. it is shown in the research that single fathers appear more usually than single mothers in Disney Channel programs. they receive messages and images of gender role clearly portrayed in almost all of Disney shows. the unwavering passion and “live happily ever after” are the key concepts which are portrayed in Disney Channel in terms of romantic involvement. Besides. Although female characters. so far. By analyzing typical Disney programs broadcast on Vietnam Cable TV from original animated films to modern movies (see appendix 4 for table of Disney Channel programs analyzed).  In short. love at first sight. while female beauty is related to thinness. the research demonstrates a favorable stereotype of dominant male – submissive female in Disney Channel regarding behavioral norms. turning to family structure and practices. In addition. On Disney channel. Disney programs only offer the audience a limited type of revolution propagandized through character traits. Therefore.33 - . what this part of research has found out is that in terms of physical appearance. The research also finds out that men are almost always active in starting a relationship and women usually attract men by taking advantage of their good-looking appearance. male leading roles are restrictedly arranged in traditional behavioral structure. people watch Disney Channel and at the same time.

Popular Culture Research Group 4 mothers. most male characters are described as social leaders with white color jobs. Both the equality and inequality in sharing house chores responsibility between fathers and mothers are shown in the research as well. Last but not least. nurturing and affectionate. When it comes to the depiction of fathers. Disney Channel also portrays its characters in traditional norms. and self-sacrificing. there are three types of maternal roles namely the protector. the caregiver and the protector and caregiver. To be precise. they are displayed as controlling and aggressive.34 - . regarding socioeconomic status.  . taking important roles while female characters are usually attached to the inferior social positions with pink color jobs and low social status.

1) Chosen options Male Female Slender 34.1 % Firm 31 % 45.) We also created an online version of our survey and there were 27 respondents taking our survey. Nguyen Thi Minh Khai Street.5 % 17.) I . District 3. 3/2 Street. District 10) and Nguyen Tri Phuong Secondary School (Add: 72. Dien Bien Phu Street. (See Appendix 2 for the survey questions and Appendix 3 for the English version. we have conducted a survey to find out how teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City respond to the images of gender role shown in Disney Channel programs. We distributed our survey to 200 students of secondary schools – Lac Hong Secondary School (Add: 20D.3 % Sexy 34. Ward 7. the survey was taken by 227 respondents with the age range from 14 years old to 18 years old. In total.Physical Appearance Table 1.5 % 34. Ward 6. Ward 6.Popular Culture Research Group 4 PART 4: SURVEY ON HO CHI MINH CITY TEENAGERS’ PERCEPTION OF GENDER ROLE IN DISNEY CHANNEL In order to be more objective in our research.Nguyen Thị Minh Khai High School (Add: 275.7 % Plump 0% 2.9 % . Nguyen Lam Street. District 3) and Le Quy Don High School (Add: 110. District 10) and high schools .35 - . Favorite body shape of female characters (Question 4. Ward 12.

the majority of girls choose fitness as their favorite male physical appearance (67.7%). Favorite body shape of male characters (Question 4.7 % Plump 6. It is an approvingly important difference in female teenagers’ mind compared with American and European girls. They have equal view points of what is considered male beauty – to be muscular and to be fit or slender.9 % 5. They appear to be heading towards a firm and healthy figure rather than trying various methods of dieting to get a skinny and bony body figure.36 - . it is shown that both females (34. As a result. On the other hand. To some extent. we can come to a conclusion that Saigonese boys have a strong obsession with physical strength in both muscularity and fitness.Popular Culture Research Table 2.3% of slim).5 % 67. This seemingly proves the power of Disney on Saigonese teenagers’ perception of gender in terms of physical appearance. It somehow expresses that their upmost concern focuses on being strong physically.5% and 46.9 % As stated in the tables. it is also notable that while males have equal preferences to female beauty as being slender and sexy (both 34.6%).2) Chosen options Male Female Muscular 46.9 % Group 4 Skinny 0% 2.5%) are quite actively engaged in female slimness portrayed by Disney Channel. whereas HCMC boys’ perceptions of masculinity and fitness are almost equal (46.6 % 23. However. HCMC girls prefer firmness to slimness (45. On discussion of physical appearance of males. HCMC teenagers show themselves to be influenced by the obsession with thinness. girls’ idea is totally .5 % Fit 46.7% of firm compared to 34.3%) and males (34.5%).

