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Ho Chi Minh National University University of Social Sciences and Humanities Department of English Linguistics and Literature

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COURSE: POPULAR CULTURE

A RESEARCH ON HO CHI MINH CITY TEENAGERS’ PERCEPTION OF GENDER ROLE IN DISNEY CHANNEL

Instructor : Phan Thị Kim Loan, M.A. Students : Group 4 Trương Võ Hoàng An Nguyễn Ngọc Diễm Bùi Ngọc Diễm Châu Châu Chiêu Bình Nhan Kiết Lệ Phạm Thị Thu Hà 0771007 0771039 0771296 0771025 0771107 0771060

Ho Chi Minh City December, 2010

Popular Culture Research

Group 4

ABSTRACT
Group 4 (2010): “A Research on Hồ Chí Minh City Teenagers’ Perception of Gender Role in Disney Channel” - A Research Project for the course Popular Culture

In recent years, Disney Channel has grown more and more popular among teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City. Since teenagers are in the stage of life when they are developing their own sense of identity, they are vulnerable and easily influenced by the media. Therefore, our research paper aims to figure out how HCMC teenagers perceive gender role from Disney Channel. First, through analyzing Disney Channel text in terms of physical appearance, behavioral traits, romantic involvements, family structure and practices, and socioeconomic status of characters of both sexes from Disney Channel program, we explore the messages of gender role conveyed in the shows that are currently very popular to the youth worldwide. Then, based on the survey that we conduct among teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City, we find out how actively teenagers in HCMC engage in perceiving gender role stereotypes shown on Disney Channel and examine how teenagers in HCMC respond to messages of gender role in Disney Channel.

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Popular Culture Research

Group 4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
First and foremost, we would like to express our deepest gratitude to Ms. Phan Thi Kim Loan, our supervisor, whose encouragement, guidance and support from the initial to the final stage enabled us to develop the understanding on the subject. We are also indebted to the teenagers of both sexes in Ho Chi Minh City for their enthusiastic participations in taking our survey. Their contribution had helped us a great deal in conducting this research. Finally, it is an honor of us to send our regards and blessings to our families and friends who supported us to the completion of the project. - Group 4

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..................................................................... Reason for choosing the topic ........... Disney Channel Overview ...................... 1 II.................................................................................................................................... 1 III........................................ 11 ........................ Research methodology ....................................................................... ii TABLE OF CONTENTS ......................... iii LIST OF FIGURES...........................iii - ................................................................ Impact of Media on Adolescents ............................................................................... Aims of research .. 9 PART 3: ANALYSIS ON DISNEY CHANNEL TEXTS I............ v LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................... Social Learning Theory .................... i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. 8 IV......................................................................................Popular Culture Research Group 4 TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT............................................... 2 PART 2: LITERATURE REVIEW I............................ vii PART 1: INTRODUCTION I......................................................................................... 7 III........................................................................................................................ Summary ........................ Physical Appearance ................................................ 3 II..................

.................................................................................. 56 APPENDIX 4 .. Romantic Involvement ............................................................ 52 APPENDIX 3 ................................................ 47 APPENDIX 1 ................... 35 II................................................................................................................................................................................... Behavioral Traits ........................................ Behavioral Traits ................................................ Socioeconomic Status ................................................................................................................................................................. Socioeconomic Status ..................................... Romantic Involvement ....... 29 PART 4: SURVEY ON HO CHI MINH CITY TEENAGERS’ PERCEPTION OF GENDER ROLE IN DISNEY CHANNEL I.................................................................... 46 PART 5: CONCLUSION .............. Family Structure and Practices ............................................. 60 REFERENCES ...................................................................... Physical Appearance ................................ 24 V...................................................................... 17 III........................................... Family Structure and Practices ...................................... 43 V................................................... 40 IV......................................... 50 APPENDIX 2 ...................... 22 IV.... 37 III............................................................iv - ...............Popular Culture Research Group 4 II................................................................ 62 ......

........................................................................................................ cute and muscular trait .............. 15 10) Cory’s overweight image . 19 18) Hannah Montana’s feminist representation ................ 16 11) Small and skinny brothers Phineas and Ferb ............ 12 2) Belle’s beauty ....................... 13 6) Miley’s and Lily’s below-average figure ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ frail and weak trait . 19 19) Troy’s sporty................................... 21 -v- ....................................... 15 9) Lily and Raven with beauty ideal of “the girl next door” .......................................................................................................... 21 20) Milo Thatch’s lean and nerdy personality.......... 12 3) Cinderella’s beauty ................................................................................................... 14 7) Sharpay’s “trendy” beauty ......................................................................................................................................................... Incredible’s muscular figure .................................................................................................................................................................. 16 13) Mr.........Popular Culture Research Group 4 LIST OF FIGURES 1) Snow White’s beauty ...................................................................................................... 13 4) Pocahontas’s beauty ........... 16 14) Phillip’s slender build ............................. 18 17) Belle’s smart and strong-willed characteristic ................... 16 12) Tarzan’s muscularity .................. 13 5) Identical Beauty of Disney Princesses ................ 17 15) Snow White’s domestic.................. 17 16) Ariel’s independent and outspoken personality ........ 15 8) London’s “trendy” beauty ..................................................

... 25 24) Carey as a mother and protector ........... 27 30) Pongo as a nurturing.................................. 25 25) Bambi’s mother as a caregiver and protector .................................................................................................... 28 32) The Queen of Hearts with the image of women as being more powerful than men .Popular Culture Research Group 4 21) Snow White’s Prince and Prince Phillip as rescuers ..........................vi - ................................... 25 26) Kala as a caregiver and protector....................................................................... 26 28) King Triton as a tyranny father................................................................................................................................ 28 31) Jim and Darling with unequal house chore sharing .. 27 29) King Triton as a self-sacrificing father ... 28 ......... 22 23) Perdy as a mother and protector ............................... affectionate and self-sacrificing father................... 22 22) Love at first sight in Cinderella and High School Musical .............................................................................................. 26 27) Kerchak as a controlling and aggressive father ............................................................................................................

............................................................... Favorite behavior pattern of female characters ............................... View on the idea of eternal love .............. View on the idea of “happily ever after” .. View on love at first sight ................................................ 42 Table 10..... 40 Table 7........ Favorite behavior pattern of male characters ......................................... The way boys attract girls .......................................... Preferred type of father ................................................................vii - ................ 42 Table 11................................ 36 Table 3........ 40 Table 6........... Favorite body shape of male characters . 43 Table 12............... 46 .......... 43 Table 13......................................................... 35 Table 2............................................ 37 Table 5.............................. Career and social position in Disney modern films ........................ House chores sharing between parents ........ Preferred family pattern ................. 37 Table 4.................................................................................................................... 41 Table 8...................... View on the portrayal of romance in Disney Channel shows ............................. 41 Table 9. 30 Table B............................................. View on female leadership .Popular Culture Research Group 4 LIST OF TABLES Table A.......... Career and social position in Disney classical films ........................ The way girls attract boys .... 31 Table 1................... 44 Table 14............ Favorite body shape of female characters ..................................................

behavioral traits. and socioeconomic status. they are living in Disney world. Worth noticing. romantic involvement. family structure and practices.Reason for choosing the topic Teenagers are people who the most easily get influenced by popular culture.To help parents and teachers have critical views of gender role portrayed in Disney Channel so as to provide children and teenagers with guidance in their perception of gender role. in which American teenagers are vulnerable to the images of gender role in most of Disney programs.To analyze how gender role is portrayed in Disney Channel in terms of physical appearance. .To find out how actively teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City engage in perceiving gender role stereotypes shown on Disney Channel. .Popular Culture Research Group 4 PART 1: INTRODUCTION I . -1- . And this research attempts to give an answer to it: how Ho Chi Minh City teenagers perceive gender role on Disney Channel. The issue alarms us to put a question on teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City.To examine how teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City respond to messages of gender role in Disney Channel.Aims of Research . . II .

How is gender role described in Disney Channel in terms of physical appearance and how do HCMC teenagers perceive this? 2. books.Popular Culture Research  Research Questions: Group 4 1. How is gender role described in Disney Channel in terms of socioeconomic status and how do HCMC teenagers perceive this? III . articles. which are mainly based on secondary sources collected from various sources such as previous researches. Document review Data collecting Information synthesis Textual analysis Personal observation Survey analysis and evaluation -2- .Research Methodology Our research uses qualitative and quantitative methods. How is gender role described in Disney Channel in terms of romantic involvement and how do HCMC teenagers perceive this? 4. etc. How is gender role described in Disney Channel in terms of behavioral traits and how do HCMC teenagers perceive this? 3. How is gender role described in Disney Channel in terms of family structure and practices and how do HCMC teenagers perceive this? 5. Disney texts. We also deliver questionnaires to examine Ho Chi Minh City teenagers’ reception. websites.

the channel debuted the musical sitcom series Kids Incorporated. History1 The history of Disney Channel is divided into four eras: a. 5 Dec. in April 1984. This variety television show immediately became a hit. 2010 <http://en. In early 1989. Its program currently includes original series and original movies as well as programs from other third parties. At the beginning. 1. 1983 as a premium channel.1997) Disney Channel was first launched on April 18. The All-New Mickey Mouse Club was launched. the free encyclopedia. they began to broadcast 24 hours a day. However.wikipedia. the show also 1 Disney Channel. it only aired 16 hours a day. in recent years. The Beginning (1983 . As an American television channel.Disney Channel Overview Disney Channel belongs to Disney-ABC Cable Networks Group – a division of Walt Disney Company. Like Kids Incorporated. which was a big hit and has become part of the cultural lexicon. -3- . it has grown more and more popular with older audience.Popular Culture Research Group 4 PART 2: LITERATURE REVIEW I . Wikipedia.org/wiki/Disney_Channel>. A year later. the channel increased the program to 18 hours a day. In December 1986. The cast of the series included many young actors that later became stars in both music and acting such as Jennifer Love Hewitt and Stacy Ferguson (currently known as Fergie of the band The Black Eyed Peas). In 1986. it specializes in television program for children.

