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Ho Chi Minh National University University of Social Sciences and Humanities Department of English Linguistics and Literature

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COURSE: POPULAR CULTURE

A RESEARCH ON HO CHI MINH CITY TEENAGERS’ PERCEPTION OF GENDER ROLE IN DISNEY CHANNEL

Instructor : Phan Thị Kim Loan, M.A. Students : Group 4 Trương Võ Hoàng An Nguyễn Ngọc Diễm Bùi Ngọc Diễm Châu Châu Chiêu Bình Nhan Kiết Lệ Phạm Thị Thu Hà 0771007 0771039 0771296 0771025 0771107 0771060

Ho Chi Minh City December, 2010

Popular Culture Research

Group 4

ABSTRACT
Group 4 (2010): “A Research on Hồ Chí Minh City Teenagers’ Perception of Gender Role in Disney Channel” - A Research Project for the course Popular Culture

In recent years, Disney Channel has grown more and more popular among teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City. Since teenagers are in the stage of life when they are developing their own sense of identity, they are vulnerable and easily influenced by the media. Therefore, our research paper aims to figure out how HCMC teenagers perceive gender role from Disney Channel. First, through analyzing Disney Channel text in terms of physical appearance, behavioral traits, romantic involvements, family structure and practices, and socioeconomic status of characters of both sexes from Disney Channel program, we explore the messages of gender role conveyed in the shows that are currently very popular to the youth worldwide. Then, based on the survey that we conduct among teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City, we find out how actively teenagers in HCMC engage in perceiving gender role stereotypes shown on Disney Channel and examine how teenagers in HCMC respond to messages of gender role in Disney Channel.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First and foremost, we would like to express our deepest gratitude to Ms. Phan Thi Kim Loan, our supervisor, whose encouragement, guidance and support from the initial to the final stage enabled us to develop the understanding on the subject. We are also indebted to the teenagers of both sexes in Ho Chi Minh City for their enthusiastic participations in taking our survey. Their contribution had helped us a great deal in conducting this research. Finally, it is an honor of us to send our regards and blessings to our families and friends who supported us to the completion of the project. - Group 4

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.................................................. Physical Appearance ...... Reason for choosing the topic ...................................................................................................................................... 2 PART 2: LITERATURE REVIEW I.................................................................................. 11 ......................... i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS....................... Research methodology ................. 3 II... iii LIST OF FIGURES..................................................... Social Learning Theory ......................................... 8 IV........... 9 PART 3: ANALYSIS ON DISNEY CHANNEL TEXTS I..................................................... 7 III........................................ ii TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................. Aims of research ......................................................................................................... Disney Channel Overview .. Impact of Media on Adolescents .... v LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................... Summary ................................................................................. 1 III................................................................Popular Culture Research Group 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT..................................................................iii - ..... vii PART 1: INTRODUCTION I............................................................................................................ 1 II....................................

.............................................. Physical Appearance ....................................................................... 40 IV................................................................................. 52 APPENDIX 3 ................................... 17 III............................................................ 22 IV....... Socioeconomic Status .. Socioeconomic Status ............... 50 APPENDIX 2 .............................................. Behavioral Traits .. 56 APPENDIX 4 ..................................................... 37 III........................................................................ Behavioral Traits ......................................................................................................................................................... 35 II............. 29 PART 4: SURVEY ON HO CHI MINH CITY TEENAGERS’ PERCEPTION OF GENDER ROLE IN DISNEY CHANNEL I.................Popular Culture Research Group 4 II.............................................. Family Structure and Practices .......................................................................... Romantic Involvement ................................................................................................................................iv - .............................................. 46 PART 5: CONCLUSION ............................................................... 24 V............. 62 . 43 V... 47 APPENDIX 1 ................... 60 REFERENCES ........ Romantic Involvement ................................. Family Structure and Practices ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 19 18) Hannah Montana’s feminist representation .................................................................................. 16 11) Small and skinny brothers Phineas and Ferb ................ 13 5) Identical Beauty of Disney Princesses ....... 21 20) Milo Thatch’s lean and nerdy personality................................................................................................ 19 19) Troy’s sporty..................................................................................................................... 12 2) Belle’s beauty ............................Popular Culture Research Group 4 LIST OF FIGURES 1) Snow White’s beauty ....................................................................................................................................................... 13 6) Miley’s and Lily’s below-average figure .................... 17 15) Snow White’s domestic........................... 15 8) London’s “trendy” beauty ................................................... frail and weak trait .......................................................................... 17 16) Ariel’s independent and outspoken personality ........................................................ 15 9) Lily and Raven with beauty ideal of “the girl next door” ................................................. cute and muscular trait .............................. 14 7) Sharpay’s “trendy” beauty .............................................................................................. 13 4) Pocahontas’s beauty ................ 21 -v- ...................................... 12 3) Cinderella’s beauty ........... 18 17) Belle’s smart and strong-willed characteristic ........................ 16 13) Mr........ 16 12) Tarzan’s muscularity .............. 16 14) Phillip’s slender build ................................................................................................ 15 10) Cory’s overweight image ............................ Incredible’s muscular figure .......................................................................................................

................................................................................................................... affectionate and self-sacrificing father........................................................................................ 28 .. 22 22) Love at first sight in Cinderella and High School Musical ..................................... 27 29) King Triton as a self-sacrificing father ..................................... 25 26) Kala as a caregiver and protector............. 28 32) The Queen of Hearts with the image of women as being more powerful than men ............................................................................Popular Culture Research Group 4 21) Snow White’s Prince and Prince Phillip as rescuers ........... 26 27) Kerchak as a controlling and aggressive father .......................vi - ...... 25 24) Carey as a mother and protector .......................................................................... 26 28) King Triton as a tyranny father......................................................... 25 25) Bambi’s mother as a caregiver and protector ............................................................................ 27 30) Pongo as a nurturing........... 28 31) Jim and Darling with unequal house chore sharing ..................... 22 23) Perdy as a mother and protector ............................

.......................... View on the idea of eternal love ....................................................................................................... 40 Table 6................... Favorite behavior pattern of male characters . The way girls attract boys . View on love at first sight .. 40 Table 7............................ 46 ................. View on the portrayal of romance in Disney Channel shows ......... Preferred family pattern ............................. 44 Table 14.............vii - ........................................................................... House chores sharing between parents ............................. The way boys attract girls .................... 31 Table 1........................... 35 Table 2..................... 41 Table 9............ 37 Table 4............................................... 30 Table B...... 43 Table 12............................... 37 Table 5.......................................................... 41 Table 8.... Career and social position in Disney modern films ... Career and social position in Disney classical films ........................................................... Preferred type of father ............ 42 Table 10............... View on the idea of “happily ever after” ............................ View on female leadership ........................ Favorite behavior pattern of female characters .............................. 42 Table 11.....................................................................Popular Culture Research Group 4 LIST OF TABLES Table A.......... Favorite body shape of female characters .............. 36 Table 3..................................................... Favorite body shape of male characters ...... 43 Table 13.......................

And this research attempts to give an answer to it: how Ho Chi Minh City teenagers perceive gender role on Disney Channel.To help parents and teachers have critical views of gender role portrayed in Disney Channel so as to provide children and teenagers with guidance in their perception of gender role.To examine how teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City respond to messages of gender role in Disney Channel.Aims of Research . family structure and practices. romantic involvement. behavioral traits. they are living in Disney world.Popular Culture Research Group 4 PART 1: INTRODUCTION I . in which American teenagers are vulnerable to the images of gender role in most of Disney programs. The issue alarms us to put a question on teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City. . .To find out how actively teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City engage in perceiving gender role stereotypes shown on Disney Channel.To analyze how gender role is portrayed in Disney Channel in terms of physical appearance. II . and socioeconomic status. Worth noticing.Reason for choosing the topic Teenagers are people who the most easily get influenced by popular culture. -1- . .

We also deliver questionnaires to examine Ho Chi Minh City teenagers’ reception.Research Methodology Our research uses qualitative and quantitative methods.Popular Culture Research  Research Questions: Group 4 1. etc. Document review Data collecting Information synthesis Textual analysis Personal observation Survey analysis and evaluation -2- . How is gender role described in Disney Channel in terms of behavioral traits and how do HCMC teenagers perceive this? 3. websites. How is gender role described in Disney Channel in terms of romantic involvement and how do HCMC teenagers perceive this? 4. How is gender role described in Disney Channel in terms of family structure and practices and how do HCMC teenagers perceive this? 5. books. How is gender role described in Disney Channel in terms of physical appearance and how do HCMC teenagers perceive this? 2. How is gender role described in Disney Channel in terms of socioeconomic status and how do HCMC teenagers perceive this? III . which are mainly based on secondary sources collected from various sources such as previous researches. articles. Disney texts.

org/wiki/Disney_Channel>.Popular Culture Research Group 4 PART 2: LITERATURE REVIEW I . This variety television show immediately became a hit. in April 1984. In December 1986. in recent years.Disney Channel Overview Disney Channel belongs to Disney-ABC Cable Networks Group – a division of Walt Disney Company.1997) Disney Channel was first launched on April 18. they began to broadcast 24 hours a day. 1983 as a premium channel. 2010 <http://en. However. the channel debuted the musical sitcom series Kids Incorporated. As an American television channel. which was a big hit and has become part of the cultural lexicon. the channel increased the program to 18 hours a day. In early 1989. The cast of the series included many young actors that later became stars in both music and acting such as Jennifer Love Hewitt and Stacy Ferguson (currently known as Fergie of the band The Black Eyed Peas). the show also 1 Disney Channel. A year later. 5 Dec. Wikipedia. History1 The history of Disney Channel is divided into four eras: a. it only aired 16 hours a day. In 1986. Its program currently includes original series and original movies as well as programs from other third parties. At the beginning. it specializes in television program for children.wikipedia. it has grown more and more popular with older audience. The Beginning (1983 . -3- . The All-New Mickey Mouse Club was launched. Like Kids Incorporated. the free encyclopedia. 1.