4 % 8. most of them (67.9 % 15 % D 6. Favorite behavior pattern of male characters (Question 5.4 % D 17. It at the same time gives us an implication that HCMC girls are more and more independent from the protection of muscular men quite often portrayed in Disney. In truth.9 % E 5.6 % 49 % B 6.2 % 9% F 18.3 % 6% C 21.8 % 0% Table 4.2) Chosen options Male Female Note on options: A: Nerdy C: Superman-liked E: Childish B: Sporty D: Playful F: Others A 11.2 % 21 % E 6.9 % 25.1 % 22.37 - .Popular Culture Research Group 4 different. Instead. they are in favor of apparent body build of fitness as they always see on various means of the media.9 % 11.6 % B 42.7 % 5. princess-liked E: Childish B: Princess-liked D: Supergirl-liked F: Others A 40.7%) prefer males with fitness – a familiar image of male models on television and magazines. II – Behavioral Traits Table 3.1) Chosen options Male Female Note on options: A: Fun loving.7 % C 22.7 % F 0% 0% . Favorite behavior pattern of female characters (Question 5. free-spirited C: Brainy.

Popular Culture Research Group 4 Table 3 shows us the proportions of favorite Disney traits in female characters evaluated by teenage boys and girls in Ho Chi Minh City. Most boys commented in the box below “others” option that they liked “Sharpay” characteristic – a witted. etc. There also appears a huge favor gap between Ho Chi Minh City boys and girls for female role model’s “superman-liked” (Elastic Girl. This distinctive characteristic catches 21% Ho Chi Minh City girl’s preference. Alex Russo.) currently has market dominance with 40. Both girls and boys in Ho Chi Minh City share the same score on “childish” (Harper in Wizards of Waverly Place) with approximately 6% vote. The result demonstrates the percentage shown on the table along with the actual count value: with that being 18.38 - . Totally Spice.2% and 9% from boys and girls respectively. “Others” option displays contrasting opinions for female behavioral norms among Saigonese teenagers. It indicates that “fun loving free spirited” preference (Hannah Montana. mean. which is 3.5 times higher than that of boys. Table 4 displays a percentage of those satisfied with the stated behavioral patterns for male leading roles in Disney films.3 and 0 respectively.9% comparing to 15% girls’ vote.6% from boys’ evaluation and 49% girls’ satisfaction. self-centered. free spirited and confident girl in High School Musical trilogy. While “princess-liked” pattern (the princesses from classic tales) shows an even distribution of result as it scores only 6. This characteristic is highly appreciated by Ho Chi Minh City teenage boys with 21. The table is based on the responses of teenagers of . and the like) pattern. ratings of “brainy princess-liked” behavior (Gabriella in High School Musical trilogy) show gender diversity.

Popular Culture Research Group 4 both genders in Ho Chi Minh City.39 - . When teenage girls agree that “Superman-liked” feature (Mr.” “playful” for male characters. Being “childish” (Jackson and Mitchell in Hannah Montana: Best of Both Worlds.7% satisfaction.” . At the same time. and so forth) is desirable. Both sexes show the fondness of the most popular traits in Disney shows such as “fun loving – free spirited” for female characters and “sporty. At the same time.) and “Playful” (Chad Danforth in High School Musical) characteristic made up the two most favorite Disney male’s characteristics. Saigonese girls show the fondness of “sporty” characteristic for male category as this personality climbs to the highest percentage of 42. they show less impressed on the undesirable traits like “nerdy” and “childish. Together they comprise over half of Ho Chi Minh City boy’s satisfaction.10% vote. boys disagree making a total percentage of 22. Incredible. Tarzan. etc. while “playful” trait only accounts for 17.4 respectively.9. Gaston. Justin Russo in Wizards of Waverly Place. the Beast. The tables clearly show that Ho Chi Minh City teenagers in both genders are still influenced by Disney gender stereotypes. it is evident that “Sporty” (Troy Bolton in High School Musical and Izzy Daniels in Jump in.9 and 11. and the like) seems less favorable for both genders as rating hits the lowest with only 5. According to Saigonese teenage boys’ evaluation.