Disney Channel went from a premium cable channel to an expanded basic cable and started to gain viewers.” Sweeney’s strategy was to “discover. By 2008. b. By 1995.2002) In 1997. Even Stevens. Justin Timberlake. The Zoog/Vault Disney Era (1997 ." and has become “the greatest teen-star incubator since the NBA stopped drafting high schoolers. pre-teenagers and young adolescents. etc. c. and aggressively cross-promote teen music stars whose style and image were carefully targeted to pre-teenagers and teenagers. the channel began to gain more popularity as well as viewers outside its main target audience demographic. The Relaunched Era (2002 . nurture. During this period. the Channel “has been adding a million viewers a month—every month—for the last five years. In 2004. -4- . Disney Channel’s original program included shows like Flash Forward. It reduced the number of prime time movie from two each night to only one.Popular Culture Research Group 4 spawned many future stars.” Around the same time. among them are Christina Aguilera. which are preschoolers. So Weird. The channel also stopped producing drama and reality show to shift focus to live-action comedies and animated series. Kim Possible and Lizzie McGuire – the show that helped launch the career of Hilary Duff. Britney Spears. Disney Channel was seen in more than 8 million households in the United States. Anne Sweeney took control of Disney-ABC Television Group and was very successful in turning Disney Channel into “the major profit driver in the company”. Ryan Gosling.2007) Disney Channel began to remodel again in September 2002.

These four original movies each starred at least two stars from Disney Channel's original series.present) In 2007. Hatching Pete.4 million viewers. in 2003. two new series were launched: Sonny with a Chance and JONAS. In 2009. The crossover special Wizards on Deck with Hannah Montana (involving Wizards of Waverly Place.2 million viewers. Other successful programs of this era were That’s So Raven (2005) – the highest-rated series of the network since it became basic cable. New movies in 2009 were: Dadnapped. the second movie in the phenomenal trilogy High School Musical. Princess Protection Program. d. The Cheetah Girls. The Suite Life on Deck and Hannah Montana) was -5- . the hit original movie High School Musical in 2006. The most successful DCOM in that year was High School Musical 2. The Current Era (2007 . The movie received 84 million viewers worldwide and led to the creation of other successful music-themed programs like the original movie High School Musical and the original series Hannah Montana. with 17. and in the same year the original series Hannah Montana. Disney Channel reduced the number of original movie and series premieres to four Disney Channel Original Movies (DCOM) and two Disney Channel Original Series premiering each year. and Wizards of Waverly Place: The Movie. Wizards of Waverly Place: The Movie was the highest-rated cable program of 2009 (excluding sporting events) with 11.Popular Culture Research Group 4 One notable event of Disney Channel in this period was the release of its first musical made-for-cable movie. the hit show that launched the career of one of Disney Channel’s biggest stars Miley Cyrus.

along with 525.9 rating share among Tweens 6-9. According to Nielsen Media Research. As we can see. In the May 2010 Nielsen ratings. the channel launched the first original sitcom intentionally targeted at family audiences. beating out its competition on the night of its premiere with 9. as well as the final season of Hannah Montana which was renamed Hannah Montana Forever and the series Jonas L. Disney Channel has become the top channel in children and teenagers program.Popular Culture Research Group 4 also a big hit. with Phineas and Ferb ranked as the #1 animated series on TV among Kids 6-11 and Tweens 9-14 for that month. Not only are their shows popular among young viewers. Wizards of Waverly Place and Good Luck Charlie earned six of television’s top 10 telecasts that month in key child demographics.000 viewers with a 1. Disney Channel is also the second most watched cable channel during primetime. Good Luck Charlie. Disney Channel ranked #1 for the 63rd consecutive month in the Kids 6-11 demographic and for the 62nd straight month among Tweens 9-14.A.1 million viewers. 9-15. In 2010.1 rating share among Kids 6-11 and 459.5 million viewers among Total Viewers. First-run episodes of The Suite Life on Deck. more than two decades since it first launch in 1983.000 viewers with a 2. the month of May 2010 had finished as Disney Channel’s most-watched May in the network's history with an average of 1. they are also the stepping stones for many famous movie and music idols that have great influence on many young people like -6- .

The next step is retention. Britney Lynn Hibbeler.pdf?sequence=1>. 2010 <http://en. Exploring representations of masculinity in Disney animated feature films (2009) 11<http://repository.1/ETD-TAMU-2009-08-7023/HIBBELERTHESIS. Disney Channel Expands Its Audience Reach in Vietnam. 2010 <http://www. To examine the possibility of the event being carried out. Disney Channel Asia Disney Channel Asia is a franchise of Disney Channel. Disney Channel has increased its Vietnamese subtitling from 10% to 70% of its program and it is now available in 75% of all pay-TV households. and symbolic rehearsal and enactment. the free encyclopedia. broadcasting in most parts of Southeast Asia. cognitive organization.edu/bitstream/handle/1969.Popular Culture Research Group 4 Justin Timberlake. it is necessary to note that retention does not mean the viewer will reenact the event.-a0165724076>. 5 Dec. simple and prevalent will be more likely to be modeled. including Vietnam2. In two years since its launch in May 2005. etc. we should understand two types of viewing: instrumental 2 3 4 5 Disney Channel Asia. Hibbeler 12 -7- .” 5 However.3 II .com/Disney+Channel+Expands+Its+Audience+Reach+in+Vietnam.wikipedia. Motivational process and other factors will determine this.org/wiki/Disney_Channel_Asia>. positive. That is the indicators of how popular and influential Disney Channel is among youngsters. Wikipedia. Events that are distinctive. 5 Dec. 2. Britney Spears.tamu.Social Learning Theory Social learning theory suggests that individuals may model behavior based on available role models4. which is accomplished by “symbolic coding. Miley Cyrus. Free Online Library. The first step is attention. Characteristic of viewers like attention span or their personal preference will affect their attention. The process of modeling includes several steps.thefreelibrary.

Responsible adults like parents and teachers and even teenagers themselves may not be 6 7 8 9 Hibbeler 13 Hibbeler 13 Hibbeler 13 Hibbeler 14 -8- . such as the Disney animated feature films.Impact of Media on Adolescents Nowadays. however. viewers pragmatically choose the program and involves in a great degree of selectivity. they may be influenced by ideas of gender on the show and may internalize and model those ideas. 7 However. rather than to gain information.Popular Culture Research Group 4 viewing and ritualistic viewing. is not transparent but it is subtle and occurs over a long period of time. III . “provides implications for gender performance” because those who view program with gender stereotype may be more likely to model the stereotype being viewed. Media influence.”8 Social learning theory. media has more and more influence and plays greater role in the life of adolescents worldwide. And programs on Disney Channel can provide opportunities for this process to happen. “This consumption of media for pleasure. Most of children’s television viewing is ritualistic. with the rapid development of technology. ritualistic viewing is concerned with the entertaining content of the text and it is habitual and mindless. including gender role. 6 In instrumental viewing.9 Because of the great popularity of Disney Channel among teenagers. Since the goal of this type of viewing is to seek information. exposes children to gender stereotyped ideas of what it means to be masculine and feminine in the form of entertainment. therefore. viewers will watch Disney film to gain information about several topics.

Cutting Girls Down to Size. Among those influences is the message conveyed in the media. 11 Sut Jhally. they are also under the pressure of their peers.” All things considered.com/industry/news/data/hot_issues/1361>. and the Media. Current Problem in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care (California: Sage Publications. our understanding of ourselves as either male or female (socially defined within this society at this time) is central to our understanding of who we are”11. Children. violence among the youth. making it even more difficult for them to resist the dominant message “perpetuated and reinforced by the media. Image-Based Culture: Advertising and Popular Culture. Can't Buy My Love: How Advertising Changes the Way We Think and Feel. teenage years are the time when people are most vulnerable to the influences and pressure around them since they have yet to develop their own identity. Adolescents. sex and drug use. teenagers’ favorite TV characters may become some kind of role model to them and they will watch and learn from those characters. we focus on the impact on gender role because “images having to do with gender strike at the core of individual identity. The World and I. Since Disney Channel is very popular worldwide.. 12 Jean Kilbourne.Popular Culture Research Group 4 aware of the impact that media has. etc. Available at <http://www. 1990. 506-519. As suggested in the social learning theory. In this research. IV – Summary To summarize. it is important to analyze the images of gender role presented in popular cultural texts and find out how teenagers interpret and respond to them. The impact on this front is greater in adolescent because they are still “in the process of learning their values and roles and developing their selfconcepts”12.aef. In addition. especially messages concerning the ideal of genders. 10 Impact of media on adolescent can be found in many aspects: teenagers’ ideal of beauty. its 10 Victor C Strasburger. the More You Add . The More You Subtract. Inc. Jul. 2002) 54. -9- .

For that reason.Popular Culture Research Group 4 characters are more likely to become youngsters’ role models. we conduct this research to see what messages conveyed in Disney Channel shows and how teenagers in Ho Chi Minh understand and respond to those messages.  .10 - .

in and of itself. <http://www. therefore. 14 In terms of physical appearance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.associatedcontent.ucla.uk/media/Modules/TF33120/gendertv.” 16 For this reason. 46. In fact. specifically of gender role. Associated Content.Popular Culture Research Group 4 PART 3: ANALYSIS ON DISNEY CHANNEL TEXTS As proved by many well-known scholars and experts.html?cat=9>. 16 S. Structure of gender stereotypes: Interrelationships among components and gender label.edu/faculty/kellner/> <http://jeankilbourne. 2008. In fact. articles and essays regarding this topic. 5 Dec.html#A> <http://gseis. Working women in America: Split dreams (New York: Oxford University Press. 14 Christopher Wiegering Gianoli. it is the societal meaning assigned to male and female. it is important to mention people’s perception of their physical appearance. romantic involvement. This part. family structure and practices. 15 K.11 - . Deaux and L. “physical appearance is.L. Lewis.” 15 According to Hesse-Biber and Carger.com/article/1142336/are_disney_movies_a_negative_influence_pg2. Hesse-Biber and G. Daniel Chandler. (1984) 991–1004. more and more researches. I . “gender is determined socially. 1 Nov. Jean Kilbourne.13 the media have a very important impact on people’s perception. articles and essays have recently paid attention to how Disney influences its viewers’ understanding as well as whether it produces good or bad effects on them. Are Disney Movies a Negative Influence?.L.com/>. will provide us a detailed analysis on images of male 13 Such as Douglas Kellner. etc.aber. Carger. And Disney Channel is not an exception. different expectations of physical appearance are also generated regarding femininity and masculinity. and socioeconomic status.ac.Physical Appearance Concerning gender role. 2010 <http://www. 2000) 91. with their various books. this part is to make an analysis on Disney Channel texts regarding gender role. an important part of the gender stereotype. behavioral traits. .