Justin Timberlake. which are preschoolers. During this period. pre-teenagers and young adolescents.2002) In 1997. Disney Channel’s original program included shows like Flash Forward. the Channel “has been adding a million viewers a month—every month—for the last five years. By 2008. In 2004. b. It reduced the number of prime time movie from two each night to only one. -4- . Disney Channel went from a premium cable channel to an expanded basic cable and started to gain viewers. nurture." and has become “the greatest teen-star incubator since the NBA stopped drafting high schoolers.” Around the same time. Disney Channel was seen in more than 8 million households in the United States. and aggressively cross-promote teen music stars whose style and image were carefully targeted to pre-teenagers and teenagers.” Sweeney’s strategy was to “discover. Even Stevens.Popular Culture Research Group 4 spawned many future stars. Anne Sweeney took control of Disney-ABC Television Group and was very successful in turning Disney Channel into “the major profit driver in the company”. etc. By 1995. among them are Christina Aguilera. Kim Possible and Lizzie McGuire – the show that helped launch the career of Hilary Duff. The Relaunched Era (2002 . c. Britney Spears. The Zoog/Vault Disney Era (1997 . So Weird. the channel began to gain more popularity as well as viewers outside its main target audience demographic. Ryan Gosling. The channel also stopped producing drama and reality show to shift focus to live-action comedies and animated series.2007) Disney Channel began to remodel again in September 2002.

Disney Channel reduced the number of original movie and series premieres to four Disney Channel Original Movies (DCOM) and two Disney Channel Original Series premiering each year. Wizards of Waverly Place: The Movie was the highest-rated cable program of 2009 (excluding sporting events) with 11. in 2003. The crossover special Wizards on Deck with Hannah Montana (involving Wizards of Waverly Place. the hit original movie High School Musical in 2006. Other successful programs of this era were That’s So Raven (2005) – the highest-rated series of the network since it became basic cable.Popular Culture Research Group 4 One notable event of Disney Channel in this period was the release of its first musical made-for-cable movie. d.2 million viewers. These four original movies each starred at least two stars from Disney Channel's original series. and Wizards of Waverly Place: The Movie. The Suite Life on Deck and Hannah Montana) was -5- . the hit show that launched the career of one of Disney Channel’s biggest stars Miley Cyrus. two new series were launched: Sonny with a Chance and JONAS.present) In 2007. Princess Protection Program. The Cheetah Girls. Hatching Pete. The most successful DCOM in that year was High School Musical 2. The movie received 84 million viewers worldwide and led to the creation of other successful music-themed programs like the original movie High School Musical and the original series Hannah Montana. with 17. In 2009. New movies in 2009 were: Dadnapped. and in the same year the original series Hannah Montana. the second movie in the phenomenal trilogy High School Musical. The Current Era (2007 .4 million viewers.

In 2010. Disney Channel has become the top channel in children and teenagers program. with Phineas and Ferb ranked as the #1 animated series on TV among Kids 6-11 and Tweens 9-14 for that month.1 rating share among Kids 6-11 and 459. Good Luck Charlie. the channel launched the first original sitcom intentionally targeted at family audiences.000 viewers with a 1. they are also the stepping stones for many famous movie and music idols that have great influence on many young people like -6- .Popular Culture Research Group 4 also a big hit.000 viewers with a 2. In the May 2010 Nielsen ratings.1 million viewers. Wizards of Waverly Place and Good Luck Charlie earned six of television’s top 10 telecasts that month in key child demographics. the month of May 2010 had finished as Disney Channel’s most-watched May in the network's history with an average of 1. as well as the final season of Hannah Montana which was renamed Hannah Montana Forever and the series Jonas L. beating out its competition on the night of its premiere with 9.5 million viewers among Total Viewers. more than two decades since it first launch in 1983. As we can see. 9-15. First-run episodes of The Suite Life on Deck. Not only are their shows popular among young viewers. Disney Channel is also the second most watched cable channel during primetime.9 rating share among Tweens 6-9.A. along with 525. According to Nielsen Media Research. Disney Channel ranked #1 for the 63rd consecutive month in the Kids 6-11 demographic and for the 62nd straight month among Tweens 9-14.

5 Dec. Disney Channel Expands Its Audience Reach in Vietnam. including Vietnam2. The first step is attention.Popular Culture Research Group 4 Justin Timberlake. Characteristic of viewers like attention span or their personal preference will affect their attention. 5 Dec. Disney Channel has increased its Vietnamese subtitling from 10% to 70% of its program and it is now available in 75% of all pay-TV households. Britney Spears.-a0165724076>. Britney Lynn Hibbeler.wikipedia.tamu. which is accomplished by “symbolic coding. In two years since its launch in May 2005. Motivational process and other factors will determine this. the free encyclopedia. positive. we should understand two types of viewing: instrumental 2 3 4 5 Disney Channel Asia. broadcasting in most parts of Southeast Asia. simple and prevalent will be more likely to be modeled. it is necessary to note that retention does not mean the viewer will reenact the event.pdf?sequence=1>. To examine the possibility of the event being carried out. Disney Channel Asia Disney Channel Asia is a franchise of Disney Channel.1/ETD-TAMU-2009-08-7023/HIBBELERTHESIS. Wikipedia.3 II .org/wiki/Disney_Channel_Asia>. 2010 <http://www. Free Online Library. That is the indicators of how popular and influential Disney Channel is among youngsters. Events that are distinctive. Miley Cyrus. The next step is retention. Exploring representations of masculinity in Disney animated feature films (2009) 11<http://repository.edu/bitstream/handle/1969. and symbolic rehearsal and enactment.com/Disney+Channel+Expands+Its+Audience+Reach+in+Vietnam. The process of modeling includes several steps. cognitive organization.Social Learning Theory Social learning theory suggests that individuals may model behavior based on available role models4. 2010 <http://en. etc.thefreelibrary.” 5 However. 2. Hibbeler 12 -7- .

Media influence.Popular Culture Research Group 4 viewing and ritualistic viewing. viewers will watch Disney film to gain information about several topics. with the rapid development of technology. therefore.”8 Social learning theory. such as the Disney animated feature films.Impact of Media on Adolescents Nowadays. 7 However. viewers pragmatically choose the program and involves in a great degree of selectivity. however. is not transparent but it is subtle and occurs over a long period of time. “This consumption of media for pleasure. Responsible adults like parents and teachers and even teenagers themselves may not be 6 7 8 9 Hibbeler 13 Hibbeler 13 Hibbeler 13 Hibbeler 14 -8- . media has more and more influence and plays greater role in the life of adolescents worldwide. they may be influenced by ideas of gender on the show and may internalize and model those ideas. 6 In instrumental viewing. ritualistic viewing is concerned with the entertaining content of the text and it is habitual and mindless. “provides implications for gender performance” because those who view program with gender stereotype may be more likely to model the stereotype being viewed. exposes children to gender stereotyped ideas of what it means to be masculine and feminine in the form of entertainment. And programs on Disney Channel can provide opportunities for this process to happen. rather than to gain information. including gender role. Since the goal of this type of viewing is to seek information.9 Because of the great popularity of Disney Channel among teenagers. Most of children’s television viewing is ritualistic. III .

Popular Culture Research Group 4 aware of the impact that media has. we focus on the impact on gender role because “images having to do with gender strike at the core of individual identity. 10 Impact of media on adolescent can be found in many aspects: teenagers’ ideal of beauty. teenagers’ favorite TV characters may become some kind of role model to them and they will watch and learn from those characters.. Current Problem in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care (California: Sage Publications. making it even more difficult for them to resist the dominant message “perpetuated and reinforced by the media. etc. Adolescents. Among those influences is the message conveyed in the media. the More You Add . The impact on this front is greater in adolescent because they are still “in the process of learning their values and roles and developing their selfconcepts”12. 1990. Since Disney Channel is very popular worldwide. 2002) 54. sex and drug use. Image-Based Culture: Advertising and Popular Culture. IV – Summary To summarize. 506-519. Can't Buy My Love: How Advertising Changes the Way We Think and Feel. Children. violence among the youth. our understanding of ourselves as either male or female (socially defined within this society at this time) is central to our understanding of who we are”11.com/industry/news/data/hot_issues/1361>. its 10 Victor C Strasburger. Inc. 12 Jean Kilbourne. teenage years are the time when people are most vulnerable to the influences and pressure around them since they have yet to develop their own identity. especially messages concerning the ideal of genders. 11 Sut Jhally. In this research. and the Media. As suggested in the social learning theory. In addition. it is important to analyze the images of gender role presented in popular cultural texts and find out how teenagers interpret and respond to them.Cutting Girls Down to Size. -9- . Jul.” All things considered. they are also under the pressure of their peers. The More You Subtract.aef. Available at <http://www. The World and I.

10 - .Popular Culture Research Group 4 characters are more likely to become youngsters’ role models.  . For that reason. we conduct this research to see what messages conveyed in Disney Channel shows and how teenagers in Ho Chi Minh understand and respond to those messages.

Associated Content. specifically of gender role. more and more researches. 15 K. with their various books. 14 In terms of physical appearance.uk/media/Modules/TF33120/gendertv.L. different expectations of physical appearance are also generated regarding femininity and masculinity. 2008. Working women in America: Split dreams (New York: Oxford University Press. an important part of the gender stereotype. 16 S.html?cat=9>.” 15 According to Hesse-Biber and Carger. 46. “gender is determined socially.” 16 For this reason. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.Popular Culture Research Group 4 PART 3: ANALYSIS ON DISNEY CHANNEL TEXTS As proved by many well-known scholars and experts. articles and essays regarding this topic. 1 Nov. will provide us a detailed analysis on images of male 13 Such as Douglas Kellner. this part is to make an analysis on Disney Channel texts regarding gender role.associatedcontent. Hesse-Biber and G. Daniel Chandler. This part. Carger. romantic involvement.ac. etc. it is the societal meaning assigned to male and female. 14 Christopher Wiegering Gianoli.Physical Appearance Concerning gender role.13 the media have a very important impact on people’s perception. family structure and practices. 2000) 91.com/>. In fact.com/article/1142336/are_disney_movies_a_negative_influence_pg2. it is important to mention people’s perception of their physical appearance. And Disney Channel is not an exception. 5 Dec. In fact. Are Disney Movies a Negative Influence?. Deaux and L. I . “physical appearance is.ucla. <http://www. articles and essays have recently paid attention to how Disney influences its viewers’ understanding as well as whether it produces good or bad effects on them. behavioral traits.aber. in and of itself.L. therefore. Structure of gender stereotypes: Interrelationships among components and gender label. .11 - . and socioeconomic status. 2010 <http://www. Lewis.html#A> <http://gseis. (1984) 991–1004.edu/faculty/kellner/> <http://jeankilbourne. Jean Kilbourne.