Popular Culture Research III – Romantic Involvement Group 4 Table 5: View on the portrayal of romance in Disney Channel shows (Question 6) Gender Male Female Very realistic 0% 0% Acceptable 80 % 100 % Unrealistic 20 % 0% The result of survey shows that Disney Channel has a certain impact on HCMC teenagers’ perception of romance and gender. it is notable that we cannot avoid some over-romanticized details in the movies. more than half of teenagers in HCMC believe in love at first sight. in our opinions. However. There is no vote for the idea that romance in Disney Channel is very realistic. Among males’ responses. However. 9 % Do not believe 20 % 42. 2 % In our survey. Table 6: View on love at first sight (Question 7) Gender Male Female Believe 80 % 42. teenagers in HCMC believe that they can have and develop their affection . 9 % Others 0% 14. Nevertheless.40 - . there is 80% acceptance of the romantic portrayal in Disney compared to 100% that is of girls. Moreover. It possibly proves that girls are more romantic than boys. those details. they seem to agree with the idea that romance in Disney films can be acceptable. also symbolize for innocent dreams which are idealized to direct us to a better life which is full of love and happiness.

” Table 7: View on the idea of eternal love (Question 8) Gender Male Female Believe 0% 42. The love for one another can be less or more but it is hard to stay the same. It proves that boys and girls are less affected by the idea of eternal love on Disney Channel.6 % Others 25 % 42.9 % Do not believe 80 % 28.8 % .41 - .9% girls believe in everlasting love. there is one expressing. It is surprising to know that 80% HCMC boys vote for love at first sight as opposed to 42.5 % The idea of eternal love is rejected by half of the participants because they think that through the flow of time. 42.6 % No 25 % 28. And although boys do not approve of this idea. meanwhile.9% of girls. love will change. But girls seem to idealize a perfect love in which one never changes the love for another. “This can only happen when the right person appears.6 % Others 20 % 28.” Table 8: View on the idea of “happily ever after” (Question 9) Gender Male Female Yes 50 % 28. One special thing in the survey is that no boy believes in eternal love.Popular Culture Research Group 4 in case they meet the right person who can make them feel the so-called love. Only one girl thinks differently that “it should depend on the one I love.

Boys want to be able to play sport as Troy Bolton and Chad Danforth in High School Musical (40%) while 34.3% 14.Popular Culture Research Group 4 The idea of living “happily ever after” also receives many approving responses from 50% of boys and 28. that is. Therefore. they think the right person will help their love blossom. On one hand.8 of boys and girls respectively. “anything is possible.3% prefers boys with profound knowledge like Cody in The Suite Life of Zack and Cody. On the other hand. And the rest votes for “caring” type. To girls. Strategies and plans on the way to one’s heart seem diverse and they are all supported by the participants.6% of girls.3% 11. 14.3% is interested in boys with sporty way of dressing. they believe in “happily ever after” ending because of their faith in love stability.1) Gender Male Making scandals Being lovely Dressing suggestively Caring 40% 34. for those who do not agree. the best attitude is that we should be ready to face whatever suddenly happens in our real life. 42 % likes to . If we are not sure about everything. different ideas are generated. “Others” option constitutes a percentage of 25 and 42.42 - . As one girl truthfully says. they openly express their thoughts about everlasting happiness.4% Table 10: The way girls attract boys (Question 10.” Table 9: The way boys attract girls (Question 10.2) Gender Female Making scandals Being lovely Dressing suggestively Caring 42% 29% 15% 13% The way to “attack” the one of opposite sex is also a main feature of Disney romantic love.