Behold. Queen: Alas for her. which is clearly shown in classical Disney animated movies. Skin white as snow. black shoes. almost all the females are praised for their appearance or physical beauty. being “slender. a lovely maid I see. Alas. Gender Stereotypes: An Analysis of Popular Films and TV. Dir. they are “valued for their appearance. fair skin. blue bow in her hair. who is the fairest one of all? Mirror: Famed is thy beauty. majesty. As a matter of fact. Ariel. it is crucial to discuss about female beauty defined by Disney programs.”17 Cinderella.”18 (See Figure 1 in Appendix 1) Belle is supposed to be attractive to the people around her like Gaston. Sleeping Beauty. Rags cannot hide her gentle grace.12 - .Popular Culture Research Group 4 and female characters physically portrayed in Disney programs. reveal her name. Smith and Crystal Allene Cook. 18 Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The Geena Davis Institute on Gender in Media (2008) 16. “Queen: Magic Mirror on the wall. Mirror: Lips red as the rose. William Cottrell et al. blue and white peasant dress with a white apron. Snow White and other Disney main female characters are almost portrayed by Disney to be beautiful and attractive fairy tale princesses. Walt Disney Productions. […] yellow ball 17 Stacy L. she is more fair than thee. as stated by Stacy and Crystal. First of all. thereby helping us in examining the expectations of gender in terms of physical appearance produced by Disney Channel. While Snow White’s beauty is a response to her mother’s wish and is told by the mirror on the wall. . In other words. 1937. Hair black as ebony. [having] both brown hair and eyes.

wikia.com/2009/01/my-answers-to-interesting-fairy-tale. Psyched Out. 5 Dec. 5 Dec.html>. The Structure and Reconstruction of Marriage Scenarios in Picture Books for Children – A Comparative Study of Fairy Tales and Feminist Tales [Part 2 of 2]. 141. 23 Kim Hongsook. the fact that the identical image of thinness is repeated from one main female character to another and that it is considered beauty ideal gives an affirmation. if with her slim figure.”24 In 19 20 Belle.” 19 (see Figure 2 in Appendix 1) she has so strong an attraction to Gaston that he many times tries to win her over. they have one thing in common – being “always stunningly beautiful. However. 24 Kilbourne .com/wiki/Cinderella_%28character%29>.blogspot. Moreover. they all have the beauty of disposition according to Disney. Women’s Studies Forum 01021793 (1997) 138-147. blond hair. Disney Wiki.com/wiki/Pocahontas_%28character%29>. 23 (See Figure 5 in Appendix 1) In addition. 2010 <http://disney. 21 Pocahontas. one is with John Smith. In truth.” 22 With the same body image. brown eyes.that is thin.13 - . My answers to an interesting Fairy Tale Princess Survey. despite their different appearances. [having] petite and slender build and evidently extreme youth. as Jean Kilbourne stated in many of her articles and essays on the influences of the media on adolescents. 5 Dec. Disney Wiki.com/wiki/Belle>.. 20 (see Figure 3 in Appendix 1) then it is also notable that Pocahontas’s “slender figure. no matter how differently their beauty is described (with different skin. fairly tan skin”21 (see Figure 4 in Appendix 1) gives her two love involvements.Popular Culture Research Group 4 gown which shows her breast cleavage. 7 Jan. 22 Mary. eye and hair color. 2010 <http://disney. 2009.wikia.wikia. blue eyes and fair skin. Disney Wiki.) they are all young ladies and have the same body figure . 2010 <http://psychedoutsw. etc. of the so-called “obsession with thinness.” and that “thin is beautiful. Cinderella. black hair. 2010 <http://disney. the other is with John Rolfe. 5 Dec. Cinderella deserves the love of Prince Charming and the happy life in the palace. as if they “go hand in hand” together.

adults and even the society.com/>. 26 Debbie Mead. The role of mass media in promoting a thin standard of bodily attractiveness for women. especially children and teenagers. as a result. Survey of Three Sixth Grade Classes at University Park Elementary School. 27 Skinny Me. 25-28 Feb. The Good. CA. with results suggesting that the thin. the beauty ideal as being thin seems normal to not only young girls but also males. 5 Dec. 2002. Marriott. Fairy Tale Females: What Three Classics Tell Us About Women. while very few were heavy.”28 That is to say. 1986. are considered to be vulnerable to this influence. B. Perdue. (2009) Available at <http://www. it is found that the supermajority of female characters were thin. 2010 <cinderellaskinny. Nos. and the Beautiful: Beauty Ideals on the Disney and Nickelodeon Channels. Chicago. Disney viewers.”27 Additionally. 519-532. Salinas. As a twelve year-old boy once said.a skinny one. I want to be a princess . .”26 Or as a female sharing about her childhood. are also portrayed as “below average” in spite 25 Temple Northup and Carol Liebler.tumblr. 14. the Bad. Cinderella is beautiful because she “is skinny and has blonde hair. Miley and Lily in Hannah Montana for example. IL.php>. Cinderella Skinny. it is shown by textual analysis of Disney programs that “body size and beauty ideal messages [have been] analyzed. Peterson and L. the idea that “beauty is good” is reinforced through verbal messages to thin characters.com//meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/2/9/9/1/1/pages299114/p299114-1. In fact. L.14 - . white beauty ideal that is present in adult program is also alive and well in program for a younger audience.Popular Culture Research Group 4 fact.allacademic. 9/10. 28 Northup 29 B. Sex Roles. people are obsessed with thinness and that thin beauty ideal is normalized in people’s mind and perception from the early age. Silverstein. Kelly. Vol. 29 Female characters that are not to be praised by their beautiful appearance. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association. “When I was little I made my mommy or daddy read me Cinderella every single night.25 Furthermore.

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of their stronger and healthier figure compared with the weak and gentle beauty of fairy tale princesses. (See Figure 6 in Appendix 1) This actually even reinforces adolescent girls’ obsession with thinness because of the fact that they are of the same age and in the same period of time as compared to the princesses and adult models in a magazine. Besides, it is also worth noticing that in modern Disney programs supposedly beautiful females are also described as being sexy or sexually attractive. They are considered to be “trendy,” that is, the “ditz” of the group, preoccupied with appearance, wearing the latest of clothing, and usually obsessed with boys.30 An example for this type of beautiful females is Sharpay in High school Musical. She is always wearing the most fashionable clothes, good-looking in her appearance (see Figure 7 in Appendix 1) and trying to steal Troy – a popular basketball boy - away from Gabriella, his girlfriend. Moreover, London in The Suite Life of Zack and Cody is other example for this kind of beauty. This is a very rich girl with an extreme obsession with boys. In addition, other kind of beauty ideal is “the girl next door.” This is a girl who is not overly-stylized or concerned with fashion, but still manages to always look “cute” and draw the attraction of boys – she is, perhaps, unaware of her beauty.31 Lily in Hannah Montana (see Figure 6 in Appendix 1) and Raven in That’s So Raven are some examples for this type. Anyway, no matter how they are aware of their beauty, Disney females are all supposed to be thin. As a matter of fact, from the fairy tale princesses to the modern-time

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Northup Northup

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famous star like Hannah Montana, the image of their beauty does not break out of the obsession with thinness. Regarding physical appearance, just as femininity is defined by the beauty of Disney females, male characters in Disney shows also contribute to produce the image of masculinity. While characters that are overweight like Cory (see Figure 8 in Appendix 1) in Cory in the house or small and skinny like Phineas and Ferb (see Figure 9 in Appendix 1) in the movie series of the same name are approved by Disney audience for their humorous words and behaviors serving for entertainment, their body figure is not what Disney’s portrayal of male beauty ideal. However, what is considered masculinity in terms of physical appearance must show either physical strength or fitness. First, the body figure showing physical strength appears to be a typical element in Disney’s building male image. In fact, being powerful physically is related to the main role of Disney males; that is, they are characterized to be protective and assertive. (We will have more detailed discussion on this in the part of Disney traits.) According to Hibbeler’s statistics, good characters (37%) are more likely to display physical strength than evil (18.3%) and neutral (26.7%) ones. 32 This also implies that to be a good man, males should first have physical strength. To put it this way, males are not necessarily required to be muscular as long as they are physically strong enough. For example, beside the characters with visible muscles like Tarzan (see Figure 10 in Appendix 1) in Tarzan and Mr. Incredible (see
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Hibbeler 53

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Figure 11 in Appendix 1) in The Incredibles, Phillip the Prince (see Figure 12 in Appendix 1) from Sleeping Beauty also shows his physical power while he is described as being slender and fit. In fact, “the prince is not overweight and wears clothing that clearly displays his physical build. He has a frame that is of average size. He is tall and slender.”33 As seen, while females in Disney Channel are portrayed to be thin, which is considered to be beautiful, Disney males are required to have physically strong figure. All of these not only express the gender expectations in terms of physical appearance but also give us a message for behaviors regarding gender shown in Disney that is discussed in the next part.

II - Behavioral Traits
Regarding gender role, Disney Channel is widely considered to set boundaries for American set of values, perceptions, preferences and behaviors through a process of creating a dynamic system teenage models. The earliest and most loved Disney animated role models such as Snow white, Cinderella and Sleeping Beauty have stereotyped girls as “weak,” “emotional,” “passive,” “frail,” “domestic” and “troublesome.”34 In Disney films, while the basic traits of femininity are to be obedient, quiet and beautiful, it is crucial they have constant attention of male characters. Being ultimately subordinate to males is vital for all the princesses in these classic tales. The codes of behavior for
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Hibbeler 53 Amanda Yerby, Samantha Baron, Youjin Lee, Gender roles in Disney Animation, History of Animation, Assignment 1, Part 4, Website Collaborative Content Available at <http://www.american.edu/soc/film/upload/Gender-Roles-in-Disney.pdf>.