William Cottrell et al. blue and white peasant dress with a white apron. Walt Disney Productions. As a matter of fact. While Snow White’s beauty is a response to her mother’s wish and is told by the mirror on the wall. majesty. [having] both brown hair and eyes. In other words.”18 (See Figure 1 in Appendix 1) Belle is supposed to be attractive to the people around her like Gaston.”17 Cinderella. black shoes. a lovely maid I see. . reveal her name. Mirror: Lips red as the rose. being “slender. 18 Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. “Queen: Magic Mirror on the wall. First of all. Smith and Crystal Allene Cook. Skin white as snow. blue bow in her hair. The Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media (2008) 16. Gender Stereotypes: An Analysis of Popular Films and TV. Dir. who is the fairest one of all? Mirror: Famed is thy beauty. as stated by Stacy and Crystal. Queen: Alas for her.Popular Culture Research Group 4 and female characters physically portrayed in Disney programs. […] yellow ball 17 Stacy L. Rags cannot hide her gentle grace. it is crucial to discuss about female beauty defined by Disney programs. they are “valued for their appearance. Hair black as ebony. Alas. 1937.12 - . Ariel. almost all the females are praised for their appearance or physical beauty. Snow White and other Disney main female characters are almost portrayed by Disney to be beautiful and attractive fairy tale princesses. Sleeping Beauty. fair skin. she is more fair than thee. which is clearly shown in classical Disney animated movies. thereby helping us in examining the expectations of gender in terms of physical appearance produced by Disney Channel. Behold.

Psyched Out. [having] petite and slender build and evidently extreme youth. 141. 22 Mary.”24 In 19 20 Belle. The Structure and Reconstruction of Marriage Scenarios in Picture Books for Children – A Comparative Study of Fairy Tales and Feminist Tales [Part 2 of 2]. However. etc. 2009. Cinderella deserves the love of Prince Charming and the happy life in the palace.com/wiki/Belle>.com/wiki/Pocahontas_%28character%29>.com/wiki/Cinderella_%28character%29>. 21 Pocahontas. 5 Dec. as if they “go hand in hand” together. black hair.wikia. 23 (See Figure 5 in Appendix 1) In addition. My answers to an interesting Fairy Tale Princess Survey. Disney Wiki. 2010 <http://disney. one is with John Smith.html>.that is thin. In truth. Cinderella. they have one thing in common – being “always stunningly beautiful. 24 Kilbourne . 20 (see Figure 3 in Appendix 1) then it is also notable that Pocahontas’s “slender figure. 2010 <http://disney. 2010 <http://disney. Disney Wiki. if with her slim figure.blogspot. brown eyes.) they are all young ladies and have the same body figure . blue eyes and fair skin.13 - . no matter how differently their beauty is described (with different skin. as Jean Kilbourne stated in many of her articles and essays on the influences of the media on adolescents. Women’s Studies Forum 01021793 (1997) 138-147. 5 Dec. fairly tan skin”21 (see Figure 4 in Appendix 1) gives her two love involvements.” 19 (see Figure 2 in Appendix 1) she has so strong an attraction to Gaston that he many times tries to win her over.” and that “thin is beautiful.com/2009/01/my-answers-to-interesting-fairy-tale.Popular Culture Research Group 4 gown which shows her breast cleavage. the fact that the identical image of thinness is repeated from one main female character to another and that it is considered beauty ideal gives an affirmation. 7 Jan. the other is with John Rolfe. eye and hair color. blond hair. despite their different appearances.wikia.” 22 With the same body image. 5 Dec. they all have the beauty of disposition according to Disney. 5 Dec.. Moreover. of the so-called “obsession with thinness.wikia. 23 Kim Hongsook. 2010 <http://psychedoutsw. Disney Wiki.

Peterson and L. I want to be a princess . people are obsessed with thinness and that thin beauty ideal is normalized in people’s mind and perception from the early age. Nos. “When I was little I made my mommy or daddy read me Cinderella every single night. 29 Female characters that are not to be praised by their beautiful appearance. Survey of Three Sixth Grade Classes at University Park Elementary School. 5 Dec.a skinny one.”26 Or as a female sharing about her childhood. Silverstein. as a result. 2002. the idea that “beauty is good” is reinforced through verbal messages to thin characters. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association. Marriott. Vol. Sex Roles. Cinderella Skinny. L.”27 Additionally.14 - .com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/2/9/9/1/1/pages299114/p299114-1. 25-28 Feb. Kelly.com/>. B. are considered to be vulnerable to this influence. 26 Debbie Mead. The Good. and the Beautiful: Beauty Ideals on the Disney and Nickelodeon Channels. especially children and teenagers. 9/10. white beauty ideal that is present in adult program is also alive and well in program for a younger audience.25 Furthermore. IL.allacademic. adults and even the society. As a twelve year-old boy once said. . CA. with results suggesting that the thin. Perdue. Fairy Tale Females: What Three Classics Tell Us About Women. 519-532. 28 Northup 29 B. 2010 <cinderellaskinny. the beauty ideal as being thin seems normal to not only young girls but also males. 1986.tumblr. it is shown by textual analysis of Disney programs that “body size and beauty ideal messages [have been] analyzed. Disney viewers.”28 That is to say. the Bad. Miley and Lily in Hannah Montana for example. 27 Skinny Me. while very few were heavy. Chicago. Salinas. Cinderella is beautiful because she “is skinny and has blonde hair. 14.php>. (2009) Available at <http://www. it is found that the supermajority of female characters were thin. are also portrayed as “below average” in spite 25 Temple Northup and Carol Liebler. The role of mass media in promoting a thin standard of bodily attractiveness for women.Popular Culture Research Group 4 fact. In fact.

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of their stronger and healthier figure compared with the weak and gentle beauty of fairy tale princesses. (See Figure 6 in Appendix 1) This actually even reinforces adolescent girls’ obsession with thinness because of the fact that they are of the same age and in the same period of time as compared to the princesses and adult models in a magazine. Besides, it is also worth noticing that in modern Disney programs supposedly beautiful females are also described as being sexy or sexually attractive. They are considered to be “trendy,” that is, the “ditz” of the group, preoccupied with appearance, wearing the latest of clothing, and usually obsessed with boys.30 An example for this type of beautiful females is Sharpay in High school Musical. She is always wearing the most fashionable clothes, good-looking in her appearance (see Figure 7 in Appendix 1) and trying to steal Troy – a popular basketball boy - away from Gabriella, his girlfriend. Moreover, London in The Suite Life of Zack and Cody is other example for this kind of beauty. This is a very rich girl with an extreme obsession with boys. In addition, other kind of beauty ideal is “the girl next door.” This is a girl who is not overly-stylized or concerned with fashion, but still manages to always look “cute” and draw the attraction of boys – she is, perhaps, unaware of her beauty.31 Lily in Hannah Montana (see Figure 6 in Appendix 1) and Raven in That’s So Raven are some examples for this type. Anyway, no matter how they are aware of their beauty, Disney females are all supposed to be thin. As a matter of fact, from the fairy tale princesses to the modern-time

30 31

Northup Northup

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famous star like Hannah Montana, the image of their beauty does not break out of the obsession with thinness. Regarding physical appearance, just as femininity is defined by the beauty of Disney females, male characters in Disney shows also contribute to produce the image of masculinity. While characters that are overweight like Cory (see Figure 8 in Appendix 1) in Cory in the house or small and skinny like Phineas and Ferb (see Figure 9 in Appendix 1) in the movie series of the same name are approved by Disney audience for their humorous words and behaviors serving for entertainment, their body figure is not what Disney’s portrayal of male beauty ideal. However, what is considered masculinity in terms of physical appearance must show either physical strength or fitness. First, the body figure showing physical strength appears to be a typical element in Disney’s building male image. In fact, being powerful physically is related to the main role of Disney males; that is, they are characterized to be protective and assertive. (We will have more detailed discussion on this in the part of Disney traits.) According to Hibbeler’s statistics, good characters (37%) are more likely to display physical strength than evil (18.3%) and neutral (26.7%) ones. 32 This also implies that to be a good man, males should first have physical strength. To put it this way, males are not necessarily required to be muscular as long as they are physically strong enough. For example, beside the characters with visible muscles like Tarzan (see Figure 10 in Appendix 1) in Tarzan and Mr. Incredible (see
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Hibbeler 53

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Figure 11 in Appendix 1) in The Incredibles, Phillip the Prince (see Figure 12 in Appendix 1) from Sleeping Beauty also shows his physical power while he is described as being slender and fit. In fact, “the prince is not overweight and wears clothing that clearly displays his physical build. He has a frame that is of average size. He is tall and slender.”33 As seen, while females in Disney Channel are portrayed to be thin, which is considered to be beautiful, Disney males are required to have physically strong figure. All of these not only express the gender expectations in terms of physical appearance but also give us a message for behaviors regarding gender shown in Disney that is discussed in the next part.

II - Behavioral Traits
Regarding gender role, Disney Channel is widely considered to set boundaries for American set of values, perceptions, preferences and behaviors through a process of creating a dynamic system teenage models. The earliest and most loved Disney animated role models such as Snow white, Cinderella and Sleeping Beauty have stereotyped girls as “weak,” “emotional,” “passive,” “frail,” “domestic” and “troublesome.”34 In Disney films, while the basic traits of femininity are to be obedient, quiet and beautiful, it is crucial they have constant attention of male characters. Being ultimately subordinate to males is vital for all the princesses in these classic tales. The codes of behavior for
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Hibbeler 53 Amanda Yerby, Samantha Baron, Youjin Lee, Gender roles in Disney Animation, History of Animation, Assignment 1, Part 4, Website Collaborative Content Available at <http://www.american.edu/soc/film/upload/Gender-Roles-in-Disney.pdf>.