5 % 0% Note on options: A: Only the father goes to work C: Only the mother goes to work B: Both parents go to work D: Others Table 12. 15% likes the suggestive way of dressing such as Sharpay in High School Musical while 13% of the girls is interested in the care of love.3 % C 0% 8.Popular Culture Research Group 4 express their love through scandals because they think that this is an easy way to get the attention of the ones they love. they are strongly influenced by Disney new images – boys being sporty.43 - Mothers 35 % 27. we explore that both boys and girls want to free themselves from the old images portrayed in Disney shows. Through the survey.5 % Both parents 56. 29% prefers themselves to be lovely like Gabriella in High School Musical and Mitchie Torres in Camp Rock.6 % D 3. IV – Family Structure and Practices Table 11. Instead.5 % 63 % . meanwhile.5 % 9. knowledgeable and caring.5 % .3 % B 62 % 54. It goes against the gender stereotype in which boys are always the rescuers and girls are always the rescued. girls being active in love.5 % 35. Preferred family pattern (Question 11) Chosen options Male Female A 34. House chores sharing between parents (Question 12) Chosen options Male Female Fathers 8.

62% of boys and 54.3% of girls who watch Disney Channel think both fathers and mothers should go to work. both males and females in their teenagers living in Ho Chi Minh City are well aware of men’s and women’s roles .5 % 43.44 - . In other words. In addition. Specifically.5 % 56.3 % Group 4 C 2% 0% Note on options: A: Strict and tough B: Close to the children like a friend C: Just provides the children with material needs. in general.Popular Culture Research Table 13. The survey indicates the idea of male and female teenagers watching Disney Channel in Ho Chi Minh City about family structure and practices.7 % B 52. Preferred type of father (Question 13) Chosen options Male Female A 45. Meanwhile. approximately half the participant number taking part in the survey prefers the image of parents in which mothers play a more active role and fathers are no longer a distant figure to children. It is clear from the data collected that there is a very slight gap between the number of boys and girls supporting the equality in family. As can be seen from the survey result. the number of male and female teenagers who like the equality in household labor division accounts for 56.5% and 63%. over 50% of both teenage boys and girls vote for the equality in labor and power division between male and female in family.

45 - .Popular Culture Research Group 4 in a modern family where the father and the mother support one another and share responsibilities.5% of boys and 43.3% to 8. it is shown in the survey result that teenager number who think mothers are more capable of household chores and fathers are more capable of making a living is higher in proportion to that who think vice versa (34. To illustrate this idea. there are positive changes in gender role reception of Disney Channel young viewers in Ho Chi Minh City while some still perform their understanding in ways consistent with traditional gender stereotypes.7% of girls is the controlling and aggressive father. Nevertheless.) Similarly.3 % one after another. it is a matter of fact that there are positive changes out of the old masculinity stereotype of fathers among youngsters in Ho Chi Minh City.6% in girls.5% and 56. Hence. . for it is affected by patriarchy conveyed in Disney movies. In conclusion. Equally important.5% to 0% in boys and 35. it appears that gender role stereotypes still exist in the mind of those teenage Disney Channel viewers. the image of a socalled perfect father according to 45. the percentage of male and female participants in the survey who like the portrayal of an affectionate and caring father constitutes 52.

it is shown that the assumption of female leadership is more acceptable nowadays. we can come to the conclusion that Saigonese girls have been more and more aware of their gender equality in terms of socioeconomic status. Raising a question of “whether women are suitable for leader responsibility. From this. It shows that while nearly half of males still holds on to the idea of that women have less important position in the society.3% males and 26.5% females agreeing with the idea while 48.5 % No (Disagree) 48.46 - . View on female leadership (Question 14) Chosen options Male Female Yes (Agree) 51.  .5 % Group 4 From the survey. In fact.5% females regard women as unsuitable for leadership.3 % 26.Popular Culture Research V – Socioeconomic Status Table 14. two third of the girls asked seems to have more open view on this issues. there are 51.7% males and 71.7 % 73.” we get the approval from most male and female audiences.