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Pocahontas. Gaston: Say you'll marry me! Belle: I'm very sorry.. therefore. One of the first pioneering princesses is Ariel from The Little Mermaid. have become more independent and free-spirited. if we analyze Disney females’ set of behaviors through timeline. Ariel in The Little Mermaid.18 - . Jasmine in Aladdin. . Dir. Gaston? Gaston: Plenty! Here. gender roles do progress with changes. Gary Trousdale and Kirk Wise. Belle: Dogs? Gaston: No. and Mulan for instance.”35 35 Beauty and the Beast..Popular Culture Research Group 4 women imposed by males are the reason for this moral illness. although their main purpose in life consistently focuses on husband-searching-journey. picture this: A rustic hunting lodge. Walt Disney Pictures. she is expressive and quick to speak her mind. Belle! Strapping boys. like me! Belle: Imagine that. It is. an attack against women since these values have proposed and advocated the false idea of social degradation of women. However. Gaston. Belle is another example of breakthrough role model during the 1990s. “Belle: What do you know about my dreams. Belle in Beauty and the Beast. While her sisters are more complying with her father’s wishes. my latest kill roasting on the fire. while the little ones play on the floor with the dogs. We'll have six or seven. 1991. Their successors. and my little wife massaging my feet.

. free-spirited. Female characters start demanding to be liberated from the male dominant society. as a result. witted and fun loving.uk/business-news/special-features/2010/11/22/will-hannah-montana-forever-be-asuccessful-end-to-the-franchise-51140-27694099/>. has “opened an era for militant feminism in more than one way. and self-learnt. While Gaston tries to convince her into marriage by opening up a peaceful prospect with strapping boys. Pocahontas and the upcoming non-animated teenage models from “dominant male – submissive female” stereotype. she will not exchange her independence in return of wealth. Hannah Montana. 2010.Hannah Montana. 1990) 233.19 - . a rustic hunting lodge. Will Hannah Montana Forever be a Successful End to the Franchise? NeBusiness. 22 Nov. Alex Russo in Wizards of Waverly Place. The revolutionary traits demonstrating by Ariel and Belle have also freed the other princesses such as Mulan.nebusiness. She is the first female character who does not desperately try to find a future husband. Jasmine. The combination of traditional and other opposite traits like being smart. Hannah Montana TV series is one of the most successful teen franchise so far when “the movie grossed $29 million” regardless to “a production budget of less than $7 million.” 36 In the 21st century. 37 Mary Barabe. Belle pictures her future differently. the type of female leading roles . In other words. Elastic Girl in The Incredibles. This characteristic makes her one of the earliest representatives of feminism in Disney world. 5 Dec. (New York: NYU Press.which is introduced as downto-earth. Feminism and the Law. 36 Ginette Castro. 2010.co. <http://www. . has discarded thoroughly notions of remaining submissive traits in the previous Disney princesses. playful. American feminism: A contemporary History. etc.” 37 Best of Both Worlds show reached media popularity because the female character.Popular Culture Research Group 4 The lines above portray a smart and independent Belle whose primal ideal of life is learning. Kim Possible.

To some extent. 2009.e. competent. intelligent. Li Shang in Mulan) and even teenage models in nonanimated movies and TV shows (i. Nonetheless. an average girl can achieve success through their talent and dedication without the presence of male. upgraded modern princes (i. Disney Channel has endeavored to erase gender distinction through the process of shaping female’s traits. “We must be swift as the coursing river (Be a man) With all the force of a great typhoon 38 Anne Glass. 29 Jul. Izzy Daniels in Jump in) fell desperately into the same category.Popular Culture Research Group 4 is capable of “[harvesting] the fruits of the battles fought by liberal feminists in the 1960s and 1970s. Eric in The Little Mermaid. athletic.e. confident. important. 39 Yerby . Prince Charming in Cinderella). the cartoon male leading roles in the 90s (i.e.”38 The other characters from different Disney TV series are also outspoken. The Prince in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. technical. Prince Adam in Beauty and the Beast).com/Opinion/Is-Hannah-Montana-Really-Such-a-Great-Role-Model/2904661>. Disney male leading role seems to make less progressed as opposed to female characters in terms of behavioral norms. princes from the classic tales (i. 5 Dec. assertive. Tarzan.e. responsible. and stronger than female characters.groundreport. 2010 <http://www.e. hence represent the feminist world – i. Phillip in Sleeping Beauty. These male characters “have been more prominent and portrayed as more likely to have a recognizable job.”39 The song “I’ll make a man out of you” introducing on screen through an animated movie Mulan has somehow summed up all the values of being a man in Disney. Is Hannah Montana Really Such a Great Model? Socioquest.20 - . more independent.

Milo Thatch. Audience preference also contributes to create gender gap in Disney Channel. 40 41 Mulan. a supposedly masculine trait. instead of being a basketball player.worldlingo. At first glance. Unsurprisingly. Atlantis: The Lost Empire. In other words. the animated movie Atlantis: The Lost Empire whose hero.an undesirable result when the animation was assumed to be well marketed.21 - . Had the audience kept stereotyping them. his other prominent traditional characteristics like being sporty. Unfortunately. Dir.Popular Culture Research (Be a man) With all the strength of a raging fire Mysterious as the dark side of the moon. Walt Disney Feature Animation. male characters in Disney movies would not be able to free themselves from masculinity’s values. 1998.com/ma/enwiki/en/Atlantis%3A_The_Lost_Empire>. For example. Predictably. they are also less popular than ones featuring traditional males. 5 Dec. Wendy Wu: Homecoming Warrior. Minutemen feature men lacking of manly charm. he appears to be an odd-one-out since he is fond of singing and dancing. the products will not be sold well in the market considering with movies featuring traditional male behavioral traits. having less attractive masculine characteristics equals bankruptcy. 2010 <http://www. a supposedly feminine trait. is particularly lean and nerdy managed to “make [only] approximately $85 million dollars in its theatrical run. WorldLingo. .”40 Group 4 Another example is Troy. Other shows such as The Suite Life of Zack and Cody. Tony Bancroft and Barry Cook.”41 . cute and muscular have made this positive side seemingly unaffected to gender revolution. There obviously exist other types of male characteristics trying to get their images on screen. in High School Musical trilogy hit.

Therefore. female characters are the ones who are rescued. through the films. Frankly. which is hard to find in their single life. the idea of romantic love in these programs is always exaggerated. “Love at first sight” is also a key concept in Disney films.Romantic Involvement Analyzing the ideas of gender role in Disney Channel. Still with a kiss. While gender role in Disney Channel has managed to reduce its gap through the upgraded portrayal of female behaviors. For instance. male set of conducts has not achieved great success so far. And those magical elements help to push romance into a situation in which females are subservient to males. romance is one of the prominent themes portrayed in Disney Channel. we will see that it is a special key which is used by Disney to develop characters’ emotions. meanwhile.Popular Culture Research Group 4 It is apparent that behaviors of the two genders portrayed in Disney movies are completely opposite regarding to their roles. In Disney Channel fairy tales. the research also examines the characters’ romantic involvement. Actually. it is obvious that girls and young women are willing to throw themselves into marriage. Also. the Prince’s kiss in Snow White and Seven Dwarfs saves the princess’s life. Taking a close observation.22 - . marriage opens the door to luxurious life of the princesses. the princess one more time is saved by Prince Phillip in Sleeping Beauty. Disney films provide little information about how couples maintain their relationships but only focus on creating romantic love which people consider “a blink of love. III . Male characters in those films are shown as rescuers.” The relationship .

One more thing concerned about romance in Disney films is the “attackers” and how they attract their objects of affection. In Disney movies. men are almost always in active position. In fact. he keeps his unchanging love for Gabriella. That is why men usually make the first move in the relationship. Not only in fairy tales but also in modern movies do characters of the opposite sexes involve in love at the very first time. they willingly fall in love. They believe that with this undying love. 2008. they can have a happy ending and live happily ever after. The American Journal of Family Therapy.A. Besides. 31. However. Without spending much time getting to know each other. This kind of love is unwavering under any circumstances. they fall heads over heels and cannot help thinking of one another. 368. The character 42 43 L. Theresa Tonn. Haddock and T. Their love does not start with a kiss but with merely an intimate look. Although Troy is constantly hit on by Sharpay. there are many other characters who are faithful to their partners. Disney’s Influence on Females Perception of Gender and Love. No matter what one’s sex is. .23 - .” 43 Ariel in The Little Mermaid is a very clear example for using beauty to win Eric’s heart. Zimmerman.Popular Culture Research Group 4 between Cinderella and the Prince in Cinderella is an example.R. Images of Couples and Families in Disney Feature-length Animated Films. Tanner. 13. It shows a shift in the way of winning the opposite sexes’ hearts of characters conveyed in Disney Channel. there are some exceptions. Sharpay in High School Musical clearly expresses her determination to win Troy’s heart.S. A Research Paper Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Master of Science Degree. S. Dec. he or she can start the campaign to win one’s love first as long as they are attractive. there is a “belief that physical appearance is the most important thing when entering an intimate relationship”42 and that “women use good looks to get a man.

there are four main points to discuss. those single fathers are shown in Beauty and the Beast. In particular. Walt Disney Pictures. Little Mermaid. Pinocchio. IV . For instance. image of fathers and power division in family. it is a matter of fact that single fathers are illustrated more than single mothers. Dir. and do not underestimate the importance of body language!” 44 In modern films. Disney animated movies and live–action shows also present only one parent. it can be seen that there are movies in which both parents are included and the ones in which only one parent is presented. image of mothers.24 - . they easily find the one to love such as Troy Bolton. and in such cases. his mother presented him to all the animals in the forest while his father stood in the mountain and he kept the distance until Bambi’s mother was killed. etc. in the night when Bambi was born. both mothers and fathers are represented. Peter Pan or Tarzan. Namely. 1989. in some classic animated movies such as Bambi.Family Structure and Practices When it comes to the display of gender role in family structure and practices depicted in Disney Channel movies and shows. fathers in those movies only play a minor role while mothers are portrayed as major in family. your pretty face. First and foremost. . Specifically. Hannah Montana.Popular Culture Research Group 4 Ursula in the film tries to convince Ariel that “you got your looks. we can see that most of girls and boys also have good appearance and with this appearance. Hannah Montana and Alex Russo. Ron Clements and John Musker. On the other hand. the presence of 44 The Little Mermaid. Nonetheless. Accordingly. they are the presence of parents.