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Gaston. “Belle: What do you know about my dreams.”35 35 Beauty and the Beast.. Jasmine in Aladdin. It is. Belle! Strapping boys. While her sisters are more complying with her father’s wishes. an attack against women since these values have proposed and advocated the false idea of social degradation of women. and Mulan for instance. One of the first pioneering princesses is Ariel from The Little Mermaid. have become more independent and free-spirited. like me! Belle: Imagine that. Pocahontas. 1991. However. gender roles do progress with changes. We'll have six or seven. Their successors. she is expressive and quick to speak her mind. picture this: A rustic hunting lodge. Gaston: Say you'll marry me! Belle: I'm very sorry. while the little ones play on the floor with the dogs. Belle: Dogs? Gaston: No. Gary Trousdale and Kirk Wise.Popular Culture Research Group 4 women imposed by males are the reason for this moral illness.. Walt Disney Pictures. . my latest kill roasting on the fire. Ariel in The Little Mermaid. therefore. Dir. and my little wife massaging my feet.18 - . although their main purpose in life consistently focuses on husband-searching-journey. Belle is another example of breakthrough role model during the 1990s. Gaston? Gaston: Plenty! Here. if we analyze Disney females’ set of behaviors through timeline. Belle in Beauty and the Beast.

2010.19 - . 2010. has discarded thoroughly notions of remaining submissive traits in the previous Disney princesses. Belle pictures her future differently.nebusiness.co. (New York: NYU Press. While Gaston tries to convince her into marriage by opening up a peaceful prospect with strapping boys. and self-learnt. Alex Russo in Wizards of Waverly Place. witted and fun loving. She is the first female character who does not desperately try to find a future husband.uk/business-news/special-features/2010/11/22/will-hannah-montana-forever-be-asuccessful-end-to-the-franchise-51140-27694099/>. 37 Mary Barabe. 22 Nov. 5 Dec.Hannah Montana.” 37 Best of Both Worlds show reached media popularity because the female character. This characteristic makes her one of the earliest representatives of feminism in Disney world. the type of female leading roles . as a result. . Will Hannah Montana Forever be a Successful End to the Franchise? NeBusiness. Feminism and the Law. playful. etc. Hannah Montana. Elastic Girl in The Incredibles.Popular Culture Research Group 4 The lines above portray a smart and independent Belle whose primal ideal of life is learning. <http://www. free-spirited. 1990) 233. she will not exchange her independence in return of wealth. a rustic hunting lodge. Female characters start demanding to be liberated from the male dominant society. 36 Ginette Castro. Pocahontas and the upcoming non-animated teenage models from “dominant male – submissive female” stereotype. Hannah Montana TV series is one of the most successful teen franchise so far when “the movie grossed $29 million” regardless to “a production budget of less than $7 million. Jasmine.which is introduced as downto-earth. has “opened an era for militant feminism in more than one way. Kim Possible.” 36 In the 21st century. The revolutionary traits demonstrating by Ariel and Belle have also freed the other princesses such as Mulan. The combination of traditional and other opposite traits like being smart. American feminism: A contemporary History. In other words. .

To some extent. the cartoon male leading roles in the 90s (i. assertive. Is Hannah Montana Really Such a Great Model? Socioquest. Eric in The Little Mermaid. important. 29 Jul. Nonetheless.e.e. hence represent the feminist world – i. These male characters “have been more prominent and portrayed as more likely to have a recognizable job. The Prince in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. an average girl can achieve success through their talent and dedication without the presence of male. Prince Charming in Cinderella).com/Opinion/Is-Hannah-Montana-Really-Such-a-Great-Role-Model/2904661>. responsible. Phillip in Sleeping Beauty. “We must be swift as the coursing river (Be a man) With all the force of a great typhoon 38 Anne Glass. Izzy Daniels in Jump in) fell desperately into the same category. 5 Dec.e.”39 The song “I’ll make a man out of you” introducing on screen through an animated movie Mulan has somehow summed up all the values of being a man in Disney.e. and stronger than female characters. 2010 <http://www.”38 The other characters from different Disney TV series are also outspoken. Li Shang in Mulan) and even teenage models in nonanimated movies and TV shows (i. Disney Channel has endeavored to erase gender distinction through the process of shaping female’s traits. Prince Adam in Beauty and the Beast). Disney male leading role seems to make less progressed as opposed to female characters in terms of behavioral norms.Popular Culture Research Group 4 is capable of “[harvesting] the fruits of the battles fought by liberal feminists in the 1960s and 1970s.e. competent. Tarzan. 2009. more independent. upgraded modern princes (i. intelligent. confident. 39 Yerby . athletic. technical.20 - . princes from the classic tales (i.groundreport.

40 41 Mulan. 2010 <http://www.21 - . is particularly lean and nerdy managed to “make [only] approximately $85 million dollars in its theatrical run. instead of being a basketball player. For example. cute and muscular have made this positive side seemingly unaffected to gender revolution. in High School Musical trilogy hit. In other words. Walt Disney Feature Animation. . Wendy Wu: Homecoming Warrior. At first glance. Predictably. a supposedly feminine trait.an undesirable result when the animation was assumed to be well marketed. male characters in Disney movies would not be able to free themselves from masculinity’s values. Tony Bancroft and Barry Cook. his other prominent traditional characteristics like being sporty. Audience preference also contributes to create gender gap in Disney Channel. having less attractive masculine characteristics equals bankruptcy. Other shows such as The Suite Life of Zack and Cody. WorldLingo.”40 Group 4 Another example is Troy. Unfortunately. Unsurprisingly. 1998.Popular Culture Research (Be a man) With all the strength of a raging fire Mysterious as the dark side of the moon. 5 Dec.worldlingo. Dir. he appears to be an odd-one-out since he is fond of singing and dancing. Atlantis: The Lost Empire. the products will not be sold well in the market considering with movies featuring traditional male behavioral traits. Milo Thatch. Had the audience kept stereotyping them.com/ma/enwiki/en/Atlantis%3A_The_Lost_Empire>. Minutemen feature men lacking of manly charm.”41 . There obviously exist other types of male characteristics trying to get their images on screen. the animated movie Atlantis: The Lost Empire whose hero. they are also less popular than ones featuring traditional males. a supposedly masculine trait.

Still with a kiss. through the films. III . Frankly. marriage opens the door to luxurious life of the princesses. meanwhile.22 - . we will see that it is a special key which is used by Disney to develop characters’ emotions. Also. romance is one of the prominent themes portrayed in Disney Channel. the research also examines the characters’ romantic involvement.Popular Culture Research Group 4 It is apparent that behaviors of the two genders portrayed in Disney movies are completely opposite regarding to their roles. the Prince’s kiss in Snow White and Seven Dwarfs saves the princess’s life. the princess one more time is saved by Prince Phillip in Sleeping Beauty. In Disney Channel fairy tales. For instance.Romantic Involvement Analyzing the ideas of gender role in Disney Channel. male set of conducts has not achieved great success so far.” The relationship . the idea of romantic love in these programs is always exaggerated. it is obvious that girls and young women are willing to throw themselves into marriage. Taking a close observation. While gender role in Disney Channel has managed to reduce its gap through the upgraded portrayal of female behaviors. Therefore. female characters are the ones who are rescued. Actually. Male characters in those films are shown as rescuers. And those magical elements help to push romance into a situation in which females are subservient to males. “Love at first sight” is also a key concept in Disney films. Disney films provide little information about how couples maintain their relationships but only focus on creating romantic love which people consider “a blink of love. which is hard to find in their single life.

Not only in fairy tales but also in modern movies do characters of the opposite sexes involve in love at the very first time. Their love does not start with a kiss but with merely an intimate look. they willingly fall in love. Theresa Tonn.A. he or she can start the campaign to win one’s love first as long as they are attractive. he keeps his unchanging love for Gabriella. Tanner. No matter what one’s sex is.Popular Culture Research Group 4 between Cinderella and the Prince in Cinderella is an example. . They believe that with this undying love. One more thing concerned about romance in Disney films is the “attackers” and how they attract their objects of affection. men are almost always in active position. The American Journal of Family Therapy. It shows a shift in the way of winning the opposite sexes’ hearts of characters conveyed in Disney Channel. In Disney movies. The character 42 43 L. 368. they can have a happy ending and live happily ever after. Dec. Although Troy is constantly hit on by Sharpay. Without spending much time getting to know each other. there are many other characters who are faithful to their partners. S. Images of Couples and Families in Disney Feature-length Animated Films.S. A Research Paper Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Science Degree. This kind of love is unwavering under any circumstances. In fact. Haddock and T. they fall heads over heels and cannot help thinking of one another.23 - . Sharpay in High School Musical clearly expresses her determination to win Troy’s heart. 2008.R. That is why men usually make the first move in the relationship. there is a “belief that physical appearance is the most important thing when entering an intimate relationship”42 and that “women use good looks to get a man. there are some exceptions. 13. Besides. However. 31. Zimmerman. Disney’s Influence on Females Perception of Gender and Love.” 43 Ariel in The Little Mermaid is a very clear example for using beauty to win Eric’s heart.

On the other hand. IV . Dir. Hannah Montana and Alex Russo. Specifically.24 - . Nonetheless. First and foremost. In particular. in some classic animated movies such as Bambi. fathers in those movies only play a minor role while mothers are portrayed as major in family. it can be seen that there are movies in which both parents are included and the ones in which only one parent is presented. the presence of 44 The Little Mermaid. Little Mermaid. etc. and in such cases. Walt Disney Pictures. we can see that most of girls and boys also have good appearance and with this appearance. 1989.Family Structure and Practices When it comes to the display of gender role in family structure and practices depicted in Disney Channel movies and shows. they easily find the one to love such as Troy Bolton. in the night when Bambi was born. Ron Clements and John Musker. there are four main points to discuss. Namely. your pretty face.Popular Culture Research Group 4 Ursula in the film tries to convince Ariel that “you got your looks. both mothers and fathers are represented. his mother presented him to all the animals in the forest while his father stood in the mountain and he kept the distance until Bambi’s mother was killed. Peter Pan or Tarzan. Accordingly. Pinocchio. For instance. Hannah Montana. they are the presence of parents. image of fathers and power division in family. Disney animated movies and live–action shows also present only one parent. those single fathers are shown in Beauty and the Beast. . image of mothers. it is a matter of fact that single fathers are illustrated more than single mothers. and do not underestimate the importance of body language!” 44 In modern films.