It somehow expressed the other influential sources on television and magazines on girls. This to some extent proves that HCMC teenagers are gradually heading towards the beauty that is physically strong and healthy. whereas girls would prefer male fitness to muscularity. Secondly. in terms of physical appearance. However. the majority voting for favorite Disney traits of both genders indicates audience reception in HCMC is still being controlled by Disney gender current values and perceptions.47 - . In addition. While the feminist movement has great impact on Disney female role models. this research can draw out some valuable conclusions. therefore.” Gender role in terms of behavioral traits. . male characters are under pressure of typical social expectation. most HCMC teenagers are quite actively engaged in the obsession with thinness portrayed on Disney shows. First of all. showed by HCMC teenagers signifies the remains of gender stereotypes.Popular Culture Research Group 4 PART 5: CONCLUSION By analyzing the texts in Disney programs combined with a survey on ideas of Ho Chi Minh City teenagers’ perception of gender role in Disney Channel. while boys have equal preferences on slim and sexy girls. HCMC girls would rather choose firmness as their beauty ideal. The survey on favorite characters in Disney movies proves that less than flawless characteristic such as “childish” and “nerdy” does not receive as many positive feedbacks as typical traits for instance “sporty” and “playful. it is found that boys’ choice of muscularity and fitness are nearly equal.

Next. although not all HCMC teenagers are overwhelmed by the portrayal of romance in Disney films.48 - . as regards family structure and practices. Comparing to Disney Channel stereotypes of male and female’s roles in family.Popular Culture Research Group 4 Thirdly. HCMC teenagers’ notion about gender has become more objective. despite being one of the factors that have a strong influence on its viewers’ point of view of gender role. In fact. the survey displays HCMC teenagers’ independent thoughts out of domestic roles of women and dominant roles of men. Disney Channel . more radical nowadays. In conclusion. There will not totally be a prince and a princess or a romantic love but teenagers still wish for a beautiful life or even a dreamy world in which they can freely express themselves instead of being restricted in Disney stereotyped portrayal. This fact represents a positive change in the perception of gender role in HCMC boys’ and girls’ minds in which both men and women play an important role in family and share all responsibilities with one another. which shows their support to feminism. more than half the number of male and female teenagers who participated in the survey supports the equality in household labor and power division. In terms of socioeconomic status. the idea of female leadership is more acceptable in HCMC teenagers’ perception nowadays. the findings express the activeness of HCMC teenagers in their perception of gender role in Disney Channel. they still get a certain influence which is clarified by the survey’s result. That means HCMC teenagers selectively accept the model shown in Disney and make it their own.

This is what caregivers like parents and teachers should pay attention to in order to provide the adolescents an environment. a clear guidance and useful directions to help them healthily develop their gender identity.  . as shown in different ideas of survey participants with a critical way of thinking .49 - .Popular Culture Research Group 4 programs cannot reinforce all its ideals of gender in the Ho Chi Minh City teenage audience.

htm> Figure 6. Cinderella’s beauty <http://disney.thecartoonpictures.Popular Culture Research Group 4 APPENDIX 1 Figure 1.cardboardstandups.fm/music/Hannah+Mont ana/+images/26629051> . Snow White’s beauty Figure 2.com/wiki/Cinderella_ %28character%29> Figure 4.wordpress. Miley (left) with below average figure and Lily with “trendy” beauty <http://www. Belle’s beauty <http://anhphuongart.htm> be/snow-white/snow-white-31/> Figure 3.com/rdisney-1-disney-princesses-9-disneyprincess-party-4.com/prin 1%BA%ABu-v%E1%BA%BD-phongcesses.wikia.last.com/wiki/Pocahontas _%28character%29> Figure 5. Pocahontas’s beauty <http://disney.50 - .wikia.com/m%E <http://www. Identical Beauty of Disney Princesses <http://www.

com/wiki/Sharpay> Figure 8.com/2 007_11_01_archive. Cory’s overweight image <http://youchewpoop.Popular Culture Research Group 4 Figure 7.com/news/cory-inthe-house-review/> Figure 9. Tarzan’s muscularity <http://newlynatural.wikia.fanpop.comicvine. Mr.com/spots/agentp/images/4831634/title/phineas-ferb-fastphineas-photo> Figure 10.51 - .com/blog/category/c urly-cartoons/> Figure 11. Sharpay’s sexy beauty <http://disney.com/mrincredible/29-54238/> Figure 12. Incredible’s muscular figure <http://www. Small and skinny brothers Phineas and Ferb <http://www.blogspot. Phillip’s slender build <http://haraldsiepermann.html> .