this can put a negative effect on both male and female youngsters’ beliefs about fathers’ relationships with and responsibilities to children. and Pixie Dust.25 - . At first. Trust. The Gospel according to Disney: Faith. Similarly. Pinsky. To be specific.” 45 In addition. mothers are portrayed as primary caregivers who are automatically attached to children and give unconditional love to them. image of mothers as both caregivers and protectors is depicted in Disney movies such as Bambi and Tarzan. the twins’ mother Carey usually protects them from troubles with Mr. Bambi’s mother was not only 45 46 Mark I. 2004) 62. Perdy.” 46 said panther Bagheera in The Jungle Book when he found Mowgli and decided to bring the human baby to a pair of wolves with the belief that the baby would be safe there. Second. Moseby – the hotel’s manager whenever they cause a new mess with their jokes. (Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. the female dog in 101 Dalmatians was very dynamic during the process of saving her puppies from the men kidnapping them. As a result. Next. Wendy in Peter Pan describes a mother as “someone who loves and cares for you.Popular Culture Research Group 4 parents in Disney movies and shows suggests that fathers are only required to take care of children when mothers are not able to do so. Pinsky 89 . Likewise. in the sitcom The Suite Life of Zack and Cody. For example. To illustrate. Disney’s image of mothers as protectors is also common in animated movies. image of mothers in Disney movies and shows is depicted in three different patterns. “there would be no problem with the mother thanks to the maternal instinct.

In short. she kept him safe from the hatred of other gorilla in the jungle and from the tiger.Popular Culture Research Group 4 in charge of raising him but also responsible for protecting him from danger until she died. That doesn't make him my son. the nurturing and affectionate one. for not understanding that you have always been one of us. Moreover. it can be seen that they are depicted in three images which are the controlling. the image of mothers in Disney animated movies and sitcoms has fell into a stereotype in which mothers always appear as close. and tender to children. the selfsacrificing one. although being portrayed in three different patterns. the female gorilla Kala gave Tarzan all her love and care. . […] Tarzan: Kerchak. disciplinepracticing father. and last but not least. Kerchak: No. caring. Turning to the portrayal of fathers in Disney movies and shows. Forgive me. aggressive.26 - . In the meantime. Kerchak the gorilla in Tarzan is an illustration for those controlling. Our family will look to you now. forgive me. aggressive and discipline-practicing fathers. In truth. he ensures that all the gorillas are under his control and only accepted Tarzan as one of his children until Tarzan proved that he was worthy: “Kerchak: I said he could stay. In the first place.

Dir. Walt Disney Pictures. and so does Gepetto to Pinocchio in the same-title movie. Do you think I want to see my youngest daughter snared by some fish eater's hook? Ariel: I'm sixteen years old . 1999. Pinocchio. you'll obey my rules! 48 Meanwhile. Kerchak: Take care of them. Specifically. my son. In details. or 101 Dalmatians. The Little Mermaid. Belle’s father in Beauty and the Beast always supports her in her desire of reading books and her refusal of marrying Gaston although he is the most-wanted man in town. Besides. As regards Ariel’s absence in the celebration concert of her father to go up to the surface. . Pongo always shows his tender care to the puppies in 101 Dalmatians.27 - . Ron Clements and John Musker. Indeed. King Triton expressed his anger on her: Triton: They're dangerous. fathers in Disney movies and shows are portrayed as self-sacrificing as well. 1989. Triton: Don't you take that tone of voice with me young lady. Take care of them. etc. Walt Disney Pictures.. King Triton in The Little Mermaid signed the contract with Ursula to take 47 48 Tarzan.I'm not a child anymore. they are seen sacrificing themselves to save their own children from danger. Dir. Chris Buck and Kevin Lima. Similarly. Kerchak. the display of fathers as nurturing and affectionate can be traced from Disney animated movies such as Beauty and the Beast." 47 Group 4 Another example for a controlling and aggressive father can be found in The Little Mermaid.Popular Culture Research Tarzan: No.. As long as you live under my ocean.

In truth. The Lion King and Alice in Wonderland whereas the latter is depicted in 101 Dalmatians and the live-action show Wizards of Waverly Place. Meanwhile. affectionate and self-sacrificing ones. there is a variety in Disney’s portrayal of fathers from the controlling. regarding the fact that their . In the first example. Bambi. teaching and protecting him while his father kept a distance and not until the mother was dead did he appear. Interestingly. When it comes to power division in family. In details. two patterns of Disney are unequal power division and shared power. Gepetto in Pinocchio took the risk to sail the ocean and face a fierce whale to save his boy. there is only one movie in which the female character was identified as more powerful than her male partner. Truly.Popular Culture Research Group 4 his daughter’s place in the sea witch’s garden after Ariel had failed to gain Prince Eric’s love. In brief. In the meantime. Bambi’s mother was in charge of raising. there is an unequal division in household chores between Jim and Darling in Lady and the Tramp. there was a scene in which Darling prepared the meal when Jim sat in the living room reading newspapers. The former is displayed in some animated movies such as Lady and the Tramp. the Queen of Hearts in Alice in Wonderland was the leading character who had more power than the King and the King was presented as a weak man. aggressive to the nurturing. some illustrations of shared power between males and females can be seen in 101 Dalmatians and Wizards of Waverly Place. In fact.28 - . it is obvious that Pongo and Perdy share an equal responsibility in taking care of all the puppies and have equal power in making decisions as well. Likewise.

” 49 Group 4 not “up to me. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. Dir. Beauty and the Beast. The Little Mermaid. those animated films and sitcoms are apt to depict male partners as more powerful than female. In the same way. . Cinderella. Treasure Planet. As a matter of fact. it would have no positive influence on youngsters’ concept of fathers’ and mothers’ roles in family. Walt Disney Productions. Pongo told Perdy “It’s all up to us. Clyde Geronimi et al. unequal power and shared power appear to be two patterns of Disney movies and shows as regards power division in family. Alex’s parents in Wizards of Waverly Place are portrayed with the unity: they share work at the family’s fast food restaurant and they agree with each other about the methods to teach their children whenever the children make mistakes. when turning to the inequality in power. 49 One hundred and one Dalmatians.Popular Culture Research children had been kidnapped. in popular Disney animated films like Aladdin. Mulan. Obviously. V . Male characters in Walt Disney films are usually portrayed with higher social status with the role of leaders while female characters are described in lower status with subordinate positions.” which means he gave Perdy an equal responsibility to be involved in serious matters.Socioeconomic Status The difference in gender socioeconomic status is reflected on Disney Channel through both popular classical films and modern films. Thus. 1961. To sum up. male characters are portrayed in the role of kings while females are hardly found to be queens. for example.29 - .

Winifred Banks House wife NO Constable Police officer Jones YES Ellen Maid of the Banks residence NO 50 Disney famous classical sitcoms show in 1964 and 1997.30 - . In the movies. Table A: Career and social position in Disney classical films Male Characters FILMS NAME CAREER Female Characters HIGH SOCIAL POSITION George Banks Bank YES management Poppins staff Mary Bank office NAME CAREER HIGH SOCIAL POSITION NO Mary Poppins Admiral Naval officer Boom YES Mrs. male characters involve in white or blue collar jobs with high social status while female characters are working mainly in pink collar jobs with lower social status. showing the distinction regarding genders. The following table lists all the male and female characters in the two films together with their jobs and social status. .Popular Culture Research Mary Poppins and Life is Beautiful 50 Group 4 are of the most popular classical films aired by Disney Channel.

Phineas and Ferb . High school musical. it is less likely to have females taking the role of leaders. Camp Rock. The Incredibles. In fact. Cory in the House.Popular Culture Research Life is beautiful Dora’s Fascist official fiancé YES Dora teacher School Group 4 NO In Disney modern movies like Good luck Charlie. Pocahontas. That’s So Raven.31 - . The following table provides a comparison between Disney male and female characters in terms of socioeconomic status: Table B: Career and social position in Disney modern films MALE CHARACTERS DISNEY MODERN HIGH FILMS NAME CAREER SOCIAL POSITION Cory in the Cory Baxter House Business man YES FEMALE CHARACTERS HIGH NAME CAREER SOCIAL POSITION Meena Singer Paroom NO 51 Disney modern films aired from 2000 to date. etc.51 the male characters are also described with higher social status or as a team leader compared with female characters. ..

Incredible Charlie’s father Leader of the Incredibles Company owner YES Elastic girl Bob’s wife NO YES Charlie’s mother Housewife NO In Disney classical film. main characters are usually children.32 - . gender socioeconomic status is reflected among main characters as kings or male leaders.Popular Culture Research Cory’s Cook father NO Martines daughter Sophie President’ Group 4 NO Bahavia Ambassador YES Alexander Library owner NO Cory’s sister Linda Flynn Candace Getrude Flynn Fashion NO designer Phineas and Ferb Lawrence Fletcher Archeologist NO Singer NO Selling NO assistance Daughter of Pocahontas The father Tribe leader YES Pocahontas YES Tribe leader The Incredibles Good luck Charlie Mr. hence. In Disney modern programs. from the characters who act as parents and adults. we can realize the difference between males . their position in the society is not clearly shown. However.