For example. Perdy.25 - . Pinsky 89 . Next. Second. 2004) 62. Likewise.” 45 In addition. The Gospel according to Disney: Faith. To be specific. this can put a negative effect on both male and female youngsters’ beliefs about fathers’ relationships with and responsibilities to children. Wendy in Peter Pan describes a mother as “someone who loves and cares for you. As a result. in the sitcom The Suite Life of Zack and Cody.” 46 said panther Bagheera in The Jungle Book when he found Mowgli and decided to bring the human baby to a pair of wolves with the belief that the baby would be safe there. To illustrate. and Pixie Dust. Moseby – the hotel’s manager whenever they cause a new mess with their jokes. image of mothers as both caregivers and protectors is depicted in Disney movies such as Bambi and Tarzan. Similarly. the twins’ mother Carey usually protects them from troubles with Mr. mothers are portrayed as primary caregivers who are automatically attached to children and give unconditional love to them. the female dog in 101 Dalmatians was very dynamic during the process of saving her puppies from the men kidnapping them. At first. Trust. “there would be no problem with the mother thanks to the maternal instinct. Disney’s image of mothers as protectors is also common in animated movies. (Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. image of mothers in Disney movies and shows is depicted in three different patterns. Bambi’s mother was not only 45 46 Mark I. Pinsky.Popular Culture Research Group 4 parents in Disney movies and shows suggests that fathers are only required to take care of children when mothers are not able to do so.

the nurturing and affectionate one. the image of mothers in Disney animated movies and sitcoms has fell into a stereotype in which mothers always appear as close. and tender to children. . That doesn't make him my son. In the first place. Kerchak the gorilla in Tarzan is an illustration for those controlling. forgive me. Our family will look to you now. Moreover. it can be seen that they are depicted in three images which are the controlling. the female gorilla Kala gave Tarzan all her love and care. In truth. disciplinepracticing father. Turning to the portrayal of fathers in Disney movies and shows. In short. aggressive and discipline-practicing fathers.26 - . In the meantime. she kept him safe from the hatred of other gorilla in the jungle and from the tiger. and last but not least. for not understanding that you have always been one of us. Kerchak: No. although being portrayed in three different patterns. the selfsacrificing one. caring. Forgive me. […] Tarzan: Kerchak.Popular Culture Research Group 4 in charge of raising him but also responsible for protecting him from danger until she died. he ensures that all the gorillas are under his control and only accepted Tarzan as one of his children until Tarzan proved that he was worthy: “Kerchak: I said he could stay. aggressive.

Do you think I want to see my youngest daughter snared by some fish eater's hook? Ariel: I'm sixteen years old .I'm not a child anymore.Popular Culture Research Tarzan: No. Belle’s father in Beauty and the Beast always supports her in her desire of reading books and her refusal of marrying Gaston although he is the most-wanted man in town. and so does Gepetto to Pinocchio in the same-title movie. . you'll obey my rules! 48 Meanwhile. Take care of them.. Kerchak: Take care of them. In details. Pinocchio. Ron Clements and John Musker. Kerchak. 1999." 47 Group 4 Another example for a controlling and aggressive father can be found in The Little Mermaid. The Little Mermaid. fathers in Disney movies and shows are portrayed as self-sacrificing as well. Triton: Don't you take that tone of voice with me young lady. Walt Disney Pictures.27 - . Specifically. they are seen sacrificing themselves to save their own children from danger. King Triton in The Little Mermaid signed the contract with Ursula to take 47 48 Tarzan. Similarly. Indeed. my son. As long as you live under my ocean. 1989. Dir. the display of fathers as nurturing and affectionate can be traced from Disney animated movies such as Beauty and the Beast. Besides. etc. Walt Disney Pictures. or 101 Dalmatians.. As regards Ariel’s absence in the celebration concert of her father to go up to the surface. King Triton expressed his anger on her: Triton: They're dangerous. Pongo always shows his tender care to the puppies in 101 Dalmatians. Dir. Chris Buck and Kevin Lima.

Truly. some illustrations of shared power between males and females can be seen in 101 Dalmatians and Wizards of Waverly Place. In truth. there was a scene in which Darling prepared the meal when Jim sat in the living room reading newspapers. regarding the fact that their . In the meantime. it is obvious that Pongo and Perdy share an equal responsibility in taking care of all the puppies and have equal power in making decisions as well. When it comes to power division in family. there is only one movie in which the female character was identified as more powerful than her male partner. teaching and protecting him while his father kept a distance and not until the mother was dead did he appear. Interestingly. The Lion King and Alice in Wonderland whereas the latter is depicted in 101 Dalmatians and the live-action show Wizards of Waverly Place.Popular Culture Research Group 4 his daughter’s place in the sea witch’s garden after Ariel had failed to gain Prince Eric’s love. In the first example. The former is displayed in some animated movies such as Lady and the Tramp. Bambi’s mother was in charge of raising.28 - . there is an unequal division in household chores between Jim and Darling in Lady and the Tramp. the Queen of Hearts in Alice in Wonderland was the leading character who had more power than the King and the King was presented as a weak man. Likewise. In details. Gepetto in Pinocchio took the risk to sail the ocean and face a fierce whale to save his boy. affectionate and self-sacrificing ones. Bambi. Meanwhile. In fact. there is a variety in Disney’s portrayal of fathers from the controlling. two patterns of Disney are unequal power division and shared power. aggressive to the nurturing. In brief.

” 49 Group 4 not “up to me. when turning to the inequality in power. Clyde Geronimi et al.Socioeconomic Status The difference in gender socioeconomic status is reflected on Disney Channel through both popular classical films and modern films. As a matter of fact. it would have no positive influence on youngsters’ concept of fathers’ and mothers’ roles in family. Pongo told Perdy “It’s all up to us. . Walt Disney Productions. In the same way. 49 One hundred and one Dalmatians. in popular Disney animated films like Aladdin.” which means he gave Perdy an equal responsibility to be involved in serious matters. Cinderella.Popular Culture Research children had been kidnapped. unequal power and shared power appear to be two patterns of Disney movies and shows as regards power division in family. for example. Mulan. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. those animated films and sitcoms are apt to depict male partners as more powerful than female. Thus. The Little Mermaid. Alex’s parents in Wizards of Waverly Place are portrayed with the unity: they share work at the family’s fast food restaurant and they agree with each other about the methods to teach their children whenever the children make mistakes. Dir.29 - . Obviously. To sum up. Treasure Planet. Male characters in Walt Disney films are usually portrayed with higher social status with the role of leaders while female characters are described in lower status with subordinate positions. male characters are portrayed in the role of kings while females are hardly found to be queens. V . Beauty and the Beast. 1961.

Winifred Banks House wife NO Constable Police officer Jones YES Ellen Maid of the Banks residence NO 50 Disney famous classical sitcoms show in 1964 and 1997. showing the distinction regarding genders. The following table lists all the male and female characters in the two films together with their jobs and social status. male characters involve in white or blue collar jobs with high social status while female characters are working mainly in pink collar jobs with lower social status. In the movies.Popular Culture Research Mary Poppins and Life is Beautiful 50 Group 4 are of the most popular classical films aired by Disney Channel. Table A: Career and social position in Disney classical films Male Characters FILMS NAME CAREER Female Characters HIGH SOCIAL POSITION George Banks Bank YES management Poppins staff Mary Bank office NAME CAREER HIGH SOCIAL POSITION NO Mary Poppins Admiral Naval officer Boom YES Mrs.30 - . .

High school musical.31 - . The following table provides a comparison between Disney male and female characters in terms of socioeconomic status: Table B: Career and social position in Disney modern films MALE CHARACTERS DISNEY MODERN HIGH FILMS NAME CAREER SOCIAL POSITION Cory in the Cory Baxter House Business man YES FEMALE CHARACTERS HIGH NAME CAREER SOCIAL POSITION Meena Singer Paroom NO 51 Disney modern films aired from 2000 to date. Camp Rock. etc. The Incredibles. Phineas and Ferb . That’s So Raven. In fact.. Cory in the House.Popular Culture Research Life is beautiful Dora’s Fascist official fiancé YES Dora teacher School Group 4 NO In Disney modern movies like Good luck Charlie. . it is less likely to have females taking the role of leaders.51 the male characters are also described with higher social status or as a team leader compared with female characters. Pocahontas.

Incredible Charlie’s father Leader of the Incredibles Company owner YES Elastic girl Bob’s wife NO YES Charlie’s mother Housewife NO In Disney classical film. from the characters who act as parents and adults. their position in the society is not clearly shown.Popular Culture Research Cory’s Cook father NO Martines daughter Sophie President’ Group 4 NO Bahavia Ambassador YES Alexander Library owner NO Cory’s sister Linda Flynn Candace Getrude Flynn Fashion NO designer Phineas and Ferb Lawrence Fletcher Archeologist NO Singer NO Selling NO assistance Daughter of Pocahontas The father Tribe leader YES Pocahontas YES Tribe leader The Incredibles Good luck Charlie Mr.32 - . hence. main characters are usually children. we can realize the difference between males . gender socioeconomic status is reflected among main characters as kings or male leaders. In Disney modern programs. However.

people watch Disney Channel and at the same time. while female beauty is related to thinness. the research demonstrates a favorable stereotype of dominant male – submissive female in Disney Channel regarding behavioral norms. male leading roles are restrictedly arranged in traditional behavioral structure. As regards the portrayal of .33 - . the subordinate social position is still reinforced for females. By analyzing typical Disney programs broadcast on Vietnam Cable TV from original animated films to modern movies (see appendix 4 for table of Disney Channel programs analyzed). Although female characters. Next. the unwavering passion and “live happily ever after” are the key concepts which are portrayed in Disney Channel in terms of romantic involvement. Therefore. so far. love at first sight. turning to family structure and practices. they receive messages and images of gender role clearly portrayed in almost all of Disney shows. In addition. Disney programs only offer the audience a limited type of revolution propagandized through character traits.  In short. have emerged as an inspirational source for feminist portrayal.Popular Culture Research Group 4 and females regarding social positions. what this part of research has found out is that in terms of physical appearance. it is shown in the research that single fathers appear more usually than single mothers in Disney Channel programs. On Disney channel. males are supposed to have physical power. The research also finds out that men are almost always active in starting a relationship and women usually attract men by taking advantage of their good-looking appearance. Besides. the research shows that the image of rescuer. depicting women in more subservient roles.