....2.HCM PHIẾU KHẢO SÁT Chúng tôi là nhóm sinh viên ngành ngữ văn Anh đang nghiên cứu ảnh hưởng của kênh truyền hình Disney Channel đối với thiếu niên thành phố Hồ Chí Minh. Buzz Lightyear – Toy Story... gọn gàng (Troy Bolton) c. Cơ bắp (Mr.... Nhỏ nhắn.....tiếng/tuần 4.... Nhân vật nữ a...... Incredible.. The Cheetah Girls) Ý kiến khác (Cho biết lý do): 4. đánh dấu chọn () hoặc điền vào chỗ trống... 2. 1..Popular Culture Research Group 4 APPENDIX 2 Khoa Ngữ văn Anh Trường Đại học Khoa học Xã hội & Nhân văn TP.. Thon gọn... Tròn trịa (Cory – Cory in the House) ... Gợi cảm (Sharpay) c..... Tarzan) b.1.. Khỏe khoắn........... Giới tính: Nam Nữ 3...52 - . mảnh mai (Alex Russo........... Phiếu khảo sát này được dùng chỉ cho mục đích nghiên cứu và thông tin cung cấp trong phiếu khảo sát sẽ được bảo mật....That’s So Raven............ Ngoại hình nhân vật yêu thích của bạn 4... khỏe khoắn (Hannah Montana) d......... Bạn có thường xuyên xem kênh Disney Channel không? Có Không Nếu có.... Tuổi của bạn?... mỗi tuần bạn dành bao nhiêu thời gian cho việc xem kênh này?... Tròn trịa (Raven ....... Xin cám ơn sự hợp tác của bạn! Vui lòng trả lời câu hỏi bằng cách khoanh tròn............... Nhân vật nam a. Gabriella) b.......

Nhân vật nữ a. Có thể chấp nhận c. Mê thể thao (Troy Bolton . Thông minh. tinh nghịch (Hannah Montana. Ngờ nghệch. ngớ ngẩn (George – George of the Jungle. anh của Hannah – Hannah Montana) Ý kiến khác (Cho biết lý do): 6.High School Musical) c. Nàng tiên cá) c.Zack and Cody. Justin Russo – Wizards of Waverly Place) b.1. George – George of the Jungle) Ý kiến khác (Cho biết lý do): 5. xinh đẹp (Công chúa Lọ Lem. Incredible .The Incredibles) d.Wizards of Waverly Place) b. Không c.Popular Culture Research Group 4 d. Bạn có tin vào tình yêu sét đánh hay không? a. Rất thực tế b. Theo bạn. Rico . Lanh lợi. Gầy guộc. Nhân vật nam a.Zack and Cody. dịu dàng (Gabriella . sự lãng mạn trong những phim trên Disney Channel là a.High School Musical) d. Alex Russo . Bạch Tuyết. mọt sách (Cody . Có b. Không thực tế chút nào Ý kiến khác: 7. Ý kiến khác . Ngờ nghệch.53 - . Học giỏi. nhỏ con (Cody – Zack and Cody. Oliver & Jackson. Nết na. Kiểu nhân vật Disney yêu thích của bạn? 5.The Incredibles) e.Hannah Montana) e. Có siêu năng lực (Mr. ngớ ngẩn (Harper – Wizards of Waverly Place) Ý kiến khác (Cho biết lý do): 5.2. Có siêu năng lực (Elastic Girl . Tinh nghịch (Zack .