Next. what this part of research has found out is that in terms of physical appearance.  In short. turning to family structure and practices. By analyzing typical Disney programs broadcast on Vietnam Cable TV from original animated films to modern movies (see appendix 4 for table of Disney Channel programs analyzed).Popular Culture Research Group 4 and females regarding social positions. On Disney channel. so far. the research demonstrates a favorable stereotype of dominant male – submissive female in Disney Channel regarding behavioral norms. love at first sight. In addition. the unwavering passion and “live happily ever after” are the key concepts which are portrayed in Disney Channel in terms of romantic involvement. Disney programs only offer the audience a limited type of revolution propagandized through character traits. male leading roles are restrictedly arranged in traditional behavioral structure. people watch Disney Channel and at the same time.33 - . it is shown in the research that single fathers appear more usually than single mothers in Disney Channel programs. The research also finds out that men are almost always active in starting a relationship and women usually attract men by taking advantage of their good-looking appearance. Besides. the subordinate social position is still reinforced for females. while female beauty is related to thinness. males are supposed to have physical power. the research shows that the image of rescuer. Although female characters. depicting women in more subservient roles. have emerged as an inspirational source for feminist portrayal. As regards the portrayal of . Therefore. they receive messages and images of gender role clearly portrayed in almost all of Disney shows.

the caregiver and the protector and caregiver. nurturing and affectionate. When it comes to the depiction of fathers.34 - .Popular Culture Research Group 4 mothers. Disney Channel also portrays its characters in traditional norms. Last but not least. taking important roles while female characters are usually attached to the inferior social positions with pink color jobs and low social status. regarding socioeconomic status. To be precise. most male characters are described as social leaders with white color jobs.  . and self-sacrificing. Both the equality and inequality in sharing house chores responsibility between fathers and mothers are shown in the research as well. they are displayed as controlling and aggressive. there are three types of maternal roles namely the protector.

Ward 6.3 % Sexy 34. District 10) and Nguyen Tri Phuong Secondary School (Add: 72. Dien Bien Phu Street. District 3) and Le Quy Don High School (Add: 110.5 % 17. Ward 12. (See Appendix 2 for the survey questions and Appendix 3 for the English version.Physical Appearance Table 1. Favorite body shape of female characters (Question 4. In total. Nguyen Thi Minh Khai Street. District 3.5 % 34. We distributed our survey to 200 students of secondary schools – Lac Hong Secondary School (Add: 20D.35 - . Ward 7.9 % .Popular Culture Research Group 4 PART 4: SURVEY ON HO CHI MINH CITY TEENAGERS’ PERCEPTION OF GENDER ROLE IN DISNEY CHANNEL In order to be more objective in our research. Nguyen Lam Street.) I .) We also created an online version of our survey and there were 27 respondents taking our survey.7 % Plump 0% 2.Nguyen Thị Minh Khai High School (Add: 275. the survey was taken by 227 respondents with the age range from 14 years old to 18 years old. Ward 6. District 10) and high schools . we have conducted a survey to find out how teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City respond to the images of gender role shown in Disney Channel programs. 3/2 Street.1) Chosen options Male Female Slender 34.1 % Firm 31 % 45.

On the other hand.7%).7% of firm compared to 34.5 % 67.5%). This seemingly proves the power of Disney on Saigonese teenagers’ perception of gender in terms of physical appearance. To some extent. HCMC teenagers show themselves to be influenced by the obsession with thinness. It is an approvingly important difference in female teenagers’ mind compared with American and European girls. it is shown that both females (34. it is also notable that while males have equal preferences to female beauty as being slender and sexy (both 34. As a result. we can come to a conclusion that Saigonese boys have a strong obsession with physical strength in both muscularity and fitness. It somehow expresses that their upmost concern focuses on being strong physically. However.5 % Fit 46.6%).9 % As stated in the tables. They have equal view points of what is considered male beauty – to be muscular and to be fit or slender. They appear to be heading towards a firm and healthy figure rather than trying various methods of dieting to get a skinny and bony body figure.6 % 23.2) Chosen options Male Female Muscular 46.9 % Group 4 Skinny 0% 2. Favorite body shape of male characters (Question 4.5%) are quite actively engaged in female slimness portrayed by Disney Channel.3% of slim).5% and 46. HCMC girls prefer firmness to slimness (45.9 % 5. whereas HCMC boys’ perceptions of masculinity and fitness are almost equal (46.7 % Plump 6.Popular Culture Research Table 2.3%) and males (34. the majority of girls choose fitness as their favorite male physical appearance (67.36 - . girls’ idea is totally . On discussion of physical appearance of males.

7 % 5.6 % 49 % B 6.7%) prefer males with fitness – a familiar image of male models on television and magazines. they are in favor of apparent body build of fitness as they always see on various means of the media. Favorite behavior pattern of female characters (Question 5.37 - . It at the same time gives us an implication that HCMC girls are more and more independent from the protection of muscular men quite often portrayed in Disney.1) Chosen options Male Female Note on options: A: Fun loving.2 % 21 % E 6.Popular Culture Research Group 4 different.2 % 9% F 18.9 % 11.4 % D 17. Favorite behavior pattern of male characters (Question 5. most of them (67. princess-liked E: Childish B: Princess-liked D: Supergirl-liked F: Others A 40.7 % F 0% 0% .3 % 6% C 21.9 % E 5.1 % 22.9 % 15 % D 6. II – Behavioral Traits Table 3.8 % 0% Table 4.2) Chosen options Male Female Note on options: A: Nerdy C: Superman-liked E: Childish B: Sporty D: Playful F: Others A 11. Instead.7 % C 22.9 % 25. free-spirited C: Brainy. In truth.6 % B 42.4 % 8.

Totally Spice. and the like) pattern. etc.6% from boys’ evaluation and 49% girls’ satisfaction. Table 4 displays a percentage of those satisfied with the stated behavioral patterns for male leading roles in Disney films. self-centered. Most boys commented in the box below “others” option that they liked “Sharpay” characteristic – a witted. Both girls and boys in Ho Chi Minh City share the same score on “childish” (Harper in Wizards of Waverly Place) with approximately 6% vote. “Others” option displays contrasting opinions for female behavioral norms among Saigonese teenagers. which is 3. free spirited and confident girl in High School Musical trilogy.) currently has market dominance with 40.5 times higher than that of boys. This characteristic is highly appreciated by Ho Chi Minh City teenage boys with 21. Alex Russo.Popular Culture Research Group 4 Table 3 shows us the proportions of favorite Disney traits in female characters evaluated by teenage boys and girls in Ho Chi Minh City. While “princess-liked” pattern (the princesses from classic tales) shows an even distribution of result as it scores only 6.38 - .9% comparing to 15% girls’ vote. It indicates that “fun loving free spirited” preference (Hannah Montana. There also appears a huge favor gap between Ho Chi Minh City boys and girls for female role model’s “superman-liked” (Elastic Girl. This distinctive characteristic catches 21% Ho Chi Minh City girl’s preference. The result demonstrates the percentage shown on the table along with the actual count value: with that being 18. The table is based on the responses of teenagers of . mean. ratings of “brainy princess-liked” behavior (Gabriella in High School Musical trilogy) show gender diversity.3 and 0 respectively.2% and 9% from boys and girls respectively.

When teenage girls agree that “Superman-liked” feature (Mr. it is evident that “Sporty” (Troy Bolton in High School Musical and Izzy Daniels in Jump in. According to Saigonese teenage boys’ evaluation. At the same time.9 and 11.7% satisfaction.) and “Playful” (Chad Danforth in High School Musical) characteristic made up the two most favorite Disney male’s characteristics. and so forth) is desirable. Gaston. the Beast. boys disagree making a total percentage of 22.” . Justin Russo in Wizards of Waverly Place. Tarzan. At the same time. Both sexes show the fondness of the most popular traits in Disney shows such as “fun loving – free spirited” for female characters and “sporty.Popular Culture Research Group 4 both genders in Ho Chi Minh City.39 - .4 respectively. and the like) seems less favorable for both genders as rating hits the lowest with only 5. Together they comprise over half of Ho Chi Minh City boy’s satisfaction. Incredible. The tables clearly show that Ho Chi Minh City teenagers in both genders are still influenced by Disney gender stereotypes.9. Being “childish” (Jackson and Mitchell in Hannah Montana: Best of Both Worlds.” “playful” for male characters. etc. they show less impressed on the undesirable traits like “nerdy” and “childish. Saigonese girls show the fondness of “sporty” characteristic for male category as this personality climbs to the highest percentage of 42. while “playful” trait only accounts for 17.10% vote.

40 - . 9 % Others 0% 14. Table 6: View on love at first sight (Question 7) Gender Male Female Believe 80 % 42. However. Moreover. Nevertheless. 9 % Do not believe 20 % 42. Among males’ responses. There is no vote for the idea that romance in Disney Channel is very realistic. However. also symbolize for innocent dreams which are idealized to direct us to a better life which is full of love and happiness. teenagers in HCMC believe that they can have and develop their affection . 2 % In our survey. there is 80% acceptance of the romantic portrayal in Disney compared to 100% that is of girls. it is notable that we cannot avoid some over-romanticized details in the movies.Popular Culture Research III – Romantic Involvement Group 4 Table 5: View on the portrayal of romance in Disney Channel shows (Question 6) Gender Male Female Very realistic 0% 0% Acceptable 80 % 100 % Unrealistic 20 % 0% The result of survey shows that Disney Channel has a certain impact on HCMC teenagers’ perception of romance and gender. those details. in our opinions. It possibly proves that girls are more romantic than boys. they seem to agree with the idea that romance in Disney films can be acceptable. more than half of teenagers in HCMC believe in love at first sight.