nurturing and affectionate. When it comes to the depiction of fathers. Both the equality and inequality in sharing house chores responsibility between fathers and mothers are shown in the research as well.  . Disney Channel also portrays its characters in traditional norms.Popular Culture Research Group 4 mothers. most male characters are described as social leaders with white color jobs. there are three types of maternal roles namely the protector. To be precise. the caregiver and the protector and caregiver. Last but not least.34 - . taking important roles while female characters are usually attached to the inferior social positions with pink color jobs and low social status. and self-sacrificing. they are displayed as controlling and aggressive. regarding socioeconomic status.

we have conducted a survey to find out how teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City respond to the images of gender role shown in Disney Channel programs. District 10) and high schools . District 10) and Nguyen Tri Phuong Secondary School (Add: 72. Ward 7.35 - .9 % . Ward 6.Popular Culture Research Group 4 PART 4: SURVEY ON HO CHI MINH CITY TEENAGERS’ PERCEPTION OF GENDER ROLE IN DISNEY CHANNEL In order to be more objective in our research. We distributed our survey to 200 students of secondary schools – Lac Hong Secondary School (Add: 20D. District 3.Physical Appearance Table 1. 3/2 Street. Ward 12.5 % 34. (See Appendix 2 for the survey questions and Appendix 3 for the English version. Nguyen Lam Street.) We also created an online version of our survey and there were 27 respondents taking our survey.1) Chosen options Male Female Slender 34. Favorite body shape of female characters (Question 4. Dien Bien Phu Street. Nguyen Thi Minh Khai Street. District 3) and Le Quy Don High School (Add: 110.7 % Plump 0% 2.5 % 17.) I .3 % Sexy 34.1 % Firm 31 % 45. Ward 6.Nguyen Thị Minh Khai High School (Add: 275. In total. the survey was taken by 227 respondents with the age range from 14 years old to 18 years old.

it is shown that both females (34. They appear to be heading towards a firm and healthy figure rather than trying various methods of dieting to get a skinny and bony body figure. we can come to a conclusion that Saigonese boys have a strong obsession with physical strength in both muscularity and fitness. Favorite body shape of male characters (Question 4.2) Chosen options Male Female Muscular 46.5%) are quite actively engaged in female slimness portrayed by Disney Channel.5 % Fit 46.5%).3%) and males (34.36 - . it is also notable that while males have equal preferences to female beauty as being slender and sexy (both 34. On the other hand.7 % Plump 6.5% and 46. On discussion of physical appearance of males. HCMC teenagers show themselves to be influenced by the obsession with thinness.7%). It somehow expresses that their upmost concern focuses on being strong physically. They have equal view points of what is considered male beauty – to be muscular and to be fit or slender. girls’ idea is totally . To some extent.9 % Group 4 Skinny 0% 2. This seemingly proves the power of Disney on Saigonese teenagers’ perception of gender in terms of physical appearance. It is an approvingly important difference in female teenagers’ mind compared with American and European girls. the majority of girls choose fitness as their favorite male physical appearance (67. whereas HCMC boys’ perceptions of masculinity and fitness are almost equal (46.6 % 23.3% of slim).6%).9 % 5.9 % As stated in the tables.7% of firm compared to 34. However. As a result. HCMC girls prefer firmness to slimness (45.Popular Culture Research Table 2.5 % 67.

In truth. princess-liked E: Childish B: Princess-liked D: Supergirl-liked F: Others A 40. It at the same time gives us an implication that HCMC girls are more and more independent from the protection of muscular men quite often portrayed in Disney. Favorite behavior pattern of male characters (Question 5.8 % 0% Table 4. II – Behavioral Traits Table 3.9 % E 5.6 % B 42.9 % 11.9 % 15 % D 6. free-spirited C: Brainy.1 % 22.3 % 6% C 21.7%) prefer males with fitness – a familiar image of male models on television and magazines.2 % 9% F 18.6 % 49 % B 6.9 % 25.7 % C 22.2) Chosen options Male Female Note on options: A: Nerdy C: Superman-liked E: Childish B: Sporty D: Playful F: Others A 11.2 % 21 % E 6.1) Chosen options Male Female Note on options: A: Fun loving.4 % D 17.37 - . Instead. most of them (67. they are in favor of apparent body build of fitness as they always see on various means of the media. Favorite behavior pattern of female characters (Question 5.7 % 5.Popular Culture Research Group 4 different.7 % F 0% 0% .4 % 8.

which is 3.9% comparing to 15% girls’ vote. ratings of “brainy princess-liked” behavior (Gabriella in High School Musical trilogy) show gender diversity.38 - . Totally Spice. The result demonstrates the percentage shown on the table along with the actual count value: with that being 18. free spirited and confident girl in High School Musical trilogy. Table 4 displays a percentage of those satisfied with the stated behavioral patterns for male leading roles in Disney films. and the like) pattern. etc. While “princess-liked” pattern (the princesses from classic tales) shows an even distribution of result as it scores only 6.2% and 9% from boys and girls respectively. It indicates that “fun loving free spirited” preference (Hannah Montana.3 and 0 respectively.Popular Culture Research Group 4 Table 3 shows us the proportions of favorite Disney traits in female characters evaluated by teenage boys and girls in Ho Chi Minh City. There also appears a huge favor gap between Ho Chi Minh City boys and girls for female role model’s “superman-liked” (Elastic Girl. mean. This distinctive characteristic catches 21% Ho Chi Minh City girl’s preference. Both girls and boys in Ho Chi Minh City share the same score on “childish” (Harper in Wizards of Waverly Place) with approximately 6% vote. Most boys commented in the box below “others” option that they liked “Sharpay” characteristic – a witted. The table is based on the responses of teenagers of .) currently has market dominance with 40.6% from boys’ evaluation and 49% girls’ satisfaction. This characteristic is highly appreciated by Ho Chi Minh City teenage boys with 21.5 times higher than that of boys. Alex Russo. “Others” option displays contrasting opinions for female behavioral norms among Saigonese teenagers. self-centered.

According to Saigonese teenage boys’ evaluation. Both sexes show the fondness of the most popular traits in Disney shows such as “fun loving – free spirited” for female characters and “sporty. it is evident that “Sporty” (Troy Bolton in High School Musical and Izzy Daniels in Jump in.” . they show less impressed on the undesirable traits like “nerdy” and “childish. the Beast. and so forth) is desirable. etc. At the same time. Incredible.10% vote. Justin Russo in Wizards of Waverly Place. At the same time.39 - . while “playful” trait only accounts for 17.Popular Culture Research Group 4 both genders in Ho Chi Minh City.” “playful” for male characters. When teenage girls agree that “Superman-liked” feature (Mr. The tables clearly show that Ho Chi Minh City teenagers in both genders are still influenced by Disney gender stereotypes. Gaston. and the like) seems less favorable for both genders as rating hits the lowest with only 5.9. Together they comprise over half of Ho Chi Minh City boy’s satisfaction.9 and 11.4 respectively. Being “childish” (Jackson and Mitchell in Hannah Montana: Best of Both Worlds. boys disagree making a total percentage of 22.7% satisfaction.) and “Playful” (Chad Danforth in High School Musical) characteristic made up the two most favorite Disney male’s characteristics. Saigonese girls show the fondness of “sporty” characteristic for male category as this personality climbs to the highest percentage of 42. Tarzan.

It possibly proves that girls are more romantic than boys. also symbolize for innocent dreams which are idealized to direct us to a better life which is full of love and happiness.Popular Culture Research III – Romantic Involvement Group 4 Table 5: View on the portrayal of romance in Disney Channel shows (Question 6) Gender Male Female Very realistic 0% 0% Acceptable 80 % 100 % Unrealistic 20 % 0% The result of survey shows that Disney Channel has a certain impact on HCMC teenagers’ perception of romance and gender. Moreover. There is no vote for the idea that romance in Disney Channel is very realistic. Among males’ responses. they seem to agree with the idea that romance in Disney films can be acceptable. Nevertheless. However. those details. Table 6: View on love at first sight (Question 7) Gender Male Female Believe 80 % 42. more than half of teenagers in HCMC believe in love at first sight. However. 2 % In our survey. it is notable that we cannot avoid some over-romanticized details in the movies. 9 % Do not believe 20 % 42. 9 % Others 0% 14. in our opinions. teenagers in HCMC believe that they can have and develop their affection .40 - . there is 80% acceptance of the romantic portrayal in Disney compared to 100% that is of girls.

6 % No 25 % 28.9 % Do not believe 80 % 28. “This can only happen when the right person appears. there is one expressing. love will change. Only one girl thinks differently that “it should depend on the one I love.8 % .9% girls believe in everlasting love. 42.” Table 7: View on the idea of eternal love (Question 8) Gender Male Female Believe 0% 42.9% of girls. meanwhile.41 - .5 % The idea of eternal love is rejected by half of the participants because they think that through the flow of time. But girls seem to idealize a perfect love in which one never changes the love for another. And although boys do not approve of this idea.” Table 8: View on the idea of “happily ever after” (Question 9) Gender Male Female Yes 50 % 28.6 % Others 20 % 28.Popular Culture Research Group 4 in case they meet the right person who can make them feel the so-called love. The love for one another can be less or more but it is hard to stay the same.6 % Others 25 % 42. One special thing in the survey is that no boy believes in eternal love. It proves that boys and girls are less affected by the idea of eternal love on Disney Channel. It is surprising to know that 80% HCMC boys vote for love at first sight as opposed to 42.

Strategies and plans on the way to one’s heart seem diverse and they are all supported by the participants. Therefore. Boys want to be able to play sport as Troy Bolton and Chad Danforth in High School Musical (40%) while 34. “Others” option constitutes a percentage of 25 and 42. If we are not sure about everything. “anything is possible. they think the right person will help their love blossom.8 of boys and girls respectively. that is. they believe in “happily ever after” ending because of their faith in love stability. they openly express their thoughts about everlasting happiness.Popular Culture Research Group 4 The idea of living “happily ever after” also receives many approving responses from 50% of boys and 28. 14. And the rest votes for “caring” type.3% 11.4% Table 10: The way girls attract boys (Question 10.” Table 9: The way boys attract girls (Question 10.1) Gender Male Making scandals Being lovely Dressing suggestively Caring 40% 34. the best attitude is that we should be ready to face whatever suddenly happens in our real life. different ideas are generated.2) Gender Female Making scandals Being lovely Dressing suggestively Caring 42% 29% 15% 13% The way to “attack” the one of opposite sex is also a main feature of Disney romantic love. As one girl truthfully says. On one hand.3% 14. 42 % likes to .3% is interested in boys with sporty way of dressing.3% prefers boys with profound knowledge like Cody in The Suite Life of Zack and Cody. for those who do not agree.6% of girls. To girls. On the other hand.42 - .