Cha mẹ đều đi làm (Good luck Charlie) c. Nếu bạn là nữ a. bạn có tin rằng mình sẽ sống hạnh phúc mãi mãi về sau với người đó không? a. Bạn nghĩ nên làm cách nào để thu hút người khác giới: 10. Justin Russo) d. Ăn mặc thời trang (Jackson. mẹ đi làm 12. Có b. Chơi thể thao giỏi (Troy Bolton) c.1. Ý kiến khác 9. Cha b. Ăn mặc gợi cảm (Sharpay) b. Có b. Nếu bạn là nam a. mẹ nội trợ (The Incredibles) b. Thể hiện sự quan tâm d. Bạn có tin vào một tình yêu vĩnh cửu. Ý kiến khác 10. Công việc trong nhà là việc của: a.54 - . Làm những trò điên rồ để gây sự chú ý (Candace – Phineas and Ferb) Ý kiến khác: 11. Khi gặp đúng đối tượng.Popular Culture Research Group 4 8. Thể hiện sự quan tâm (Troy Bolton) Ý kiến khác: 10. Không c. Học giỏi. Không c. không bao giờ thay đổi hay không? a. Ăn mặc dễ thương. nữ tính (Gabriella) c. anh của Hannah Montana) b. Cha đi làm. 2. Mẹ . Cha nội trợ. Bạn thích kiểu mẫu gia đình nào dưới đây: a. khoe kiến thức (Cody – Zack and Cody.

55 - . Gần gũi với con cái c. Có b. Chỉ cần cung cấp nhu cầu vật chất cho con cái. Cứng rắn và nghiêm khắc b. Theo ý bạn. 13. Không Group 4 . 14. phụ nữ có phù hợp với việc làm lãnh đạo hay không? a.Popular Culture Research c. Bạn thích mẫu người cha như thế nào? a. Cả 2 cùng chia sẻ trách nhiệm.

.1..That’s So Raven... Plump (Cory – Cory in the House) . Buzz Lightyear – Toy Story. 2................... how often do you watch Disney Channel? …………… hour(s)/week 4... Do you usually watch Disney Channel? Yes No If yes. Muscular (Mr...2.......... Tarzan) b.. Firm (Hannah Montana) d.. Your age: .... Sexy (Sharpay) c... Fit (Troy Bolton) c...... Female characters a.....56 - . We sincerely thank you for your cooperation.. What are your favorite body shapes of characters? 4......... 1.... ticking your choice or filling in the blank.... Gender: Male Female 3.. This survey is used only for research purpose and all the information provided will be confidential.... The Cheetah Girls) Others (Please specify) 4. Slender (Alex Russo.... Gabriella) b. Please answer the following questions by circling your choice.... Incredible..........Popular Culture Research Group 4 APPENDIX 3 Department of English Linguistics and Literature Ho Chi Minh City University of Social Sciences and Humanities SURVEY We are a group of students of the Department of English Linguistics and Literature doing a research on how teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City respond to images of gender role shown in Disney Channel programs... Plump (Raven . Male characters a.....

57 - . Childish (George – George of the Jungle.The Incredibles) e. Superman-liked (Mr.Popular Culture Research d. Nerdy (Cody . No Others (Please specify) . George – George of the Jungle) Others (Please specify) Group 4 5.Wizards of Waverly Place) b. princess-liked (Gabriella . Yes b. Rico . Female characters a. Oliver & Jackson .Zack and Cody. Justin Russo – Wizards of Waverly Place) b.High School Musical) d. Fun loving.Hannah Montana’s friend and brother ) Others (Please specify): 6. Sporty (Troy Bolton . Princess-liked (Cinderella. What is your view on the portrayal of romance on Disney Channel shows? a.Zack and Cody. Snow White.2. Incredible . Alex Russo . Male character a. Very realistic b. Playful (Zack . Skinny (Cody – Zack and Cody. Little Mermaid) c.1. What are your favorite behavior patterns of characters in Disney Channel programs? 5. Supergirl-liked (Elastic Girl .Hannah Montana) e. Childish (Harper – Wizards of Waverly Place) Others (Please specify): 5. Unrealistic Others (Please specify) 7. Brainy.The Incredibles) d. free-spirited (Hannah Montana. Do you believe in love at first sight? a.High School Musical) c. Acceptable c.