“This can only happen when the right person appears. It proves that boys and girls are less affected by the idea of eternal love on Disney Channel. Only one girl thinks differently that “it should depend on the one I love.9 % Do not believe 80 % 28.9% girls believe in everlasting love.6 % Others 20 % 28. there is one expressing.6 % Others 25 % 42.8 % .Popular Culture Research Group 4 in case they meet the right person who can make them feel the so-called love. meanwhile.41 - .” Table 7: View on the idea of eternal love (Question 8) Gender Male Female Believe 0% 42.5 % The idea of eternal love is rejected by half of the participants because they think that through the flow of time. love will change.9% of girls.6 % No 25 % 28.” Table 8: View on the idea of “happily ever after” (Question 9) Gender Male Female Yes 50 % 28. 42. It is surprising to know that 80% HCMC boys vote for love at first sight as opposed to 42. But girls seem to idealize a perfect love in which one never changes the love for another. And although boys do not approve of this idea. One special thing in the survey is that no boy believes in eternal love. The love for one another can be less or more but it is hard to stay the same.

different ideas are generated.3% 11.Popular Culture Research Group 4 The idea of living “happily ever after” also receives many approving responses from 50% of boys and 28.42 - .3% prefers boys with profound knowledge like Cody in The Suite Life of Zack and Cody. they openly express their thoughts about everlasting happiness.4% Table 10: The way girls attract boys (Question 10. Therefore. “Others” option constitutes a percentage of 25 and 42. To girls. that is. On the other hand. 14.1) Gender Male Making scandals Being lovely Dressing suggestively Caring 40% 34.6% of girls. for those who do not agree. the best attitude is that we should be ready to face whatever suddenly happens in our real life.8 of boys and girls respectively. they think the right person will help their love blossom. they believe in “happily ever after” ending because of their faith in love stability. On one hand.3% 14. As one girl truthfully says.” Table 9: The way boys attract girls (Question 10. 42 % likes to . “anything is possible. If we are not sure about everything. Strategies and plans on the way to one’s heart seem diverse and they are all supported by the participants.3% is interested in boys with sporty way of dressing. Boys want to be able to play sport as Troy Bolton and Chad Danforth in High School Musical (40%) while 34.2) Gender Female Making scandals Being lovely Dressing suggestively Caring 42% 29% 15% 13% The way to “attack” the one of opposite sex is also a main feature of Disney romantic love. And the rest votes for “caring” type.

It goes against the gender stereotype in which boys are always the rescuers and girls are always the rescued.5 % .3 % B 62 % 54. meanwhile.5 % 9. they are strongly influenced by Disney new images – boys being sporty. Instead. IV – Family Structure and Practices Table 11.3 % C 0% 8. girls being active in love. House chores sharing between parents (Question 12) Chosen options Male Female Fathers 8. 15% likes the suggestive way of dressing such as Sharpay in High School Musical while 13% of the girls is interested in the care of love.Popular Culture Research Group 4 express their love through scandals because they think that this is an easy way to get the attention of the ones they love. we explore that both boys and girls want to free themselves from the old images portrayed in Disney shows. 29% prefers themselves to be lovely like Gabriella in High School Musical and Mitchie Torres in Camp Rock. knowledgeable and caring.43 - Mothers 35 % 27. Preferred family pattern (Question 11) Chosen options Male Female A 34.6 % D 3.5 % 35.5 % 0% Note on options: A: Only the father goes to work C: Only the mother goes to work B: Both parents go to work D: Others Table 12.5 % Both parents 56. Through the survey.5 % 63 % .

in general. 62% of boys and 54. the number of male and female teenagers who like the equality in household labor division accounts for 56.7 % B 52. over 50% of both teenage boys and girls vote for the equality in labor and power division between male and female in family.3% of girls who watch Disney Channel think both fathers and mothers should go to work. In addition. It is clear from the data collected that there is a very slight gap between the number of boys and girls supporting the equality in family. both males and females in their teenagers living in Ho Chi Minh City are well aware of men’s and women’s roles .Popular Culture Research Table 13.5 % 43.3 % Group 4 C 2% 0% Note on options: A: Strict and tough B: Close to the children like a friend C: Just provides the children with material needs. The survey indicates the idea of male and female teenagers watching Disney Channel in Ho Chi Minh City about family structure and practices.5 % 56. As can be seen from the survey result. Preferred type of father (Question 13) Chosen options Male Female A 45. Specifically. In other words.5% and 63%.44 - . Meanwhile. approximately half the participant number taking part in the survey prefers the image of parents in which mothers play a more active role and fathers are no longer a distant figure to children.

it is a matter of fact that there are positive changes out of the old masculinity stereotype of fathers among youngsters in Ho Chi Minh City.6% in girls. the image of a socalled perfect father according to 45.Popular Culture Research Group 4 in a modern family where the father and the mother support one another and share responsibilities.45 - . In conclusion.3% to 8. for it is affected by patriarchy conveyed in Disney movies. the percentage of male and female participants in the survey who like the portrayal of an affectionate and caring father constitutes 52. it is shown in the survey result that teenager number who think mothers are more capable of household chores and fathers are more capable of making a living is higher in proportion to that who think vice versa (34. Hence.5% and 56. .5% of boys and 43. To illustrate this idea. it appears that gender role stereotypes still exist in the mind of those teenage Disney Channel viewers. there are positive changes in gender role reception of Disney Channel young viewers in Ho Chi Minh City while some still perform their understanding in ways consistent with traditional gender stereotypes.) Similarly. Nevertheless. Equally important.5% to 0% in boys and 35.7% of girls is the controlling and aggressive father.3 % one after another.

Popular Culture Research V – Socioeconomic Status Table 14.3% males and 26. two third of the girls asked seems to have more open view on this issues. In fact. From this.” we get the approval from most male and female audiences. It shows that while nearly half of males still holds on to the idea of that women have less important position in the society. View on female leadership (Question 14) Chosen options Male Female Yes (Agree) 51. there are 51. it is shown that the assumption of female leadership is more acceptable nowadays.5% females agreeing with the idea while 48. Raising a question of “whether women are suitable for leader responsibility.  . we can come to the conclusion that Saigonese girls have been more and more aware of their gender equality in terms of socioeconomic status.46 - .3 % 26.5 % No (Disagree) 48.5 % Group 4 From the survey.5% females regard women as unsuitable for leadership.7% males and 71.7 % 73.

It somehow expressed the other influential sources on television and magazines on girls. While the feminist movement has great impact on Disney female role models. Secondly. this research can draw out some valuable conclusions. it is found that boys’ choice of muscularity and fitness are nearly equal. This to some extent proves that HCMC teenagers are gradually heading towards the beauty that is physically strong and healthy. The survey on favorite characters in Disney movies proves that less than flawless characteristic such as “childish” and “nerdy” does not receive as many positive feedbacks as typical traits for instance “sporty” and “playful. in terms of physical appearance. whereas girls would prefer male fitness to muscularity. showed by HCMC teenagers signifies the remains of gender stereotypes. the majority voting for favorite Disney traits of both genders indicates audience reception in HCMC is still being controlled by Disney gender current values and perceptions. First of all. However.Popular Culture Research Group 4 PART 5: CONCLUSION By analyzing the texts in Disney programs combined with a survey on ideas of Ho Chi Minh City teenagers’ perception of gender role in Disney Channel. In addition. . HCMC girls would rather choose firmness as their beauty ideal.” Gender role in terms of behavioral traits.47 - . therefore. most HCMC teenagers are quite actively engaged in the obsession with thinness portrayed on Disney shows. while boys have equal preferences on slim and sexy girls. male characters are under pressure of typical social expectation.

more than half the number of male and female teenagers who participated in the survey supports the equality in household labor and power division. they still get a certain influence which is clarified by the survey’s result. as regards family structure and practices. In terms of socioeconomic status. despite being one of the factors that have a strong influence on its viewers’ point of view of gender role. more radical nowadays. In conclusion. That means HCMC teenagers selectively accept the model shown in Disney and make it their own. Disney Channel .48 - . the findings express the activeness of HCMC teenagers in their perception of gender role in Disney Channel. In fact. This fact represents a positive change in the perception of gender role in HCMC boys’ and girls’ minds in which both men and women play an important role in family and share all responsibilities with one another. which shows their support to feminism. the idea of female leadership is more acceptable in HCMC teenagers’ perception nowadays. the survey displays HCMC teenagers’ independent thoughts out of domestic roles of women and dominant roles of men. There will not totally be a prince and a princess or a romantic love but teenagers still wish for a beautiful life or even a dreamy world in which they can freely express themselves instead of being restricted in Disney stereotyped portrayal. Comparing to Disney Channel stereotypes of male and female’s roles in family. HCMC teenagers’ notion about gender has become more objective. although not all HCMC teenagers are overwhelmed by the portrayal of romance in Disney films. Next.Popular Culture Research Group 4 Thirdly.

49 - . This is what caregivers like parents and teachers should pay attention to in order to provide the adolescents an environment. a clear guidance and useful directions to help them healthily develop their gender identity. as shown in different ideas of survey participants with a critical way of thinking .  .Popular Culture Research Group 4 programs cannot reinforce all its ideals of gender in the Ho Chi Minh City teenage audience.

wordpress. Belle’s beauty <http://anhphuongart.com/m%E <http://www.htm> Figure 6.com/wiki/Pocahontas _%28character%29> Figure 5.htm> be/snow-white/snow-white-31/> Figure 3.thecartoonpictures.Popular Culture Research Group 4 APPENDIX 1 Figure 1.com/wiki/Cinderella_ %28character%29> Figure 4.wikia.50 - . Snow White’s beauty Figure 2.com/prin 1%BA%ABu-v%E1%BA%BD-phongcesses. Cinderella’s beauty <http://disney.fm/music/Hannah+Mont ana/+images/26629051> .wikia.com/rdisney-1-disney-princesses-9-disneyprincess-party-4. Pocahontas’s beauty <http://disney.cardboardstandups.last. Miley (left) with below average figure and Lily with “trendy” beauty <http://www. Identical Beauty of Disney Princesses <http://www.

blogspot.fanpop.Popular Culture Research Group 4 Figure 7.com/spots/agentp/images/4831634/title/phineas-ferb-fastphineas-photo> Figure 10.com/wiki/Sharpay> Figure 8.comicvine.51 - . Small and skinny brothers Phineas and Ferb <http://www. Cory’s overweight image <http://youchewpoop.html> . Sharpay’s sexy beauty <http://disney. Mr. Tarzan’s muscularity <http://newlynatural.com/2 007_11_01_archive. Incredible’s muscular figure <http://www.com/blog/category/c urly-cartoons/> Figure 11.com/news/cory-inthe-house-review/> Figure 9.com/mrincredible/29-54238/> Figure 12. Phillip’s slender build <http://haraldsiepermann.wikia.