Preferred family pattern (Question 11) Chosen options Male Female A 34.5 % 63 % . Instead. 29% prefers themselves to be lovely like Gabriella in High School Musical and Mitchie Torres in Camp Rock. knowledgeable and caring.3 % B 62 % 54. It goes against the gender stereotype in which boys are always the rescuers and girls are always the rescued. IV – Family Structure and Practices Table 11.5 % Both parents 56.43 - Mothers 35 % 27.Popular Culture Research Group 4 express their love through scandals because they think that this is an easy way to get the attention of the ones they love. 15% likes the suggestive way of dressing such as Sharpay in High School Musical while 13% of the girls is interested in the care of love. girls being active in love.6 % D 3.3 % C 0% 8.5 % 0% Note on options: A: Only the father goes to work C: Only the mother goes to work B: Both parents go to work D: Others Table 12. meanwhile.5 % . Through the survey.5 % 9. we explore that both boys and girls want to free themselves from the old images portrayed in Disney shows. they are strongly influenced by Disney new images – boys being sporty.5 % 35. House chores sharing between parents (Question 12) Chosen options Male Female Fathers 8.

In addition. The survey indicates the idea of male and female teenagers watching Disney Channel in Ho Chi Minh City about family structure and practices. over 50% of both teenage boys and girls vote for the equality in labor and power division between male and female in family. It is clear from the data collected that there is a very slight gap between the number of boys and girls supporting the equality in family.3% of girls who watch Disney Channel think both fathers and mothers should go to work.Popular Culture Research Table 13.5% and 63%. both males and females in their teenagers living in Ho Chi Minh City are well aware of men’s and women’s roles .5 % 56. Specifically. Meanwhile. 62% of boys and 54.5 % 43. approximately half the participant number taking part in the survey prefers the image of parents in which mothers play a more active role and fathers are no longer a distant figure to children.44 - . Preferred type of father (Question 13) Chosen options Male Female A 45. As can be seen from the survey result.7 % B 52. the number of male and female teenagers who like the equality in household labor division accounts for 56. in general.3 % Group 4 C 2% 0% Note on options: A: Strict and tough B: Close to the children like a friend C: Just provides the children with material needs. In other words.

Popular Culture Research Group 4 in a modern family where the father and the mother support one another and share responsibilities. it is shown in the survey result that teenager number who think mothers are more capable of household chores and fathers are more capable of making a living is higher in proportion to that who think vice versa (34. Equally important.6% in girls. In conclusion. for it is affected by patriarchy conveyed in Disney movies.5% of boys and 43.5% to 0% in boys and 35. the percentage of male and female participants in the survey who like the portrayal of an affectionate and caring father constitutes 52.5% and 56.3% to 8. Hence. it is a matter of fact that there are positive changes out of the old masculinity stereotype of fathers among youngsters in Ho Chi Minh City. To illustrate this idea. Nevertheless.) Similarly. .7% of girls is the controlling and aggressive father. it appears that gender role stereotypes still exist in the mind of those teenage Disney Channel viewers. the image of a socalled perfect father according to 45. there are positive changes in gender role reception of Disney Channel young viewers in Ho Chi Minh City while some still perform their understanding in ways consistent with traditional gender stereotypes.45 - .3 % one after another.

it is shown that the assumption of female leadership is more acceptable nowadays. two third of the girls asked seems to have more open view on this issues. From this.Popular Culture Research V – Socioeconomic Status Table 14.5% females regard women as unsuitable for leadership. It shows that while nearly half of males still holds on to the idea of that women have less important position in the society.3% males and 26.7 % 73.7% males and 71.5 % Group 4 From the survey. View on female leadership (Question 14) Chosen options Male Female Yes (Agree) 51. Raising a question of “whether women are suitable for leader responsibility.5% females agreeing with the idea while 48. there are 51.3 % 26. In fact.  .46 - .” we get the approval from most male and female audiences.5 % No (Disagree) 48. we can come to the conclusion that Saigonese girls have been more and more aware of their gender equality in terms of socioeconomic status.

Secondly. HCMC girls would rather choose firmness as their beauty ideal. However. The survey on favorite characters in Disney movies proves that less than flawless characteristic such as “childish” and “nerdy” does not receive as many positive feedbacks as typical traits for instance “sporty” and “playful. in terms of physical appearance. male characters are under pressure of typical social expectation. This to some extent proves that HCMC teenagers are gradually heading towards the beauty that is physically strong and healthy. whereas girls would prefer male fitness to muscularity. While the feminist movement has great impact on Disney female role models. . In addition.Popular Culture Research Group 4 PART 5: CONCLUSION By analyzing the texts in Disney programs combined with a survey on ideas of Ho Chi Minh City teenagers’ perception of gender role in Disney Channel.47 - . First of all. most HCMC teenagers are quite actively engaged in the obsession with thinness portrayed on Disney shows. It somehow expressed the other influential sources on television and magazines on girls. showed by HCMC teenagers signifies the remains of gender stereotypes. it is found that boys’ choice of muscularity and fitness are nearly equal. therefore.” Gender role in terms of behavioral traits. this research can draw out some valuable conclusions. the majority voting for favorite Disney traits of both genders indicates audience reception in HCMC is still being controlled by Disney gender current values and perceptions. while boys have equal preferences on slim and sexy girls.

In fact. which shows their support to feminism. they still get a certain influence which is clarified by the survey’s result. the findings express the activeness of HCMC teenagers in their perception of gender role in Disney Channel. Next. In conclusion. more than half the number of male and female teenagers who participated in the survey supports the equality in household labor and power division.Popular Culture Research Group 4 Thirdly. more radical nowadays. despite being one of the factors that have a strong influence on its viewers’ point of view of gender role. the idea of female leadership is more acceptable in HCMC teenagers’ perception nowadays. HCMC teenagers’ notion about gender has become more objective. although not all HCMC teenagers are overwhelmed by the portrayal of romance in Disney films.48 - . That means HCMC teenagers selectively accept the model shown in Disney and make it their own. Disney Channel . In terms of socioeconomic status. the survey displays HCMC teenagers’ independent thoughts out of domestic roles of women and dominant roles of men. This fact represents a positive change in the perception of gender role in HCMC boys’ and girls’ minds in which both men and women play an important role in family and share all responsibilities with one another. as regards family structure and practices. Comparing to Disney Channel stereotypes of male and female’s roles in family. There will not totally be a prince and a princess or a romantic love but teenagers still wish for a beautiful life or even a dreamy world in which they can freely express themselves instead of being restricted in Disney stereotyped portrayal.

Popular Culture Research Group 4 programs cannot reinforce all its ideals of gender in the Ho Chi Minh City teenage audience.  . as shown in different ideas of survey participants with a critical way of thinking . This is what caregivers like parents and teachers should pay attention to in order to provide the adolescents an environment.49 - . a clear guidance and useful directions to help them healthily develop their gender identity.

thecartoonpictures. Belle’s beauty <http://anhphuongart. Identical Beauty of Disney Princesses <http://www. Cinderella’s beauty <http://disney.wikia. Miley (left) with below average figure and Lily with “trendy” beauty <http://www.com/rdisney-1-disney-princesses-9-disneyprincess-party-4.wordpress.wikia.cardboardstandups. Pocahontas’s beauty <http://disney.htm> Figure 6.last.com/wiki/Cinderella_ %28character%29> Figure 4.com/m%E <http://www.fm/music/Hannah+Mont ana/+images/26629051> .Popular Culture Research Group 4 APPENDIX 1 Figure 1.com/prin 1%BA%ABu-v%E1%BA%BD-phongcesses.com/wiki/Pocahontas _%28character%29> Figure 5.50 - . Snow White’s beauty Figure 2.htm> be/snow-white/snow-white-31/> Figure 3.

comicvine.com/spots/agentp/images/4831634/title/phineas-ferb-fastphineas-photo> Figure 10.blogspot. Incredible’s muscular figure <http://www.fanpop.Popular Culture Research Group 4 Figure 7.com/mrincredible/29-54238/> Figure 12. Mr.51 - .com/2 007_11_01_archive.com/blog/category/c urly-cartoons/> Figure 11. Sharpay’s sexy beauty <http://disney. Tarzan’s muscularity <http://newlynatural.com/news/cory-inthe-house-review/> Figure 9.html> . Small and skinny brothers Phineas and Ferb <http://www.wikia. Cory’s overweight image <http://youchewpoop. Phillip’s slender build <http://haraldsiepermann.com/wiki/Sharpay> Figure 8.

1.... gọn gàng (Troy Bolton) c.. 2.That’s So Raven. Tarzan) b..... Khỏe khoắn............. mảnh mai (Alex Russo.... Thon gọn...... khỏe khoắn (Hannah Montana) d.... Incredible... mỗi tuần bạn dành bao nhiêu thời gian cho việc xem kênh này?. Buzz Lightyear – Toy Story.Popular Culture Research Group 4 APPENDIX 2 Khoa Ngữ văn Anh Trường Đại học Khoa học Xã hội & Nhân văn TP.... Gợi cảm (Sharpay) c...... The Cheetah Girls) Ý kiến khác (Cho biết lý do): 4... Tuổi của bạn?....52 - . Giới tính: Nam Nữ 3....... Tròn trịa (Cory – Cory in the House) .. Gabriella) b......... Nhỏ nhắn.. đánh dấu chọn () hoặc điền vào chỗ trống.HCM PHIẾU KHẢO SÁT Chúng tôi là nhóm sinh viên ngành ngữ văn Anh đang nghiên cứu ảnh hưởng của kênh truyền hình Disney Channel đối với thiếu niên thành phố Hồ Chí Minh....2.. Nhân vật nam a......... Cơ bắp (Mr.............. Bạn có thường xuyên xem kênh Disney Channel không? Có Không Nếu có. Nhân vật nữ a. 1....... Ngoại hình nhân vật yêu thích của bạn 4........... Xin cám ơn sự hợp tác của bạn! Vui lòng trả lời câu hỏi bằng cách khoanh tròn........ Phiếu khảo sát này được dùng chỉ cho mục đích nghiên cứu và thông tin cung cấp trong phiếu khảo sát sẽ được bảo mật.. Tròn trịa (Raven .tiếng/tuần 4....