What is your preferred family pattern? a. Dressing suggestively (Jack Ryan . Both parents go to work (Good luck Charlie) c. Caring (Troy Bolton) Others (Please specify) 10. Being lovely(Gabriella) c. 1. Do you believe in the idea of eternal love? a. Only the mother goes to work Others (Please specify) 12. If you are male a. No Others ( please specify) 10. If you are female a. Yes b. Father b. In what way should a character attract the person of the other sex? 10. Whom do you think house chore responsibility belongs to? a.Hannah Montana) b. Making scandals (Zack – The Suite Life of Zack and Cody) d. Caring (Gabriella) d.2. Yes b. When you meet the Right One.58 - . Mother . Only the father goes to work ( The Incredibles) b. Dressing suggestively (Sharpay) b. No Others (Please specify) Group 4 9.Popular Culture Research 8. Making scandals (Candace – Phineas and Ferb) Others (Please specify) 11. do you believe you two can live “happily ever after”? a.

Just provides children with material needs (Father of Zack and Cody – The Suite Life of Zack and Cody) 14. What is your preferred type of father? a. Yes b. No . Shared responsibility 13. Strict and tough (Kerchak – Tarzan) b. Do you think females are suitable to be leaders? a.Popular Culture Research c.59 - . Close to children like a friend (Billy Ray Stewart – Hannah Montana) Group 4 c.

Popular Culture Research Group 4 APPENDIX 4 List of Disney Channel movies and TV shows analyzed Movies/ TV shows Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Pinocchio Bambi Cinderella Alice in Wonderland Peter Pan Lady and the Tramp Sleeping Beauty 101 Dalmatians Mary Poppins The Jungle Book The Little Mermaid Beauty and the Beast Aladdin The Lion King Pocahontas Life is Beautiful Mulan Tarzan Atlantis: The Lost Empire Kim Possible Treasure Planet That’s So Raven The Incredibles The Suite Life of Zack and Cody Year Released 1937 1940 1942 1950 1951 1953 1955 1959 1961 1964 1967 1989 1991 1992 1994 1995 1997 1998 1999 2001 2002 2002 2003 2004 2005 .60 - .

61 - .Popular Culture Research Hannah Montana High School Musical Wendy Wu: Homecoming Warrior Cory in the House Jump In Phineas and Ferb Wizards of Waverly Place Camp Rock Minutemen Good Luck Charlie 2006 2006 2006 2007 2007 2007 2007 2008 2008 2010 Group 4 .

5 Dec. 22 Nov.wikipedia. 5 Dec. Mary. Walt Disney Pictures. 2010 <http://en.L. Dir. 2010 <http://disney.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disney_Channel>. Disney Wiki. 2010 <http://disney. Will Hannah Montana Forever be a Successful End to the Franchise? NeBusiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. and Lewis. Ginette. 2010. Disney Channel Asia. K.com/wiki/Cinderella_%28character%29>. American feminism: A contemporary History.com/wiki/Belle>.wikia. Deaux. Free Online Library. Barabe. Beauty and the Beast. 2008. 5 Dec. 1 Nov. Gianoli. 5 Dec.-a0165724076>. Belle. 5 Dec. <http://www. Gary Trousdale and Kirk Wise.org/wiki/Disney_Channel_Asia>.com/Disney+Channel+Expands+Its+Audience+Reach+i n+Vietnam.Popular Culture Research Group 4 REFERENCES Atlantis: The Lost Empire. Disney Channel Expands Its Audience Reach in Vietnam. 1991.wikia. 2010 .62 - . New York: NYU Press. 2010. 5 Dec.uk/business-news/special-features/2010/11/22/willhannah-montana-forever-be-a-successful-end-to-the-franchise-51140-27694099/>. WorldLingo. the free encyclopedia. the free encyclopedia. L. 5 Dec.co. Cinderella.thefreelibrary. Wikipedia.worldlingo. 1990. Disney Wiki. Structure of gender stereotypes: Interrelationships among components and gender label. 5 Dec. 2010 <http://www. Are Disney Movies a Negative Influence? Associated Content.com/ma/enwiki/en/Atlantis%3A_The_Lost_Empire>. 46 (1984) Disney Channel.nebusiness. Feminism and the Law. 2010 <http://www. Wikipedia. 2010 <http://en. Christopher Wiegering. Castro.

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