. Tuổi của bạn?................ Buzz Lightyear – Toy Story. đánh dấu chọn () hoặc điền vào chỗ trống. Tarzan) b.. Giới tính: Nam Nữ 3........... Nhân vật nam a.. 2..........tiếng/tuần 4.. Gợi cảm (Sharpay) c... Tròn trịa (Cory – Cory in the House) .......... Tròn trịa (Raven .. The Cheetah Girls) Ý kiến khác (Cho biết lý do): 4... Gabriella) b........ mỗi tuần bạn dành bao nhiêu thời gian cho việc xem kênh này?..That’s So Raven.. Nhân vật nữ a....... 1.. Cơ bắp (Mr. Khỏe khoắn. gọn gàng (Troy Bolton) c..... Nhỏ nhắn...... Xin cám ơn sự hợp tác của bạn! Vui lòng trả lời câu hỏi bằng cách khoanh tròn......1...Popular Culture Research Group 4 APPENDIX 2 Khoa Ngữ văn Anh Trường Đại học Khoa học Xã hội & Nhân văn TP.. Thon gọn........ Phiếu khảo sát này được dùng chỉ cho mục đích nghiên cứu và thông tin cung cấp trong phiếu khảo sát sẽ được bảo mật.......... Incredible.... khỏe khoắn (Hannah Montana) d.2..52 - ... Ngoại hình nhân vật yêu thích của bạn 4..... Bạn có thường xuyên xem kênh Disney Channel không? Có Không Nếu có...HCM PHIẾU KHẢO SÁT Chúng tôi là nhóm sinh viên ngành ngữ văn Anh đang nghiên cứu ảnh hưởng của kênh truyền hình Disney Channel đối với thiếu niên thành phố Hồ Chí Minh.. mảnh mai (Alex Russo.

Incredible . Không thực tế chút nào Ý kiến khác: 7. Rất thực tế b. Lanh lợi. George – George of the Jungle) Ý kiến khác (Cho biết lý do): 5. mọt sách (Cody .High School Musical) d. Kiểu nhân vật Disney yêu thích của bạn? 5. Bạch Tuyết. Justin Russo – Wizards of Waverly Place) b. nhỏ con (Cody – Zack and Cody. Có thể chấp nhận c. Ngờ nghệch.The Incredibles) d. Gầy guộc. Tinh nghịch (Zack . Theo bạn. Có siêu năng lực (Mr. ngớ ngẩn (George – George of the Jungle. Ngờ nghệch. Có b. Mê thể thao (Troy Bolton .53 - .Wizards of Waverly Place) b.2.Zack and Cody. Nàng tiên cá) c. ngớ ngẩn (Harper – Wizards of Waverly Place) Ý kiến khác (Cho biết lý do): 5. Thông minh. Ý kiến khác .Zack and Cody. Không c. Rico . Học giỏi. dịu dàng (Gabriella . Alex Russo .The Incredibles) e. Nết na.1. sự lãng mạn trong những phim trên Disney Channel là a. xinh đẹp (Công chúa Lọ Lem. Oliver & Jackson. anh của Hannah – Hannah Montana) Ý kiến khác (Cho biết lý do): 6. Nhân vật nam a. Bạn có tin vào tình yêu sét đánh hay không? a.Popular Culture Research Group 4 d. Nhân vật nữ a. tinh nghịch (Hannah Montana.Hannah Montana) e. Có siêu năng lực (Elastic Girl .High School Musical) c.

Công việc trong nhà là việc của: a. Học giỏi. Không c. Ý kiến khác 10. Cha b. Bạn thích kiểu mẫu gia đình nào dưới đây: a. nữ tính (Gabriella) c. Ăn mặc gợi cảm (Sharpay) b.54 - . anh của Hannah Montana) b. Thể hiện sự quan tâm (Troy Bolton) Ý kiến khác: 10. bạn có tin rằng mình sẽ sống hạnh phúc mãi mãi về sau với người đó không? a. Nếu bạn là nữ a. Có b. Ăn mặc thời trang (Jackson. Khi gặp đúng đối tượng. Không c. 2. Cha mẹ đều đi làm (Good luck Charlie) c. Ăn mặc dễ thương. Cha nội trợ. khoe kiến thức (Cody – Zack and Cody. Bạn nghĩ nên làm cách nào để thu hút người khác giới: 10. Chơi thể thao giỏi (Troy Bolton) c. Ý kiến khác 9. Thể hiện sự quan tâm d.Popular Culture Research Group 4 8. mẹ nội trợ (The Incredibles) b. không bao giờ thay đổi hay không? a. Có b. Mẹ . Nếu bạn là nam a. Bạn có tin vào một tình yêu vĩnh cửu. mẹ đi làm 12.1. Làm những trò điên rồ để gây sự chú ý (Candace – Phineas and Ferb) Ý kiến khác: 11. Justin Russo) d. Cha đi làm.

Không Group 4 .Popular Culture Research c. 14. phụ nữ có phù hợp với việc làm lãnh đạo hay không? a. Chỉ cần cung cấp nhu cầu vật chất cho con cái. Gần gũi với con cái c. Cứng rắn và nghiêm khắc b. 13. Bạn thích mẫu người cha như thế nào? a. Có b. Cả 2 cùng chia sẻ trách nhiệm. Theo ý bạn.55 - .

...That’s So Raven.............. Gender: Male Female 3. We sincerely thank you for your cooperation. The Cheetah Girls) Others (Please specify) 4...... Fit (Troy Bolton) c.......2. Slender (Alex Russo....1. ticking your choice or filling in the blank..... Muscular (Mr.. Incredible..56 - .. Firm (Hannah Montana) d.. Please answer the following questions by circling your choice...... Sexy (Sharpay) c..... how often do you watch Disney Channel? …………… hour(s)/week 4.... Female characters a. Your age: ..... Plump (Raven ...... Gabriella) b.... 2.......... 1... What are your favorite body shapes of characters? 4... This survey is used only for research purpose and all the information provided will be confidential..... Plump (Cory – Cory in the House) .Popular Culture Research Group 4 APPENDIX 3 Department of English Linguistics and Literature Ho Chi Minh City University of Social Sciences and Humanities SURVEY We are a group of students of the Department of English Linguistics and Literature doing a research on how teenagers in Ho Chi Minh City respond to images of gender role shown in Disney Channel programs... Male characters a... Buzz Lightyear – Toy Story........ Tarzan) b. Do you usually watch Disney Channel? Yes No If yes..

What are your favorite behavior patterns of characters in Disney Channel programs? 5.Hannah Montana) e.Hannah Montana’s friend and brother ) Others (Please specify): 6.High School Musical) c.Zack and Cody. Nerdy (Cody . Oliver & Jackson . Princess-liked (Cinderella. Fun loving. Female characters a. Male character a.Popular Culture Research d. Childish (Harper – Wizards of Waverly Place) Others (Please specify): 5.Zack and Cody. Alex Russo .1. Acceptable c.2. Superman-liked (Mr. No Others (Please specify) . Supergirl-liked (Elastic Girl . Snow White. George – George of the Jungle) Others (Please specify) Group 4 5.Wizards of Waverly Place) b. Do you believe in love at first sight? a.57 - .The Incredibles) d. free-spirited (Hannah Montana. Skinny (Cody – Zack and Cody. Very realistic b. Childish (George – George of the Jungle. What is your view on the portrayal of romance on Disney Channel shows? a.The Incredibles) e. Brainy. Yes b. Incredible . princess-liked (Gabriella . Playful (Zack . Little Mermaid) c. Unrealistic Others (Please specify) 7. Rico . Sporty (Troy Bolton .High School Musical) d. Justin Russo – Wizards of Waverly Place) b.

If you are female a. Whom do you think house chore responsibility belongs to? a. Yes b.Popular Culture Research 8. Yes b. Being lovely(Gabriella) c.Hannah Montana) b. If you are male a. Both parents go to work (Good luck Charlie) c. What is your preferred family pattern? a. No Others (Please specify) Group 4 9. Mother . In what way should a character attract the person of the other sex? 10. Do you believe in the idea of eternal love? a. Caring (Gabriella) d. do you believe you two can live “happily ever after”? a.58 - . Father b. No Others ( please specify) 10. When you meet the Right One. Making scandals (Zack – The Suite Life of Zack and Cody) d.2. 1. Dressing suggestively (Jack Ryan . Only the mother goes to work Others (Please specify) 12. Caring (Troy Bolton) Others (Please specify) 10. Dressing suggestively (Sharpay) b. Only the father goes to work ( The Incredibles) b. Making scandals (Candace – Phineas and Ferb) Others (Please specify) 11.

Strict and tough (Kerchak – Tarzan) b. Shared responsibility 13. Just provides children with material needs (Father of Zack and Cody – The Suite Life of Zack and Cody) 14. No . Yes b. Close to children like a friend (Billy Ray Stewart – Hannah Montana) Group 4 c. What is your preferred type of father? a.59 - . Do you think females are suitable to be leaders? a.Popular Culture Research c.

60 - .Popular Culture Research Group 4 APPENDIX 4 List of Disney Channel movies and TV shows analyzed Movies/ TV shows Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Pinocchio Bambi Cinderella Alice in Wonderland Peter Pan Lady and the Tramp Sleeping Beauty 101 Dalmatians Mary Poppins The Jungle Book The Little Mermaid Beauty and the Beast Aladdin The Lion King Pocahontas Life is Beautiful Mulan Tarzan Atlantis: The Lost Empire Kim Possible Treasure Planet That’s So Raven The Incredibles The Suite Life of Zack and Cody Year Released 1937 1940 1942 1950 1951 1953 1955 1959 1961 1964 1967 1989 1991 1992 1994 1995 1997 1998 1999 2001 2002 2002 2003 2004 2005 .

Popular Culture Research Hannah Montana High School Musical Wendy Wu: Homecoming Warrior Cory in the House Jump In Phineas and Ferb Wizards of Waverly Place Camp Rock Minutemen Good Luck Charlie 2006 2006 2006 2007 2007 2007 2007 2008 2008 2010 Group 4 .61 - .

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