Tinh nghịch (Zack . Không c. nhỏ con (Cody – Zack and Cody. ngớ ngẩn (Harper – Wizards of Waverly Place) Ý kiến khác (Cho biết lý do): 5.The Incredibles) e. Incredible . Có siêu năng lực (Elastic Girl . dịu dàng (Gabriella . ngớ ngẩn (George – George of the Jungle. Bạn có tin vào tình yêu sét đánh hay không? a. Học giỏi. Rico . mọt sách (Cody . tinh nghịch (Hannah Montana. Nhân vật nữ a.Zack and Cody.Wizards of Waverly Place) b. xinh đẹp (Công chúa Lọ Lem. Lanh lợi. Justin Russo – Wizards of Waverly Place) b. George – George of the Jungle) Ý kiến khác (Cho biết lý do): 5. Ý kiến khác .The Incredibles) d. Thông minh. Có siêu năng lực (Mr.2.High School Musical) d. Nàng tiên cá) c. Rất thực tế b. Kiểu nhân vật Disney yêu thích của bạn? 5. Gầy guộc. Bạch Tuyết. Có thể chấp nhận c. Ngờ nghệch.High School Musical) c. sự lãng mạn trong những phim trên Disney Channel là a. anh của Hannah – Hannah Montana) Ý kiến khác (Cho biết lý do): 6. Ngờ nghệch.53 - .1. Alex Russo . Theo bạn.Zack and Cody.Popular Culture Research Group 4 d. Không thực tế chút nào Ý kiến khác: 7. Có b.Hannah Montana) e. Nết na. Mê thể thao (Troy Bolton . Oliver & Jackson. Nhân vật nam a.

Ăn mặc gợi cảm (Sharpay) b. Không c. Bạn thích kiểu mẫu gia đình nào dưới đây: a. Khi gặp đúng đối tượng. khoe kiến thức (Cody – Zack and Cody. Chơi thể thao giỏi (Troy Bolton) c. Nếu bạn là nam a. Cha đi làm. Cha mẹ đều đi làm (Good luck Charlie) c. 2. bạn có tin rằng mình sẽ sống hạnh phúc mãi mãi về sau với người đó không? a. Bạn nghĩ nên làm cách nào để thu hút người khác giới: 10. Học giỏi. không bao giờ thay đổi hay không? a. Có b. Ý kiến khác 9. Thể hiện sự quan tâm (Troy Bolton) Ý kiến khác: 10. mẹ đi làm 12. nữ tính (Gabriella) c. Ăn mặc thời trang (Jackson. Có b. Ăn mặc dễ thương. Thể hiện sự quan tâm d. Ý kiến khác 10. Công việc trong nhà là việc của: a. mẹ nội trợ (The Incredibles) b. Mẹ . Không c. Cha b. anh của Hannah Montana) b. Làm những trò điên rồ để gây sự chú ý (Candace – Phineas and Ferb) Ý kiến khác: 11.Popular Culture Research Group 4 8. Bạn có tin vào một tình yêu vĩnh cửu.54 - . Nếu bạn là nữ a.1. Justin Russo) d. Cha nội trợ.

Theo ý bạn. 13. Có b. phụ nữ có phù hợp với việc làm lãnh đạo hay không? a. 14. Cứng rắn và nghiêm khắc b. Cả 2 cùng chia sẻ trách nhiệm.55 - . Bạn thích mẫu người cha như thế nào? a. Chỉ cần cung cấp nhu cầu vật chất cho con cái. Gần gũi với con cái c. Không Group 4 .Popular Culture Research c.

.... Gabriella) b.... Buzz Lightyear – Toy Story.....2. Do you usually watch Disney Channel? Yes No If yes. Muscular (Mr..... Tarzan) b..1... Plump (Cory – Cory in the House) .. Male characters a..... how often do you watch Disney Channel? …………… hour(s)/week 4. Incredible.That’s So Raven.......... Firm (Hannah Montana) d..... What are your favorite body shapes of characters? 4... Fit (Troy Bolton) c....... Sexy (Sharpay) c. Female characters a.. This survey is used only for research purpose and all the information provided will be confidential.... 1................. ticking your choice or filling in the blank.. 2.... Your age: ....... Plump (Raven .. The Cheetah Girls) Others (Please specify) 4. We sincerely thank you for your cooperation..... Slender (Alex Russo.........Popular Culture Research Group 4 APPENDIX 3 Department of English Linguistics and Literature Ho Chi Minh City University of Social Sciences and Humanities SURVEY We are a group of students of the Department of English Linguistics and Literature doing a research on how teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City respond to images of gender role shown in Disney Channel programs. Please answer the following questions by circling your choice.. Gender: Male Female 3.56 - ....

Justin Russo – Wizards of Waverly Place) b. Alex Russo .Zack and Cody.The Incredibles) e.2.Zack and Cody. Snow White. Princess-liked (Cinderella. What is your view on the portrayal of romance on Disney Channel shows? a. Do you believe in love at first sight? a. No Others (Please specify) . Male character a.High School Musical) c. Rico . Superman-liked (Mr.Hannah Montana) e. Female characters a.57 - . Fun loving.Wizards of Waverly Place) b. What are your favorite behavior patterns of characters in Disney Channel programs? 5. Unrealistic Others (Please specify) 7. Skinny (Cody – Zack and Cody.1. free-spirited (Hannah Montana. Supergirl-liked (Elastic Girl . Childish (Harper – Wizards of Waverly Place) Others (Please specify): 5. Playful (Zack .High School Musical) d. Sporty (Troy Bolton . Oliver & Jackson . Little Mermaid) c. Nerdy (Cody . Very realistic b. Incredible .Hannah Montana’s friend and brother ) Others (Please specify): 6.Popular Culture Research d. Childish (George – George of the Jungle. princess-liked (Gabriella . Yes b. George – George of the Jungle) Others (Please specify) Group 4 5. Acceptable c. Brainy.The Incredibles) d.

Both parents go to work (Good luck Charlie) c. Yes b. Dressing suggestively (Jack Ryan . Whom do you think house chore responsibility belongs to? a. No Others ( please specify) 10. Caring (Gabriella) d. do you believe you two can live “happily ever after”? a. When you meet the Right One.58 - . Making scandals (Zack – The Suite Life of Zack and Cody) d.Popular Culture Research 8. Making scandals (Candace – Phineas and Ferb) Others (Please specify) 11. If you are female a. What is your preferred family pattern? a.Hannah Montana) b. No Others (Please specify) Group 4 9. If you are male a. Only the father goes to work ( The Incredibles) b. Dressing suggestively (Sharpay) b. 1. Father b. Only the mother goes to work Others (Please specify) 12. Do you believe in the idea of eternal love? a.2. Caring (Troy Bolton) Others (Please specify) 10. Mother . Yes b. In what way should a character attract the person of the other sex? 10. Being lovely(Gabriella) c.

No .59 - . Shared responsibility 13. What is your preferred type of father? a.Popular Culture Research c. Just provides children with material needs (Father of Zack and Cody – The Suite Life of Zack and Cody) 14. Yes b. Close to children like a friend (Billy Ray Stewart – Hannah Montana) Group 4 c. Do you think females are suitable to be leaders? a. Strict and tough (Kerchak – Tarzan) b.

60 - .Popular Culture Research Group 4 APPENDIX 4 List of Disney Channel movies and TV shows analyzed Movies/ TV shows Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Pinocchio Bambi Cinderella Alice in Wonderland Peter Pan Lady and the Tramp Sleeping Beauty 101 Dalmatians Mary Poppins The Jungle Book The Little Mermaid Beauty and the Beast Aladdin The Lion King Pocahontas Life is Beautiful Mulan Tarzan Atlantis: The Lost Empire Kim Possible Treasure Planet That’s So Raven The Incredibles The Suite Life of Zack and Cody Year Released 1937 1940 1942 1950 1951 1953 1955 1959 1961 1964 1967 1989 1991 1992 1994 1995 1997 1998 1999 2001 2002 2002 2003 2004 2005 .

Popular Culture Research Hannah Montana High School Musical Wendy Wu: Homecoming Warrior Cory in the House Jump In Phineas and Ferb Wizards of Waverly Place Camp Rock Minutemen Good Luck Charlie 2006 2006 2006 2007 2007 2007 2007 2008 2008 2010 Group 4 .61 - .

American feminism: A contemporary History. L. Christopher Wiegering. 1990.wikia. 5 Dec.worldlingo. K.wikia. Ginette. 2010 <http://www. 1991. Are Disney Movies a Negative Influence? Associated Content. Belle. 5 Dec. 46 (1984) Disney Channel. 5 Dec. 2010 <http://www. 2010. <http://www. Walt Disney Pictures.com/wiki/Cinderella_%28character%29>. 22 Nov. Mary.Popular Culture Research Group 4 REFERENCES Atlantis: The Lost Empire. 2010 <http://en. Gianoli. Castro. and Lewis. Will Hannah Montana Forever be a Successful End to the Franchise? NeBusiness. Feminism and the Law.-a0165724076>.thefreelibrary. WorldLingo. 5 Dec. Disney Channel Expands Its Audience Reach in Vietnam. Free Online Library. the free encyclopedia.wikipedia. the free encyclopedia. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. New York: NYU Press. 5 Dec. 2010 <http://disney.com/Disney+Channel+Expands+Its+Audience+Reach+i n+Vietnam. 5 Dec. 2008. Structure of gender stereotypes: Interrelationships among components and gender label. Disney Channel Asia. Dir. 5 Dec. Gary Trousdale and Kirk Wise. 1 Nov. Wikipedia.nebusiness. 2010 <http://en. 2010 . Deaux.org/wiki/Disney_Channel>. 2010.org/wiki/Disney_Channel_Asia>. Barabe.co.uk/business-news/special-features/2010/11/22/willhannah-montana-forever-be-a-successful-end-to-the-franchise-51140-27694099/>.L. 5 Dec. Disney Wiki. 2010 <http://disney. Cinderella.62 - . Beauty and the Beast.com/wiki/Belle>. Disney Wiki.com/ma/enwiki/en/Atlantis%3A_The_Lost_Empire>.wikipedia. Wikipedia.

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